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Natural rubber

Index Natural rubber

Natural rubber, also called India rubber or caoutchouc, as initially produced, consists of polymers of the organic compound isoprene, with minor impurities of other organic compounds, plus water. [1]

164 relations: Acetyl-CoA, Adhesive, Akron, Ohio, Alkene, Alluvium, Allyl group, Ammonia, Anaphylaxis, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Antigen, Atrocities in the Congo Free State, Automotive industry, Aztecs, Balloon, Bisphenol, Blight, British Ceylon, British Malaya, Capital punishment, Carbon black, Castilla elastica, Charles Goodyear, Charles Greville Williams, Charles Marie de La Condamine, Chemical bond, Chicle, Chloroprene, Colloid, Condom, Congo Free State, Congo rubber, Continental AG, Crepe rubber, Cytoplasm, Cytosol, Deformation (mechanics), Degrees of freedom (mechanics), Disulfide, Double bond, Dutch East Indies, Ebonite, Elasticity (physics), Elastomer, Emulsion dispersion, Entropic force, Eraser, Ester, Euphorbia, Euphorbiaceae, Factice, ..., Family (biology), Farnesyl pyrophosphate, Fatty acid, Ficus elastica, Flocculation, Food and Agriculture Organization, Fordlândia, François Fresneau de La Gataudière, Fraunhofer Society, French Academy of Sciences, Gas chromatography, Germany, Giovanni Fabbroni, Glass transition, Glove, Gutta-percha, Henry Nicholas Ridley, Henry Wickham (explorer), Hevea, Hevea brasiliensis, Hydrophobe, Hyperelastic material, Ideal chain, India, Indigenous (ecology), Indonesia, Isopentenyl pyrophosphate, Isoprene, Joseph Priestley, Karnataka, Kerala, Ketone, Kew Gardens, Kolkata, Lacrosse, Lactuca, Landolphia, Landolphia kirkii, Laterite, Latex, Latex allergy, Laticifer, Lettuce, Liberia, Malaysia, Manilkara, Mass spectrometry, Mat, Maya civilization, Mesoamerica, Mesoamerican ballgame, Mevalonic acid, Molecular mass, Mullins effect, Naphtha, Nazi Germany, Neoprene, Nigeria, Nocardia, O-ring, Olmecs, Organic compound, Ozone cracking, Palaquium gutta, Parthenium argentatum, Payne effect, Pencil, Peninsular Malaysia, Peroxide, Phospholipid, Polyisoprene, Polymer, Prenyltransferase, Protein, Pseudomonas citronellolis, Public domain, Reinforced rubber, Repeat unit, Resilience (materials science), Resilin, Resin, Rubber band, Rubber glove, Rubber seed oil, Rubber technology, Science Daily, Scorzonera tau-saghyz, Scrubber, Singapore, Singapore Botanic Gardens, Solvent, South America, Space Shuttle, Space Shuttle Challenger disaster, Spandex, Sri Lanka, Stevenson Plan, Strain crystallization, Streptomyces coelicolor, Structural isomer, Sulfur, Tamil Nadu, Taraxacum, Taraxacum kok-saghyz, Taraxacum officinale, Thailand, Thermoplastic, Thermosetting polymer, Tire, Turpentine, Type IV hypersensitivity, Unfree labour, Unified atomic mass unit, Vulcanization. Expand index (114 more) »


Acetyl-CoA (acetyl coenzyme A) is a molecule that participates in many biochemical reactions in protein, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.

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An adhesive, also known as glue, cement, mucilage, or paste, is any substance applied to one surface, or both surfaces, of two separate items that binds them together and resists their separation.

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Akron, Ohio

Akron is the fifth-largest city in the U.S. state of Ohio and is the county seat of Summit County.

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In organic chemistry, an alkene is an unsaturated hydrocarbon that contains at least one carbon–carbon double bond.

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Alluvium (from the Latin alluvius, from alluere, "to wash against") is loose, unconsolidated (not cemented together into a solid rock) soil or sediments, which has been eroded, reshaped by water in some form, and redeposited in a non-marine setting.

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Allyl group

An allyl group is a substituent with the structural formula H2C.

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Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.

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Anaphylaxis is a serious allergic reaction that is rapid in onset and may cause death.

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Andaman and Nicobar Islands

The Andaman and Nicobar Islands, one of the seven union territories of India, are a group of islands at the juncture of the Bay of Bengal and Andaman Sea.

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In immunology, an antigen is a molecule capable of inducing an immune response (to produce an antibody) in the host organism.

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Atrocities in the Congo Free State

In the period from 1885 to 1908, a number of well-documented atrocities were perpetrated in the Congo Free State (today the Democratic Republic of the Congo) which, at the time, was a colony under the personal rule of King Leopold II of Belgium.

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Automotive industry

The automotive industry is a wide range of companies and organizations involved in the design, development, manufacturing, marketing, and selling of motor vehicles, some of them are called automakers.

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The Aztecs were a Mesoamerican culture that flourished in central Mexico in the post-classic period from 1300 to 1521.

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A balloon is a flexible bag that can be inflated with a gas, such as helium, hydrogen, nitrous oxide, oxygen, air or water.

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The bisphenols (pronounced) are a group of chemical compounds with two hydroxyphenyl functionalities.

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Blight refers to a specific sign affecting plants in response to infection by a pathogenic organism.

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British Ceylon

Ceylon (Sinhala: බ්‍රිතාන්‍ය ලංකාව, Brithānya Laṃkāva; Tamil: பிரித்தானிய இலங்கை, Birithaniya Ilangai) was a British Crown colony between 1815 and 1948.

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British Malaya

The term British Malaya loosely describes a set of states on the Malay Peninsula and the island of Singapore that were brought under British control between the 18th and the 20th centuries.

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Capital punishment

Capital punishment, also known as the death penalty, is a government-sanctioned practice whereby a person is put to death by the state as a punishment for a crime.

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Carbon black

Carbon black (subtypes are acetylene black, channel black, furnace black, lamp black and thermal black) is a material produced by the incomplete combustion of heavy petroleum products such as FCC tar, coal tar, ethylene cracking tar, with the addition of a small amount of vegetable oil.

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Castilla elastica

Castilla elastica, the Panama rubber tree, is a tree native to the tropical areas of Mexico, Central America, and northern South America.

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Charles Goodyear

Charles Goodyear (December 29, 1800 – July 1, 1860) was an American self-taught chemist and manufacturing engineer who developed vulcanized rubber, for which he received patent number 3633 from the United States Patent Office on June 15, 1844.

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Charles Greville Williams

Charles H. Greville Williams (22 September 1829 – 15 June 1910), was an English scientist and analytical chemist who published many scientific papers from 1853.

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Charles Marie de La Condamine

Charles Marie de La Condamine (28 January 1701 – 4 February 1774) was a French explorer, geographer, and mathematician.

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Chemical bond

A chemical bond is a lasting attraction between atoms, ions or molecules that enables the formation of chemical compounds.

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Chicle is a natural gum traditionally used in making chewing gum and other products.

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Chloroprene is the common name for the organic compound 2-chlorobuta-1,3-diene, which has the formula CH2.

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In chemistry, a colloid is a mixture in which one substance of microscopically dispersed insoluble particles is suspended throughout another substance.

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A condom is a sheath-shaped barrier device, used during sexual intercourse to reduce the probability of pregnancy or a sexually transmitted infection (STI).

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Congo Free State

The Congo Free State (État indépendant du Congo, "Independent State of the Congo"; Kongo-Vrijstaat) was a large state in Central Africa from 1885 to 1908.

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Congo rubber

Rubber was exported from the Belgian Congo, starting in 1890.

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Continental AG

Continental AG, commonly known as Continental, is a leading German automotive manufacturing company specialising in tyres, brake systems, interior electronics, automotive safety, powertrain and chassis components, tachographs, and other parts for the automotive and transportation industries.

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Crepe rubber

Crepe rubber is coagulated latex that is rolled out in crinkled sheets, commonly used to make soles for shoes and boots but is also a raw material for further processed rubber products.

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In cell biology, the cytoplasm is the material within a living cell, excluding the cell nucleus.

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The cytosol, also known as intracellular fluid (ICF) or cytoplasmic matrix, is the liquid found inside cells.

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Deformation (mechanics)

Deformation in continuum mechanics is the transformation of a body from a reference configuration to a current configuration.

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Degrees of freedom (mechanics)

In physics, the degree of freedom (DOF) of a mechanical system is the number of independent parameters that define its configuration.

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In chemistry, a disulfide refers to a functional group with the structure R−S−S−R′.

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Double bond

A double bond in chemistry is a chemical bond between two chemical elements involving four bonding electrons instead of the usual two.

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Dutch East Indies

The Dutch East Indies (or Netherlands East-Indies; Nederlands(ch)-Indië; Hindia Belanda) was a Dutch colony consisting of what is now Indonesia.

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Ebonite is a brand name for very hard rubber first obtained by Charles Goodyear by vulcanizing natural rubber for prolonged periods.

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Elasticity (physics)

In physics, elasticity (from Greek ἐλαστός "ductible") is the ability of a body to resist a distorting influence and to return to its original size and shape when that influence or force is removed.

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An elastomer is a polymer with viscoelasticity (i. e., both viscosity and elasticity) and very weak intermolecular forces, and generally low Young's modulus and high failure strain compared with other materials.

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Emulsion dispersion

An emulsion dispersion is thermoplastics or elastomers suspended in a waterphase with help of emulsifiers.

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Entropic force

In physics, an entropic force acting in a system is a force resulting from the entire system's thermodynamical tendency to increase its entropy, rather than from a particular underlying microscopic force.

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An eraser, (also called a rubber outside the United States, from the material first used) is an article of stationery that is used for removing writing from paper or skin.

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In chemistry, an ester is a chemical compound derived from an acid (organic or inorganic) in which at least one –OH (hydroxyl) group is replaced by an –O–alkyl (alkoxy) group.

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Euphorbia is a very large and diverse genus of flowering plants, commonly called spurge, in the spurge family (Euphorbiaceae).

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The Euphorbiaceae, the spurge family, is a large family of flowering plants.

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Factice is vulcanized unsaturated vegetable or animal oil, used as a processing aid and property modifier in rubber.

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Family (biology)

In biological classification, family (familia, plural familiae) is one of the eight major taxonomic ranks; it is classified between order and genus.

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Farnesyl pyrophosphate

Farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP), also known as farnesyl diphosphate (FDP), is an intermediate in both the mevalonate and non-mevalonate pathways used by organisms in the biosynthesis of terpenes, terpenoids, and sterols.

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Fatty acid

In chemistry, particularly in biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid with a long aliphatic chain, which is either saturated or unsaturated.

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Ficus elastica

Ficus elastica, the rubber fig, rubber bush, rubber tree, rubber plant, or Indian rubber bush, Indian rubber tree, is a species of plant in the fig genus, native to east India, Nepal, Bhutan, Burma, China (Yunnan), Malaysia, and Indonesia.

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Flocculation, in the field of chemistry, is a process wherein colloids come out of suspension in the form of floc or flake, either spontaneously or due to the addition of a clarifying agent.

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Food and Agriculture Organization

The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'alimentation et l'agriculture, Organizzazione delle Nazioni Unite per l'Alimentazione e l'Agricoltura) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger.

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Fordlândia (Ford-land) is a district and adjacent area of 14.268 km² in the city of Aveiro, in the Brazilian state of Pará.

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François Fresneau de La Gataudière

François Fresneau (29 September 1703 – 25 June 1770) was a French botanist and scientist, and is credited for having written the first scientific paper on rubber.

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Fraunhofer Society

The Fraunhofer Society (Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der angewandten Forschung e.V., "Fraunhofer Society for the Advancement of Applied Research") is a German research organization with 69institutes spread throughout Germany, each focusing on different fields of applied science (as opposed to the Max Planck Society, which works primarily on basic science).

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French Academy of Sciences

The French Academy of Sciences (French: Académie des sciences) is a learned society, founded in 1666 by Louis XIV at the suggestion of Jean-Baptiste Colbert, to encourage and protect the spirit of French scientific research.

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Gas chromatography

Gas chromatography (GC) is a common type of chromatography used in analytical chemistry for separating and analyzing compounds that can be vaporized without decomposition.

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Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.

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Giovanni Fabbroni

Giovanni Valentino Mattia Fabbroni (13 February 1752 – 17 December 1822) was an Italian naturalist, economist, agronomist and chemist.

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Glass transition

The glass–liquid transition, or glass transition, is the gradual and reversible transition in amorphous materials (or in amorphous regions within semicrystalline materials), from a hard and relatively brittle "glassy" state into a viscous or rubbery state as the temperature is increased.

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A glove (Middle English from Old English glof) is a garment covering the whole hand.

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Gutta-percha refers to trees of the genus Palaquium in the family Sapotaceae and the rigid natural latex produced from the sap of these trees, particularly from Palaquium gutta.

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Henry Nicholas Ridley

Henry Nicholas Ridley CMG (1911), MA (Oxon), FRS, FLS, F.R.H.S. (10 December 1855 – 24 October 1956) was an English botanist, geologist and naturalist who lived much of life in Singapore.

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Henry Wickham (explorer)

Sir Henry Alexander Wickham (29 May 1846 – 27 September 1928) was a British explorer and bio-pirate.

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Hevea is a genus of flowering plants in the spurge family, Euphorbiaceae, with about ten members.

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Hevea brasiliensis

Hevea brasiliensis, the Pará rubber tree, sharinga tree, seringueira, or, most commonly, the rubber tree or rubber plant, is a tree belonging to the family Euphorbiaceae.

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In chemistry, hydrophobicity is the physical property of a molecule (known as a hydrophobe) that is seemingly repelled from a mass of water.

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Hyperelastic material

A hyperelastic or green elastic materialR.W. Ogden, 1984, Non-Linear Elastic Deformations,, Dover.

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Ideal chain

An ideal chain (or freely-jointed chain) is the simplest model to describe polymers, such as nucleic acids and proteins.

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India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.

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Indigenous (ecology)

In biogeography, a species is defined as indigenous to a given region or ecosystem if its presence in that region is the result of only natural process, with no human intervention.

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Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.

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Isopentenyl pyrophosphate

Isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP, isopentenyl diphosphate, or IDP) is an isoprenoid precursor.

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Isoprene, or 2-methyl-1,3-butadiene, is a common organic compound with the formula CH2.

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Joseph Priestley

Joseph Priestley FRS (– 6 February 1804) was an 18th-century English Separatist theologian, natural philosopher, chemist, innovative grammarian, multi-subject educator, and liberal political theorist who published over 150 works.

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Karnataka also known Kannada Nadu is a state in the south western region of India.

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Kerala is a state in South India on the Malabar Coast.

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In chemistry, a ketone (alkanone) is an organic compound with the structure RC(.

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Kew Gardens

Kew Gardens is a botanical garden in southwest London that houses the "largest and most diverse botanical and mycological collections in the world".

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Kolkata (also known as Calcutta, the official name until 2001) is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal.

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Lacrosse is a team sport played with a lacrosse stick and a lacrosse ball.

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Lactuca, commonly known as lettuce, is a genus of flowering plants in the daisy family, Asteraceae.

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Landolphia is a genus of flowering plants in the family Apocynaceae first described as a genus in 1806.

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Landolphia kirkii

Landolphia kirkii (known as sand apricot-vine, rubber vine or Kirk's landolphia) is a species of liana from the Apocynaceae family that can be found in Democratic Republic of the Congo, Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe, and in the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa.

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Laterite is a soil and rock type rich in iron and aluminium, and is commonly considered to have formed in hot and wet tropical areas.

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Latex is a stable dispersion (emulsion) of polymer microparticles in an aqueous medium.

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Latex allergy

Latex allergy is a medical term encompassing a range of allergic reactions to the proteins present in natural rubber latex.

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A laticifer is a type of elongated secretory cell found in the leaves and/or stems of plants that produce latex and rubber as secondary metabolites.

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Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) is an annual plant of the daisy family, Asteraceae.

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Liberia, officially the Republic of Liberia, is a country on the West African coast.

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Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia.

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Manilkara is a genus of trees in the family Sapotaceae.

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Mass spectrometry

Mass spectrometry (MS) is an analytical technique that ionizes chemical species and sorts the ions based on their mass-to-charge ratio.

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A mat is a piece of fabric material that generally is placed on a floor or other flat surface.

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Maya civilization

The Maya civilization was a Mesoamerican civilization developed by the Maya peoples, and noted for its hieroglyphic script—the only known fully developed writing system of the pre-Columbian Americas—as well as for its art, architecture, mathematics, calendar, and astronomical system.

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Mesoamerica is an important historical region and cultural area in the Americas, extending from approximately central Mexico through Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and northern Costa Rica, and within which pre-Columbian societies flourished before the Spanish colonization of the Americas in the 15th and 16th centuries.

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Mesoamerican ballgame

The Mesoamerican ballgame was a sport with ritual associations played since 1400 BCSee Hill, Blake and Clark (1998); Schuster (1998).

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Mevalonic acid

Mevalonic acid (MVA) is a key organic compound in biochemistry; the name is a contraction of dihydroxymethylvalerolactone.

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Molecular mass

Relative Molecular mass or molecular weight is the mass of a molecule.

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Mullins effect

The Mullins effect is a particular aspect of the mechanical response in filled rubbers in which the stress–strain curve depends on the maximum loading previously encountered.

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Naphtha is a flammable liquid hydrocarbon mixture.

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Nazi Germany

Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).

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Neoprene (also polychloroprene or pc-rubber) is a family of synthetic rubbers that are produced by polymerization of chloroprene.

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Nigeria, officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria is a federal republic in West Africa, bordering Benin in the west, Chad and Cameroon in the east, and Niger in the north.

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Nocardia is a genus of weakly staining Gram-positive, catalase-positive, rod-shaped bacteria.

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An O-ring, also known as a packing, or a toric joint, is a mechanical gasket in the shape of a torus; it is a loop of elastomer with a round cross-section, designed to be seated in a groove and compressed during assembly between two or more parts, creating a seal at the interface.

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The Olmecs were the earliest known major civilization in Mexico following a progressive development in Soconusco.

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Organic compound

In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.

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Ozone cracking

Cracks can be formed in many different elastomers by ozone attack, and the characteristic form of attack of vulnerable rubbers is known as ozone cracking.

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Palaquium gutta

Palaquium gutta is a tree in the Sapotaceae family.

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Parthenium argentatum

Parthenium argentatum, commonly known as the guayule (or, as in Spanish), is a flowering shrub in the aster family, Asteraceae, that is native to the southwestern United States and northern Mexico.

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Payne effect

The Payne effect is a particular feature of the stress-strain behaviour of rubber, especially rubber compounds containing fillers such as carbon black.

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A pencil is a writing implement or art medium constructed of a narrow, solid pigment core inside a protective casing which prevents the core from being broken and/or from leaving marks on the user’s hand during use.

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Peninsular Malaysia

Peninsular Malaysia also known as Malaya or West Malaysia, is the part of Malaysia which lies on the Malay Peninsula and surrounding islands.

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Peroxide is a compound with the structure R-O-O-R. The O−O group in a peroxide is called the peroxide group or peroxo group.

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Phospholipids are a class of lipids that are a major component of all cell membranes.

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Polyisoprene is a collective name for polymers that are produced by polymerization of isoprene.

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A polymer (Greek poly-, "many" + -mer, "part") is a large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits.

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Prenyltransferases are a class of enzymes that transfer allylic prenyl groups to acceptor molecules.

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Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.

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Pseudomonas citronellolis

Pseudomonas citronellolis is a Gram-negative, bacillus bacterium that is used to study the mechanisms of pyruvate carboxylase.

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Public domain

The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply.

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Reinforced rubber

Although seldom shared under this name, one of the largest groups of composite materials worldwide is that of the reinforced rubber products.

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Repeat unit

A repeat unit or repeating unit is a part of a polymer whose repetition would produce the complete polymer chain (except for the end-groups) by linking the repeat units together successively along the chain, like the beads of a necklace.

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Resilience (materials science)

In material science, resilience is the ability of a material to absorb energy when it is deformed elastically, and release that energy upon unloading.

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Resilin is an elastomeric protein found in many insects and arthropods. It provides soft rubber-elasticity to mechanically active organs and tissue; for example, it enables insects of many species to jump or pivot their wings efficiently.

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In polymer chemistry and materials science, resin is a "solid or highly viscous substance" of plant or synthetic origin that is typically convertible into polymers.

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Rubber band

A rubber band (also known as an elastic band or gum band) is a loop of rubber, usually ring shaped, and commonly used to hold multiple objects together.

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Rubber glove

A rubber glove is a glove made out of rubber.

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Rubber seed oil

Rubber seed oil is oil extracted from the seeds of rubber trees.

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Rubber technology

Rubber Technology is the subject dealing with the transformation of rubbers or elastomers into useful products, such as automobile tires, rubber mats and, exercise rubber stretching bands.

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Science Daily

Science Daily is an American website that aggregates press releases and publishes lightly edited press releases (a practice called churnalism) about science, similar to Phys.org and EurekAlert!.

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Scorzonera tau-saghyz

Scorzonera tau-saghyz is a species of Scorzonera, in the Asteraceae family.

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Scrubber systems (e.g. chemical scrubbers, gas scrubbers) are a diverse group of air pollution control devices that can be used to remove some particulates and/or gases from industrial exhaust streams.

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Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign city-state and island country in Southeast Asia.

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Singapore Botanic Gardens

The Singapore Botanic Gardens is a 158-year-old tropical garden located at the fringe of Singapore's Orchard Road shopping district.

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A solvent (from the Latin solvō, "loosen, untie, solve") is a substance that dissolves a solute (a chemically distinct liquid, solid or gas), resulting in a solution.

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South America

South America is a continent in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere.

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Space Shuttle

The Space Shuttle was a partially reusable low Earth orbital spacecraft system operated by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), as part of the Space Shuttle program.

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Space Shuttle Challenger disaster

On January 28, 1986, the NASA shuttle orbiter mission STS-51-L and the tenth flight of (OV-99) broke apart 73 seconds into its flight, killing all seven crew members, which consisted of five NASA astronauts and two payload specialists.

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Spandex, Lycra or elastane is a synthetic fiber known for its exceptional elasticity.

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Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්‍රී ලංකා; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea.

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Stevenson Plan

The Stevenson Plan, also known as the Stevenson Restriction Scheme, was an effort by the British government to stabilize low rubber prices resulting from a glut of rubber following World War I.

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Strain crystallization

Strain crystallization is a phenomenon in which an initially amorphous solid material undergoes a phase transformation due to the application of strain.

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Streptomyces coelicolor

Streptomyces coelicolor is a soil-dwelling Gram-positive bacterium that belongs to the genus Streptomyces.

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Structural isomer

Structural isomerism, or constitutional isomerism (per IUPAC), is a form of isomerism in which molecules with the same molecular formula have different bonding patterns and atomic organization, as opposed to stereoisomerism, in which molecular bonds are always in the same order and only spatial arrangement differs.

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Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.

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Tamil Nadu

Tamil Nadu (• tamiḻ nāḍu ? literally 'The Land of Tamils' or 'Tamil Country') is one of the 29 states of India.

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Taraxacum is a large genus of flowering plants in the family Asteraceae, which consists of species commonly known as dandelions.

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Taraxacum kok-saghyz

Taraxacum kok-saghyz, often abbreviated as TKS and commonly referred to as the Kazakh dandelion, rubber root, or Russian dandelion, is a species of dandelion native to Kazakhstan that is notable for its production of high quality rubber.

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Taraxacum officinale

Taraxacum officinale, the common dandelion (often simply called "dandelion"), is a flowering herbaceous perennial plant of the family Asteraceae (Compositae).

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Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam, is a unitary state at the center of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces.

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A thermoplastic, or thermosoftening plastic, is a plastic material, a polymer, that becomes pliable or moldable above a specific temperature and solidifies upon cooling.

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Thermosetting polymer

A thermoset, also called a thermosetting plastic, is a plastic that is irreversibly cured from a soft solid or viscous liquid, prepolymer or resin.

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A tire (American English) or tyre (British English; see spelling differences) is a ring-shaped component that surrounds a wheel's rim to transfer a vehicle's load from the axle through the wheel to the ground and to provide traction on the surface traveled over.

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Chemical structure of pinene, a major component of turpentine Turpentine (also called spirit of turpentine, oil of turpentine, wood turpentine and colloquially turps) is a fluid obtained by the distillation of resin obtained from live trees, mainly pines.

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Type IV hypersensitivity

Type 4 hypersensitivity is often called delayed type hypersensitivity as the reaction takes several days to develop.

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Unfree labour

Unfree labour is a generic or collective term for those work relations, especially in modern or early modern history, in which people are employed against their will with the threat of destitution, detention, violence (including death), compulsion, or other forms of extreme hardship to themselves or members of their families.

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Unified atomic mass unit

The unified atomic mass unit or dalton (symbol: u, or Da) is a standard unit of mass that quantifies mass on an atomic or molecular scale (atomic mass).

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Vulcanization or vulcanisation is a chemical process for converting natural rubber or related polymers into more durable materials by heating them with sulfur or other equivalent curatives or accelerators.

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Caoutchouc, Gum Elastic, Gum rubber, India rubber, India-Rubber, India-rubber, Indiarubber, Production of rubber, Rubber, Rubber mixing, Rubbers, Rubbery.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Natural_rubber

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