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Natural selection

Index Natural selection

Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype. [1]

333 relations: ABO blood group system, Adam Smith, Adaptation, Adaptation and Natural Selection, Addison-Wesley, Al-Jahiz, Alfred A. Knopf, Alfred J. Lotka, Alfred Russel Wallace, Algorithm, Allele, Allele frequency, Allopatric speciation, Almost Like a Whale, Amalgamated Press, American Journal of Psychiatry, An Essay on the Principle of Population, Antibiotic, Antigen, Antimicrobial resistance, Aristotle, Aristotle's biology, Artificial life, Background selection, Balancing selection, Basic Books, Bateson–Dobzhansky–Muller model, Benjamin Cummings, Biological life cycle, Biology, Biology Letters, Birth defect, Blood type, British Ecological Society, Cambridge University Library, Cambridge University Press, Carrying capacity, Cell (biology), Cervical rib, Charles Darwin, Charles Lyell, Chromosome, Clade, Classical antiquity, Classical genetics, Clean Air Act 1956, Colonialism, Columbia University Biological Series, Columbia University Press, Communism, ..., Competition (biology), Competitive exclusion principle, Consciousness, Consciousness Explained, Conserved sequence, Created kind, Daniel Dennett, Darwin's Dangerous Idea, Darwinism, David E. Goldberg, De rerum natura, Deer, Dialectica, Dialectics of Nature, Directional selection, Disruptive selection, Doubleday (publisher), E. O. Wilson, Earth, Ecological niche, Ecological selection, Ecology: From Individuals to Ecosystems, Edward Bagnall Poulton, Empedocles, Energy landscape, Erasmus Darwin, Ernst Mayr, Eugenics, Ever Since Darwin, Evo-devo gene toolkit, Evolution, Evolution (journal), Evolutionary arms race, Evolutionary baggage, Evolutionary biology, Evolutionary computation, Evolutionary developmental biology, Evolutionary economics, Evolutionary epistemology, Evolutionary psychology, Exaptation, Exponential growth, Faber and Faber, Fecundity selection, Fisherian runaway, Fitness function, Fixation (population genetics), Founder effect, Francis Galton, Frequency-dependent selection, Friedrich Engels, Gale (publisher), Game theory, Gamete, Gender role, Gene regulatory network, Gene-centered view of evolution, Generation of Animals, Genetic algorithm, Genetic diversity, Genetic drift, Genetic hitchhiking, Genetic linkage, Genetic recombination, Genetic variability, Genetics, Genetics (journal), Genetics and the Origin of Species, Genome, Genotype, Geologic time scale, Grammar, Gregor Mendel, Group selection, H. Allen Orr, Haplotype, Harper Perennial, Harvard University Press, Herbert Spencer, Heredity, Heritability, Heterozygote advantage, Heuristic, Howard T. Odum, Human Molecular Genetics, Hybrid (biology), Hypolimnas bolina, Industrial Revolution, Infanticide (zoology), Insular biogeography, International Journal of Management Reviews, Interspecific competition, Intragenomic conflict, Intraspecific competition, Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, Islam, J. B. S. Haldane, Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, John Henry Holland, John Innes Centre, John Murray (publisher), Joseph Dalton Hooker, Journal of Experimental Zoology, Journal of Genetics, Journal of the History of Ideas, Journal of Theoretical Biology, Karl Marx, Karyotype, Kin selection, Konrad Lorenz, Lamarckism, Language acquisition, Limiting factor, Linear function, Linkage disequilibrium, Linnean Society of London, Little, Brown and Company, Locus (genetics), Longman, Lucretius, Macmillan Publishers, Macroevolution, Manchester, Mate choice, Mathematical optimization, Maximum power principle, Meme, Mendelian inheritance, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Microevolution, Microorganism, MIT Press, Modern synthesis (20th century), Molecular genetics, Moravia, Morphology (biology), Motoo Kimura, Multimodal distribution, Mutation, Mutation–selection balance, Mutationism, Natural environment, Natural history, Natural language, Nature (journal), Nature Publishing Group, Nazism, Negative selection (natural selection), Neutral theory of molecular evolution, Noam Chomsky, Non-coding DNA, Nucleic acid sequence, Offspring, On the Origin of Species, On the Tendency of Species to form Varieties; and on the Perpetuation of Varieties and Species by Natural Means of Selection, Organism, Orthogenesis, Oxford University Press, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, Parental investment, Patrick Matthew, Peafowl, Penguin Books, Penicillin, Peppered moth, Peppered moth evolution, Pesticide resistance, Phenotype, Phenotypic trait, Philosophie Zoologique, Philosophy of Science (journal), Photoperiodism, Physics (Aristotle), Pierre Louis Maupertuis, Ploidy, Political philosophy, Polydactyly, Population, Population bottleneck, Population dynamics, Positive feedback, Princeton University Press, Probability, Probability distribution, Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Progress Publishers, Protein biosynthesis, Psychology, Quantum Darwinism, R/K selection theory, Race and intelligence, Random House, Reciprocal altruism, Regulatory sequence, Reinforcement (speciation), Reproductive isolation, Resource (biology), Ribozyme, Richard Dawkins, RNA, RNA world, Robert H. MacArthur, Rogers State University, Roman Republic, Ronald Fisher, Samoa, Science (journal), Scientific American, Second voyage of HMS Beagle, Selective breeding, Selective sweep, Sergey Gavrilets, Sewall Wright, Sexual dimorphism, Sexual selection, Sexy son hypothesis, Sickle cell disease, Signalling theory, Simon & Schuster, Sinauer Associates, Social Darwinism, Sociobiology, Sociocultural evolution, Soot, Spalax, Speciation, Species, Springer Science+Business Media, Stabilizing selection, Stephen Jay Gould, Steven Pinker, Stochastic, Strain (biology), Survival of the fittest, Syngnathidae, Synonymous substitution, Systematics and the Origin of Species, Tautology (rhetoric), Teleology, Teleology in biology, Territory (animal), The American Naturalist, The Beak of the Finch, The Causes of Evolution, The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection, The Guardian, The Language Instinct, The New York Review of Books, The Quarterly Review of Biology, The Science of Life, The Selfish Gene, The Structure of Evolutionary Theory, The Theory of Evolution, The Theory of Island Biogeography, Theodosius Dobzhansky, Theory of forms, Thermodynamics, Thomas Robert Malthus, Transaction Publishers, Transmutation of species, Trofim Lysenko, Tufts University, Uniformitarianism, Unit of selection, Univariate, Universal Darwinism, University of California Press, University of Chicago Press, University of Florence, Vestigiality, W. D. Hamilton, W. W. Norton & Company, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, Western world, Wiley-Blackwell, Wilhelm Engelmann, Wilhelm Roux, William Charles Wells, William Collins, Sons, William Morrow and Company, Wolbachia, Zygote. Expand index (283 more) »

ABO blood group system

The ABO blood group system is used to denote the presence of one, both, or neither of the A and B antigens on erythrocytes.

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Adam Smith

Adam Smith (16 June 1723 NS (5 June 1723 OS) – 17 July 1790) was a Scottish economist, philosopher and author as well as a moral philosopher, a pioneer of political economy and a key figure during the Scottish Enlightenment era.

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In biology, adaptation has three related meanings.

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Adaptation and Natural Selection

Adaptation and Natural Selection: A Critique of Some Current Evolutionary Thought is a 1966 book by the American evolutionary biologist George C. Williams.

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Addison-Wesley is a publisher of textbooks and computer literature.

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al-Jāḥiẓ (الجاحظ) (full name Abū ʿUthman ʿAmr ibn Baḥr al-Kinānī al-Baṣrī أبو عثمان عمرو بن بحر الكناني البصري) (born 776, in Basra – December 868/January 869) was an Arab prose writer and author of works of literature, Mu'tazili theology, and politico-religious polemics.

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Alfred A. Knopf

Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. is a New York publishing house that was founded by Alfred A. Knopf Sr. and Blanche Knopf in 1915.

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Alfred J. Lotka

Alfred James Lotka (March 2, 1880 – December 5, 1949) was a US mathematician, physical chemist, and statistician, famous for his work in population dynamics and energetics.

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Alfred Russel Wallace

Alfred Russel Wallace (8 January 18237 November 1913) was an English naturalist, explorer, geographer, anthropologist, and biologist.

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In mathematics and computer science, an algorithm is an unambiguous specification of how to solve a class of problems.

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An allele is a variant form of a given gene.

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Allele frequency

Allele frequency, or gene frequency, is the relative frequency of an allele (variant of a gene) at a particular locus in a population, expressed as a fraction or percentage.

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Allopatric speciation

Allopatric speciation (from the ancient Greek allos, meaning "other", and patris, meaning "fatherland"), also referred to as geographic speciation, vicariant speciation, or its earlier name, the dumbbell model, is a mode of speciation that occurs when biological populations of the same species become isolated from each other to an extent that prevents or interferes with genetic interchange.

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Almost Like a Whale

Almost like a Whale by Steve Jones is a modern introduction to Charles Darwin's Origin of Species and closely follows its structure.

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Amalgamated Press

The Amalgamated Press was a newspaper and magazine publishing company founded by journalist and entrepreneur Alfred Harmsworth in 1901, gathering his many publishing ventures together under one banner.

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American Journal of Psychiatry

The American Journal of Psychiatry is a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal covering all aspects of psychiatry and the official journal of the American Psychiatric Association.

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An Essay on the Principle of Population

The book An Essay on the Principle of Population was first published anonymously in 1798, but the author was soon identified as Thomas Robert Malthus.

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An antibiotic (from ancient Greek αντιβιοτικά, antibiotiká), also called an antibacterial, is a type of antimicrobial drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections.

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In immunology, an antigen is a molecule capable of inducing an immune response (to produce an antibody) in the host organism.

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Antimicrobial resistance

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR or AR) is the ability of a microbe to resist the effects of medication that once could successfully treat the microbe.

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Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.

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Aristotle's biology

Aristotle's biology is the theory of biology, grounded in systematic observation and collection of data, mainly zoological, embodied in Aristotle's books on the science.

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Artificial life

Artificial life (often abbreviated ALife or A-Life) is a field of study wherein researchers examine systems related to natural life, its processes, and its evolution, through the use of simulations with computer models, robotics, and biochemistry.

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Background selection

Background selection describes the loss of genetic diversity at a non-deleterious locus due to negative selection against linked deleterious alleles.

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Balancing selection

Balancing selection refers to a number of selective processes by which multiple alleles (different versions of a gene) are actively maintained in the gene pool of a population at frequencies larger than expected from genetic drift alone.

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Basic Books

Basic Books is a book publisher founded in 1952 and located in New York, now an imprint of Hachette Books.

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Bateson–Dobzhansky–Muller model

The Bateson-Dobzhansky-Muller Model, also known as Dobzhansky-Muller Model, is a model of the evolution of genetic incompatibility, important in understanding the evolution of reproductive isolation during speciation and the role of natural selection in bringing it about.

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Benjamin Cummings

Benjamin Cummings specializes in science and is a publishing imprint of Pearson Education, the world's largest education publishing and technology company, which is part of Pearson PLC, the global publisher and former owner of Penguin Books and the Financial Times.

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Biological life cycle

In biology, a biological life cycle (or just life cycle when the biological context is clear) is a series of changes in form that an organism undergoes, returning to the starting state.

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Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.

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Biology Letters

Biology Letters is a peer-reviewed, biological, scientific journal published by the Royal Society.

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Birth defect

A birth defect, also known as a congenital disorder, is a condition present at birth regardless of its cause.

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Blood type

A blood type (also called a blood group) is a classification of blood based on the presence and absence of antibodies and also based on the presence or absence of inherited antigenic substances on the surface of red blood cells (RBCs).

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British Ecological Society

The British Ecological Society is a learned society in the field of ecology that was founded in 1913.

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Cambridge University Library

Cambridge University Library is the main research library of the University of Cambridge in England.

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Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

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Carrying capacity

The carrying capacity of a biological species in an environment is the maximum population size of the species that the environment can sustain indefinitely, given the food, habitat, water, and other necessities available in the environment.

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Cell (biology)

The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.

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Cervical rib

A cervical rib in humans is an extra rib which arises from the seventh cervical vertebra.

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Charles Darwin

Charles Robert Darwin, (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist, geologist and biologist, best known for his contributions to the science of evolution.

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Charles Lyell

Sir Charles Lyell, 1st Baronet, (14 November 1797 – 22 February 1875) was a Scottish geologist who popularised the revolutionary work of James Hutton.

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A chromosome (from Ancient Greek: χρωμόσωμα, chromosoma, chroma means colour, soma means body) is a DNA molecule with part or all of the genetic material (genome) of an organism.

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A clade (from κλάδος, klados, "branch"), also known as monophyletic group, is a group of organisms that consists of a common ancestor and all its lineal descendants, and represents a single "branch" on the "tree of life".

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Classical antiquity

Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.

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Classical genetics

Classical genetics is the branch of genetics based solely on visible results of reproductive acts.

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Clean Air Act 1956

The Clean Air Act 1956 was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom passed in response to London's Great Smog of 1952.

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Colonialism is the policy of a polity seeking to extend or retain its authority over other people or territories, generally with the aim of developing or exploiting them to the benefit of the colonizing country and of helping the colonies modernize in terms defined by the colonizers, especially in economics, religion and health.

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Columbia University Biological Series

No description.

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Columbia University Press

Columbia University Press is a university press based in New York City, and affiliated with Columbia University.

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In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin communis, "common, universal") is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money and the state.

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Competition (biology)

Competition is an interaction between organisms or species in which both the organisms or species are harmed.

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Competitive exclusion principle

In ecology, the competitive exclusion principle, sometimes referred to as Gause's law, is a proposition named for Georgy Gause that two species competing for the same limiting resource cannot coexist at constant population values.

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Consciousness is the state or quality of awareness, or, of being aware of an external object or something within oneself.

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Consciousness Explained

Consciousness Explained is a 1991 book by the American philosopher Daniel Dennett, in which the author offers an account of how consciousness arises from interaction of physical and cognitive processes in the brain.

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Conserved sequence

In evolutionary biology, conserved sequences are similar or identical sequences in nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) or proteins across species (orthologous sequences) or within a genome (paralogous sequences).

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Created kind

In Christian and Jewish creationism, a religious view based on the creation account of the book of Genesis, created kinds are purported to be the original forms of life as they were created by God.

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Daniel Dennett

Daniel Clement Dennett III (born March 28, 1942) is an American philosopher, writer, and cognitive scientist whose research centers on the philosophy of mind, philosophy of science, and philosophy of biology, particularly as those fields relate to evolutionary biology and cognitive science.

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Darwin's Dangerous Idea

Darwin's Dangerous Idea: Evolution and the Meanings of Life is a 1995 book by Daniel Dennett, in which the author looks at some of the repercussions of Darwinian theory.

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Darwinism is a theory of biological evolution developed by the English naturalist Charles Darwin (1809–1882) and others, stating that all species of organisms arise and develop through the natural selection of small, inherited variations that increase the individual's ability to compete, survive, and reproduce.

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David E. Goldberg

David Edward Goldberg (born September 26, 1953) is an American computer scientist, civil engineer, and professor at the department of Industrial and Enterprise Systems Engineering (IESE) at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and is most noted for his work in the field of genetic algorithms.

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De rerum natura

De rerum natura (On the Nature of Things) is a first-century BC didactic poem by the Roman poet and philosopher Lucretius (c. 99 BC – c. 55 BC) with the goal of explaining Epicurean philosophy to a Roman audience.

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Deer (singular and plural) are the ruminant mammals forming the family Cervidae.

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Dialectica is a quarterly philosophy journal published by Blackwell.

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Dialectics of Nature

Dialectics of Nature (Dialektik der Natur) is an unfinished 1883 work by Friedrich Engels that applies Marxist ideas – particularly those of dialectical materialism – to science.

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Directional selection

In population genetics, directional selection is a mode of natural selection in which an extreme phenotype is favored over other phenotypes, causing the allele frequency to shift over time in the direction of that phenotype.

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Disruptive selection

Disruptive selection, also called diversifying selection, describes changes in population genetics in which extreme values for a trait are favored over intermediate values.

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Doubleday (publisher)

Doubleday is an American publishing company founded as Doubleday & McClure Company in 1897 that by 1947 was the largest in the United States.

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E. O. Wilson

Edward Osborne Wilson (born June 10, 1929), usually cited as E. O. Wilson, is an American biologist, researcher, theorist, naturalist and author.

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Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.

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Ecological niche

In ecology, a niche (CanE, or) is the fit of a species living under specific environmental conditions.

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Ecological selection

Ecological selection (or environmental selection or survival selection or individual selection or asexual selection) refers to natural selection without sexual selection, i.e. strictly ecological processes that operate on a species' inherited traits without reference to mating or secondary sex characteristics.

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Ecology: From Individuals to Ecosystems

Ecology: From Individuals to Ecosystems is a 2006 higher education textbook on general ecology written by Michael Begon, Colin R. Townsend and John L. Harper.

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Edward Bagnall Poulton

Sir Edward Bagnall Poulton, FRS HFRSE (27 January 1856 – 20 November 1943) was a British evolutionary biologist who was a lifelong advocate of natural selection through a period in which many scientists such as Reginald Punnett doubted its importance.

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Empedocles (Ἐμπεδοκλῆς, Empedoklēs) was a Greek pre-Socratic philosopher and a citizen of Akragas, a Greek city in Sicily.

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Energy landscape

In physics, chemistry, and biochemistry, an energy landscape is a mapping of all possible conformations of a molecular entity, or the spatial positions of interacting molecules in a system, or parameters and their corresponding energy levels, typically Gibbs free energy.

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Erasmus Darwin

Erasmus Darwin (12 December 173118 April 1802) was an English physician.

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Ernst Mayr

Ernst Walter Mayr (5 July 1904 – 3 February 2005) was one of the 20th century's leading evolutionary biologists.

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Eugenics (from Greek εὐγενής eugenes 'well-born' from εὖ eu, 'good, well' and γένος genos, 'race, stock, kin') is a set of beliefs and practices that aims at improving the genetic quality of a human population.

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Ever Since Darwin

Ever Since Darwin is a 1977 book by the paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould.

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Evo-devo gene toolkit

The evo-devo gene toolkit is the small subset of genes in an organism's genome whose products control the organism's embryonic development.

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Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.

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Evolution (journal)

Evolution, the International Journal of Organic Evolution, is a monthly scientific journal that publishes significant new results of empirical or theoretical investigations concerning facts, processes, mechanics, or concepts of evolutionary phenomena and events.

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Evolutionary arms race

In evolutionary biology, an evolutionary arms race is a struggle between competing sets of co-evolving genes, traits, or species, that develop adaptations and counter-adaptations against each other, resembling an arms race.

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Evolutionary baggage

Evolutionary baggage is the part of the genome of a population that was advantageous in past individuals but is disadvantageous under the pressures exerted by natural selection today.

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Evolutionary biology

Evolutionary biology is the subfield of biology that studies the evolutionary processes that produced the diversity of life on Earth, starting from a single common ancestor.

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Evolutionary computation

In computer science, evolutionary computation is a family of algorithms for global optimization inspired by biological evolution, and the subfield of artificial intelligence and soft computing studying these algorithms.

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Evolutionary developmental biology

Evolutionary developmental biology (informally, evo-devo) is a field of biological research that compares the developmental processes of different organisms to infer the ancestral relationships between them and how developmental processes evolved.

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Evolutionary economics

Evolutionary economics is part of mainstream economics as well as a heterodox school of economic thought that is inspired by evolutionary biology.

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Evolutionary epistemology

Evolutionary epistemology refers to three distinct topics: (1) the biological evolution of cognitive mechanisms in animals and humans, (2) a theory that knowledge itself evolves by natural selection, and (3) the study of the historical discovery of new abstract entities such as abstract number or abstract value that necessarily precede the individual acquisition and usage of such abstractions.

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Evolutionary psychology

Evolutionary psychology is a theoretical approach in the social and natural sciences that examines psychological structure from a modern evolutionary perspective.

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Exaptation (Stephen Jay Gould and Elisabeth Vrba's proposed replacement for what he considered the teleologically-loaded term "pre-adaptation") and the related term co-option describe a shift in the function of a trait during evolution.

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Exponential growth

Exponential growth is exhibited when the rate of change—the change per instant or unit of time—of the value of a mathematical function is proportional to the function's current value, resulting in its value at any time being an exponential function of time, i.e., a function in which the time value is the exponent.

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Faber and Faber

Faber and Faber Limited, often abbreviated to Faber, is an independent publishing house in the United Kingdom.

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Fecundity selection

Fecundity selection, also known as fertility selection, is the fitness advantage resulting from the preference of traits that increase the number of offspring (i.e. fecundity).

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Fisherian runaway

Fisherian runaway or runaway selection is a sexual selection mechanism proposed by the mathematical biologist Ronald Fisher in the early 20th century, to account for the evolution of exaggerated male ornamentation by persistent, directional female choice.

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Fitness function

A fitness function is a particular type of objective function that is used to summarise, as a single figure of merit, how close a given design solution is to achieving the set aims.

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Fixation (population genetics)

In population genetics, fixation is the change in a gene pool from a situation where there exists at least two variants of a particular gene (allele) in a given population to a situation where only one of the alleles remains.

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Founder effect

In population genetics, the founder effect is the loss of genetic variation that occurs when a new population is established by a very small number of individuals from a larger population.

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Francis Galton

Sir Francis Galton, FRS (16 February 1822 – 17 January 1911) was an English Victorian era statistician, progressive, polymath, sociologist, psychologist, anthropologist, eugenicist, tropical explorer, geographer, inventor, meteorologist, proto-geneticist, and psychometrician.

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Frequency-dependent selection

Frequency-dependent selection is an evolutionary process by which the fitness of a phenotype depends on its frequency relative to other phenotypes in a given population.

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Friedrich Engels

Friedrich Engels (. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.;, sometimes anglicised Frederick Engels; 28 November 1820 – 5 August 1895) was a German philosopher, social scientist, journalist and businessman.

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Gale (publisher)

Gale is an educational publishing company based in Farmington Hills, Michigan, in the western suburbs of Detroit.

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Game theory

Game theory is "the study of mathematical models of conflict and cooperation between intelligent rational decision-makers".

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A gamete (from Ancient Greek γαμετή gamete from gamein "to marry") is a haploid cell that fuses with another haploid cell during fertilization (conception) in organisms that sexually reproduce.

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Gender role

A gender role, also known as a sex role, is a social role encompassing a range of behaviors and attitudes that are generally considered acceptable, appropriate, or desirable for people based on their actual or perceived sex or sexuality.

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Gene regulatory network

A gene (or genetic) regulatory network (GRN) is a collection of molecular regulators that interact with each other and with other substances in the cell to govern the gene expression levels of mRNA and proteins.

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Gene-centered view of evolution

The gene-centered view of evolution, gene's eye view, gene selection theory, or selfish gene theory holds that adaptive evolution occurs through the differential survival of competing genes, increasing the allele frequency of those alleles whose phenotypic trait effects successfully promote their own propagation, with gene defined as "not just one single physical bit of DNA all replicas of a particular bit of DNA distributed throughout the world".

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Generation of Animals

The Generation of Animals (or On the Generation of Animals; Greek Περὶ ζῴων γενέσεως; Latin De Generatione Animalium) is one of Aristotle's major texts on biology.

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Genetic algorithm

In computer science and operations research, a genetic algorithm (GA) is a metaheuristic inspired by the process of natural selection that belongs to the larger class of evolutionary algorithms (EA).

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Genetic diversity

Genetic diversity is the total number of genetic characteristics in the genetic makeup of a species.

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Genetic drift

Genetic drift (also known as allelic drift or the Sewall Wright effect) is the change in the frequency of an existing gene variant (allele) in a population due to random sampling of organisms.

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Genetic hitchhiking

Genetic hitchhiking, also called genetic draft or the hitchhiking effect, is when an allele changes frequency not because it itself is under natural selection, but because it is near another gene that is undergoing a selective sweep and that is on the same DNA chain.

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Genetic linkage

Genetic linkage is the tendency of DNA sequences that are close together on a chromosome to be inherited together during the meiosis phase of sexual reproduction.

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Genetic recombination

Genetic recombination (aka genetic reshuffling) is the production of offspring with combinations of traits that differ from those found in either parent.

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Genetic variability

Genetic variability is either the presence of, or the generation of, genetic differences.

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Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.

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Genetics (journal)

Genetics is a monthly scientific journal publishing investigations bearing on heredity, genetics, biochemistry and molecular biology.

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Genetics and the Origin of Species

Genetics and the Origin of Species is a 1937 book by the Ukrainian-American evolutionary biologist Theodosius Dobzhansky.

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In the fields of molecular biology and genetics, a genome is the genetic material of an organism.

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The genotype is the part of the genetic makeup of a cell, and therefore of an organism or individual, which determines one of its characteristics (phenotype).

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Geologic time scale

The geologic time scale (GTS) is a system of chronological dating that relates geological strata (stratigraphy) to time.

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In linguistics, grammar (from Greek: γραμματική) is the set of structural rules governing the composition of clauses, phrases, and words in any given natural language.

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Gregor Mendel

Gregor Johann Mendel (Řehoř Jan Mendel; 20 July 1822 – 6 January 1884) was a scientist, Augustinian friar and abbot of St. Thomas' Abbey in Brno, Margraviate of Moravia.

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Group selection

Group selection is a proposed mechanism of evolution in which natural selection acts at the level of the group, instead of at the more conventional level of the individual.

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H. Allen Orr


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A haplotype (haploid genotype) is a group of alleles in an organism that are inherited together from a single parent.

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Harper Perennial

Harper Perennial is a paperback imprint of the publishing house HarperCollins Publishers.

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Harvard University Press

Harvard University Press (HUP) is a publishing house established on January 13, 1913, as a division of Harvard University, and focused on academic publishing.

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Herbert Spencer

Herbert Spencer (27 April 1820 – 8 December 1903) was an English philosopher, biologist, anthropologist, sociologist, and prominent classical liberal political theorist of the Victorian era.

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Heredity is the passing on of traits from parents to their offspring, either through asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction, the offspring cells or organisms acquire the genetic information of their parents.

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Heritability is a statistic used in the fields of breeding and genetics that estimates the degree of variation in a phenotypic trait in a population that is due to genetic variation between individuals in that population.

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Heterozygote advantage

A heterozygote advantage describes the case in which the heterozygous genotype has a higher relative fitness than either the homozygous dominant or homozygous recessive genotype.

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A heuristic technique (εὑρίσκω, "find" or "discover"), often called simply a heuristic, is any approach to problem solving, learning, or discovery that employs a practical method, not guaranteed to be optimal, perfect, logical, or rational, but instead sufficient for reaching an immediate goal.

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Howard T. Odum

Howard Thomas Odum (also known as Tom or just H.T.) (September 1, 1924 – September 11, 2002) was an American ecologist.

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Human Molecular Genetics

Human Molecular Genetics, first published in 1992, is a semimonthly peer reviewed, scientific journal, published by The Oxford University Press.

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Hybrid (biology)

In biology, a hybrid, or crossbreed, is the result of combining the qualities of two organisms of different breeds, varieties, species or genera through sexual reproduction.

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Hypolimnas bolina

Hypolimnas bolina, the great eggfly, common eggfly or in New Zealand the blue moon butterfly is a species of nymphalid butterfly found from Madagascar to Asia and Australia.

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Industrial Revolution

The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.

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Infanticide (zoology)

In animals, infanticide involves the killing of young offspring by a mature animal of the same species, and is studied in zoology, specifically in the field of ethology.

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Insular biogeography

Insular biogeography or island biogeography is a field within biogeography that examines the factors that affect the species richness of isolated natural communities.

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International Journal of Management Reviews

The International Journal of Management Reviews is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal, established by Cary Cooper in 1999, and published by Wiley-Blackwell on behalf of the British Academy of Management.

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Interspecific competition

Interspecific competition, in ecology, is a form of competition in which individuals of different species compete for the same resources in an ecosystem (e.g. food or living space).

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Intragenomic conflict

Intragenomic conflict refers to the evolutionary phenomenon where genes have phenotypic effects that promote their own transmission in detriment of the transmission of other genes that reside in the same genome.

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Intraspecific competition

Intraspecific competition is an interaction in population ecology, whereby members of the same species compete for limited resources.

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Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science (IOVS) is an online journal published by the Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO).

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IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).

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J. B. S. Haldane

John Burdon Sanderson Haldane (5 November 18921 December 1964) was an English scientist known for his work in the study of physiology, genetics, evolutionary biology, and in mathematics, where he made innovative contributions to the fields of statistics and biostatistics.

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Jean-Baptiste Lamarck

Jean-Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet, Chevalier de Lamarck (1 August 1744 – 18 December 1829), often known simply as Lamarck, was a French naturalist.

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John Henry Holland

John Henry Holland (February 2, 1929 – August 9, 2015) was an American scientist and Professor of psychology and Professor of electrical engineering and computer science at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.

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John Innes Centre

The John Innes Centre (JIC), located in Norwich, Norfolk, England, is an independent centre for research and training in plant and microbial science.

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John Murray (publisher)

John Murray is a British publisher, known for the authors it has published in its history, including Jane Austen, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, Lord Byron, Charles Lyell, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Herman Melville, Edward Whymper, and Charles Darwin.

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Joseph Dalton Hooker

Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker (30 June 1817 – 10 December 1911) was a British botanist and explorer in the 19th century.

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Journal of Experimental Zoology

Journal of Experimental Zoology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal of zoology established in 1904.

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Journal of Genetics

The Journal of Genetics is a quarterly peer-reviewed scientific journal in the field of genetics and evolution.

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Journal of the History of Ideas

The Journal of the History of Ideas is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal covering intellectual history and the history of ideas, including the histories of philosophy, literature and the arts, natural and social sciences, religion, and political thought.

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Journal of Theoretical Biology

The Journal of Theoretical Biology is a biweekly peer-reviewed scientific journal covering theoretical biology, as well as mathematical and computational aspects of biology.

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Karl Marx

Karl MarxThe name "Karl Heinrich Marx", used in various lexicons, is based on an error.

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A karyotype is the number and appearance of chromosomes in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell.

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Kin selection

Kin selection is the evolutionary strategy that favours the reproductive success of an organism's relatives, even at a cost to the organism's own survival and reproduction.

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Konrad Lorenz

Konrad Zacharias Lorenz (7 November 1903 – 27 February 1989) was an Austrian zoologist, ethologist, and ornithologist.

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Lamarckism (or Lamarckian inheritance) is the hypothesis that an organism can pass on characteristics that it has acquired through use or disuse during its lifetime to its offspring.

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Language acquisition

Language acquisition is the process by which humans acquire the capacity to perceive and comprehend language, as well as to produce and use words and sentences to communicate.

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Limiting factor

A limiting factor is a variable of a system that, if subject to a small change, causes a non-negligible change in an output or other measure of the system.

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Linear function

In mathematics, the term linear function refers to two distinct but related notions.

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Linkage disequilibrium

In population genetics, linkage disequilibrium is the non-random association of alleles at different loci in a given population.

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Linnean Society of London

The Linnean Society of London is a society dedicated to the study of, and the dissemination of information concerning, natural history, evolution and taxonomy.

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Little, Brown and Company

Little, Brown and Company is an American publisher founded in 1837 by Charles Coffin Little and his partner, James Brown, and for close to two centuries has published fiction and nonfiction by American authors.

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Locus (genetics)

A locus (plural loci) in genetics is a fixed position on a chromosome, like the position of a gene or a marker (genetic marker).

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Longman, commonly known as Pearson Longman, is a publishing company founded in London, England, in 1724 and is owned by Pearson PLC.

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Titus Lucretius Carus (15 October 99 BC – c. 55 BC) was a Roman poet and philosopher.

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Macmillan Publishers

Macmillan Publishers Ltd (occasionally known as the Macmillan Group) is an international publishing company owned by Holtzbrinck Publishing Group.

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Macroevolution is evolution on a scale at or above the level of species, in contrast with microevolution, which refers to smaller evolutionary changes of allele frequencies within a species or population.

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Manchester is a city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, England, with a population of 530,300.

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Mate choice

Mate choice, also known as intersexual selection, is an evolutionary process in which selection is dependent on the attractiveness of an individual's phenotypic traits.

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Mathematical optimization

In mathematics, computer science and operations research, mathematical optimization or mathematical programming, alternatively spelled optimisation, is the selection of a best element (with regard to some criterion) from some set of available alternatives.

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Maximum power principle

The maximum power principle or Lotka's principle has been proposed as the fourth principle of energetics in open system thermodynamics, where an example of an open system is a biological cell.

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A meme is an idea, behavior, or style that spreads from person to person within a culture—often with the aim of conveying a particular phenomenon, theme, or meaning represented by the meme.

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Mendelian inheritance

Mendelian inheritance is a type of biological inheritance that follows the laws originally proposed by Gregor Mendel in 1865 and 1866 and re-discovered in 1900.

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Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) refers to a group of gram-positive bacteria that are genetically distinct from other strains of Staphylococcus aureus.

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Microevolution is the change in allele frequencies that occurs over time within a population.

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A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.

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MIT Press

The MIT Press is a university press affiliated with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States).

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Modern synthesis (20th century)

The modern synthesis was the early 20th-century synthesis reconciling Charles Darwin's theory of evolution and Gregor Mendel's ideas on heredity in a joint mathematical framework.

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Molecular genetics

Molecular genetics is the field of biology that studies the structure and function of genes at a molecular level and thus employs methods of both molecular biology and genetics.

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Moravia (Morava;; Morawy; Moravia) is a historical country in the Czech Republic (forming its eastern part) and one of the historical Czech lands, together with Bohemia and Czech Silesia.

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Morphology (biology)

Morphology is a branch of biology dealing with the study of the form and structure of organisms and their specific structural features.

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Motoo Kimura

(November 13, 1924 – November 13, 1994) was a Japanese biologist best known for introducing the neutral theory of molecular evolution in 1968, in collaboration with Tomoko Ohta.

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Multimodal distribution

In statistics, a bimodal distribution is a continuous probability distribution with two different modes.

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In biology, a mutation is the permanent alteration of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements.

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Mutation–selection balance

Mutation–selection balance is an equilibrium in the number of deleterious alleles in a population that occurs when the rate at which deleterious alleles are created by mutation equals the rate at which deleterious alleles are eliminated by selection.

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Mutationism is one of several alternatives to evolution by natural selection that have existed both before and after the publication of Charles Darwin's 1859 book, On the Origin of Species.

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Natural environment

The natural environment encompasses all living and non-living things occurring naturally, meaning in this case not artificial.

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Natural history

Natural history is a domain of inquiry involving organisms including animals, fungi and plants in their environment; leaning more towards observational than experimental methods of study.

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Natural language

In neuropsychology, linguistics, and the philosophy of language, a natural language or ordinary language is any language that has evolved naturally in humans through use and repetition without conscious planning or premeditation.

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Nature (journal)

Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.

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Nature Publishing Group

Nature Publishing Group is a division of the international scientific publishing company Springer Nature that publishes academic journals, magazines, online databases, and services in science and medicine.

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National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus), more commonly known as Nazism, is the ideology and practices associated with the Nazi Party – officially the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) – in Nazi Germany, and of other far-right groups with similar aims.

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Negative selection (natural selection)

In natural selection, negative selection or purifying selection is the selective removal of alleles that are deleterious.

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Neutral theory of molecular evolution

The neutral theory of molecular evolution holds that at the molecular level most evolutionary changes and most of the variation within and between species is not caused by natural selection but by genetic drift of mutant alleles that are neutral.

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Noam Chomsky

Avram Noam Chomsky (born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist, philosopher, cognitive scientist, historian, social critic and political activist.

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Non-coding DNA

In genomics and related disciplines, noncoding DNA sequences are components of an organism's DNA that do not encode protein sequences.

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Nucleic acid sequence

A nucleic acid sequence is a succession of letters that indicate the order of nucleotides forming alleles within a DNA (using GACT) or RNA (GACU) molecule.

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In biology, offspring are the young born of living organisms, produced either by a single organism or, in the case of sexual reproduction, two organisms.

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On the Origin of Species

On the Origin of Species (or more completely, On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life),The book's full original title was On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life.

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On the Tendency of Species to form Varieties; and on the Perpetuation of Varieties and Species by Natural Means of Selection

On the Tendency of Species to form Varieties; and on the Perpetuation of Varieties and Species by Natural Means of Selection is the title of a joint presentation of two scientific papers to the Linnean Society of London on 1 July 1858: On The Tendency of Varieties to Depart Indefinitely from the Original Type by Alfred Russel Wallace and an Extract from an unpublished Work on Species from Charles Darwin's Essay of 1844, together with an Abstract of a Letter from Darwin to Asa Gray.

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In biology, an organism (from Greek: ὀργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life.

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Orthogenesis, also known as orthogenetic evolution, progressive evolution, evolutionary progress, or progressionism, is the biological hypothesis that organisms have an innate tendency to evolve in a definite direction towards some goal (teleology) due to some internal mechanism or "driving force".

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Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.

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Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology

Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology ("Palaeo3") is a peer-reviewed scientific journal publishing multidisciplinary studies and comprehensive reviews in the field of palaeoenvironmental geology.

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Parental investment

Parental investment (PI), in evolutionary biology and evolutionary psychology, is any parental expenditure (time, energy, etc.) that benefits one offspring at a cost to parents' ability to invest in other components of fitness,Clutton-Brock, T.H. 1991.

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Patrick Matthew

Patrick Matthew (20 October 1790 – 8 June 1874) was a Scottish grain merchant, fruit farmer, forester, and landowner, who contributed to the understanding of horticulture, silviculture, and agriculture in general, with a focus on maintaining the British navy and feeding new colonies.

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The peafowl include three species of birds in the genera Pavo and Afropavo of the Phasianidae family, the pheasants and their allies.

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Penguin Books

Penguin Books is a British publishing house.

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Penicillin (PCN or pen) is a group of antibiotics which include penicillin G (intravenous use), penicillin V (use by mouth), procaine penicillin, and benzathine penicillin (intramuscular use).

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Peppered moth

The peppered moth (Biston betularia) is a temperate species of night-flying moth.

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Peppered moth evolution

The evolution of the peppered moth is an evolutionary instance of directional colour change in the moth population as a consequence of air pollution during the Industrial Revolution.

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Pesticide resistance

Pesticide resistance describes the decreased susceptibility of a pest population to a pesticide that was previously effective at controlling the pest.

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A phenotype is the composite of an organism's observable characteristics or traits, such as its morphology, development, biochemical or physiological properties, behavior, and products of behavior (such as a bird's nest).

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Phenotypic trait

A phenotypic trait, or simply trait, is a distinct variant of a phenotypic characteristic of an organism; it may be either inherited or determined environmentally, but typically occurs as a combination of the two.

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Philosophie Zoologique

Philosophie Zoologique ("Zoological Philosophy, or Exposition with Regard to the Natural History of Animals") is an 1809 book by the French naturalist Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, in which he outlines his pre-Darwinian theory of evolution, part of which is now known as Lamarckism.

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Philosophy of Science (journal)

Philosophy of Science is a peer-reviewed academic journal published by the University of Chicago Press on behalf of the Philosophy of Science Association.

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Photoperiodism is the physiological reaction of organisms to the length of day or night.

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Physics (Aristotle)

The Physics (Greek: Φυσικὴ ἀκρόασις Phusike akroasis; Latin: Physica, or Naturalis Auscultationes, possibly meaning "lectures on nature") is a named text, written in ancient Greek, collated from a collection of surviving manuscripts known as the Corpus Aristotelicum because attributed to the 4th-century BC philosopher, teacher, and mentor of Macedonian rulers, Aristotle.

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Pierre Louis Maupertuis

Pierre Louis Moreau de Maupertuis (1698 – 27 July 1759) was a French mathematician, philosopher and man of letters.

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Ploidy is the number of complete sets of chromosomes in a cell, and hence the number of possible alleles for autosomal and pseudoautosomal genes.

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Political philosophy

Political philosophy, or political theory, is the study of topics such as politics, liberty, justice, property, rights, law, and the enforcement of laws by authority: what they are, why (or even if) they are needed, what, if anything, makes a government legitimate, what rights and freedoms it should protect and why, what form it should take and why, what the law is, and what duties citizens owe to a legitimate government, if any, and when it may be legitimately overthrown, if ever.

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Polydactyly or polydactylism, also known as hyperdactyly, is a congenital physical anomaly in humans and animals resulting in supernumerary fingers and/or toes.

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In biology, a population is all the organisms of the same group or species, which live in a particular geographical area, and have the capability of interbreeding.

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Population bottleneck

A population bottleneck or genetic bottleneck is a sharp reduction in the size of a population due to environmental events (such as earthquakes, floods, fires, disease, or droughts) or human activities (such as genocide).

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Population dynamics

Population dynamics is the branch of life sciences that studies the size and age composition of populations as dynamical systems, and the biological and environmental processes driving them (such as birth and death rates, and by immigration and emigration).

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Positive feedback

Positive feedback is a process that occurs in a feedback loop in which the effects of a small disturbance on a system include an increase in the magnitude of the perturbation.

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Princeton University Press

Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University.

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Probability is the measure of the likelihood that an event will occur.

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Probability distribution

In probability theory and statistics, a probability distribution is a mathematical function that provides the probabilities of occurrence of different possible outcomes in an experiment.

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Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society

Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society is a quarterly philosophy peer-reviewed journal published by the American Philosophical Society since 1838.

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Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) is the official scientific journal of the National Academy of Sciences, published since 1915.

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Progress Publishers

Progress Publishers was a Moscow-based Soviet publisher founded in 1931.

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Protein biosynthesis

Protein synthesis is the process whereby biological cells generate new proteins; it is balanced by the loss of cellular proteins via degradation or export.

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Psychology is the science of behavior and mind, including conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought.

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Quantum Darwinism

Quantum Darwinism is a theory claiming to explain the emergence of the classical world from the quantum world as due to a process of Darwinian natural selection; where the many possible quantum states are selected against in favor of a stable pointer state.

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R/K selection theory

In ecology, r/K selection theory relates to the selection of combinations of traits in an organism that trade off between quantity and quality of offspring.

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Race and intelligence

The connection between race and intelligence has been a subject of debate in both popular science and academic research since the inception of IQ testing in the early 20th century.

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Random House

Random House is an American book publisher and the largest general-interest paperback publisher in the world.

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Reciprocal altruism

In evolutionary biology, reciprocal altruism is a behaviour whereby an organism acts in a manner that temporarily reduces its fitness while increasing another organism's fitness, with the expectation that the other organism will act in a similar manner at a later time.

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Regulatory sequence

A regulatory sequence is a segment of a nucleic acid molecule which is capable of increasing or decreasing the expression of specific genes within an organism.

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Reinforcement (speciation)

Reinforcement (sometimes called secondary contact) is a process of speciation where natural selection increases the reproductive isolation between two populations of species.

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Reproductive isolation

The mechanisms of reproductive isolation are a collection of evolutionary mechanisms, behaviors and physiological processes critical for speciation.

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Resource (biology)

In Biology and Ecology, a resource is a substance or object in the environment required by an organism for normal growth, maintenance, and reproduction.

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Ribozymes (ribonucleic acid enzymes) are RNA molecules that are capable of catalyzing specific biochemical reactions, similar to the action of protein enzymes.

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Richard Dawkins

Clinton Richard Dawkins (born 26 March 1941) is an English ethologist, evolutionary biologist, and author.

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Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.

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RNA world

The RNA world is a hypothetical stage in the evolutionary history of life on Earth, in which self-replicating RNA molecules proliferated before the evolution of DNA and proteins.

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Robert H. MacArthur

Robert Helmer MacArthur (April 7, 1930 – November 1, 1972) was a Canadian-born American ecologist who made a major impact on many areas of community and population ecology.

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Rogers State University

Rogers State University is a public, regional university in Claremore, Oklahoma, with branch campuses in Bartlesville, Oklahoma, and Pryor Creek, Oklahoma.

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Roman Republic

The Roman Republic (Res publica Romana) was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire.

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Ronald Fisher

Sir Ronald Aylmer Fisher (17 February 1890 – 29 July 1962), who published as R. A. Fisher, was a British statistician and geneticist.

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Samoa, officially the Independent State of Samoa (Malo Saʻoloto Tutoʻatasi o Sāmoa; Sāmoa) and, until 4 July 1997, known as Western Samoa, is a unitary parliamentary democracy with eleven administrative divisions.

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Science (journal)

Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.

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Scientific American

Scientific American (informally abbreviated SciAm) is an American popular science magazine.

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Second voyage of HMS Beagle

The second voyage of HMS Beagle, from 27 December 1831 to 2 October 1836, was the second survey expedition of HMS ''Beagle'', under captain Robert FitzRoy who had taken over command of the ship on its first voyage after the previous captain committed suicide.

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Selective breeding

Selective breeding (also called artificial selection) is the process by which humans use animal breeding and plant breeding to selectively develop particular phenotypic traits (characteristics) by choosing which typically animal or plant males and females will sexually reproduce and have offspring together.

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Selective sweep

In genetics, a selective sweep is the reduction or elimination of variation among the nucleotides near a mutation in DNA.

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Sergey Gavrilets

Sergey Gavrilets is a Russian-born physicist turned American theoretical biologist, currently a Distinguished Professor at the University of Tennessee.

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Sewall Wright

Sewall Green Wright (December 21, 1889March 3, 1988) was an American geneticist known for his influential work on evolutionary theory and also for his work on path analysis.

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Sexual dimorphism

Sexual dimorphism is the condition where the two sexes of the same species exhibit different characteristics beyond the differences in their sexual organs.

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Sexual selection

Sexual selection is a mode of natural selection where members of one biological sex choose mates of the other sex to mate with (intersexual selection), and compete with members of the same sex for access to members of the opposite sex (intrasexual selection).

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Sexy son hypothesis

The sexy son hypothesis in evolutionary biology and sexual selection—proposed by Ronald Fisher in 1930—states that a female's ideal mate choice among potential mates is one whose genes will produce male offspring with the best chance of reproductive success.

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Sickle cell disease

Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a group of blood disorders typically inherited from a person's parents.

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Signalling theory

Within evolutionary biology, signalling theory is a body of theoretical work examining communication between individuals, both within species and across species.

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Simon & Schuster

Simon & Schuster, Inc., a subsidiary of CBS Corporation, is an American publishing company founded in New York City in 1924 by Richard Simon and Max Schuster.

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Sinauer Associates

Sinauer Associates, Inc. is a publisher of college-level textbooks.

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Social Darwinism

The term Social Darwinism is used to refer to various ways of thinking and theories that emerged in the second half of the 19th century and tried to apply the evolutionary concept of natural selection to human society.

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Sociobiology is a field of biology that aims to examine and explain social behavior in terms of evolution.

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Sociocultural evolution

Sociocultural evolution, sociocultural evolutionism or cultural evolution are theories of cultural and social evolution that describe how cultures and societies change over time.

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Soot is a mass of impure carbon particles resulting from the incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons.

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The genus Spalax contains the blind, fossorial, or subterranean mole rats, which are one of several types of rodents that are called "mole rats".

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Speciation is the evolutionary process by which populations evolve to become distinct species.

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In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.

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Springer Science+Business Media

Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.

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Stabilizing selection

Stabilizing selection (not to be confused with negative or purifying selection) is a type of natural selection in which the population mean stabilizes on a particular non-extreme trait value.

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Stephen Jay Gould

Stephen Jay Gould (September 10, 1941 – May 20, 2002) was an American paleontologist, evolutionary biologist, and historian of science.

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Steven Pinker

Steven Arthur Pinker (born September 18, 1954) is a Canadian-American cognitive psychologist, linguist, and popular science author.

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The word stochastic is an adjective in English that describes something that was randomly determined.

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Strain (biology)

In biology, a strain is a low-level taxonomic rank used at the intraspecific level (within a species).

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Survival of the fittest

"Survival of the fittest" is a phrase that originated from Darwinian evolutionary theory as a way of describing the mechanism of natural selection.

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The Syngnathidae is a family of fish which includes the seahorses, the pipefishes, the pipehorses, and the leafy, ruby, and weedy seadragons.

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Synonymous substitution

A synonymous substitution (often called a silent substitution though they are not always silent) is the evolutionary substitution of one base for another in an exon of a gene coding for a protein, such that the produced amino acid sequence is not modified.

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Systematics and the Origin of Species

Systematics and the Origin of Species from the Viewpoint of a Zoologist is a book written by zoologist and evolutionary biologist Ernst Mayr, first published in 1942 by Columbia University Press.

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Tautology (rhetoric)

In rhetoric, a tautology (from Greek ταὐτός, "the same" and λόγος, "word/idea") is an argument which repeats an assertion using different phrasing.

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Teleology or finality is a reason or explanation for something in function of its end, purpose, or goal.

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Teleology in biology

Teleology in biology is the use of the language of goal-directedness in accounts of evolutionary adaptation, which some biologists and philosophers of science find problematic.

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Territory (animal)

In ethology, territory is the sociographical area that an animal of a particular species consistently defends against conspecifics (or, occasionally, animals of other species).

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The American Naturalist

The American Naturalist is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal that was established in 1867.

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The Beak of the Finch

The Beak of the Finch: A Story of Evolution in Our Time is a 1994 nonfiction book about evolutionary biology, written by Jonathan Weiner.

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The Causes of Evolution

The Causes of Evolution is a 1932 book on evolution by J.B.S. Haldane (1990 edition), based on a series of January 1931 lectures entitled "A Re-examination of Darwinism".

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The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection

The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection is a book by Ronald Fisher which combines Mendelian genetics with Charles Darwin's theory of natural selection, with Fisher being the first to argue that "Mendelism therefore validates Darwinism" and stating with regard to mutations that "The vast majority of large mutations are deleterious; small mutations are both far more frequent and more likely to be useful", thus refuting orthogenesis.

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The Guardian

The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.

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The Language Instinct

The Language Instinct is a 1994 book by Steven Pinker, written for a general audience.

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The New York Review of Books

The New York Review of Books (or NYREV or NYRB) is a semi-monthly magazine with articles on literature, culture, economics, science and current affairs.

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The Quarterly Review of Biology

The Quarterly Review of Biology is a peer reviewed scientific journal covering all aspects of biology.

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The Science of Life

The Science of Life is a book written by H. G. Wells, Julian Huxley and G. P. Wells, published in three volumes by The Waverley Publishing Company Ltd in 1929–30, giving a popular account of all major aspects of biology as known in the 1920s.

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The Selfish Gene

The Selfish Gene is a 1976 book on evolution by Richard Dawkins, in which the author builds upon the principal theory of George C. Williams's Adaptation and Natural Selection (1966).

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The Structure of Evolutionary Theory

The Structure of Evolutionary Theory (2002) is Harvard paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould's technical book on macroevolution and the historical development of evolutionary theory.

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The Theory of Evolution

The Theory of Evolution is a book by English evolutionary biologist and geneticist John Maynard Smith, originally published in 1958 in time for 150th anniversary of the birth of Charles Darwin and the centenary of the publication of The Origin of Species the following year.

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The Theory of Island Biogeography

The Theory of Island Biogeography is a 1967 book by Robert MacArthur and Edward O. Wilson.

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Theodosius Dobzhansky

Theodosius Grygorovych Dobzhansky (Теодо́сій Григо́рович Добжа́нський; Феодо́сий Григо́рьевич Добржа́нский; January 25, 1900 – December 18, 1975) was a prominent Ukrainian-American geneticist and evolutionary biologist, and a central figure in the field of evolutionary biology for his work in shaping the modern synthesis.

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Theory of forms

The theory of Forms or theory of Ideas is Plato's argument that non-physical (but substantial) forms (or ideas) represent the most accurate reality.

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Thermodynamics is the branch of physics concerned with heat and temperature and their relation to energy and work.

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Thomas Robert Malthus

Thomas Robert Malthus (13 February 1766 – 23 December 1834) was an English cleric and scholar, influential in the fields of political economy and demography.

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Transaction Publishers

Transaction Publishers was a New Jersey–based publishing house that specialized in social science books.

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Transmutation of species

Transmutation of species and transformism are 19th-century evolutionary ideas for the altering of one species into another that preceded Charles Darwin's theory of natural selection.

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Trofim Lysenko

Trofim Denisovich Lysenko (Трофи́м Дени́сович Лысе́нко, Трохи́м Дени́сович Лисе́нко; 20 November 1976) was a Soviet agronomist and biologist.

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Tufts University

Tufts University is a private research university incorporated in the municipality of Medford, Massachusetts, United States.

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Uniformitarianism, also known as the Doctrine of Uniformity,, "The assumption of spatial and temporal invariance of natural laws is by no means unique to geology since it amounts to a warrant for inductive inference which, as Bacon showed nearly four hundred years ago, is the basic mode of reasoning in empirical science.

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Unit of selection

A unit of selection is a biological entity within the hierarchy of biological organization (for example, an entity such as: a self-replicating molecule, a gene, a cell, an organism, a group, or a species) that is subject to natural selection.

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In mathematics, univariate refers to an expression, equation, function or polynomial of only one variable.

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Universal Darwinism

Universal Darwinism (also known as generalized Darwinism, universal selection theory, or Darwinian metaphysics) refers to a variety of approaches that extend the theory of Darwinism beyond its original domain of biological evolution on Earth.

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University of California Press

University of California Press, otherwise known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing.

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University of Chicago Press

The University of Chicago Press is the largest and one of the oldest university presses in the United States.

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University of Florence

The University of Florence (Italian: Università degli Studi di Firenze, UniFI) is an Italian public research university located in Florence, Italy.

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Vestigiality is the retention during the process of evolution of genetically determined structures or attributes that have lost some or all of their ancestral function in a given species.

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W. D. Hamilton

William Donald Hamilton, FRS (1 August 1936 – 7 March 2000) was an English evolutionary biologist, widely recognised as one of the most significant evolutionary theorists of the 20th century.

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W. W. Norton & Company


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Weidenfeld & Nicolson

Weidenfeld & Nicolson Ltd (established 1948), often shortened to W&N or Weidenfeld, is a British publisher of fiction and reference books.

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Western world

The Western world refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe and the Americas.

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Wiley-Blackwell is the international scientific, technical, medical, and scholarly publishing business of John Wiley & Sons.

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Wilhelm Engelmann

Wilhelm Engelmann was a German publisher and bookseller (August 1, 1808 in Lemgo – December 23, 1878 in Leipzig).

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Wilhelm Roux

Wilhelm Roux (9 June 1850 – 15 September 1924) was a German zoologist and pioneer of experimental embryology.

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William Charles Wells

William Charles Wells FRS FRSEd (1757–1817), was a Scottish-American physician and printer.

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William Collins, Sons

William Collins, Sons (often referred to as Collins) was a Scottish printing and publishing company founded by a Presbyterian schoolmaster, William Collins, in Glasgow in 1819, in partnership with Charles Chalmers, the younger brother of Thomas Chalmers, minister of Tron Church, Glasgow.

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William Morrow and Company

William Morrow and Company is an American publishing company founded by William Morrow in 1926.

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Wolbachia is a genus of Gram-negative bacteria which infects arthropod species, including a high proportion of insects, but also some nematodes.

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A zygote (from Greek ζυγωτός zygōtos "joined" or "yoked", from ζυγοῦν zygoun "to join" or "to yoke") is a eukaryotic cell formed by a fertilization event between two gametes.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Natural_selection

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