42 relations: A Treatise of Human Nature, Abingdon-on-Thames, Appeal to nature, Appeal to novelty, Appeal to tradition, Arthur Prior, Bernard Williams, Categorical imperative, David Hume, Definist fallacy, Environmentalism, Ethical naturalism, Ethical non-naturalism, Evidence-based medicine, Evolution of morality, Fact–value distinction, G. E. Moore, Gender role, Hedonism, Homosexuality, Instrumental and intrinsic value, Is–ought problem, Medicine, Meta-ethics, Moral realism, Moralistic fallacy, Natural law, Naturalism (philosophy), Norm (philosophy), Open-question argument, Oxford University Press, Philosophical analysis, Positive law, Principia Ethica, Qualia, Race (biology), Semantics, Social Darwinism, Steven Pinker, United Press International, Value theory, Veganism.
A Treatise of Human Nature (1738–40) is a book by Scottish philosopher David Hume, considered by many to be Hume's most important work and one of the most influential works in the history of philosophy.
Abingdon-on-Thames, also known as Abingdon on Thames or just Abingdon, is a historic market town and civil parish in the ceremonial county of Oxfordshire, England.
An appeal to nature is an argument or rhetorical tactic in which it is proposed that "a thing is good because it is 'natural', or bad because it is 'unnatural.
The appeal to novelty (also called argumentum ad novitatem) is a fallacy in which one prematurely claims that an idea or proposal is correct or superior, exclusively because it is new and modern.
Appeal to tradition (also known as argumentum ad antiquitatem, appeal to antiquity, or appeal to common practice) is an argument in which a thesis is deemed correct on the basis that it is correlated with some past or present tradition.
Arthur Norman Prior (4 December 1914 – 6 October 1969), usually cited as A. N. Prior, was a noted logician and philosopher.
Sir Bernard Arthur Owen Williams, FBA (21 September 1929 – 10 June 2003) was an English moral philosopher.
The categorical imperative (kategorischer Imperativ) is the central philosophical concept in the deontological moral philosophy of Immanuel Kant.
David Hume (born David Home; 7 May 1711 NS (26 April 1711 OS) – 25 August 1776) was a Scottish philosopher, historian, economist, and essayist, who is best known today for his highly influential system of philosophical empiricism, skepticism, and naturalism.
The definist fallacy (sometimes Socratic fallacy) is a logical fallacy, coined by William Frankena in 1939, that involves the definition of one property in terms of another.
Environmentalism or environmental rights is a broad philosophy, ideology, and social movement regarding concerns for environmental protection and improvement of the health of the environment, particularly as the measure for this health seeks to incorporate the impact of changes to the environment on humans, animals, plants and non-living matter.
Ethical naturalism (also called moral naturalism or naturalistic cognitivistic definism) is the meta-ethical view which claims that: Reductive naturalism.
Ethical non-naturalism is the meta-ethical view which claims that.
Evidence-based medicine (EBM) is an approach to medical practice intended to optimize decision-making by emphasizing the use of evidence from well-designed and well-conducted research.
The evolution of morality refers to the emergence of human moral behavior over the course of human evolution.
The fact–value distinction is the distinction between things that can be known to be true and things that are the personal preferences of individuals.
George Edward Moore (4 November 1873 – 24 October 1958), usually cited as G. E. Moore, was an English philosopher.
A gender role, also known as a sex role, is a social role encompassing a range of behaviors and attitudes that are generally considered acceptable, appropriate, or desirable for people based on their actual or perceived sex or sexuality.
Hedonism is a school of thought that argues that the pursuit of pleasure and intrinsic goods are the primary or most important goals of human life.
Homosexuality is romantic attraction, sexual attraction or sexual behavior between members of the same sex or gender.
The word "value" is both a verb and a noun, each with multiple meanings.
The is–ought problem, as articulated by Scottish philosopher and historian David Hume (1711–76), states that many writers make claims about what ought to be, based on statements about what is.
Medicine is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.
Meta-ethics is the branch of ethics that seeks to understand the nature of ethical properties, statements, attitudes, and judgments.
Moral realism (also ethical realism or moral Platonism) is the position that ethical sentences express propositions that refer to objective features of the world (that is, features independent of subjective opinion), some of which may be true to the extent that they report those features accurately.
The moralistic fallacy is the informal fallacy of assuming that an aspect of nature which has socially unpleasant consequences cannot exist.
Natural law (ius naturale, lex naturalis) is a philosophy asserting that certain rights are inherent by virtue of human nature, endowed by nature—traditionally by God or a transcendent source—and that these can be understood universally through human reason.
In philosophy, naturalism is the "idea or belief that only natural (as opposed to supernatural or spiritual) laws and forces operate in the world." Adherents of naturalism (i.e., naturalists) assert that natural laws are the rules that govern the structure and behavior of the natural universe, that the changing universe at every stage is a product of these laws.
Norms are concepts (sentences) of practical import, oriented to effecting an action, rather than conceptual abstractions that describe, explain, and express.
The open-question argument is a philosophical argument put forward by British philosopher G. E. Moore in of Principia Ethica (1903), to refute the equating of the property of goodness with some non-moral property, X, whether naturalistic (e.g. pleasure) or supernatural (e.g. God's command).
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Philosophical analysis (from Φιλοσοφική ανάλυση) is a general term for techniques typically used by philosophers in the analytic tradition that involve "breaking down" (i.e. analyzing) philosophical issues.
Positive laws (ius positum) are human-made laws that oblige or specify an action.
Principia Ethica is a 1903 book by the British philosopher G. E. Moore, in which Moore insists on the indefinability of "good" and provides an exposition of the naturalistic fallacy.
In philosophy and certain models of psychology, qualia (or; singular form: quale) are defined to be individual instances of subjective, conscious experience.
In biological taxonomy, race is an informal rank in the taxonomic hierarchy, below the level of subspecies.
Semantics (from σημαντικός sēmantikós, "significant") is the linguistic and philosophical study of meaning, in language, programming languages, formal logics, and semiotics.
The term Social Darwinism is used to refer to various ways of thinking and theories that emerged in the second half of the 19th century and tried to apply the evolutionary concept of natural selection to human society.
Steven Arthur Pinker (born September 18, 1954) is a Canadian-American cognitive psychologist, linguist, and popular science author.
United Press International (UPI) is an international news agency whose newswires, photo, news film, and audio services provided news material to thousands of newspapers, magazines, radio and television stations for most of the 20th century.
Value theory is a range of approaches to understanding how, why, and to what degree persons value things; whether the object or subject of valuing is a person, idea, object, or anything else.
Veganism is the practice of abstaining from the use of animal products, particularly in diet, and an associated philosophy that rejects the commodity status of animals.