339 relations: Abiogenesis, Abiotic component, Adaptation, Aesthetics, Airspace, Albedo, Algae, Animal, Ape, Aquatic ecosystem, Aquifer, Aral Sea, Arboretum, Archaea, Archean, Archipelago, Aristotle, Artificial life, Astronomy & Astrophysics, Atmosphere, Atmosphere of Earth, Atomic nucleus, Axial tilt, Bachalpsee, Balance of nature, Bank (geography), Batholith, Bay, Big Bang, Biodiversity, Biology, Biomass (ecology), Biosphere, Biotic component, Biotope, Bird, Body of water, Bone, Book of Job, Botany, Cambrian explosion, Carl Linnaeus, Cell growth, Cell wall, Central Intelligence Agency, Chaos theory, Chemical substance, Chinese painting, Circumstellar habitable zone, Civilization, ..., Climate change, Cold dark matter, Collagen, Comet, Consciousness, Continent, Convergent boundary, Cosmic microwave background, Cosmic ray, Country rock (geology), Crust (geology), Current (stream), Cyclone, Dark energy, Deforestation, Deformation (mechanics), Deposition (geology), Depression (geology), Dichotomy, Digestion, Dike (geology), Dinosaur, Discipline (academia), Divergent boundary, DNA, Drainage basin, Dust, E. O. Wilson, Early Earth, Earth, Earth analog, Earth materials, Ecoregion, Ecosystem, Endorheic basin, Environment (biophysical), Equator, Ethane, Eukaryote, Europa (moon), Evolution, Exoskeleton, Extensional tectonics, Extinction, Extinction event, Fault (geology), Fauna, Fish pond, Flora, Food chain, Force of nature, Formation and evolution of the Solar System, Fossil, Fresh water, Freshwater fish, Fungus, Gaia hypothesis, Galunggung, Gas, Genetics, Geomorphology, Geotechnical engineering, Glacier, Glycoprotein, Great Oxygenation Event, Great Salt Lake, Greenhouse gas, Groundwater, Groundwater recharge, Habitat, Habitat conservation, Habitat fragmentation, Hadean, Harvard University, Headlands and bays, Heliosphere, Heterotroph, History of Earth, Holocene extinction, Homer, Hopetoun Falls, Horizontal gene transfer, Human nature, Hydrogen, Hydrology, Hydrosphere, Ice, Ice age, Ice cap, Interstellar medium, Intrusive rock, Ion, J. M. W. Turner, John Constable, Jupiter, Kerala, Kingdom (biology), Kingdom of Great Britain, Laboratory, Laccolith, Landform, Landscape painting, Latin, Latitude, Lava, Lightning, Lithification, Lithosphere, Magnetic field, Mammal, Mantle (geology), Mars, Materialism, Matter, Mercury (planet), Metabolism, Metamorphism, Meteoroid, Meteorology, Methane, Methodology, Microecosystem, Microscopic scale, Mimesis, Mind, Mining, Molecule, Mother Nature, Multicellular organism, Muscle, Myxozoa, National park, National Wildlife, Natural environment, Natural hazard, Natural history, Natural History (Pliny), Natural landscape, Natural law, Natural philosophy, Natural resource, Natural science, Natural selection, Natural theology, Natural World (TV series), Naturalism, Naturalism (philosophy), Nature (essay), Nature (journal), Nature (philosophy), Nature (TV series), Nature Detectives, Nature reserve, Nature versus nurture, Nature worship, Naturism, Neoproterozoic, Nervous system, Nitrogen, Northern Hemisphere, Observable universe, Observation, Ocean current, Oceanography, Odyssey, Orbital plane (astronomy), Organic chemistry, Organism, Origin of water on Earth, Outer space, Oxygen, Ozone layer, Paleoclimatology, Pangaea, Pannotia, Park, Parts-per notation, Pathogen, Patterns in nature, Petroleum geology, Phenomenon, Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica, Photosynthesis, Phylum, Physical constant, Physical cosmology, Physical law, Physical property, Physics, Physis, Placozoa, Planet, Plant, Plasma (physics), Plate tectonics, Pliny the Elder, Polar climate, Polar regions of Earth, Pound (mass), Pragmatism, Pre-Socratic philosophy, Precipitation, Protist, Psalms, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Reproduction, Rift zone, Riparian zone, Rodinia, Romanticism, Rotation around a fixed axis, Rotational spectroscopy, Salinity, Salt lake, Science, Science Daily, Scientific method, Seawater, Sediment, Sedimentary rock, Short ton, Siderian, Sill (geology), Snowball Earth, Soil, Solar pond, Solar System, Southern Hemisphere, Southern Ocean, Space debris, Species, Sponge, Sponge spicule, Spring (hydrology), Star, State of matter, Steam, Stimulus (physiology), Stream, Stream bed, Stream pool, Structural geology, Subatomic particle, Substantial form, Subtropics, Summit, Sun, Supercontinent, Supernatural, Surface runoff, Swiss Alps, Symbiogenesis, Tang dynasty art, Temperate climate, Terrain, Terrestrial planet, The Nature Conservancy, The World Factbook, Thermohaline circulation, Tide pool, Tissue (biology), Titan (moon), Tornado, Transcendentalism, Transform fault, Tropical climate, Tropical cyclone, Troposphere, Ultraviolet, United Nations Environment Programme, Universe, Vapor, Venus, Volcanic ash, Volcanic rock, Volcano, Water cycle, Water garden, Water stagnation, Water vapor, Watercourse, West Java, Wilderness, Wildlife, Wildlife corridor, William Wordsworth, World Ocean, Zoo, 9th millennium BC. 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Abiogenesis, or informally the origin of life,Compare: Also occasionally called biopoiesis.
In biology and ecology, abiotic components or abiotic factors are non-living chemical and physical parts of the environment that affect living organisms and the functioning of ecosystems.
In biology, adaptation has three related meanings.
Aesthetics (also spelled esthetics) is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of art, beauty, and taste, with the creation and appreciation of beauty.
Airspace is the portion of the atmosphere controlled by a country above its territory, including its territorial waters or, more generally, any specific three-dimensional portion of the atmosphere.
Albedo (albedo, meaning "whiteness") is the measure of the diffuse reflection of solar radiation out of the total solar radiation received by an astronomical body (e.g. a planet like Earth).
Algae (singular alga) is an informal term for a large, diverse group of photosynthetic organisms that are not necessarily closely related, and is thus polyphyletic.
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia.
Apes (Hominoidea) are a branch of Old World tailless anthropoid primates native to Africa and Southeast Asia.
An aquatic ecosystem is an ecosystem in a body of water.
An aquifer is an underground layer of water-bearing permeable rock, rock fractures or unconsolidated materials (gravel, sand, or silt).
The Aral Sea was an endorheic lake (one with no outflow) lying between Kazakhstan (Aktobe and Kyzylorda Regions) in the north and Uzbekistan (Karakalpakstan autonomous region) in the south.
An arboretum (plural: arboreta) in a general sense is a botanical collection composed exclusively of trees.
Archaea (or or) constitute a domain of single-celled microorganisms.
The Archean Eon (also spelled Archaean or Archæan) is one of the four geologic eons of Earth history, occurring (4 to 2.5 billion years ago).
An archipelago, sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of islands, or sometimes a sea containing a small number of scattered islands.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
Artificial life (often abbreviated ALife or A-Life) is a field of study wherein researchers examine systems related to natural life, its processes, and its evolution, through the use of simulations with computer models, robotics, and biochemistry.
Astronomy & Astrophysics is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering theoretical, observational, and instrumental astronomy and astrophysics.
An atmosphere is a layer or a set of layers of gases surrounding a planet or other material body, that is held in place by the gravity of that body.
The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity.
The atomic nucleus is the small, dense region consisting of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom, discovered in 1911 by Ernest Rutherford based on the 1909 Geiger–Marsden gold foil experiment.
In astronomy, axial tilt, also known as obliquity, is the angle between an object's rotational axis and its orbital axis, or, equivalently, the angle between its equatorial plane and orbital plane.
Bachalpsee or Bachsee is a lake with an area of close to the First (which can be reached with a cable car) above Grindelwald in the Bernese Oberland, Switzerland.
The balance of nature is a theory that proposes that ecological systems are usually in a stable equilibrium or homeostasis, which is to say that a small change in some particular parameter (the size of a particular population, for example) will be corrected by some negative feedback that will bring the parameter back to its original "point of balance" with the rest of the system.
In geography, the word bank generally refers to the land alongside a body of water.
A batholith (from Greek bathos, depth + lithos, rock) is a large mass of intrusive igneous rock (also called plutonic rock), larger than in area, that forms from cooled magma deep in the Earth's crust.
A bay is a recessed, coastal body of water that directly connects to a larger main body of water, such as an ocean, a lake, or another bay.
The Big Bang theory is the prevailing cosmological model for the universe from the earliest known periods through its subsequent large-scale evolution.
Biodiversity, a portmanteau of biological (life) and diversity, generally refers to the variety and variability of life on Earth.
Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.
Biomass is the mass of living biological organisms in a given area or ecosystem at a given time.
The biosphere (from Greek βίος bíos "life" and σφαῖρα sphaira "sphere") also known as the ecosphere (from Greek οἶκος oîkos "environment" and σφαῖρα), is the worldwide sum of all ecosystems.
Biotic components or biotic factors, can be described as any living component that affects another organism, or shapes the ecosystem.
A biotope is an area of uniform environmental conditions providing a living place for a specific assemblage of plants and animals.
Birds, also known as Aves, are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a strong yet lightweight skeleton.
A body of water or waterbody (often spelled water body) is any significant accumulation of water, generally on a planet's surface.
A bone is a rigid organ that constitutes part of the vertebrate skeleton.
The Book of Job (Hebrew: אִיוֹב Iyov) is a book in the Ketuvim ("Writings") section of the Hebrew Bible (Tanakh), and the first poetic book in the Old Testament of the Christian Bible.
Botany, also called plant science(s), plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology.
The Cambrian explosion or Cambrian radiation was an event approximately in the Cambrian period when most major animal phyla appeared in the fossil record.
Carl Linnaeus (23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his ennoblement as Carl von LinnéBlunt (2004), p. 171.
The term cell growth is used in the contexts of biological cell development and cell division (reproduction).
A cell wall is a structural layer surrounding some types of cells, just outside the cell membrane.
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).
Chaos theory is a branch of mathematics focusing on the behavior of dynamical systems that are highly sensitive to initial conditions.
A chemical substance, also known as a pure substance, is a form of matter that consists of molecules of the same composition and structure.
Chinese painting is one of the oldest continuous artistic traditions in the world.
In astronomy and astrobiology, the circumstellar habitable zone (CHZ), or simply the habitable zone, is the range of orbits around a star within which a planetary surface can support liquid water given sufficient atmospheric pressure.
A civilization or civilisation (see English spelling differences) is any complex society characterized by urban development, social stratification imposed by a cultural elite, symbolic systems of communication (for example, writing systems), and a perceived separation from and domination over the natural environment.
Climate change is a change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns when that change lasts for an extended period of time (i.e., decades to millions of years).
In cosmology and physics, cold dark matter (CDM) is a hypothetical form of dark matter whose particles moved slowly compared to the speed of light (the cold in CDM) since the universe was approximately one year old (a time when the cosmic particle horizon contained the mass of one typical galaxy); and interact very weakly with ordinary matter and electromagnetic radiation (the dark in CDM).
Collagen is the main structural protein in the extracellular space in the various connective tissues in animal bodies.
A comet is an icy small Solar System body that, when passing close to the Sun, warms and begins to release gases, a process called outgassing.
Consciousness is the state or quality of awareness, or, of being aware of an external object or something within oneself.
A continent is one of several very large landmasses of the world.
In plate tectonics, a convergent boundary, also known as a destructive plate boundary, is a region of active deformation where two or more tectonic plates or fragments of the lithosphere are near the end of their life cycle.
The cosmic microwave background (CMB, CMBR) is electromagnetic radiation as a remnant from an early stage of the universe in Big Bang cosmology.
Cosmic rays are high-energy radiation, mainly originating outside the Solar System and even from distant galaxies.
Country rock is a geological term meaning the rock native to an area.
In geology, the crust is the outermost solid shell of a rocky planet, dwarf planet, or natural satellite.
A current, in a river or stream, is the flow of water influenced by gravity as the water moves downhill to reduce its potential energy.
In meteorology, a cyclone is a large scale air mass that rotates around a strong center of low atmospheric pressure.
In physical cosmology and astronomy, dark energy is an unknown form of energy which is hypothesized to permeate all of space, tending to accelerate the expansion of the universe.
Deforestation, clearance, or clearing is the removal of a forest or stand of trees where the land is thereafter converted to a non-forest use.
Deformation in continuum mechanics is the transformation of a body from a reference configuration to a current configuration.
Deposition is the geological process in which sediments, soil and rocks are added to a landform or land mass.
A depression in geology is a landform sunken or depressed below the surrounding area.
A dichotomy is a partition of a whole (or a set) into two parts (subsets).
Digestion is the breakdown of large insoluble food molecules into small water-soluble food molecules so that they can be absorbed into the watery blood plasma.
A dike or dyke, in geological usage, is a sheet of rock that is formed in a fracture in a pre-existing rock body.
Dinosaurs are a diverse group of reptiles of the clade Dinosauria.
An academic discipline or academic field is a branch of knowledge.
In plate tectonics, a divergent boundary or divergent plate boundary (also known as a constructive boundary or an extensional boundary) is a linear feature that exists between two tectonic plates that are moving away from each other.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
A drainage basin is any area of land where precipitation collects and drains off into a common outlet, such as into a river, bay, or other body of water.
Dust are fine particles of matter.
Edward Osborne Wilson (born June 10, 1929), usually cited as E. O. Wilson, is an American biologist, researcher, theorist, naturalist and author.
The early Earth (sometimes referred to as Gaia) is loosely defined as Earth in its first one billion years, or gigayear.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
An Earth analog (also referred to as an Earth twin or Earth-like planet, though this latter term may refer to any terrestrial planet) is a planet or moon with environmental conditions similar to those found on Earth.
Earth materials is a general term that includes minerals, rocks, soil and water.
An ecoregion (ecological region) is an ecologically and geographically defined area that is smaller than a bioregion, which in turn is smaller than an ecozone.
An ecosystem is a community made up of living organisms and nonliving components such as air, water, and mineral soil.
An endorheic basin (also endoreic basin or endorreic basin) (from the ἔνδον, éndon, "within" and ῥεῖν, rheîn, "to flow") is a limited drainage basin that normally retains water and allows no outflow to other external bodies of water, such as rivers or oceans, but converges instead into lakes or swamps, permanent or seasonal, that equilibrate through evaporation.
A biophysical environment is a biotic and abiotic surrounding of an organism or population, and consequently includes the factors that have an influence in their survival, development, and evolution.
An equator of a rotating spheroid (such as a planet) is its zeroth circle of latitude (parallel).
Ethane is an organic chemical compound with chemical formula.
Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes (Bacteria and other Archaea).
Europa or as Ευρώπη (Jupiter II) is the smallest of the four Galilean moons orbiting Jupiter, and the sixth-closest to the planet.
Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.
An exoskeleton (from Greek έξω, éxō "outer" and σκελετός, skeletós "skeleton") is the external skeleton that supports and protects an animal's body, in contrast to the internal skeleton (endoskeleton) of, for example, a human.
Extensional tectonics is concerned with the structures formed, and the tectonic processes associated with, the stretching of a planetary body's crust or lithosphere.
In biology, extinction is the termination of an organism or of a group of organisms (taxon), normally a species.
An extinction event (also known as a mass extinction or biotic crisis) is a widespread and rapid decrease in the biodiversity on Earth.
In geology, a fault is a planar fracture or discontinuity in a volume of rock, across which there has been significant displacement as a result of rock-mass movement.
Fauna is all of the animal life of any particular region or time.
A fish pond, or fishpond, is a controlled pond, artificial lake, or reservoir that is stocked with fish and is used in aquaculture for fish farming, or is used for recreational fishing or for ornamental purposes.
Flora is the plant life occurring in a particular region or time, generally the naturally occurring or indigenous—native plant life.
A food chain is a linear network of links in a food web starting from producer organisms (such as grass or trees which use radiation from the Sun to make their food) and ending at apex predator species (like grizzly bears or killer whales), detritivores (like earthworms or woodlice), or decomposer species (such as fungi or bacteria).
Forces of nature are natural phenomena.
The formation and evolution of the Solar System began 4.6 billion years ago with the gravitational collapse of a small part of a giant molecular cloud.
A fossil (from Classical Latin fossilis; literally, "obtained by digging") is any preserved remains, impression, or trace of any once-living thing from a past geological age.
Fresh water (or freshwater) is any naturally occurring water except seawater and brackish water.
Freshwater fish are those that spend some or all of their lives in fresh water, such as rivers and lakes, with a salinity of less than 0.05%.
A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.
The Gaia hypothesis, also known as the Gaia theory or the Gaia principle, proposes that living organisms interact with their inorganic surroundings on Earth to form a synergistic and self-regulating, complex system that helps to maintain and perpetuate the conditions for life on the planet.
Mount Galunggung (Indonesian: Gunung Galunggung, formerly spelled Galoen-gong) is an active stratovolcano in West Java, Indonesia, around southeast of the West Java provincial capital, Bandung (or around to the east of the West Java town of Garut).
Gas is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being solid, liquid, and plasma).
Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.
Geomorphology (from Ancient Greek: γῆ, gê, "earth"; μορφή, morphḗ, "form"; and λόγος, lógos, "study") is the scientific study of the origin and evolution of topographic and bathymetric features created by physical, chemical or biological processes operating at or near the Earth's surface.
Geotechnical engineering is the branch of civil engineering concerned with the engineering behavior of earth materials.
A glacier is a persistent body of dense ice that is constantly moving under its own weight; it forms where the accumulation of snow exceeds its ablation (melting and sublimation) over many years, often centuries.
Glycoproteins are proteins that contain oligosaccharide chains (glycans) covalently attached to amino acid side-chains.
The Great Oxygenation Event, the beginning of which is commonly known in scientific media as the Great Oxidation Event (GOE, also called the Oxygen Catastrophe, Oxygen Crisis, Oxygen Holocaust, Oxygen Revolution, or Great Oxidation) was the biologically induced appearance of dioxygen (O2) in Earth's atmosphere.
The Great Salt Lake, located in the northern part of the U.S. state of Utah, is the largest salt water lake in the Western Hemisphere, and the eighth-largest terminal lake in the world.
A greenhouse gas is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiant energy within the thermal infrared range.
Groundwater is the water present beneath Earth's surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of rock formations.
Groundwater recharge or deep drainage or deep percolation is a hydrologic process where water moves downward from surface water to groundwater.
In ecology, a habitat is the type of natural environment in which a particular species of organism lives.
Habitat conservation is a management practice that seeks to conserve, protect and restore habitat areas for wild plants and animals, especially conservation reliant species, and prevent their extinction, fragmentation or reduction in range.
Habitat fragmentation describes the emergence of discontinuities (fragmentation) in an organism's preferred environment (habitat), causing population fragmentation and ecosystem decay.
The Hadean is a geologic eon of the Earth predating the Archean.
Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Headlands and bays are two related coastal features.
The heliosphere is the bubble-like region of space dominated by the Sun, which extends far beyond the orbit of Pluto.
A heterotroph (Ancient Greek ἕτερος héteros.
The history of Earth concerns the development of planet Earth from its formation to the present day.
The Holocene extinction, otherwise referred to as the Sixth extinction or Anthropocene extinction, is the ongoing extinction event of species during the present Holocene epoch, mainly as a result of human activity.
Homer (Ὅμηρος, Hómēros) is the name ascribed by the ancient Greeks to the legendary author of the Iliad and the Odyssey, two epic poems that are the central works of ancient Greek literature.
The Hopetoun Falls is a waterfall across the Aire River that is located in The Otways region of Victoria, Australia.
Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) or lateral gene transfer (LGT) is the movement of genetic material between unicellular and/or multicellular organisms other than by the ("vertical") transmission of DNA from parent to offspring.
Human nature is a bundle of fundamental characteristics—including ways of thinking, feeling, and acting—which humans tend to have naturally.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
Hydrology is the scientific study of the movement, distribution, and quality of water on Earth and other planets, including the water cycle, water resources and environmental watershed sustainability.
The hydrosphere (from Greek ὕδωρ hydōr, "water" and σφαῖρα sphaira, "sphere") is the combined mass of water found on, under, and above the surface of a planet, minor planet or natural satellite.
Ice is water frozen into a solid state.
An ice age is a period of long-term reduction in the temperature of Earth's surface and atmosphere, resulting in the presence or expansion of continental and polar ice sheets and alpine glaciers.
An ice cap is a mass of ice that covers less than 50,000 km2 of land area (usually covering a highland area).
In astronomy, the interstellar medium (ISM) is the matter and radiation that exists in the space between the star systems in a galaxy.
Intrusive rock (also called plutonic rock) is formed when magma crystallizes and solidifies underground to form intrusions, for example plutons, batholiths, dikes, sills, laccoliths, and volcanic necks.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
Joseph Mallord William Turner (23 April 177519 December 1851), known as J. M. W. Turner and contemporarily as William Turner, was an English Romantic painter, printmaker and watercolourist, known for his expressive colourisation, imaginative landscapes and turbulent, often violent marine paintings.
John Constable, (11 June 1776 – 31 March 1837) was an English landscape painter in the naturalistic tradition.
Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest in the Solar System.
Kerala is a state in South India on the Malabar Coast.
In biology, kingdom (Latin: regnum, plural regna) is the second highest taxonomic rank, just below domain.
The Kingdom of Great Britain, officially called simply Great Britain,Parliament of the Kingdom of England.
A laboratory (informally, lab) is a facility that provides controlled conditions in which scientific or technological research, experiments, and measurement may be performed.
A laccolith is a sheet intrusion (or concordant pluton) that has been injected between two layers of sedimentary rock.
A landform is a natural feature of the solid surface of the Earth or other planetary body.
Landscape painting, also known as landscape art, is the depiction of landscapes in art – natural scenery such as mountains, valleys, trees, rivers, and forests, especially where the main subject is a wide view – with its elements arranged into a coherent composition.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
In geography, latitude is a geographic coordinate that specifies the north–south position of a point on the Earth's surface.
Lava is molten rock generated by geothermal energy and expelled through fractures in planetary crust or in an eruption, usually at temperatures from.
Lightning is a sudden electrostatic discharge that occurs typically during a thunderstorm.
Lithification (from the Ancient Greek word lithos meaning 'rock' and the Latin-derived suffix -ific) is the process in which sediments compact under pressure, expel connate fluids, and gradually become solid rock.
A lithosphere (λίθος for "rocky", and σφαίρα for "sphere") is the rigid, outermost shell of a terrestrial-type planet, or natural satellite, that is defined by its rigid mechanical properties.
A magnetic field is a vector field that describes the magnetic influence of electrical currents and magnetized materials.
Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.
The mantle is a layer inside a terrestrial planet and some other rocky planetary bodies.
Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System after Mercury.
Materialism is a form of philosophical monism which holds that matter is the fundamental substance in nature, and that all things, including mental aspects and consciousness, are results of material interactions.
In the classical physics observed in everyday life, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume.
Mercury is the smallest and innermost planet in the Solar System.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
Metamorphism is the change of minerals or geologic texture (distinct arrangement of minerals) in pre-existing rocks (protoliths), without the protolith melting into liquid magma (a solid-state change).
A meteoroid is a small rocky or metallic body in outer space.
Meteorology is a branch of the atmospheric sciences which includes atmospheric chemistry and atmospheric physics, with a major focus on weather forecasting.
Methane is a chemical compound with the chemical formula (one atom of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen).
Methodology is the systematic, theoretical analysis of the methods applied to a field of study.
Microecosystems can exist in locations which are precisely defined by critical environmental factors within small or tiny spaces.
The microscopic scale (from, mikrós, "small" and σκοπέω, skopéō "look") is the scale of objects and events smaller than those that can easily be seen by the naked eye, requiring a lens or microscope to see them clearly.
Mimesis (μίμησις (mīmēsis), from μιμεῖσθαι (mīmeisthai), "to imitate", from μῖμος (mimos), "imitator, actor") is a critical and philosophical term that carries a wide range of meanings, which include imitation, representation, mimicry, imitatio, receptivity, nonsensuous similarity, the act of resembling, the act of expression, and the presentation of the self.
The mind is a set of cognitive faculties including consciousness, perception, thinking, judgement, language and memory.
Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth, usually from an orebody, lode, vein, seam, reef or placer deposit.
A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.
Mother Nature (sometimes known as Mother Earth or the Earth-Mother) is a common personification of nature that focuses on the life-giving and nurturing aspects of nature by embodying it, in the form of the mother.
Multicellular organisms are organisms that consist of more than one cell, in contrast to unicellular organisms.
Muscle is a soft tissue found in most animals.
Myxozoa (etymology: Greek: μύξα myxa "slime" or "mucus" + thematic vowel o + ζῷον zoon "animals") is a class of aquatic, obligately parasitic cnidarian animals.
A national park is a park in use for conservation purposes.
National Wildlife is an American magazine published bi-monthly by the National Wildlife Federation (NWF), a nonprofit conservation group.
The natural environment encompasses all living and non-living things occurring naturally, meaning in this case not artificial.
A natural hazard is a natural phenomenon that might have a negative effect on humans or the environment.
Natural history is a domain of inquiry involving organisms including animals, fungi and plants in their environment; leaning more towards observational than experimental methods of study.
The Natural History (Naturalis Historia) is a book about the whole of the natural world in Latin by Pliny the Elder, a Roman author and naval commander who died in 79 AD.
A natural landscape is the original landscape that exists before it is acted upon by human culture.
Natural law (ius naturale, lex naturalis) is a philosophy asserting that certain rights are inherent by virtue of human nature, endowed by nature—traditionally by God or a transcendent source—and that these can be understood universally through human reason.
Natural philosophy or philosophy of nature (from Latin philosophia naturalis) was the philosophical study of nature and the physical universe that was dominant before the development of modern science.
Natural resources are resources that exist without actions of humankind.
Natural science is a branch of science concerned with the description, prediction, and understanding of natural phenomena, based on empirical evidence from observation and experimentation.
Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype.
Natural theology, once also termed physico-theology, is a type of theology that provides arguments for the existence of God based on reason and ordinary experience of nature.
Natural World is a strand of British wildlife documentary programmes broadcast on BBC Two and BBC Two HD and regarded by the BBC as its flagship natural history series.
Naturalism may refer to.
In philosophy, naturalism is the "idea or belief that only natural (as opposed to supernatural or spiritual) laws and forces operate in the world." Adherents of naturalism (i.e., naturalists) assert that natural laws are the rules that govern the structure and behavior of the natural universe, that the changing universe at every stage is a product of these laws.
"Nature" is an essay written by Ralph Waldo Emerson, and published by James Munroe and Company in 1836.
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
Nature has two inter-related meanings in philosophy.
Nature is a wildlife television program produced by Thirteen/WNET New York.
Nature Detectives is an online phenology research and education project for 4–18-year-olds in the UK.
A nature reserve (also called a natural reserve, bioreserve, (natural/nature) preserve, or (national/nature) conserve) is a protected area of importance for wildlife, flora, fauna or features of geological or other special interest, which is reserved and managed for conservation and to provide special opportunities for study or research.
The nature versus nurture debate involves whether human behaviour is determined by the environment, either prenatal or during a person's life, or by a person's genes.
Nature worship is any of a variety of religious, spiritual and devotional practices that focus on the worship of the nature spirits considered to be behind the natural phenomena visible throughout nature.
Naturism, or nudism, is a cultural and political movement practising, advocating, and defending personal and social nudity, most but not all of which takes place on private property.
The Neoproterozoic Era is the unit of geologic time from.
The nervous system is the part of an animal that coordinates its actions by transmitting signals to and from different parts of its body.
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
The Northern Hemisphere is the half of Earth that is north of the Equator.
The observable universe is a spherical region of the Universe comprising all matter that can be observed from Earth at the present time, because electromagnetic radiation from these objects has had time to reach Earth since the beginning of the cosmological expansion.
Observation is the active acquisition of information from a primary source.
An ocean current is a seasonal directed movement of sea water generated by forces acting upon this mean flow, such as wind, the Coriolis effect, breaking waves, cabbing, temperature and salinity differences, while tides are caused by the gravitational pull of the Sun and Moon.
Oceanography (compound of the Greek words ὠκεανός meaning "ocean" and γράφω meaning "write"), also known as oceanology, is the study of the physical and biological aspects of the ocean.
The Odyssey (Ὀδύσσεια Odýsseia, in Classical Attic) is one of two major ancient Greek epic poems attributed to Homer.
The orbital plane of a revolving body is the geometric plane on which its orbit lies.
Organic chemistry is a chemistry subdiscipline involving the scientific study of the structure, properties, and reactions of organic compounds and organic materials, i.e., matter in its various forms that contain carbon atoms.
In biology, an organism (from Greek: ὀργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life.
The origin of water on Earth, or the reason that there is clearly more liquid water on Earth than on the other rocky planets of the Solar System, is not completely understood.
Outer space, or just space, is the expanse that exists beyond the Earth and between celestial bodies.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
The ozone layer or ozone shield is a region of Earth's stratosphere that absorbs most of the Sun's ultraviolet radiation.
Paleoclimatology (in British spelling, palaeoclimatology) is the study of changes in climate taken on the scale of the entire history of Earth.
Pangaea or Pangea was a supercontinent that existed during the late Paleozoic and early Mesozoic eras.
Pannotia (from Greek: pan-, "all", -nótos, "south"; meaning "all southern land"), also known as Vendian supercontinent, Greater Gondwana, and the Pan-African supercontinent, was a relatively short-lived Neoproterozoic supercontinent that formed at the end of the Precambrian during the Pan-African orogeny (650–500 Ma) and broke apart 560 Ma with the opening of the Iapetus Ocean.
A park is an area of natural, semi-natural or planted space set aside for human enjoyment and recreation or for the protection of wildlife or natural habitats.
In science and engineering, the parts-per notation is a set of pseudo-units to describe small values of miscellaneous dimensionless quantities, e.g. mole fraction or mass fraction.
In biology, a pathogen (πάθος pathos "suffering, passion" and -γενής -genēs "producer of") or a '''germ''' in the oldest and broadest sense is anything that can produce disease; the term came into use in the 1880s.
Patterns in nature are visible regularities of form found in the natural world.
Petroleum geology is the study of origin, occurrence, movement, accumulation, and exploration of hydrocarbon fuels.
A phenomenon (Greek: φαινόμενον, phainómenon, from the verb phainein, to show, shine, appear, to be manifest or manifest itself, plural phenomena) is any thing which manifests itself.
Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica (Latin for Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy), often referred to as simply the Principia, is a work in three books by Isaac Newton, in Latin, first published 5 July 1687.
Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities (energy transformation).
In biology, a phylum (plural: phyla) is a level of classification or taxonomic rank below Kingdom and above Class.
A physical constant, sometimes fundamental physical constant or universal constant, is a physical quantity that is generally believed to be both universal in nature and have constant value in time.
Physical cosmology is the study of the largest-scale structures and dynamics of the Universe and is concerned with fundamental questions about its origin, structure, evolution, and ultimate fate.
A physical law or scientific law is a theoretical statement "inferred from particular facts, applicable to a defined group or class of phenomena, and expressible by the statement that a particular phenomenon always occurs if certain conditions be present." Physical laws are typically conclusions based on repeated scientific experiments and observations over many years and which have become accepted universally within the scientific community.
A physical property is any property that is measurable, whose value describes a state of a physical system.
Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.
Physis (Greek: italic phusis) is a Greek theological, philosophical, and scientific term usually translated into English as "nature".
The Placozoa are a basal form of free-living (non-parasitic) multicellular organism.
A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star or stellar remnant that is massive enough to be rounded by its own gravity, is not massive enough to cause thermonuclear fusion, and has cleared its neighbouring region of planetesimals.
Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.
Plasma (Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek English Lexicon, on Perseus) is one of the four fundamental states of matter, and was first described by chemist Irving Langmuir in the 1920s.
Plate tectonics (from the Late Latin tectonicus, from the τεκτονικός "pertaining to building") is a scientific theory describing the large-scale motion of seven large plates and the movements of a larger number of smaller plates of the Earth's lithosphere, since tectonic processes began on Earth between 3 and 3.5 billion years ago.
Pliny the Elder (born Gaius Plinius Secundus, AD 23–79) was a Roman author, naturalist and natural philosopher, a naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and friend of emperor Vespasian.
The polar climate regions are characterized by a lack of warm summers.
The polar regions, also called the frigid zones, of Earth are the regions of the planet that surround its geographical poles (the North and South Poles), lying within the polar circles.
The pound or pound-mass is a unit of mass used in the imperial, United States customary and other systems of measurement.
Pragmatism is a philosophical tradition that began in the United States around 1870.
A number of early Greek philosophers active before and during the time of Socrates are collectively known as the Pre-Socratics.
In meteorology, precipitation is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity.
A protist is any eukaryotic organism that has cells with nuclei and is not an animal, plant or fungus.
The Book of Psalms (תְּהִלִּים or, Tehillim, "praises"), commonly referred to simply as Psalms or "the Psalms", is the first book of the Ketuvim ("Writings"), the third section of the Hebrew Bible, and a book of the Christian Old Testament.
Ralph Waldo Emerson (May 25, 1803 – April 27, 1882) was an American essayist, lecturer, philosopher, and poet who led the transcendentalist movement of the mid-19th century.
Reproduction (or procreation or breeding) is the biological process by which new individual organisms – "offspring" – are produced from their "parents".
A rift zone is a feature of some volcanoes, especially shield volcanoes, in which a linear series of cracks (or rifts) develops in a volcanic edifice, typically forming into two or three well-defined regions along the flanks of the vent.
A riparian zone or riparian area is the interface between land and a river or stream.
Rodinia (from the Russian родить, rodít, meaning "to beget, to give birth", or родина, ródina, meaning "motherland, birthplace") is a Neoproterozoic supercontinent that was assembled 1.3–0.9 billion years ago and broke up 750–633 million years ago.
Romanticism (also known as the Romantic era) was an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century, and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850.
Rotation around a fixed axis or about a fixed axis of revolution or motion with respect to a fixed axis of rotation is a special case of rotational motion.
Rotational spectroscopy is concerned with the measurement of the energies of transitions between quantized rotational states of molecules in the gas phase.
Salinity is the saltiness or amount of salt dissolved in a body of water (see also soil salinity).
A salt lake or saline lake is a landlocked body of water that has a concentration of salts (typically sodium chloride) and other dissolved minerals significantly higher than most lakes (often defined as at least three grams of salt per litre).
R. P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol.1, Chaps.1,2,&3.
Science Daily is an American website that aggregates press releases and publishes lightly edited press releases (a practice called churnalism) about science, similar to Phys.org and EurekAlert!.
Scientific method is an empirical method of knowledge acquisition, which has characterized the development of natural science since at least the 17th century, involving careful observation, which includes rigorous skepticism about what one observes, given that cognitive assumptions about how the world works influence how one interprets a percept; formulating hypotheses, via induction, based on such observations; experimental testing and measurement of deductions drawn from the hypotheses; and refinement (or elimination) of the hypotheses based on the experimental findings.
Seawater, or salt water, is water from a sea or ocean.
Sediment is a naturally occurring material that is broken down by processes of weathering and erosion, and is subsequently transported by the action of wind, water, or ice, and/or by the force of gravity acting on the particles.
Sedimentary rocks are types of rock that are formed by the deposition and subsequent cementation of that material at the Earth's surface and within bodies of water.
The short ton is a unit of weight equal to.
The Siderian Period (translit, meaning "iron") is the first geologic period in the Paleoproterozoic Era and lasted from Ma to Ma (million years ago).
In geology, a sill is a tabular sheet intrusion that has intruded between older layers of sedimentary rock, beds of volcanic lava or tuff, or along the direction of foliation in metamorphic rock.
The Snowball Earth hypothesis proposes that Earth surface's became entirely or nearly entirely frozen at least once, sometime earlier than 650 Mya (million years ago).
Soil is a mixture of organic matter, minerals, gases, liquids, and organisms that together support life.
A solar pond is a large scale solar thermal collector with an integrated arrangement for storage of heated water.
The Solar SystemCapitalization of the name varies.
The Southern Hemisphere is the half of Earth that is south of the Equator.
The Southern Ocean, also known as the Antarctic Ocean or the Austral Ocean, comprises the southernmost waters of the World Ocean, generally taken to be south of 60° S latitude and encircling Antarctica.
Space debris (also known as space junk, space waste, space trash, space litter or space garbage) is a term for the mass of defunct, artificially created objects in space, most notably in Earth orbit, such as old satellites and spent rocket stages.
In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.
Sponges, the members of the phylum Porifera (meaning "pore bearer"), are a basal Metazoa clade as sister of the Diploblasts.
Spicules are structural elements found in most sponges.
A spring is any natural situation where water flows from an aquifer to the Earth's surface.
A star is type of astronomical object consisting of a luminous spheroid of plasma held together by its own gravity.
In physics, a state of matter is one of the distinct forms in which matter can exist.
Steam is water in the gas phase, which is formed when water boils.
In physiology, a stimulus (plural stimuli) is a detectable change in the internal or external environment.
A stream is a body of water with surface water flowing within the bed and banks of a channel.
A stream bed is the channel bottom of a stream or river, the physical confine of the normal water flow.
A stream pool, in hydrology, is a stretch of a river or stream in which the water depth is above average and the water velocity is below average.
Structural geology is the study of the three-dimensional distribution of rock units with respect to their deformational histories.
In the physical sciences, subatomic particles are particles much smaller than atoms.
A theory of substantial forms asserts that forms (or ideas) organize matter and make it intelligible.
The subtropics are geographic and climate zones located roughly between the tropics at latitude 23.5° (the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn) and temperate zones (normally referring to latitudes 35–66.5°) north and south of the Equator.
A summit is a point on a surface that is higher in elevation than all points immediately adjacent to it.
The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System.
In geology, a supercontinent is the assembly of most or all of Earth's continental blocks or cratons to form a single large landmass.
The supernatural (Medieval Latin: supernātūrālis: supra "above" + naturalis "natural", first used: 1520–1530 AD) is that which exists (or is claimed to exist), yet cannot be explained by laws of nature.
Surface runoff (also known as overland flow) is the flow of water that occurs when excess stormwater, meltwater, or other sources flows over the Earth's surface.
The Alpine region of Switzerland, conventionally referred to as the Swiss Alps (Schweizer Alpen, Alpes suisses, Alpi svizzere, Alps svizras), represents a major natural feature of the country and is, along with the Swiss Plateau and the Swiss portion of the Jura Mountains, one of its three main physiographic regions.
Symbiogenesis, or endosymbiotic theory, is an evolutionary theory of the origin of eukaryotic cells from prokaryotic organisms, first articulated in 1905 and 1910 by the Russian botanist Konstantin Mereschkowski, and advanced and substantiated with microbiological evidence by Lynn Margulis in 1967.
Tang dynasty art is Chinese art made during the Tang dynasty (618–907).
In geography, the temperate or tepid climates of Earth occur in the middle latitudes, which span between the tropics and the polar regions of Earth.
Terrain or relief (also topographical relief) involves the vertical and horizontal dimensions of land surface.
A terrestrial planet, telluric planet, or rocky planet is a planet that is composed primarily of silicate rocks or metals.
The Nature Conservancy is a charitable environmental organization, headquartered in Arlington, Virginia, United States.
The World Factbook, also known as the CIA World Factbook, is a reference resource produced by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) with almanac-style information about the countries of the world.
Thermohaline circulation (THC) is a part of the large-scale ocean circulation that is driven by global density gradients created by surface heat and freshwater fluxes.
Tide pools or rock pools are shallow pools of seawater that form on the rocky intertidal shore.
In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level between cells and a complete organ.
Titan is the largest moon of Saturn.
A tornado is a rapidly rotating column of air that is in contact with both the surface of the Earth and a cumulonimbus cloud or, in rare cases, the base of a cumulus cloud.
Transcendentalism is a philosophical movement that developed in the late 1820s and 1830s in the eastern United States.
A transform fault or transform boundary is a plate boundary where the motion is predominantly horizontal.
A tropical climate in the Köppen climate classification is a non-arid climate in which all twelve months have mean temperatures of at least.
A tropical cyclone is a rapidly rotating storm system characterized by a low-pressure center, a closed low-level atmospheric circulation, strong winds, and a spiral arrangement of thunderstorms that produce heavy rain.
The troposphere is the lowest layer of Earth's atmosphere, and is also where nearly all weather conditions take place.
Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) is an agency of United Nations and coordinates its environmental activities, assisting developing countries in implementing environmentally sound policies and practices.
The Universe is all of space and time and their contents, including planets, stars, galaxies, and all other forms of matter and energy.
In physics a vapor (American) or vapour (British and Canadian) is a substance in the gas phase at a temperature lower than its critical temperature,R.
Venus is the second planet from the Sun, orbiting it every 224.7 Earth days.
Volcanic ash consists of fragments of pulverized rock, minerals and volcanic glass, created during volcanic eruptions and measuring less than 2 mm (0.079 inches) in diameter.
Volcanic rock (often shortened to volcanics in scientific contexts) is a rock formed from magma erupted from a volcano.
A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface.
The water cycle, also known as the hydrological cycle or the hydrologic cycle, describes the continuous movement of water on, above and below the surface of the Earth.
Water gardens, also known as aquatic gardens, are a type of water feature.
Water stagnation occurs when water stops flowing.
A watercourse is the channel that a flowing body of water follows.
West Java (Jawa Barat, abbreviated as Jabar; Sundanese: Jawa Kulon) is a province of Indonesia.
Wilderness or wildland is a natural environment on Earth that has not been significantly modified by human activity.
Wildlife traditionally refers to undomesticated animal species, but has come to include all plants, fungi, and other organisms that grow or live wild in an area without being introduced by humans.
A wildlife corridor, habitat corridor, or green corridor is an area of habitat connecting wildlife populations separated by human activities or structures (such as roads, development, or logging).
William Wordsworth (7 April 1770 – 23 April 1850) was a major English Romantic poet who, with Samuel Taylor Coleridge, helped to launch the Romantic Age in English literature with their joint publication Lyrical Ballads (1798).
The World Ocean or Global Ocean (colloquially the sea or the ocean) is the interconnected system of Earth's oceanic waters, and comprises the bulk of the hydrosphere, covering (70.8%) of Earth's surface, with a total volume of.
A zoo (short for zoological garden or zoological park and also called an animal park or menagerie) is a facility in which all animals are housed within enclosures, displayed to the public, and in which they may also breed.
The 9th millennium BC spanned the years 9000 through 8001 BC.