124 relations: Abscess, Acetylcholine, Acupuncture, Adrenal crisis, Adrenal insufficiency, Alcohol abuse, American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine, Anorexia nervosa, Anti-diabetic medication, Antiarrhythmic agent, Antibiotic, Antiemetic, Anxiety, Anxiety disorder, Appendicitis, Area postrema, Bacteria, Biliary colic, Bleeding, Bowel obstruction, Brain tumor, Bulimia nervosa, Cancer and nausea, Cannabinoid, Carbon monoxide poisoning, Cardiomyopathy, Central nervous system, Central pattern generator, Chemoreceptor trigger zone, Chemotherapy, Chlorpromazine, Cholecystitis, Choosing Wisely, Coeliac disease, Crohn's disease, Cyclic vomiting syndrome, Dehydration, Depression (mood), Diabetic ketoacidosis, Digoxin, Dimenhydrinate, Diphenhydramine, Disgust, Dizziness, Dopamine, Dorsal nucleus of vagus nerve, Doxylamine, Eating disorder, Electrolyte, Encephalitis, ..., Ergotamine, Esophageal achalasia, Foodborne illness, Gastric acid, Gastroenteritis, Gastroenterology, Gastroesophageal reflux disease, Gastroparesis, General anaesthesia, Ginger, Glossopharyngeal nerve, Greek language, Haloperidol, Helicobacter pylori, Hepatitis, Histamine, Hydrocephalus, Hyoscine, Hyperemesis gravidarum, Hypoglycemia, Ileus, Indigestion, Intestinal pseudo-obstruction, Intracranial pressure, Irritable bowel syndrome, Ketoacidosis, Labyrinthitis, Latin, Liver failure, Lorazepam, Major depressive disorder, Malignancy, Management of dehydration, Meclizine, Meningitis, Metoclopramide, Migraine, Morning sickness, Motion sickness, Myocardial infarction, Non-celiac gluten sensitivity, Ondansetron, Oral contraceptive pill, Orthostatic hypotension, Pain, Pancreatic cancer, Pancreatitis, Parathyroid disease, Peptic ulcer disease, Pregnancy, Prochlorperazine, Promethazine, Pyloric stenosis, Pyridoxine, Serotonin, Solitary nucleus, Splanchnic, Stomach, Succussion splash, Superior mesenteric artery syndrome, Sympathetic nervous system, Symptom, Syncope (medicine), Tachykinin peptides, Thirst, Thyroid disease, Tooth enamel, Turgor pressure, Uremia, Vagus nerve, Vertigo, Vestibular system, Vomiting, Zenker's diverticulum. Expand index (74 more) » « Shrink index
An abscess is a collection of pus that has built up within the tissue of the body.
Acetylcholine (ACh) is an organic chemical that functions in the brain and body of many types of animals, including humans, as a neurotransmitter—a chemical message released by nerve cells to send signals to other cells.
Acupuncture is a form of alternative medicine in which thin needles are inserted into the body.
Adrenal crisis (also known as Addisonian crisis and acute adrenal insufficiency) is a medical emergency and potentially life-threatening situation requiring immediate emergency treatment.
Adrenal insufficiency is a condition in which the adrenal glands do not produce adequate amounts of steroid hormones, primarily cortisol; but may also include impaired production of aldosterone (a mineralocorticoid), which regulates sodium conservation, potassium secretion, and water retention.
Alcohol abuse is a previous psychiatric diagnosis in which there is recurring harmful use of alcohol despite its negative consequences.
The American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine (AAHPM) is a professional organization for physicians specializing in Hospice and Palliative Medicine, headquartered in Chicago, Illinois.
Anorexia nervosa, often referred to simply as anorexia, is an eating disorder characterized by low weight, fear of gaining weight, and a strong desire to be thin, resulting in food restriction.
Drugs used in diabetes treat diabetes mellitus by lowering glucose levels in the blood.
Antiarrhythmic agents, also known as cardiac dysrhythmia medications, are a group of pharmaceuticals that are used to suppress abnormal rhythms of the heart (cardiac arrhythmias), such as atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, ventricular tachycardia, and ventricular fibrillation.
An antibiotic (from ancient Greek αντιβιοτικά, antibiotiká), also called an antibacterial, is a type of antimicrobial drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections.
An antiemetic is a drug that is effective against vomiting and nausea.
Anxiety is an emotion characterized by an unpleasant state of inner turmoil, often accompanied by nervous behaviour such as pacing back and forth, somatic complaints, and rumination.
Anxiety disorders are a group of mental disorders characterized by significant feelings of anxiety and fear.
Appendicitis is inflammation of the appendix.
The area postrema is a medullary structure in the brain that controls vomiting.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
Biliary colic, also known as a gallbladder attack or gallstone attack, is when pain occurs due to a gallstone temporarily blocking the bile duct.
Bleeding, also known as hemorrhaging or haemorrhaging, is blood escaping from the circulatory system.
Bowel obstruction, also known as intestinal obstruction, is a mechanical or functional obstruction of the intestines which prevents the normal movement of the products of digestion.
A brain tumor occurs when abnormal cells form within the brain.
Bulimia nervosa, also known as simply bulimia, is an eating disorder characterized by binge eating followed by purging.
Cancer and nausea are associated in about fifty percent of people affected by cancer.
A cannabinoid is one of a class of diverse chemical compounds that acts on cannabinoid receptors in cells that alter neurotransmitter release in the brain.
Carbon monoxide poisoning typically occurs from breathing in too much carbon monoxide (CO).
Cardiomyopathy is a group of diseases that affect the heart muscle.
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
Central pattern generators (CPGs) are biological neural circuits that produce rhythmic outputs in the absence of rhythmic input.
The chemoreceptor trigger zone (CTZ) is an area of the medulla oblongata that receives inputs from blood-borne drugs or hormones, and communicates with other structures in the vomiting center to initiate vomiting.
Chemotherapy (often abbreviated to chemo and sometimes CTX or CTx) is a type of cancer treatment that uses one or more anti-cancer drugs (chemotherapeutic agents) as part of a standardized chemotherapy regimen.
Chlorpromazine (CPZ), marketed under the trade names Thorazine and Largactil among others, is an antipsychotic medication.
Cholecystitis is inflammation of the gallbladder.
Choosing Wisely is a United States-based health educational campaign, led by the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM).
Coeliac disease, also spelled celiac disease, is a long-term autoimmune disorder that primarily affects the small intestine.
Crohn's disease is a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that may affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract from mouth to anus.
Cyclic vomiting syndrome (US English) or cyclical vomiting syndrome (UK English) (CVS) is a chronic functional condition of unknown cause characterised by recurring attacks of intense nausea, vomiting, and sometimes abdominal pain, headaches, or migraines.
In physiology, dehydration is a deficit of total body water, with an accompanying disruption of metabolic processes.
Depression is a state of low mood and aversion to activity that can affect a person's thoughts, behavior, tendencies, feelings, and sense of well-being.
Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a potentially life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus.
Digoxin, sold under the brand name Lanoxin among others, is a medication used to treat various heart conditions.
Dimenhydrinate, marketed as Dramamine and Gravol among others, is an over-the-counter medication used to treat motion sickness and nausea.
Diphenhydramine is an antihistamine mainly used to treat allergies.
Disgust is an emotional response of revulsion to something considered offensive, distasteful, or unpleasant.
Dizziness is an impairment in spatial perception and stability.
Dopamine (DA, a contraction of 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays several important roles in the brain and body.
The dorsal nucleus of the vagus nerve (or posterior motor nucleus of vagus) is a cranial nerve nucleus for the vagus nerve in the medulla that lies ventral to the floor of the fourth ventricle.
Doxylamine is a first-generation antihistamine.
An eating disorder is a mental disorder defined by abnormal eating habits that negatively affect a person's physical or mental health.
An electrolyte is a substance that produces an electrically conducting solution when dissolved in a polar solvent, such as water.
Encephalitis is inflammation of the brain.
Ergotamine is an ergopeptine and part of the ergot family of alkaloids; it is structurally and biochemically closely related to ergoline.
Esophageal achalasia, often called simple achalasia, is a failure of smooth muscle fibers to relax, which can cause the lower esophageal sphincter to remain closed.
Foodborne illness (also foodborne disease and colloquially referred to as food poisoning) is any illness resulting from the food spoilage of contaminated food, pathogenic bacteria, viruses, or parasites that contaminate food, as well as toxins such as poisonous mushrooms and various species of beans that have not been boiled for at least 10 minutes.
Gastric acid, gastric juice or stomach acid, is a digestive fluid formed in the stomach and is composed of hydrochloric acid (HCl), potassium chloride (KCl) and sodium chloride (NaCl).
Gastroenteritis, also known as infectious diarrhea, is inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract -- the stomach and small intestine.
Gastroenterology (MeSH heading) is the branch of medicine focused on the digestive system and its disorders.
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), also known as acid reflux, is a long-term condition where stomach contents come back up into the esophagus resulting in either symptoms or complications.
Gastroparesis (GP also called delayed gastric emptying) is a medical condition consisting of a paresis (partial paralysis) of the stomach, resulting in food remaining in the stomach for an abnormally long time.
General anaesthesia or general anesthesia (see spelling differences) is a medically induced coma with loss of protective reflexes, resulting from the administration of one or more general anaesthetic agents.
Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is a flowering plant whose rhizome, ginger root or simply ginger, is widely used as a spice or a folk medicine.
The glossopharyngeal nerve, known as the ninth cranial nerve (CN IX), is a mixed nerve that carries afferent sensory and efferent motor information.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Haloperidol, marketed under the trade name Haldol among others, is a typical antipsychotic medication.
Helicobacter pylori, previously known as Campylobacter pylori, is a gram-negative, microaerophilic bacterium usually found in the stomach.
Hepatitis is inflammation of the liver tissue.
Histamine is an organic nitrogenous compound involved in local immune responses, as well as regulating physiological function in the gut and acting as a neurotransmitter for the brain, spinal cord, and uterus.
Hydrocephalus is a condition in which there is an accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) within the brain.
Hyoscine, also known as scopolamine, is a medication used to treat motion sickness and postoperative nausea and vomiting.
Hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) is a pregnancy complication that is characterized by severe nausea, vomiting, weight loss, and possibly dehydration.
Hypoglycemia, also known as low blood sugar, is when blood sugar decreases to below normal levels.
Ileus is a disruption of the normal propulsive ability of the gastrointestinal tract.
Indigestion, also known as dyspepsia, is a condition of impaired digestion.
Intestinal pseudo-obstruction is a clinical syndrome caused by severe impairment in the ability of the intestines to push food through.
Intracranial pressure (ICP) is the pressure inside the skull and thus in the brain tissue and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a group of symptoms—including abdominal pain and changes in the pattern of bowel movements without any evidence of underlying damage.
Ketoacidosis is a metabolic state associated with high concentrations of ketone bodies, formed by the breakdown of fatty acids and the deamination of amino acids.
Labyrinthitis, also known as vestibular neuritis, is the inflammation of inner ear.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Liver failure or hepatic insufficiency is the inability of the liver to perform its normal synthetic and metabolic function as part of normal physiology.
Lorazepam, sold under the brand name Ativan among others, is a benzodiazepine medication.
Major depressive disorder (MDD), also known simply as depression, is a mental disorder characterized by at least two weeks of low mood that is present across most situations.
Malignancy is the tendency of a medical condition to become progressively worse.
The management of dehydration typically involves the use of oral rehydration solution (ORS).
Meclizine (INN, or meclozine) is an antihistamine of the diphenylmethylpiperazine group considered to be an antiemetic.
Meningitis is an acute inflammation of the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord, known collectively as the meninges.
Metoclopramide is a medication used mostly for stomach and esophageal problems.
A migraine is a primary headache disorder characterized by recurrent headaches that are moderate to severe.
Morning sickness, also called nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP), is a symptom of pregnancy that involves nausea or vomiting.
Motion sickness is a condition in which a disagreement exists between visually perceived movement and the vestibular system's sense of movement.
Myocardial infarction (MI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow decreases or stops to a part of the heart, causing damage to the heart muscle.
Non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) or gluten sensitivity is defined as "a clinical entity induced by the ingestion of gluten leading to intestinal and/or extraintestinal symptoms that improve once the gluten-containing foodstuff is removed from the diet, and celiac disease and wheat allergy have been excluded".
Ondansetron, marketed under the brand name Zofran, is a medication used to prevent nausea and vomiting caused by cancer chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or surgery.
Oral contraceptives, abbreviated OCPs, also known as birth control pills, are medications taken by mouth for the purpose of birth control.
Orthostatic hypotension, also known as postural hypotension, occurs when a person's blood pressure falls when suddenly standing up from a lying or sitting position.
Pain is a distressing feeling often caused by intense or damaging stimuli.
Pancreatic cancer arises when cells in the pancreas, a glandular organ behind the stomach, begin to multiply out of control and form a mass.
Pancreatitis is inflammation of the pancreas.
Many conditions are associated with disorders of the function of the parathyroid gland.
Peptic ulcer disease (PUD) is a break in the lining of the stomach, first part of the small intestine or occasionally the lower esophagus.
Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman.
Prochlorperazine is a dopamine (D2) receptor antagonist that belongs to the phenothiazine class of antipsychotic agents that are used for the antiemetic treatment of nausea and vertigo.
Promethazine is a neuroleptic medication and first-generation antihistamine of the phenothiazine family.
Pyloric stenosis is a narrowing of the opening from the stomach to the first part of the small intestine (the pylorus).
Pyridoxine, also known as vitamin B6, is a form of vitamin B6 found commonly in food and used as dietary supplement.
Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter.
In the human brainstem, the solitary nucleus (SN) (nucleus of the solitary tract, nucleus solitarius, nucleus tractus solitarii) is a series of purely sensory nuclei (clusters of nerve cell bodies) forming a vertical column of grey matter embedded in the medulla oblongata.
Splanchnic (σπλαγχνικός splanchnikos; from σπλάγχνον splanchnon, mostly found in its pl. form σπλάγχνα splanchna, "inward parts, organs") is usually used to describe organs in the abdominal cavity (visceral organs).
The stomach (from ancient Greek στόμαχος, stomachos, stoma means mouth) is a muscular, hollow organ in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and many other animals, including several invertebrates.
Succussion splash is a sloshing sound heard through the stethoscope during sudden movement of the patient on abdominal auscultation.
Superior mesenteric artery (SMA) syndrome is a gastro-vascular disorder in which the third and final portion of the duodenum is compressed between the abdominal aorta (AA) and the overlying superior mesenteric artery.
The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is one of the two main divisions of the autonomic nervous system, the other being the parasympathetic nervous system.
A symptom (from Greek σύμπτωμα, "accident, misfortune, that which befalls", from συμπίπτω, "I befall", from συν- "together, with" and πίπτω, "I fall") is a departure from normal function or feeling which is noticed by a patient, reflecting the presence of an unusual state, or of a disease.
Syncope, also known as fainting, is a loss of consciousness and muscle strength characterized by a fast onset, short duration, and spontaneous recovery.
Tachykinin peptides are one of the largest families of neuropeptides, found from amphibians to mammals.
Thirst is the craving for fluids, resulting in the basic instinct of animals to drink.
Thyroid disease is a medical condition that affects the function of the thyroid gland (the endocrine organ found at the front of the neck that produces thyroid hormones).
Tooth enamel is one of the four major tissues that make up the tooth in humans and many other animals, including some species of fish.
Turgor pressure is the force within the cell that pushes the plasma membrane against the cell wall.
Uremia is the condition of having "urea in the blood".
The vagus nerve, historically cited as the pneumogastric nerve, is the tenth cranial nerve or CN X, and interfaces with parasympathetic control of the heart, lungs, and digestive tract.
Vertigo is a symptom where a person feels as if they or the objects around them are moving when they are not.
The vestibular system, in most mammals, is the sensory system that provides the leading contribution to the sense of balance and spatial orientation for the purpose of coordinating movement with balance. Together with the cochlea, a part of the auditory system, it constitutes the labyrinth of the inner ear in most mammals.
Vomiting, also known as emesis, puking, barfing, throwing up, among other terms, is the involuntary, forceful expulsion of the contents of one's stomach through the mouth and sometimes the nose.
A Zenker's diverticulum, also pharyngoesophageal diverticulum, also pharyngeal pouch, also hypopharyngeal diverticulum, is a diverticulum of the mucosa of the esophagus, just above the cricopharyngeal muscle (i.e. above the upper sphincter of the esophagus).