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Navajo language

Index Navajo language

Navajo or Navaho (Navajo: Diné bizaad or Naabeehó bizaad) is a Southern Athabaskan language of the Na-Dené family, by which it is related to languages spoken across the western areas of North America. [1]

188 relations: Acculturation, Adjective, Adverb, Affix, Affricate consonant, Agglutinative language, Alveolar consonant, American Community Survey, Android (operating system), Apache, Approximant consonant, Arabic alphabet, Arizona, Arizona State University, Aspirated consonant, Associate degree, Athabaskan languages, Ádahooníłígíí, Back vowel, Berard Haile, Bilabial consonant, Bilingual Education Act, Brigham Young University, Bureau of Indian Affairs, Calque, Carlsbad Current-Argus, Cedilla, Chindi, Chipewyan language, Clitic, Close vowel, Code talker, Colorado, Community college, Conditional mood, Conjunction (grammar), Continuant, Decimal, Deixis, Dené–Yeniseian languages, Digital Public Library of America, Diné College, Edward Sapir, Ejective consonant, Ellavina Perkins, Eloise Jelinek, English alphabet, Ethnologue, European colonization of the Americas, Evidentiality, ..., Exonym and endonym, Fort Defiance, Arizona, Fortis and lenis, Fricative consonant, Front vowel, Fusional language, Future tense, Gary Witherspoon, Genus, German language, Gladys Reichard, Glottal consonant, Glottal stop, Glottalic consonant, Glottalization, Grammatical aspect, Grammatical case, Grammatical gender, Grammatical mood, Grammatical number, Grammatical tense, Harry Hoijer, Head Start (program), Hogan, Hopi language, Houston Chronicle, Indigenous languages of the Americas, Interjection, IOS, Japanese language, JSTOR, Kayenta, Arizona, Kenneth L. Hale, KNDN (AM), KTNN, Labialization, Lateral consonant, Latin alphabet, Latin script, Linguistic purism, List of English words from indigenous languages of the Americas, Lithuanian language, Luci Tapahonso, Lyndon B. Johnson, Medium wave, Mescalero-Chiricahua language, Mexican Americans, Mexican–American War, Mexico, Mexico–United States border, Mirative, Morphological typology, Morphology (linguistics), Mutual intelligibility, Na-Dene languages, Nasal consonant, Nasal vowel, National Football League, Navajo, Navajo Braille, Navajo language, Navajo Nation, Navajo Nation Council, Navajo Times, New Mexico, Non-configurational language, North America, Noto fonts, NPR, Oakland Raiders, Object (grammar), Obstruent, Ogg, Ogonek, Open vowel, Open-mid vowel, Palatal consonant, Palato-alveolar consonant, Past tense, Paul Platero, Peter Ladefoged, Phonology, Pitch-accent language, Polish orthography, Polysynthetic language, Present tense, President of the Navajo Nation, Puebloans, Relative pronoun, Robert W. Young, Root (linguistics), Salina Bookshelf, Side-blotched lizard, Sonorant, Southern Athabaskan languages, Southwestern United States, Spain, Spanish language, Speech tempo, Springer Science+Business Media, Standardized test, Star Wars (film), Stop consonant, Subject (grammar), Subject–object–verb, Super Bowl, Super Bowl XXX, Tank, Taxonomy (biology), Tenuis consonant, Tewa language, The New York Times, The Post and Courier, Theodore B. Fernald, Tone (linguistics), Typewriter, United States, University of Arizona, University of California, University of California Press, University of Cambridge, University of Michigan Press, University of Nebraska–Lincoln, University of New Mexico, University of Oklahoma, University of Oxford, Utah, Velar consonant, Virtual keyboard, Voiced velar fricative, Voiceless dental and alveolar lateral fricatives, Voiceless glottal fricative, Vowel length, Western Apache language, Window Rock Unified School District, Word order, Word stem, World War II. Expand index (138 more) »

Acculturation

Acculturation is the process of social, psychological, and cultural change that stems from blending between cultures.

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Adjective

In linguistics, an adjective (abbreviated) is a describing word, the main syntactic role of which is to qualify a noun or noun phrase, giving more information about the object signified.

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Adverb

An adverb is a word that modifies a verb, adjective, another adverb, determiner, noun phrase, clause, or sentence.

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Affix

In linguistics, an affix is a morpheme that is attached to a word stem to form a new word or word form.

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Affricate consonant

An affricate is a consonant that begins as a stop and releases as a fricative, generally with the same place of articulation (most often coronal).

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Agglutinative language

An agglutinative language is a type of synthetic language with morphology that primarily uses agglutination.

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Alveolar consonant

Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth.

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American Community Survey

The American Community Survey (ACS) is an ongoing survey by the U.S. Census Bureau.

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Android (operating system)

Android is a mobile operating system developed by Google, based on a modified version of the Linux kernel and other open source software and designed primarily for touchscreen mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets.

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Apache

The Apache are a group of culturally related Native American tribes in the Southwestern United States, which include the Chiricahua, Jicarilla, Lipan, Mescalero, Salinero, Plains and Western Apache.

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Approximant consonant

Approximants are speech sounds that involve the articulators approaching each other but not narrowly enough nor with enough articulatory precision to create turbulent airflow.

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Arabic alphabet

The Arabic alphabet (الأَبْجَدِيَّة العَرَبِيَّة, or الحُرُوف العَرَبِيَّة) or Arabic abjad is the Arabic script as it is codified for writing Arabic.

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Arizona

Arizona (Hoozdo Hahoodzo; Alĭ ṣonak) is a U.S. state in the southwestern region of the United States.

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Arizona State University

Arizona State University (commonly referred to as ASU or Arizona State) is a public metropolitan research university on five campuses across the Phoenix metropolitan area, and four regional learning centers throughout Arizona.

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Aspirated consonant

In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of breath that accompanies either the release or, in the case of preaspiration, the closure of some obstruents.

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Associate degree

An associate degree (or associate's degree) is an undergraduate academic degree awarded by colleges and universities upon completion of a course of study intended to usually last two years or more.

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Athabaskan languages

Athabaskan or Athabascan (also Dene, Athapascan, Athapaskan) is a large family of indigenous languages of North America, located in western North America in three groups of contiguous languages: Northern, Pacific Coast and Southern (or Apachean).

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Ádahooníłígíí

Ádahooníłígíí ("occurrences in the area/current events") was a Navajo-language monthly newspaper that was published in the Southwestern United States from 1943 to 1957.

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Back vowel

A back vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in spoken languages.

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Berard Haile

Father Berard Haile (1874–1961), O.F.M., was a Franciscan priest and one of the foremost authorities on Navajo anthropology.

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Bilabial consonant

In phonetics, a bilabial consonant is a consonant articulated with both lips.

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Bilingual Education Act

The Bilingual Education Act (BEA), also known as Title VII of the Elementary and Secondary Education Amendments of 1967, approved by the 90th United States Congress on January 2, 1968, and was the first United States federal legislation recognized the needs of limited English speaking ability (LESA) students.

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Brigham Young University

Brigham Young University (BYU, sometimes referred to colloquially as The Y) is a private, non-profit research university in Provo, Utah, United States completely owned by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS or Mormon Church) and run under the auspices of its Church Educational System.

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Bureau of Indian Affairs

The Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) is an agency of the federal government of the United States within the U.S. Department of the Interior.

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Calque

In linguistics, a calque or loan translation is a word or phrase borrowed from another language by literal, word-for-word or root-for-root translation.

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Carlsbad Current-Argus

The Carlsbad Current-Argus is a newspaper in Carlsbad, New Mexico, United States.

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Cedilla

A cedilla (from Spanish), also known as cedilha (from Portuguese) or cédille (from French), is a hook or tail (¸) added under certain letters as a diacritical mark to modify their pronunciation.

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Chindi

In Navajo religious belief, a chindi (chʼį́įdii) is the ghost left behind after a person dies, believed to leave the body with the deceased's last breath.

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Chipewyan language

Chipewyan, ethnonym Dënesųłiné, is the language spoken by the Chipewyan people of northwestern Canada.

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Clitic

A clitic (from Greek κλιτικός klitikos, "inflexional") is a morpheme in morphology and syntax that has syntactic characteristics of a word, but depends phonologically on another word or phrase.

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Close vowel

A close vowel, also known as a high vowel (in American terminology), is any in a class of vowel sound used in many spoken languages.

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Code talker

Code talkers are people in the 20th century who used obscure languages as a means of secret communication during wartime.

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Colorado

Colorado is a state of the United States encompassing most of the southern Rocky Mountains as well as the northeastern portion of the Colorado Plateau and the western edge of the Great Plains.

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Community college

A community college is a type of educational institution.

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Conditional mood

The conditional mood (abbreviated) is a grammatical mood used to express a proposition whose validity is dependent on some condition, possibly counterfactual.

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Conjunction (grammar)

In grammar, a conjunction (abbreviated or) is a part of speech that connects words, phrases, or clauses that are called the conjuncts of the conjoining construction.

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Continuant

In phonology, a continuant is a speech sound produced without a complete closure in the oral cavity, namely fricatives, approximants and vowels.

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Decimal

The decimal numeral system (also called base-ten positional numeral system, and occasionally called denary) is the standard system for denoting integer and non-integer numbers.

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Deixis

In linguistics, deixis refers to words and phrases, such as “me” or “here”, that cannot be fully understood without additional contextual information -- in this case, the identity of the speaker (“me”) and the speaker's location (“here”).

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Dené–Yeniseian languages

Dené–Yeniseian is a proposed language family consisting of the Yeniseian languages of central Siberia and the Na-Dené languages of northwestern North America.

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Digital Public Library of America

The Digital Public Library of America (DPLA) is a US project aimed at providing public access to digital holdings in order to create a large-scale public digital library.

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Diné College

Diné College is a four-year, tribally controlled college, serving the Navajo Nation.

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Edward Sapir

Edward Sapir (January 26, 1884 – February 4, 1939) was a German anthropologist-linguist, who is widely considered to be one of the most important figures in the early development of the discipline of linguistics.

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Ejective consonant

In phonetics, ejective consonants are usually voiceless consonants that are pronounced with a glottalic egressive airstream.

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Ellavina Perkins

Ellavina Tsosie Perkins is an independent linguist and scholar of the Navajo language.

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Eloise Jelinek

Eloise Jelinek (February 2, 1924 in Dallas – December 21, 2007 in Tucson) was an American linguist specializing in the study of syntax.

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English alphabet

The modern English alphabet is a Latin alphabet consisting of 26 letters, each having an uppercase and a lowercase form: The same letters constitute the ISO basic Latin alphabet.

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Ethnologue

Ethnologue: Languages of the World is an annual reference publication in print and online that provides statistics and other information on the living languages of the world.

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European colonization of the Americas

The European colonization of the Americas describes the history of the settlement and establishment of control of the continents of the Americas by most of the naval powers of Europe.

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Evidentiality

In linguistics, evidentiality is, broadly, the indication of the nature of evidence for a given statement; that is, whether evidence exists for the statement and if so what kind.

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Exonym and endonym

An exonym or xenonym is an external name for a geographical place, or a group of people, an individual person, or a language or dialect.

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Fort Defiance, Arizona

Fort Defiance (Tséhootsooí) is a census-designated place (CDP) in Apache County, Arizona, United States.

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Fortis and lenis

In linguistics, fortis and lenis (Latin for "strong" and "weak"), sometimes identified with '''tense''' and '''lax''', are pronunciations of consonants with relatively greater and lesser energy.

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Fricative consonant

Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.

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Front vowel

A front vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages, its defining characteristic being that the highest point of the tongue is positioned relatively in front in the mouth without creating a constriction that would make it a consonant.

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Fusional language

Fusional languages or inflected languages are a type of synthetic languages, distinguished from agglutinative languages by their tendency to use a single inflectional morpheme to denote multiple grammatical, syntactic, or semantic features.

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Future tense

In grammar, a future tense (abbreviated) is a verb form that generally marks the event described by the verb as not having happened yet, but expected to happen in the future.

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Gary Witherspoon

Gary J. Witherspoon (born 1943) is professor of Native American studies at the University of Washington.

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Genus

A genus (genera) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, as well as viruses, in biology.

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German language

German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.

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Gladys Reichard

Gladys Amanda Reichard (born 17 July 1893 at Bangor, Pennsylvania; died 25 July 1955 at Flagstaff, Arizona) was an American anthropologist and linguist.

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Glottal consonant

Glottal consonants are consonants using the glottis as their primary articulation.

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Glottal stop

The glottal stop is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages, produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract or, more precisely, the glottis.

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Glottalic consonant

A glottalic consonant is a consonant produced with some important contribution (a movement, a closure) of the glottis (the opening that leads from the nose and mouth cavities into the larynx and the lungs).

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Glottalization

Glottalization is the complete or partial closure of the glottis during the articulation of another sound.

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Grammatical aspect

Aspect is a grammatical category that expresses how an action, event, or state, denoted by a verb, extends over time.

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Grammatical case

Case is a special grammatical category of a noun, pronoun, adjective, participle or numeral whose value reflects the grammatical function performed by that word in a phrase, clause or sentence.

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Grammatical gender

In linguistics, grammatical gender is a specific form of noun class system in which the division of noun classes forms an agreement system with another aspect of the language, such as adjectives, articles, pronouns, or verbs.

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Grammatical mood

In linguistics, grammatical mood (also mode) is a grammatical feature of verbs, used for signaling modality.

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Grammatical number

In linguistics, grammatical number is a grammatical category of nouns, pronouns, and adjective and verb agreement that expresses count distinctions (such as "one", "two", or "three or more").

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Grammatical tense

In grammar, tense is a category that expresses time reference with reference to the moment of speaking.

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Harry Hoijer

Harry Hoijer (September 6, 1904 – March 11, 1976) was a linguist and anthropologist who worked on primarily Athabaskan languages and culture.

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Head Start (program)

Head Start is a program of the United States Department of Health and Human Services that provides comprehensive early childhood education, health, nutrition, and parent involvement services to low-income children and their families.

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Hogan

A hogan (or; from Navajo) is the primary, traditional dwelling of the Navajo people.

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Hopi language

Hopi (Hopi: Hopílavayi) is a Uto-Aztecan language spoken by the Hopi people (a Pueblo group) of northeastern Arizona, United States, but some Hopi are now monolingual English-speakers.

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Houston Chronicle

The Houston Chronicle is the largest daily newspaper in Houston, Texas, United States.

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Indigenous languages of the Americas

Indigenous languages of the Americas are spoken by indigenous peoples from Alaska and Greenland to the southern tip of South America, encompassing the land masses that constitute the Americas.

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Interjection

In linguistics, an interjection is a word or expression that occurs as an utterance on its own and expresses a spontaneous feeling or reaction.

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IOS

iOS (formerly iPhone OS) is a mobile operating system created and developed by Apple Inc. exclusively for its hardware.

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Japanese language

is an East Asian language spoken by about 128 million people, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language.

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JSTOR

JSTOR (short for Journal Storage) is a digital library founded in 1995.

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Kayenta, Arizona

Kayenta (Tó Dínéeshzheeʼ) is a U.S. census-designated place (CDP) which is part of the Navajo Nation and is in Navajo County, Arizona.

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Kenneth L. Hale

Kenneth Locke Hale (August 15, 1934 – October 8, 2001) was a linguist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology who studied a huge variety of previously unstudied and often endangered languages—especially indigenous languages of North America, Central America and Australia.

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KNDN (AM)

KNDN (960 AM) is a radio station broadcasting in Navajo, one of three such stations in the world.

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KTNN

KTNN is a Navajo language AM (medium-wave) radio station broadcasting on 660 AM from Window Rock, Arizona, the seat of the government of the Navajo Nation.

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Labialization

Labialization is a secondary articulatory feature of sounds in some languages.

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Lateral consonant

A lateral is an l-like consonant in which the airstream proceeds along the sides of the tongue, but it is blocked by the tongue from going through the middle of the mouth.

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Latin alphabet

The Latin alphabet or the Roman alphabet is a writing system originally used by the ancient Romans to write the Latin language.

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Latin script

Latin or Roman script is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, used by the Etruscans.

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Linguistic purism

Linguistic purism or linguistic protectionism is the practice of defining or recognizing one variety of a language as being purer or of intrinsically higher quality than other varieties.

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List of English words from indigenous languages of the Americas

This is a list of English language words borrowed from indigenous languages of the Americas, either directly or through intermediate European languages such as Spanish or French.

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Lithuanian language

Lithuanian (lietuvių kalba) is a Baltic language spoken in the Baltic region.

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Luci Tapahonso

Luci Tapahonso (born November 8, 1953) is a Navajo poet and a lecturer in Native American Studies.

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Lyndon B. Johnson

Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908January 22, 1973), often referred to by his initials LBJ, was an American politician who served as the 36th President of the United States from 1963 to 1969, assuming the office after having served as the 37th Vice President of the United States from 1961 to 1963.

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Medium wave

Medium wave (MW) is the part of the medium frequency (MF) radio band used mainly for AM radio broadcasting.

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Mescalero-Chiricahua language

Mescalero-Chiricahua (also known as Mescalero-Chiricahua Apache) is a Southern Athabaskan language spoken by the Mescalero and the Chiricahua tribes in Oklahoma and New Mexico.

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Mexican Americans

Mexican Americans (mexicoamericanos or estadounidenses de origen mexicano) are Americans of full or partial Mexican descent.

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Mexican–American War

The Mexican–American War, also known as the Mexican War in the United States and in Mexico as the American intervention in Mexico, was an armed conflict between the United States of America and the United Mexican States (Mexico) from 1846 to 1848.

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Mexico

Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.

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Mexico–United States border

The Mexico–United States border is an international border separating Mexico and the United States, extending from the Pacific Ocean to the west and Gulf of Mexico to the east.

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Mirative

Mirativity, initially proposed by Scott DeLancey, is a grammatical category in a language, independent of evidentiality, that encodes the speaker's surprise or the unpreparedness of their mind.

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Morphological typology

Morphological typology is a way of classifying the languages of the world (see linguistic typology) that groups languages according to their common morphological structures.

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Morphology (linguistics)

In linguistics, morphology is the study of words, how they are formed, and their relationship to other words in the same language.

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Mutual intelligibility

In linguistics, mutual intelligibility is a relationship between languages or dialects in which speakers of different but related varieties can readily understand each other without prior familiarity or special effort.

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Na-Dene languages

Na-Dene (also Nadene, Na-Dené, Athabaskan–Eyak–Tlingit, Tlina–Dene) is a family of Native American languages that includes at least the Athabaskan languages, Eyak, and Tlingit languages.

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Nasal consonant

In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose.

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Nasal vowel

A nasal vowel is a vowel that is produced with a lowering of the velum so that air escapes both through the nose as well as the mouth, such as the French vowel.

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National Football League

The National Football League (NFL) is a professional American football league consisting of 32 teams, divided equally between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the American Football Conference (AFC).

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Navajo

The Navajo (British English: Navaho, Diné or Naabeehó) are a Native American people of the Southwestern United States.

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Navajo Braille

Navajo Braille is the braille alphabet of the Navajo language.

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Navajo language

Navajo or Navaho (Navajo: Diné bizaad or Naabeehó bizaad) is a Southern Athabaskan language of the Na-Dené family, by which it is related to languages spoken across the western areas of North America.

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Navajo Nation

The Navajo Nation (Naabeehó Bináhásdzo) is a Native American territory covering about, occupying portions of northeastern Arizona, southeastern Utah, and northwestern New Mexico in the United States.

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Navajo Nation Council

The Navajo Nation Council is the legislative branch of the Navajo Nation government.

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Navajo Times

The Navajo Times – known during the early 1980s as Navajo Times Today – is a newspaper created by the Navajo Tribal Council in 1959; in 1982 it was the first daily newspaper owned and published by a Native American Indian Nation.

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New Mexico

New Mexico (Nuevo México, Yootó Hahoodzo) is a state in the Southwestern Region of the United States of America.

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Non-configurational language

In generative grammar, non-configurational languages are languages characterized by a non-rigid phrase structure, which allows syntactically discontinuous expressions, and a relatively free word order.

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North America

North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.

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Noto fonts

Noto is a font family comprising over a hundred individual fonts, which are together designed to cover all the scripts encoded in the Unicode standard.

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NPR

National Public Radio (usually shortened to NPR, stylized as npr) is an American privately and publicly funded non-profit membership media organization based in Washington, D.C. It serves as a national syndicator to a network of over 1,000 public radio stations in the United States.

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Oakland Raiders

The Oakland Raiders are a professional American football franchise based in Oakland, California.

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Object (grammar)

Traditional grammar defines the object in a sentence as the entity that is acted upon by the subject.

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Obstruent

An obstruent is a speech sound such as,, or that is formed by obstructing airflow.

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Ogg

Ogg is a free, open container format maintained by the Xiph.Org Foundation.

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Ogonek

The ogonek (Polish:, "little tail", the diminutive of ogon; nosinė, "nasal") is a diacritic hook placed under the lower right corner of a vowel in the Latin alphabet used in several European languages, and directly under a vowel in several Native American languages.

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Open vowel

An open vowel is a vowel sound in which the tongue is positioned as far as possible from the roof of the mouth.

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Open-mid vowel

An open-mid vowel (also mid-open vowel, low-mid vowel, mid-low vowel or half-open vowel) is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.

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Palatal consonant

Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth).

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Palato-alveolar consonant

In phonetics, palato-alveolar (or palatoalveolar) consonants are postalveolar consonants, nearly always sibilants, that are weakly palatalized with a domed (bunched-up) tongue.

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Past tense

The past tense (abbreviated) is a grammatical tense whose principal function is to place an action or situation in past time.

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Paul Platero

Paul Platero is a Navajo linguist.

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Peter Ladefoged

Peter Nielsen Ladefoged (17 September 1925 – 24 January 2006) was a British linguist and phonetician who travelled the world to document the distinct sounds of endangered languages and pioneered ways to collect and study data.

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Phonology

Phonology is a branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in languages.

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Pitch-accent language

A pitch-accent language is a language that has word-accents—that is, where one syllable in a word or morpheme is more prominent than the others, but the accentuated syllable is indicated by a particular pitch contour (linguistic tones) rather than by stress.

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Polish orthography

Polish orthography is the system of writing the Polish language.

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Polysynthetic language

In linguistic typology, polysynthetic languages are highly synthetic languages, i.e. languages in which words are composed of many morphemes (word parts that have independent meaning but may or may not be able to stand alone).

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Present tense

The present tense (abbreviated or) is a grammatical tense whose principal function is to locate a situation or event in present time.

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President of the Navajo Nation

The office of President of the Navajo Nation was created in 1991 following restructuring of the national government.

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Puebloans

The Puebloans or Pueblo peoples are Native Americans in the Southwestern United States who share common agricultural, material and religious practices.

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Relative pronoun

A relative pronoun marks a relative clause; it has the same referent in the main clause of a sentence that the relative modifies.

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Robert W. Young

Robert W. Young (May 18, 1912 – February 20, 2007), professor emeritus of linguistics at the University of New Mexico, was an American linguist known for his work on the Navajo language.

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Root (linguistics)

A root (or root word) is a word that does not have a prefix in front of the word or a suffix at the end of the word.

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Salina Bookshelf

Salina Bookshelf is a publishing company based in Flagstaff, Arizona.

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Side-blotched lizard

Side-blotched lizards are lizards of the genus Uta.

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Sonorant

In phonetics and phonology, a sonorant or resonant is a speech sound that is produced with continuous, non-turbulent airflow in the vocal tract; these are the manners of articulation that are most often voiced in the world's languages.

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Southern Athabaskan languages

Southern Athabaskan (also Apachean) is a subfamily of Athabaskan languages spoken primarily in the Southwestern United States (including Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, Utah) and the Mexican state of Sonora, with two outliers in Oklahoma and Texas.

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Southwestern United States

The Southwestern United States (Suroeste de Estados Unidos; also known as the American Southwest) is the informal name for a region of the western United States.

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Spain

Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.

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Spanish language

Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.

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Speech tempo

Speech tempo is a measure of the number of speech units of a given type produced within a given amount of time.

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Springer Science+Business Media

Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.

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Standardized test

A standardized test is a test that is administered and scored in a consistent, or "standard", manner.

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Star Wars (film)

Star Wars (later retitled Star Wars: Episode IV – A New Hope) is a 1977 American epic space opera film written and directed by George Lucas.

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Stop consonant

In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.

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Subject (grammar)

The subject in a simple English sentence such as John runs, John is a teacher, or John was hit by a car is the person or thing about whom the statement is made, in this case 'John'.

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Subject–object–verb

In linguistic typology, a subject–object–verb (SOV) language is one in which the subject, object, and verb of a sentence always or usually appear in that order.

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Super Bowl

The Super Bowl is the annual championship game of the National Football League (NFL).

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Super Bowl XXX

Super Bowl XXX was an American football game between the National Football Conference (NFC) champion Dallas Cowboys and the American Football Conference (AFC) champion Pittsburgh Steelers to decide the National Football League (NFL) champion for the 1995 season.

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Tank

A tank is an armoured fighting vehicle designed for front-line combat, with heavy firepower, strong armour, tracks and a powerful engine providing good battlefield maneuverability.

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Taxonomy (biology)

Taxonomy is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics.

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Tenuis consonant

In linguistics, a tenuis consonant is an obstruent that is unvoiced, unaspirated, unpalatalized, and unglottalized.

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Tewa language

Tewa is a Tanoan language spoken by Pueblo people, mostly in the Rio Grande valley in New Mexico north of Santa Fe, and in Arizona.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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The Post and Courier

The Post and Courier is the main daily newspaper in Charleston, South Carolina.

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Theodore B. Fernald

Theodore B. Fernald is a linguist and the chair of the Department of Linguistics at Swarthmore College.

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Tone (linguistics)

Tone is the use of pitch in language to distinguish lexical or grammatical meaning – that is, to distinguish or to inflect words.

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Typewriter

A typewriter is a mechanical or electromechanical machine for writing characters similar to those produced by printer's movable type.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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University of Arizona

The University of Arizona (also referred to as U of A, UA, or Arizona) is a public research university in Tucson, Arizona.

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University of California

The University of California (UC) is a public university system in the US state of California.

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University of California Press

University of California Press, otherwise known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing.

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University of Cambridge

The University of Cambridge (informally Cambridge University)The corporate title of the university is The Chancellor, Masters, and Scholars of the University of Cambridge.

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University of Michigan Press

The University of Michigan Press is part of Michigan Publishing at the University of Michigan Library.

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University of Nebraska–Lincoln

The University of Nebraska–Lincoln, often referred to as Nebraska, UNL or NU, is a public research university in the city of Lincoln, in the state of Nebraska in the Midwestern United States.

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University of New Mexico

The University of New Mexico (also referred to as UNM) is a public research university in Albuquerque, New Mexico.

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University of Oklahoma

The University of Oklahoma (OU) is a coeducational public research university in Norman, Oklahoma.

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University of Oxford

The University of Oxford (formally The Chancellor Masters and Scholars of the University of Oxford) is a collegiate research university located in Oxford, England.

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Utah

Utah is a state in the western United States.

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Velar consonant

Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth (known also as the velum).

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Virtual keyboard

A virtual keyboard is a software component that allows the input of characters without the need for physical keys.

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Voiced velar fricative

The voiced velar fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in various spoken languages.

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Voiceless dental and alveolar lateral fricatives

The voiceless alveolar lateral fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.

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Voiceless glottal fricative

The voiceless glottal fricative, sometimes called voiceless glottal transition, and sometimes called the aspirate, is a type of sound used in some spoken languages that patterns like a fricative or approximant consonant phonologically, but often lacks the usual phonetic characteristics of a consonant.

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Vowel length

In linguistics, vowel length is the perceived duration of a vowel sound.

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Western Apache language

The Western Apache language is a Southern Athabaskan language spoken among the 14,000 Western Apaches living primarily in east central Arizona as well as Texas and New Mexico.

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Window Rock Unified School District

Window Rock Unified School District (WRUSD) is a school district within Apache County, Arizona, United States.

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Word order

In linguistics, word order typology is the study of the order of the syntactic constituents of a language, and how different languages can employ different orders.

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Word stem

In linguistics, a stem is a part of a word.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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Redirects here:

Dine bizaad, Diné Bizaad, Diné bizaad, ISO 639:nav, ISO 639:nv, Language Navaho, Language Navajo, Naabeehó bizaad, Navaho language, Navajo Language, Navajo alphabet.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Navajo_language

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