304 relations: Action of 4 September 1782, Admiralty, Admiralty Fire Control Table, Aegean Sea, Aerial reconnaissance, Aetna-class ironclad floating battery, Aftercastle, Age of Sail, Albert, Prince Consort, American Revolutionary War, Ammunition, Amphibious warfare, Analog computer, Anchor, Anthony Roll, Anti-aircraft warfare, Anti-personnel weapon, Anti-submarine warfare, APCBC, Arethusa-class cruiser (1913), Armor-piercing shell, Armstrong Gun, Arthur Pollen, Arthur Wilson (Royal Navy officer), Artillery, Artillery fuze, Atlantic Wall, Ballistic coefficient, Ballistic pendulum, Basilisk (cannon), Battle of Angamos, Battle of Arnemuiden, Battle of Sinop, Battle of the Saintes, Battleship, Belt armor, Benjamin Robins, BL 12 inch Mk X naval gun, BL 13.5-inch Mk V naval gun, Black Sea, Bo-hiya, Boatswain, Bomb vessel, Bombard (weapon), Botafogo (galleon), Bow and arrow, Breech-loading swivel gun, Breech-loading weapon, Bridge (nautical), Broadside, ..., Bronze, Brown powder, Building, Built-up gun, Caliber, Caliber (artillery), Canister shot, Cannon, Caravel, Carbon steel, Carron Company, Carronade, Cartridge (firearms), Casemate, Cast iron, Casting, Casting (metalworking), Caulking, Cementation process, Chain-shot, Charles Gascoigne, Charles Ragon de Bange, Chongtong, Chromium, Classical mechanics, Coastal artillery, Combat vehicle, Commentarii de Bello Gallico, Conquest of Tunis (1535), Coriolis force, Cowper Phipps Coles, Crimea, Crimean War, Cruiser, Culverin, Dahlgren gun, Daniel Treadwell, Demi-cannon, Demi-culverin, Depth charge, Destroyer, Director (military), Drag (physics), Dromon, Dual-purpose gun, Dutch Republic, Dynamite gun, Edward III of England, Edward Reed (naval architect), Elizabeth I of England, Elswick Ordnance Company, Euler angles, Explosive material, External ballistics, Fire arrow, Fire support, Fire-control system, First Battle of Charleston Harbor, First Sea Lord, Flintlock, Flintlock mechanism, Forecastle, Forging, Fort Nelson, Hampshire, Fortification, Frederic Charles Dreyer, FREMM multipurpose frigate, French Navy, French Revolutionary Wars, French ship Pacificateur (1811), Frigate, Full-rigged pinnace, Full-rigged ship, Fuze, Galley, Gallipoli Campaign, German Empire, German Navy, Glossary of nautical terms, Grapeshot, Greek fire, Gun barrel, Gun carriage, Gun chronograph, Gun laying, Gun port, Gun turret, Gunpowder, Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907, Hardening (metallurgy), Heated shot, Henri-Joseph Paixhans, Henry Shrapnel, Henry Trollope, HMS Devastation (1871), HMS Dreadnought (1906), HMS Monarch (1868), HMS Prince Albert (1864), HMS Royal Sovereign (1891), HMS Thunderer (1872), Hobart's Funnies, Horse artillery, Howitzer, Huáscar (ironclad), Huguenots, Hull (watercraft), Hundred Years' War, Incendiary ammunition, Incendiary device, Indirect fire, Industrial Revolution, Infantry, Interrupted screw, Ironclad warship, Isaac Watts (naval architect), Italian Navy, John Ericsson, John Fisher, 1st Baron Fisher, John II of Portugal, John Jellicoe, 1st Earl Jellicoe, Johns Hopkins University Press, Julius Caesar, Ketch, King George V-class battleship (1939), Lanyard, Leonhard Euler, Lieutenant (navy), Lieutenant general, Line of battle, Linstock, List of naval guns, Macedonian Front, Malta, Mary Rose, Mast (sailing), Mechanical calculator, Melee weapon, Merchant vessel, Metallurgy, Middle Ages, Midshipman, Military aviation, Minié ball, Missile, Monitor (warship), Mortar (weapon), Musket, Muzzle velocity, Muzzleloader, Naval gunfire support, Naval mine, Naval ship, Naval tactics, Naval warfare, Nickel, Obturating ring, Operation Overlord, Ostend, Otobreda 127/54 Compact, Otobreda 127/64, Paixhans gun, Palliser shot and shell, Panzer, Percy Scott, Peter Padfield, Phalanx CIWS, Picric acid, Pierrier à boîte, Piracy, Pitch (resin), Popular Science, Pre-dreadnought battleship, Precision engineering, Privateer, Prototype, QF 4 inch Mk V naval gun, QF 4.7-inch Gun Mk I–IV, QF 6 inch /40 naval gun, Quick-firing gun, Radio, Raft, Railgun, Rate of fire, RBL 12 pounder 8 cwt Armstrong gun, Recoil, Rifling, Rigging, Robert Melvill, Rocket, Rocket engine, Round shot, Rowing, Royal Artillery, Royal Navy, Sachsen-class frigate, Salerno, Salvo, Sea of Marmara, Seamanship, Sectional density, Select committee (United Kingdom), Sevastopol Bay, Seven Years' War, Shell (projectile), Ship of the line, Shotgun, Shotgun shell, Shrapnel shell, Siege of Calais (1346–1347), Siege of Taganrog, Sir Charles Douglas, 1st Baronet, Smokeless powder, Smoothbore, Squid (weapon), Steam donkey, Steel, Stepan Makarov, Structure, Submarine, Swivel gun, Taganrog, Technology and Culture, Telescope, Torpedo, Torpedo boat, Tudor period, Turret ship, Twelve-pound cannon, U-boat Campaign (World War I), Ukrainian Navy, United States Navy, USS Monitor, Vittorio Cuniberti, Wadding, Warrant officer, Warship, Weapon, Weapon mount, Whale Island, Hampshire, William Armstrong, 1st Baron Armstrong, William Palliser, William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin, Woolwich, World War I, World War II, Wrought iron, Yamato-class battleship, Zeebrugge, 12-pounder gun, 12-pounder long gun, 18-pounder long gun, 24-pounder long gun, 36-pounder long gun, 40 cm/45 Type 94 naval gun. 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The Action of 4 September 1782 was a small naval engagement which was fought off the Île de Batz between a French naval frigate ''Hébé'' and a Royal Naval frigate HMS Rainbow.
The Admiralty, originally known as the Office of the Admiralty and Marine Affairs, was the government department responsible for the command of the Royal Navy firstly in the Kingdom of England, secondly in the Kingdom of Great Britain, and from 1801 to 1964, the United Kingdom and former British Empire.
6.The Admiralty Fire Control Table (A.F.C.T.) was an electromechanical analogue computer fire-control system that calculated the correct elevation and deflection of the main armament of a Royal Navy cruiser or battleship, so that the shells fired would strike a surface target.
The Aegean Sea (Αιγαίο Πέλαγος; Ege Denizi) is an elongated embayment of the Mediterranean Sea located between the Greek and Anatolian peninsulas, i.e., between the mainlands of Greece and Turkey.
Aerial reconnaissance is reconnaissance for a military or strategic purpose that is conducted using reconnaissance aircraft.
The Aetna-class ironclad floating batteries were built during the Crimean War for the attack of Russian coastal fortifications.
An aftercastle (or sterncastle, sometimes aftcastle) is the stern structure behind the mizzenmast and above the transom on large sailing ships, such as carracks, caravels, galleons and galleasses.
The Age of Sail (usually dated as 1571–1862) was a period roughly corresponding to the early modern period in which international trade and naval warfare were dominated by sailing ships, lasting from the 16th to the mid-19th century.
Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (Francis Albert Augustus Charles Emmanuel; 26 August 1819 – 14 December 1861) was the husband and consort of Queen Victoria.
The American Revolutionary War (17751783), also known as the American War of Independence, was a global war that began as a conflict between Great Britain and its Thirteen Colonies which declared independence as the United States of America. After 1765, growing philosophical and political differences strained the relationship between Great Britain and its colonies. Patriot protests against taxation without representation followed the Stamp Act and escalated into boycotts, which culminated in 1773 with the Sons of Liberty destroying a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor. Britain responded by closing Boston Harbor and passing a series of punitive measures against Massachusetts Bay Colony. Massachusetts colonists responded with the Suffolk Resolves, and they established a shadow government which wrested control of the countryside from the Crown. Twelve colonies formed a Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance, establishing committees and conventions that effectively seized power. British attempts to disarm the Massachusetts militia at Concord, Massachusetts in April 1775 led to open combat. Militia forces then besieged Boston, forcing a British evacuation in March 1776, and Congress appointed George Washington to command the Continental Army. Concurrently, an American attempt to invade Quebec and raise rebellion against the British failed decisively. On July 2, 1776, the Continental Congress voted for independence, issuing its declaration on July 4. Sir William Howe launched a British counter-offensive, capturing New York City and leaving American morale at a low ebb. However, victories at Trenton and Princeton restored American confidence. In 1777, the British launched an invasion from Quebec under John Burgoyne, intending to isolate the New England Colonies. Instead of assisting this effort, Howe took his army on a separate campaign against Philadelphia, and Burgoyne was decisively defeated at Saratoga in October 1777. Burgoyne's defeat had drastic consequences. France formally allied with the Americans and entered the war in 1778, and Spain joined the war the following year as an ally of France but not as an ally of the United States. In 1780, the Kingdom of Mysore attacked the British in India, and tensions between Great Britain and the Netherlands erupted into open war. In North America, the British mounted a "Southern strategy" led by Charles Cornwallis which hinged upon a Loyalist uprising, but too few came forward. Cornwallis suffered reversals at King's Mountain and Cowpens. He retreated to Yorktown, Virginia, intending an evacuation, but a decisive French naval victory deprived him of an escape. A Franco-American army led by the Comte de Rochambeau and Washington then besieged Cornwallis' army and, with no sign of relief, he surrendered in October 1781. Whigs in Britain had long opposed the pro-war Tories in Parliament, and the surrender gave them the upper hand. In early 1782, Parliament voted to end all offensive operations in North America, but the war continued in Europe and India. Britain remained under siege in Gibraltar but scored a major victory over the French navy. On September 3, 1783, the belligerent parties signed the Treaty of Paris in which Great Britain agreed to recognize the sovereignty of the United States and formally end the war. French involvement had proven decisive,Brooks, Richard (editor). Atlas of World Military History. HarperCollins, 2000, p. 101 "Washington's success in keeping the army together deprived the British of victory, but French intervention won the war." but France made few gains and incurred crippling debts. Spain made some minor territorial gains but failed in its primary aim of recovering Gibraltar. The Dutch were defeated on all counts and were compelled to cede territory to Great Britain. In India, the war against Mysore and its allies concluded in 1784 without any territorial changes.
Ammunition (informally ammo) is the material fired, scattered, dropped or detonated from any weapon.
Amphibious warfare is a type of offensive military operation that today uses naval ships to project ground and air power onto a hostile or potentially hostile shore at a designated landing beach.
An analog computer or analogue computer is a form of computer that uses the continuously changeable aspects of physical phenomena such as electrical, mechanical, or hydraulic quantities to model the problem being solved.
An anchor is a device, normally made of metal, used to connect a vessel to the bed of a body of water to prevent the craft from drifting due to wind or current.
The Anthony Roll is a record of ships of the English Tudor navy of the 1540s, named after its creator, Anthony Anthony.
Anti-aircraft warfare or counter-air defence is defined by NATO as "all measures designed to nullify or reduce the effectiveness of hostile air action."AAP-6 They include ground-and air-based weapon systems, associated sensor systems, command and control arrangements and passive measures (e.g. barrage balloons).
An anti-personnel weapon is a weapon primarily used to maim or kill infantry and other personnel not behind armor, as opposed to attacking structures or vehicles, or hunting game.
Anti-submarine warfare (ASW, or in older form A/S) is a branch of underwater warfare that uses surface warships, aircraft, or other submarines to find, track and deter, damage, or destroy enemy submarines.
The armour-piercing capped ballistic cap (APCBC) is a type of armor-piercing shell introduced in the 1930s.
The Arethusa-class cruisers were a class of eight oil-fired light cruisers of the Royal Navy all ordered in September 1912, primarily for service in the North Sea.
An armor-piercing shell, AP for short, is a type of ammunition designed to penetrate armor.
An Armstrong Gun was a uniquely designed type of rifled breech-loading field and heavy gun designed by Sir William Armstrong and manufactured in England beginning in 1855 by the Elswick Ordnance Company and the Royal Arsenal at Woolwich.
Arthur Joseph Hungerford Pollen (13 September 1866 – 28 January 1937) was a writer on naval affairs in the early 1900s who recognised the need for a computer-based fire-control system.
Admiral of the Fleet Sir Arthur Knyvet Wilson, 3rd Baronet (4 March 1842 – 25 May 1921) was a Royal Navy officer.
Artillery is a class of large military weapons built to fire munitions far beyond the range and power of infantry's small arms.
An artillery fuze or fuse is the type of munition fuze used with artillery munitions, typically projectiles fired by guns (field, anti-aircraft, coast and naval), howitzers and mortars.
The Atlantic Wall (Atlantikwall) was an extensive system of coastal defence and fortifications built by Nazi Germany between 1942 and 1944 along the coast of continental Europe and Scandinavia as a defence against an anticipated Allied invasion of Nazi-occupied Europe from the United Kingdom during World War II.
In ballistics, the ballistic coefficient (BC) of a body is a measure of its ability to overcome air resistance in flight.
A ballistic pendulum is a device for measuring a bullet's momentum, from which it is possible to calculate the velocity and kinetic energy.
The basilisk was a very heavy bronze cannon employed during the Middle Ages.
The Combat of Angamos (Spanish: Combate de Angamos) was a naval encounter of the War of the Pacific fought between the navies of Chile and Perú at Punta Angamos, on 8 October 1879.
The Battle of Arnemuiden was a naval battle fought on 23 September 1338 at the start of the Hundred Years' War between England and France.
The Battle of Sinop, or the Battle of Sinope, was a Russian naval victory over the Ottoman Empire during the Crimean War that took place on 30 November 1853 at Sinop, a sea port in northern Anatolia, when a squadron of Imperial Russian warships struck and defeated a squadron of Ottoman ships anchored in the harbor.
The Battle of the Saintes (known to the French as the Bataille de la Dominique), or Battle of Dominica was an important naval battle that took place over four days, 9 April 1782 – 12 April 1782, during the American Revolutionary War, and was a victory of a British fleet under Admiral Sir George Rodney over a French fleet under the Comte de Grasse, forcing the French and Spanish to abandon a planned invasion of Jamaica.
A battleship is a large armored warship with a main battery consisting of large caliber guns.
Belt armor is a layer of heavy metal armor plated onto or within the outer hulls of warships, typically on battleships, battlecruisers and cruisers, and aircraft carriers.
Benjamin Robins (170729 July 1751) was a pioneering British scientist, Newtonian mathematician, and military engineer.
The BL 12 inch Gun Mark XMark X.
The BL 13.5 inch Mk V gunMk V.
The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.
is the Japanese version of the fire arrow.
A boatswain (formerly and dialectally also), bo's'n, bos'n, or bosun, also known as a Petty Officer or a qualified member of the deck department, is the seniormost rate of the deck department and is responsible for the components of a ship's hull.
A bomb vessel, bomb ship, bomb ketch, or simply bomb was a type of wooden sailing naval ship.
The bombard is a cannon or mortar used throughout the Middle Ages and the early modern period.
The São João Baptista (Saint John the Baptist), commonly known as the Botafogo (Spitfire), was a Portuguese galleon warship built in the 16th century, around 1534, considered the biggest and most powerful warship in the world at the time.
The bow and arrow is a ranged weapon system consisting of an elastic launching device (bow) and long-shafted projectiles (arrows).
A breech-loading swivel gun was a particular type of swivel gun and a small breech-loading cannon invented in the 14th century.
A breech-loading gun is a firearm in which the cartridge or shell is inserted or loaded into a chamber integral to the rear portion of a barrel.
The bridge of a ship is the room or platform from which the ship can be commanded.
A broadside is the side of a ship, the battery of cannon on one side of a warship; or their coordinated fire in naval warfare.
Bronze is an alloy consisting primarily of copper, commonly with about 12% tin and often with the addition of other metals (such as aluminium, manganese, nickel or zinc) and sometimes non-metals or metalloids such as arsenic, phosphorus or silicon.
Brown powder or prismatic powder, sometimes referred as "cocoa powder" due to its color, was a propellant used in large artillery and ship's guns from about the 1870s.
A building, or edifice, is a structure with a roof and walls standing more or less permanently in one place, such as a house or factory.
A built-up gun is artillery with a specially reinforced barrel.
In guns, particularly firearms, caliber or calibre is the approximate internal diameter of the gun barrel, or the diameter of the projectile it shoots.
In artillery, caliber or calibredifference in British English and American English spelling is the internal diameter of a gun barrel, or by extension a relative measure of the length.
Canister shot is a kind of anti-personnel ammunition used in cannons.
A cannon (plural: cannon or cannons) is a type of gun classified as artillery that launches a projectile using propellant.
A caravel (Portuguese: caravela) is a small, highly maneuverable sailing ship developed in the 15th century by the Portuguese to explore along the West African coast and into the Atlantic Ocean.
Carbon steel is a steel with carbon content up to 2.1% by weight.
The Carron Company was an ironworks established in 1759 on the banks of the River Carron near Falkirk, in Stirlingshire, Scotland.
A carronade is a short, smoothbore, cast iron cannon which was used by the Royal Navy and first produced by the Carron Company, an ironworks in Falkirk, Scotland, UK.
A cartridge is a type of firearm ammunition packaging a projectile (bullet, shots or slug), a propellant substance (usually either smokeless powder or black powder) and an ignition device (primer) within a metallic, paper or plastic case that is precisely made to fit within the barrel chamber of a breechloading gun, for the practical purpose of convenient transportation and handling during shooting.
A casemate, sometimes erroneously rendered casement, is a fortified gun emplacement or armored structure from which guns are fired.
Cast iron is a group of iron-carbon alloys with a carbon content greater than 2%.
Casting is a manufacturing process in which a liquid material is usually poured into a mold, which contains a hollow cavity of the desired shape, and then allowed to solidify.
In metalworking and jewellery making, casting is a process in which a liquid metal is somehow delivered into a mold (it is usually delivered by a crucible) that contains a hollow shape (i.e., a 3-dimensional negative image) of the intended shape.
Caulking is both the processes and material (also called sealant) to seal joints or seams in various structures and some types of piping.
The cementation process is an obsolete technology for making steel by carburization of iron.
In artillery, chain-shot is an obsolete type of projectile formed of two sub-calibre balls, or half-balls, chained together.
Charles Gascoigne (1738–1806) was a British industrialist at the beginning of the Industrial Revolution.
Charles Ragon de Bange (1833–1914) was a Polytechnician and a French artillery colonel of the 19th century.
The Chongtong was the term for Joseon-era gunnery.
Chromium is a chemical element with symbol Cr and atomic number 24.
Classical mechanics describes the motion of macroscopic objects, from projectiles to parts of machinery, and astronomical objects, such as spacecraft, planets, stars and galaxies.
Coastal artillery is the branch of the armed forces concerned with operating anti-ship artillery or fixed gun batteries in coastal fortifications.
A combat vehicle, also known as a ground combat vehicle, is a self-propelled, weaponized military vehicle used for combat operations in mechanized warfare.
Commentāriī dē Bellō Gallicō (italic), also Bellum Gallicum (italic), is Julius Caesar's firsthand account of the Gallic Wars, written as a third-person narrative.
The Conquest of Tunis in 1535 was an attack on Tunis, then under the control of the Ottoman Empire, by the Habsburg Empire of Charles V and its allies.
In physics, the Coriolis force is an inertial force that acts on objects that are in motion relative to a rotating reference frame.
Captain Cowper Phipps Coles, C.B., R.N. (1819 – 7 September 1870), was an English naval captain and inventor; he was the first to patent a design for a revolving gun turret.
Crimea (Крым, Крим, Krym; Krym; translit;; translit) is a peninsula on the northern coast of the Black Sea in Eastern Europe that is almost completely surrounded by both the Black Sea and the smaller Sea of Azov to the northeast.
The Crimean War (or translation) was a military conflict fought from October 1853 to February 1856 in which the Russian Empire lost to an alliance of the Ottoman Empire, France, Britain and Sardinia.
A cruiser is a type of warship.
A culverin was a relatively simple ancestor of the musket, and later a medieval cannon, adapted for use by the French as "couleuvrine" (from couleuvre "grass snake") in the 15th century, and later adapted for naval use by the English in the late 16th century.
Dahlgren guns were muzzle-loading naval artillery designed by Rear Admiral John A. Dahlgren USN (November 13, 1809 – July 12, 1870), mostly used in the period of the American Civil War.
Daniel Treadwell (October 10, 1791 – February 27, 1872) was an American inventor.
The demi-cannon was a medium-sized cannon, similar to but slightly larger than a culverin and smaller than a regular 42 lb (19 kg) cannon, developed in the early 17th century.
The demi-culverin was a medium cannon similar to but slightly larger than a saker and smaller than a regular culverin developed in the late 16th century.
A depth charge is an anti-submarine warfare weapon.
In naval terminology, a destroyer is a fast, maneuverable long-endurance warship intended to escort larger vessels in a fleet, convoy or battle group and defend them against smaller powerful short-range attackers.
A director, also called an auxiliary predictor, is a mechanical or electronic computer that continuously calculates trigonometric firing solutions for use against a moving target, and transmits targeting data to direct the weapon firing crew.
In fluid dynamics, drag (sometimes called air resistance, a type of friction, or fluid resistance, another type of friction or fluid friction) is a force acting opposite to the relative motion of any object moving with respect to a surrounding fluid.
A dromon (from Greek δρόμων, dromōn, "runner") was a type of galley and the most important warship of the Byzantine navy from the 5th to 12th centuries AD, when they were succeeded by Italian-style galleys.
A dual-purpose gun is a naval artillery mounting designed to engage both surface and air targets.
The Dutch Republic was a republic that existed from the formal creation of a confederacy in 1581 by several Dutch provinces (which earlier seceded from the Spanish rule) until the Batavian Revolution in 1795.
A dynamite gun is any of a class of artillery pieces that use compressed air to propel an explosive projectile (such as one containing dynamite).
Edward III (13 November 1312 – 21 June 1377) was King of England and Lord of Ireland from January 1327 until his death; he is noted for his military success and for restoring royal authority after the disastrous and unorthodox reign of his father, Edward II.
Sir Edward James Reed, KCB, FRS (20 September 1830 – 30 November 1906) was a British naval architect, author, politician, and railroad magnate.
Elizabeth I (7 September 1533 – 24 March 1603) was Queen of England and Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death on 24 March 1603.
The Elswick Ordnance Company (sometimes referred to as Elswick Ordnance Works, but usually as "EOC") was a British armaments manufacturing company of the late 19th and early 20th century.
The Euler angles are three angles introduced by Leonhard Euler to describe the orientation of a rigid body with respect to a fixed coordinate system.
An explosive material, also called an explosive, is a reactive substance that contains a great amount of potential energy that can produce an explosion if released suddenly, usually accompanied by the production of light, heat, sound, and pressure.
External ballistics or exterior ballistics is the part of ballistics that deals with the behavior of a projectile in flight.
Fire arrows were one of the earliest forms of weaponized gunpowder.
Fire support is defined by the United States Department of Defense as "Fires that directly support land, maritime, amphibious, and special operations forces to engage enemy forces, combat formations, and facilities in pursuit of tactical and operational objectives." Typically, fire support is provided by artillery or close air support (usually directed by a forward observer), and is used to shape the battlefield or, more optimistically, define the battle.
A fire-control system is a number of components working together, usually a gun data computer, a director, and radar, which is designed to assist a weapon system in hitting its target.
The First Battle of Charleston Harbor was an engagement near Charleston, South Carolina that took place April 7, 1863, during the American Civil War.
The First Sea Lord and Chief of Naval Staff (1SL/CNS) is the professional head of the United Kingdom's Royal Navy and the whole Naval Service.
Flintlock is a general term for any firearm that uses a flint striking ignition mechanism.
The flintlock mechanism is a type of lock used on muskets, pistols, and rifles in the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries.
The forecastle (abbreviated fo'c'sle or fo'c's'le) is the upper deck of a sailing ship forward of the foremast, or the forward part of a ship with the sailors' living quarters.
Forging is a manufacturing process involving the shaping of metal using localized compressive forces.
Fort Nelson, in the civil parish of Boarhunt in the English county of Hampshire, is one of five defensive forts built on the summit of Portsdown Hill in the 1860s, overlooking the important naval base of Portsmouth.
A fortification is a military construction or building designed for the defense of territories in warfare; and is also used to solidify rule in a region during peacetime.
Admiral Sir Frederic Charles Dreyer, (8 January 1878 – 11 December 1956) was an officer of the Royal Navy.
The FREMM ("European multi-purpose frigate"; French: Frégate européenne multi-mission; Italian: Fregata europea multi-missione) is a class of multi-purpose frigates designed by Naval Group/Armaris and Fincantieri for the navies of France and Italy.
The French Navy (Marine Nationale), informally "La Royale", is the maritime arm of the French Armed Forces.
The French Revolutionary Wars were a series of sweeping military conflicts lasting from 1792 until 1802 and resulting from the French Revolution.
The Pacificateur was a ''Bucentaure''-class 80-gun ship of the line of the French Navy, designed by Sané.
A frigate is any of several types of warship, the term having been used for ships of various sizes and roles over the last few centuries.
The full-rigged pinnace was the larger of two types of vessel called a pinnace in use from the sixteenth century.
A full-rigged ship or fully rigged ship is term of art denoting a sailing vessel's sail plan with three or more masts, all of them square-rigged.
In military munitions, a fuze (sometimes fuse) is the part of the device that initiates function.
A galley is a type of ship that is propelled mainly by rowing.
The Gallipoli Campaign, also known as the Dardanelles Campaign, the Battle of Gallipoli, or the Battle of Çanakkale (Çanakkale Savaşı), was a campaign of the First World War that took place on the Gallipoli peninsula (Gelibolu in modern Turkey) in the Ottoman Empire between 17 February 1915 and 9 January 1916.
The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich),Herbert Tuttle wrote in September 1881 that the term "Reich" does not literally connote an empire as has been commonly assumed by English-speaking people.
The German Navy (Deutsche Marine or simply Marine—) is the navy of Germany and part of the unified Bundeswehr ("Federal Defense"), the German Armed Forces.
This is a partial glossary of nautical terms; some remain current, while many date from the 17th to 19th centuries.
In artillery, grapeshot is a type of shot that is not one solid element, but a mass of small metal balls or slugs packed tightly into a canvas bag.
Greek fire was an incendiary weapon used by the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire that was first developed.
A gun barrel is a crucial part of gun-type ranged weapons such as small firearms, artillery pieces and air guns.
A gun carriage is a frame and mount that supports the gun barrel of an artillery piece, allowing it to be manoeuvred and fired.
A gun chronograph is an instrument used to measure the velocity of a projectile fired by a gun.
Gun laying is the process of aiming an artillery piece, such as a gun, howitzer or mortar, on land or at sea, against surface or air targets.
A gun port is an opening in the side of the hull of a ship, above the waterline, which allows the muzzle of artillery pieces mounted on the gun deck to fire outside.
A gun turret is a location from which weapons can be fired that affords protection, visibility, and some cone of fire.
Gunpowder, also known as black powder to distinguish it from modern smokeless powder, is the earliest known chemical explosive.
The Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907 are a series of international treaties and declarations negotiated at two international peace conferences at The Hague in the Netherlands.
Hardening is a metallurgical metalworking process used to increase the hardness of a metal.
Heated shot or hot shot is round shot that is heated before firing from muzzle-loading cannons, for the purpose of setting fire to enemy warships, buildings, or equipment.
Henri-Joseph Paixhans (January 22, 1783, Metz – August 22, 1854, Jouy-aux-Arches) was a French artillery officer of the beginning of the 19th century.
Lieutenant General Henry Shrapnel (3 June 1761 – 13 March 1842) was a British Army officer whose name has entered the English language as the inventor of the shrapnel shell.
Admiral Sir Henry Trollope, GCB (20 April 1756 – 2 November 1839) was an officer of the British Royal Navy.
HMS Devastation was the first of two ''Devastation''-class mastless turret ships built for the British Royal Navy.
HMS Dreadnought was a battleship built for the Royal Navy that revolutionised naval power.
HMS Monarch was the first seagoing British warship to carry her guns in turrets, and the first British warship to carry guns of calibre.
HMS Prince Albert was designed and built as a shallow-draught coast-defence ship, and was the first British warship designed to carry her main armament in turrets.
HMS Royal Sovereign was the lead ship of the seven ships in her class of pre-dreadnought battleships built for the Royal Navy in the 1890s.
HMS Thunderer was one of two turret ships built for the Royal Navy in the 1870s.
Hobart's Funnies were a number of unusually modified tanks operated during the Second World War by the 79th Armoured Division of the British Army or by specialists from the Royal Engineers.
Horse artillery was a type of light, fast-moving, and fast-firing artillery which provided highly mobile fire support, especially to cavalry units.
A howitzer is a type of artillery piece characterized by a relatively short barrel and the use of comparatively small propellant charges to propel projectiles over relatively high trajectories, with a steep angle of descent.
Huáscar is an ironclad turret ship built in Britain for Peru in the 1860s.
Huguenots (Les huguenots) are an ethnoreligious group of French Protestants who follow the Reformed tradition.
The hull is the watertight body of a ship or boat.
The Hundred Years' War was a series of conflicts waged from 1337 to 1453 by the House of Plantagenet, rulers of the Kingdom of England, against the House of Valois, over the right to rule the Kingdom of France.
Incendiary ammunition is a type of firearm ammunition containing a compound that burns rapidly and causes fires.
Incendiary weapons, incendiary devices or incendiary bombs are weapons designed to start fires or destroy sensitive equipment using fire (and sometimes used as anti-personnel weaponry), that use materials such as napalm, thermite, magnesium powder, chlorine trifluoride, or white phosphorus.
Indirect fire is aiming and firing a projectile without relying on a direct line of sight between the gun and its target, as in the case of direct fire.
The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.
Infantry is the branch of an army that engages in military combat on foot, distinguished from cavalry, artillery, and tank forces.
An interrupted screw or interrupted thread is a mechanical device typically used in the breech of artillery guns.
An ironclad is a steam-propelled warship protected by iron or steel armor plates used in the early part of the second half of the 19th century.
Isaac Watts (1797–1876) was an early British naval architect.
The Italian Navy (Marina Militare, "Military Navy"; abbreviated as MM) is the maritime defence force of the Italian Republic.
John Ericsson (born Johan) (July 31, 1803 – March 8, 1889) was a Swedish-American inventor, active in England and the United States, and regarded as one of the most influential mechanical engineers ever.
John Arbuthnot Fisher, 1st Baron Fisher, (25 January 1841 – 10 July 1920), commonly known as Jacky or Jackie Fisher, was a British admiral known for his efforts at naval reform.
John II (Portuguese: João II,; 3 March 1455 – 25 October 1495), the Perfect Prince (o Príncipe Perfeito), was the king of Portugal and the Algarves in 1477/1481–1495.
Admiral of the Fleet John Rushworth Jellicoe, 1st Earl Jellicoe, (5 December 1859 – 20 November 1935) was a Royal Navy officer.
The Johns Hopkins University Press (also referred to as JHU Press or JHUP) is the publishing division of Johns Hopkins University.
Gaius Julius Caesar (12 or 13 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC), known by his cognomen Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician and military general who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire.
A ketch is a two-masted sailing craft whose mainmast is taller than the mizzen mast (or aft-mast).
The King George V-class battleships were the most modern British battleships in commission during World War II.
A lanyard is a cord or strap worn around the neck, shoulder, or wrist to carry such items as keys or identification cards.
Leonhard Euler (Swiss Standard German:; German Standard German:; 15 April 170718 September 1783) was a Swiss mathematician, physicist, astronomer, logician and engineer, who made important and influential discoveries in many branches of mathematics, such as infinitesimal calculus and graph theory, while also making pioneering contributions to several branches such as topology and analytic number theory.
LieutenantThe pronunciation of lieutenant is generally split between,, generally in the United Kingdom, Ireland, and Commonwealth countries, and,, generally associated with the United States.
Lieutenant general, lieutenant-general and similar (abbrev Lt Gen, LTG and similar) is a three-star military rank (NATO code OF-8) used in many countries.
In naval warfare, the line of battle is a tactic in which a naval fleet of ships forms a line end to end.
A linstock (also called a lintstock) is a staff with a fork at one end to hold a lighted slow match.
The Macedonian Front, also known as the Salonica Front (after Thessaloniki), was a military theatre of World War I formed as a result of an attempt by the Allied Powers to aid Serbia, in the fall of 1915, against the combined attack of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Bulgaria.
Malta, officially known as the Republic of Malta (Repubblika ta' Malta), is a Southern European island country consisting of an archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea.
The Mary Rose is a carrack-type warship of the English Tudor navy of King Henry VIII.
The mast of a sailing vessel is a tall spar, or arrangement of spars, erected more or less vertically on the centre-line of a ship or boat.
A mechanical calculator, or calculating machine, is a mechanical device used to perform automatically the basic operations of arithmetic.
A melee weapon, or close combat weapon, is any weapon used in direct hand-to-hand combat; by contrast with ranged weapons which act at a distance.
A merchant vessel, trading vessel or merchantman is a boat or ship that transports cargo or carries passengers for hire.
Metallurgy is a domain of materials science and engineering that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their inter-metallic compounds, and their mixtures, which are called alloys.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
A midshipman is an officer of the junior-most rank, in the Royal Navy, United States Navy, and many Commonwealth navies.
Military aviation is the use of military aircraft and other flying machines for the purposes of conducting or enabling aerial warfare, including national airlift (air cargo) capacity to provide logistical supply to forces stationed in a theater or along a front.
The Minié ball, or Minni ball, is a type of muzzle-loading spin-stabilized rifle bullet named after its co-developer, Claude-Étienne Minié, inventor of the Minié rifle.
In modern language, a missile is a guided self-propelled system, as opposed to an unguided self-propelled munition, referred to as a rocket (although these too can also be guided).
A monitor was a relatively small warship which was neither fast nor strongly armoured but carried disproportionately large guns.
A mortar is usually a simple, lightweight, man portable, muzzle-loaded weapon, consisting of a smooth-bore metal tube fixed to a base plate (to absorb recoil) with a lightweight bipod mount.
A musket is a muzzle-loaded, smoothbore long gun that appeared in early 16th century Europe, at first as a heavier variant of the arquebus, capable of penetrating heavy armor.
Muzzle velocity is the speed of a projectile at the moment it leaves the muzzle of a gun.
A muzzleloader is any firearm into which the projectile and usually the propellant charge is loaded from the muzzle of the gun (i.e., from the forward, open end of the gun's barrel).
Naval gunfire support (NGFS) (also known as shore bombardment) is the use of naval artillery to provide fire support for amphibious assault and other troops operating within their range.
A naval mine is a self-contained explosive device placed in water to damage or destroy surface ships or submarines.
A naval ship is a military ship (or sometimes boat, depending on classification) used by a navy.
Naval tactics is the collective name for methods of engaging and defeating an enemy ship or fleet in battle at sea during naval warfare, the naval equivalent of military tactics on land.
Naval warfare is combat in and on the sea, the ocean, or any other battlespace involving major body of water such as a large lake or wide river.
Nickel is a chemical element with symbol Ni and atomic number 28.
An obturating ring is a ring of relatively soft material designed to obturate under pressure to form a seal.
Operation Overlord was the codename for the Battle of Normandy, the Allied operation that launched the successful invasion of German-occupied Western Europe during World War II.
Ostend (Oostende, or; Ostende; Ostende) is a Belgian coastal city and municipality, located in the province of West Flanders.
The Otobreda 127mm/54 Compact (127/54C) gun is a dual purpose naval artillery piece built by the Italian company Oto Melara.
The Oto Melara 127/64 Lightweight (LW) naval gun mount is a rapid fire gun mount suitable for installation on large and medium size ships, intended for surface fire and naval gunfire support as main role and anti-aircraft fire as secondary role.
The Paixhans gun (French: Canon Paixhans) was the first naval gun designed to fire explosive shells.
Palliser shot was invented by Sir William Palliser and hence its name.
The word Panzer is a German word that means "armour" or specifically, "tank".
Admiral Sir Percy Moreton Scott, 1st Baronet, KCB, KCVO, LL.D (10 July 1853 – 18 October 1924) was a British Royal Navy officer and a pioneer in modern naval gunnery.
Peter L. N. Padfield (born 1932) is a British author, biographer, historian, and journalist who specializes in naval history and in the Second World War period.
The Phalanx CIWS (pronounced "sea-whiz") is a close-in weapon system for defense against antiship missiles, helicopters, etc.
Picric acid is an organic compound with the formula (O2N)3C6H2OH.
A Pierrier à boîte was an early type of small wrought iron cannon developed in the early 15th century, and a type of breech-loading swivel gun.
Piracy is an act of robbery or criminal violence by ship or boat-borne attackers upon another ship or a coastal area, typically with the goal of stealing cargo and other valuable items or properties.
Pitch is a name for any of a number of viscoelastic polymers.
Popular Science (also known as PopSci) is an American quarterly magazine carrying popular science content, which refers to articles for the general reader on science and technology subjects.
Pre-dreadnought battleships were sea-going battleships built between the mid- to late 1880s and 1905, before the launch of.
Precision engineering is a subdiscipline of electrical engineering, software engineering, electronics engineering, mechanical engineering, and optical engineering concerned with designing machines, fixtures, and other structures that have exceptionally high tolerances, are repeatable, and are stable over time.
A privateer is a private person or ship that engages in maritime warfare under a commission of war.
A prototype is an early sample, model, or release of a product built to test a concept or process or to act as a thing to be replicated or learned from.
The QF 4 inch Mk V gunMk V.
The QF 4.7 inch Gun Mks I, II, III, and IVMk I.
The QF 6 inch 40 calibre naval gun (Quick-Firing) was used by many United Kingdom-built warships around the end of the 19th century and start of the 20th century.
A quick-firing gun (in U.S. parlance, 'rapid-firing') is an artillery piece, typically a gun or howitzer, which has several characteristics which taken together mean the weapon can fire at a fast rate.
Radio is the technology of using radio waves to carry information, such as sound, by systematically modulating properties of electromagnetic energy waves transmitted through space, such as their amplitude, frequency, phase, or pulse width.
A raft is any flat structure for support or transportation over water.
A railgun is a device that uses electromagnetic force to launch high velocity projectiles, by means of a sliding armature that is accelerated along a pair of conductive rails.
Rate of fire is the frequency at which a specific weapon can fire or launch its projectiles.
The Armstrong Breech Loading 12 pounder 8 cwt, later known as RBL 12 pounder 8 cwt, was an early modern 3-inch rifled breech-loading field gun of 1859.
Recoil (often called knockback, kickback or simply kick) is the backward movement of a gun when it is discharged.
In firearms, rifling is the helical groove pattern that is machined into the internal (bore) surface of a gun's barrel, for the purpose of exerting torque and thus imparting a spin to a projectile around its longitudinal axis during shooting.
Rigging comprises the system of ropes, cables and chains, which support a sailing ship or sail boat's masts—standing rigging, including shrouds and stays—and which adjust the position of the vessel's sails and spars to which they are attached—the running rigging, including halyards, braces, sheets and vangs.
General Robert Melvill (or Melville) LLD (12 October 1723 – 29 August 1809) was a Scottish soldier, antiquary, botanist and inventor.
A rocket (from Italian rocchetto "bobbin") is a missile, spacecraft, aircraft or other vehicle that obtains thrust from a rocket engine.
A rocket engine uses stored rocket propellant mass for forming its high-speed propulsive jet.
A round shot (or solid shot, or a cannonball, or simply ball) is a solid projectile without explosive charge, fired from a cannon.
Rowing is the act of propelling a boat using the motion of oars in the water, displacing water, and propelling the boat forward.
The Royal Regiment of Artillery, commonly referred to as the Royal Artillery (RA) and colloquially known as "The Gunners", is the artillery arm of the British Army.
The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force.
The F124 Sachsen class is Germany's latest class of highly advanced air-defense frigates.
Salerno (Salernitano: Salierne) is a city and comune in Campania (southwestern Italy) and is the capital of the province of the same name.
A salvo is the simultaneous discharge of artillery or firearms including the firing of guns either to hit a target or to perform a salute.
The Sea of Marmara (Marmara Denizi), also known as the Sea of Marmora or the Marmara Sea, and in the context of classical antiquity as the Propontis is the inland sea, entirely within the borders of Turkey, that connects the Black Sea to the Aegean Sea, thus separating Turkey's Asian and European parts.
Seamanship is the art of operating a ship or boat.
Sectional density is the ratio of an object's mass to its cross-sectional area with respect to a given axis.
In British politics, parliamentary select committees can be appointed from the House of Commons, like the Foreign Affairs Select Committee, from the House of Lords, like the Delegated Powers and Regulatory Reform Committee, or as a "Joint Committee" drawn from both, such as the Joint Committee on Human Rights.
Sevastopol Bay (Севастопольська бухта; Севастопольская бухта) is a city harbor that includes a series of smaller bays carved out its shores.
The Seven Years' War was a global conflict fought between 1756 and 1763.
A shell is a payload-carrying projectile that, as opposed to shot, contains an explosive or other filling, though modern usage sometimes includes large solid projectiles properly termed shot.
A ship of the line was a type of naval warship constructed from the 17th through to the mid-19th century to take part in the naval tactic known as the line of battle, in which two columns of opposing warships would manoeuvre to bring the greatest weight of broadside firepower to bear.
A shotgun (also known as a scattergun, or historically as a fowling piece) is a firearm that is usually designed to be fired from the shoulder, which uses the energy of a fixed shell to fire a number of small spherical pellets called shot, or a solid projectile called a slug.
A shotgun shell is a self-contained cartridge typically loaded with multiple metallic "shot", which are small, generally spherical projectiles.
Shrapnel shells were anti-personnel artillery munitions which carried a large number of individual bullets close to the target and then ejected them to allow them to continue along the shell's trajectory and strike the target individually.
The Siege of Calais (4 September 1346 – 3 August 1347) occurred when an English army under the command of King Edward III of England successfully besieged the French garrison of Calais.
The Siege of Taganrog is a name given in some Russian histories to Anglo-French naval operations in the northeastern part of the Sea of Azov between June and October 1855 during the Crimean War.
Rear Admiral Sir Charles Douglas, 1st Baronet of Carr (1727 – 17 March 1789) was a descendant of the Earls of Morton and a distinguished British naval officer.
Smokeless powder is the name given to a number of propellants used in firearms and artillery that produce negligible smoke when fired, unlike the black powder they replaced.
A smoothbore weapon is one that has a barrel without rifling.
Squid was a British World War II ship-mounted anti-submarine weapon.
Steam donkey, or donkey engine, is the common nickname for a steam-powered winch, or logging engine, widely used in past logging operations, though not limited to logging.
Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon and other elements.
Stepan Osipovich Makarov (Степа́н О́сипович Мака́ров; –) was a Russian vice-admiral, a highly accomplished and decorated commander of the Imperial Russian Navy, an oceanographer, awarded by the Russian Academy of Sciences, and author of several books.
Structure is an arrangement and organization of interrelated elements in a material object or system, or the object or system so organized.
A submarine (or simply sub) is a watercraft capable of independent operation underwater.
The term swivel gun usually refers to a small cannon, mounted on a swiveling stand or fork which allows a very wide arc of movement.
Taganrog (p) is a port city in Rostov Oblast, Russia, located on the north shore of the Taganrog Bay in the Sea of Azov, several kilometers west of the mouth of the Don River.
Technology and Culture is a quarterly academic journal founded in 1959.
A telescope is an optical instrument that aids in the observation of remote objects by collecting electromagnetic radiation (such as visible light).
A modern torpedo is a self-propelled weapon with an explosive warhead, launched above or below the water surface, propelled underwater towards a target, and designed to detonate either on contact with its target or in proximity to it.
A torpedo boat is a relatively small and fast naval ship designed to carry torpedoes into battle.
The Tudor period is the period between 1485 and 1603 in England and Wales and includes the Elizabethan period during the reign of Elizabeth I until 1603.
Turret ships were a 19th-century type of warship, the earliest to have their guns mounted in a revolving gun turret, instead of a broadside arrangement.
The twelve-pound cannon is a cannon that fires twelve-pound projectiles from its barrel, as well as grapeshot, chainshot, shrapnel, and later shells and canister shot.
The U-boat Campaign from 1914 to 1918 was the World War I naval campaign fought by German U-boats against the trade routes of the Allies.
The Ukrainian Naval Forces (Військово-Морські Сили України, ВМСУ, Viys’kovo-Mors’ki Syly Ukrayiny, VMSU) is the navy of Ukraine and part of the Armed Forces of Ukraine.
The United States Navy (USN) is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States.
USS Monitor was an iron-hulled steamship.
Vittorio Emanuele Cuniberti (1854 – 1913) was an Italian military officer and naval engineer who envisioned the concept of the all big gun battleship, best exemplified by HMS ''Dreadnought''.
Wadding is a disc of material used in guns to seal gas behind a projectile or to separate powder for shot.
A warrant officer (WO) is an officer in a military organisation who is designated an officer by a warrant, as distinguished from a commissioned officer who is designated an officer by a commission, and a non-commissioned officer who is designated an officer, often by virtue of seniority.
A warship is a naval ship that is built and primarily intended for naval warfare.
A weapon, arm or armament is any device used with intent to inflict damage or harm.
A weapon mount is a weapon component used to affix an armament for stabilization.
Whale Island is a small island in Portsmouth Harbour, close by Portsea Island.
William George Armstrong, 1st Baron Armstrong (26 November 1810 – 27 December 1900) was an English industrialist who founded the Armstrong Whitworth manufacturing concern on Tyneside.
Major Sir William Palliser CB MP (18 June 1830 – 4 February 1882) was an Irish-born politician and inventor, Member of Parliament for Taunton from 1880 until his death.
William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin, (26 June 1824 – 17 December 1907) was a Scots-Irish mathematical physicist and engineer who was born in Belfast in 1824.
Woolwich is a district of south-east London, England, within the Royal Borough of Greenwich.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
puddled iron, a form of wrought iron Wrought iron is an iron alloy with a very low carbon (less than 0.08%) content in contrast to cast iron (2.1% to 4%).
The were battleships of the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) constructed and operated during World War II.
Zeebrugge (from: Brugge aan zee meaning "Bruges on Sea", Zeebruges) is a village on the coast of Belgium and a subdivision of Bruges, for which it is the modern port.
12-pounder gun or 12-pdr, usually denotes a gun which fired a projectile of approximately 12 pounds.
The 12-pounder long gun was an intermediary calibre piece of artillery mounted on warships of the Age of sail.
The 18-pounder long gun was an intermediary calibre piece of artillery mounted on warships of the Age of sail.
The 24-pounder long gun was a heavy calibre piece of artillery mounted on warships of the Age of sail, second only to the 36-pounder long gun.
The 36-pounder long gun was the largest piece of artillery mounted on French warships of the Age of Sail.
The Japanese was the biggest naval gun used by battleships in World War II.