153 relations: Acapulco, Africa, Age of Discovery, Algorithm, Altitude, Americas, Amplitude modulation, Andrés de Urdaneta, Antenna (radio), Archipendulum, Artes Mechanicae, Asia, Astrolabe, Atlantic Ocean, Bartolomeu Dias, BeiDou Navigation Satellite System, Bowditch's American Practical Navigator, Bridge (nautical), Cartography, Catholic Monarchs, Celestial navigation, CHAYKA, China, Christopher Columbus, Circle of equal altitude, Classical antiquity, Code of Federal Regulations, Compass, Dead reckoning, Decca Navigator System, Degree (angle), Depth sounding, Earthquake, East Indies, Echo sounding, Egyptian pyramids, Electronics, Equator, European Union, Ferdinand Magellan, Fix (position), Galileo (satellite navigation), Geographic coordinate system, Germany, Global Positioning System, GLONASS, Greenwich Mean Time, Guam, Hellenistic period, Hertz, ..., Human error, Hydrography, Hyperbola, Ice navigation, India, Indian Ocean, Inertial navigation system, International Maritime Organization, Islamic Golden Age, Japan, Jargon, Juan Sebastián Elcano, Kingdom of Majorca, Kuroshio Current, Landmark, Latin, Latitude, Leeway, Lighthouse, Line-of-sight propagation, List of selected stars for navigation, Longitude, Loran-C, Low frequency, Lunar distance (navigation), Magellan–Elcano circumnavigation, Maluku Islands, Map, Marine chronometer, Mariner's astrolabe, Maritime pilot, Marshall Islands stick chart, Martín Cortés de Albacar, Medium Earth orbit, Moon, Mooring (watercraft), Morse code, Multilateration, Nautical almanac, Nautical chart, Navigator, New York City, North Pole, Oil platform, Omega (navigation system), Orienteering, Pacific Ocean, Philippines, Piloting (navigation), Planet, Polaris, Polynesian navigation, Portuguese discoveries, Portuguese Empire, Position fixing, Position line, Prime meridian, Prime meridian (Greenwich), Prime vertical, Prince Henry the Navigator, Public good, Radar navigation, Radio, Radio direction finder, Radio navigation, Radio Navigational Aids, Ramon Llull, Risk management, Robot navigation, Russia, Sanlúcar de Barrameda, Satellite, Satellite constellation, Satellite navigation, Sea captain, Settlement of the Americas, Sextant, Shortest path problem, Smartphone, South America, South Pole, Spain, Spherical trigonometry, Sun, Surveying, Sydney, Synchronization, The Stationery Office, Time signal, Time transfer, TVMDC, UGM-27 Polaris, United States, United States Air Force, United States Department of Defense, United States dollar, Vasco da Gama, Wayfinding, World War II, 151st meridian east, 180th meridian, 50th Space Wing, 74th meridian west. Expand index (103 more) » « Shrink index
Acapulco de Juárez, commonly called Acapulco, is a city, municipality and major seaport in the state of Guerrero on the Pacific coast of Mexico, south of Mexico City.
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).
The Age of Discovery, or the Age of Exploration (approximately from the beginning of the 15th century until the end of the 18th century) is an informal and loosely defined term for the period in European history in which extensive overseas exploration emerged as a powerful factor in European culture and was the beginning of globalization.
In mathematics and computer science, an algorithm is an unambiguous specification of how to solve a class of problems.
Altitude or height (sometimes known as depth) is defined based on the context in which it is used (aviation, geometry, geographical survey, sport, atmospheric pressure, and many more).
The Americas (also collectively called America)"America." The Oxford Companion to the English Language.
Amplitude modulation (AM) is a modulation technique used in electronic communication, most commonly for transmitting information via a radio carrier wave.
Friar Andrés de Urdaneta, OSA, (November 30, 1498 – June 3, 1568) was a Spanish Basque circumnavigator, explorer and Augustinian friar.
In radio, an antenna is the interface between radio waves propagating through space and electric currents moving in metal conductors, used with a transmitter or receiver.
The archipendulum is an ancient ancestor of the spirit level and astrolabe, and was used to check whether a line was horizontal or at a desired inclination.
Artes Mechanicae or mechanical arts, are a medieval concept of ordered practices or skills, often juxtaposed to the traditional seven liberal arts Artes liberales.
Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.
An astrolabe (ἀστρολάβος astrolabos; ٱلأَسْطُرلاب al-Asturlāb; اَختِرِیاب Akhteriab) is an elaborate inclinometer, historically used by astronomers and navigators to measure the inclined position in the sky of a celestial body, day or night.
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about.
Bartolomeu Dias (Anglicized: Bartholomew Diaz; c. 1450 – 29 May 1500), a nobleman of the Portuguese royal household, was a Portuguese explorer.
The BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) is a Chinese satellite navigation system.
The American Practical Navigator (colloquially often referred to as Bowditch), originally written by Nathaniel Bowditch, is an encyclopedia of navigation.
The bridge of a ship is the room or platform from which the ship can be commanded.
Cartography (from Greek χάρτης chartēs, "papyrus, sheet of paper, map"; and γράφειν graphein, "write") is the study and practice of making maps.
The Catholic Monarchs is the joint title used in history for Queen Isabella I of Castile and King Ferdinand II of Aragon.
Celestial navigation, also known as astronavigation, is the ancient and modern practice of position fixing that enables a navigator to transition through a space without having to rely on estimated calculations, or dead reckoning, to know their position.
Chayka (Чайка, lit. "seagull") is a Russian terrestrial radio navigation system, similar to LORAN-C. It operates on similar frequencies around 100 kHz, and uses the same techniques of comparing both the envelope and the signal phase to accurately determine location.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Christopher Columbus (before 31 October 145120 May 1506) was an Italian explorer, navigator, and colonizer.
The circle of equal altitude also called circle of position, CoP, is the real line of position in celestial navigation.
Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.
The Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) is the codification of the general and permanent rules and regulations (sometimes called administrative law) published in the Federal Register by the executive departments and agencies of the federal government of the United States.
A compass is an instrument used for navigation and orientation that shows direction relative to the geographic cardinal directions (or points).
In navigation, dead reckoning is the process of calculating one's current position by using a previously determined position, or fix, and advancing that position based upon known or estimated speeds over elapsed time and course.
The Decca Navigator System was a hyperbolic radio navigation system which allowed ships and aircraft to determine their position by receiving radio signals from fixed navigational beacons.
A degree (in full, a degree of arc, arc degree, or arcdegree), usually denoted by ° (the degree symbol), is a measurement of a plane angle, defined so that a full rotation is 360 degrees.
Depth sounding refers to the act of measuring depth.
An earthquake (also known as a quake, tremor or temblor) is the shaking of the surface of the Earth, resulting from the sudden release of energy in the Earth's lithosphere that creates seismic waves.
The East Indies or the Indies are the lands of South and Southeast Asia.
Echo sounding is a type of sonar used to determine the depth of water by transmitting sound pulses into water.
The Egyptian pyramids are ancient pyramid-shaped masonry structures located in Egypt.
Electronics is the discipline dealing with the development and application of devices and systems involving the flow of electrons in a vacuum, in gaseous media, and in semiconductors.
An equator of a rotating spheroid (such as a planet) is its zeroth circle of latitude (parallel).
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
Ferdinand Magellan (or; Fernão de Magalhães,; Fernando de Magallanes,; c. 1480 – 27 April 1521) was a Portuguese explorer who organised the Spanish expedition to the East Indies from 1519 to 1522, resulting in the first circumnavigation of the Earth, completed by Juan Sebastián Elcano.
In position fixing navigation, a position fix (PF) or simply a fix is a position derived from measuring external reference points.
Galileo is the global navigation satellite system (GNSS) that is being created by the European Union (EU) through the European Space Agency (ESA), headquartered in Prague in the Czech Republic, with two ground operations centres, Oberpfaffenhofen near Munich in Germany and Fucino in Italy.
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
The Global Positioning System (GPS), originally Navstar GPS, is a satellite-based radionavigation system owned by the United States government and operated by the United States Air Force.
GLONASS (ГЛОНАСС,; Глобальная навигационная спутниковая система; transliteration), or "Global Navigation Satellite System", is a space-based satellite navigation system operating in the radionavigation-satellite service.
Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) is the mean solar time at the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, London.
Guam (Chamorro: Guåhån) is an unincorporated and organized territory of the United States in Micronesia in the western Pacific Ocean.
The Hellenistic period covers the period of Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the subsequent conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt the following year.
The hertz (symbol: Hz) is the derived unit of frequency in the International System of Units (SI) and is defined as one cycle per second.
Human error has been cited as a primary cause contributing factor in disasters and accidents in industries as diverse as nuclear power (e.g., the Three Mile Island accident), aviation (see pilot error), space exploration (e.g., the Space Shuttle Challenger Disaster and Space Shuttle Columbia disaster), and medicine (see medical error).
Hydrography is the branch of applied sciences which deals with the measurement and description of the physical features of oceans, seas, coastal areas, lakes and rivers, as well as with the prediction of their change over time, for the primary purpose of safety of navigation and in support of all other marine activities, including economic development, security and defence, scientific research, and environmental protection.
In mathematics, a hyperbola (plural hyperbolas or hyperbolae) is a type of smooth curve lying in a plane, defined by its geometric properties or by equations for which it is the solution set.
Ice navigation is a specialist area of navigation involving the use of maritime skills to determine and monitor the position of ships in cold waters, where ice is a hazard to the safety of navigation.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering (approximately 20% of the water on the Earth's surface).
An inertial navigation system (INS) is a navigation aid that uses a computer, motion sensors (accelerometers), rotation sensors (gyroscopes), and occasionally magnetic sensors (magnetometers) to continuously calculate by dead reckoning the position, the orientation, and the velocity (direction and speed of movement) of a moving object without the need for external references.
The International Maritime Organization (IMO), known as the Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization (IMCO) until 1982, is a specialised agency of the United Nations responsible for regulating shipping.
The Islamic Golden Age is the era in the history of Islam, traditionally dated from the 8th century to the 14th century, during which much of the historically Islamic world was ruled by various caliphates, and science, economic development and cultural works flourished.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
Jargon is a type of language that is used in a particular context and may not be well understood outside that context.
Juan Sebastián Elcano (sometimes misspelled del Cano; c.14864 August 1526) was a Spanish explorer of Basque origin who completed the first circumnavigation of the Earth.
The Kingdom of Majorca (Regne de Mallorca,; Reino de Mallorca; Regnum Maioricae) was founded by James I of Aragon, also known as James The Conqueror.
The is a north-flowing ocean current on the west side of the North Pacific Ocean.
A landmark is a recognizable natural or artificial feature used for navigation, a feature that stands out from its near environment and is often visible from long distances.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
In geography, latitude is a geographic coordinate that specifies the north–south position of a point on the Earth's surface.
Leeway is the amount of drift motion to leeward of an object floating in the water caused by the component of the wind vector that is perpendicular to the object’s forward motion.
A lighthouse is a tower, building, or other type of structure designed to emit light from a system of lamps and lenses and to serve as a navigational aid for maritime pilots at sea or on inland waterways.
Line-of-sight propagation is a characteristic of electromagnetic radiation or acoustic wave propagation which means waves travel in a direct path from the source to the receiver.
Fifty-eight selected navigational stars are given a special status in the field of celestial navigation.
Longitude, is a geographic coordinate that specifies the east-west position of a point on the Earth's surface.
Loran-C was a hyperbolic radio navigation system which allowed a receiver to determine its position by listening to low frequency radio signals transmitted by fixed land-based radio beacons.
Low frequency (low freq) or LF is the ITU designation for radio frequencies (RF) in the range of 30 kilohertz (kHz)–300 kHz.
In celestial navigation, lunar distance is the angular distance between the Moon and another celestial body.
The Magellan–Elcano circumnavigation was the first voyage around the world in human history.
The Maluku Islands or the Moluccas are an archipelago within Banda Sea, Indonesia.
A map is a symbolic depiction emphasizing relationships between elements of some space, such as objects, regions, or themes.
A marine chronometer is a timepiece that is precise and accurate enough to be used as a portable time standard; it can therefore be used to determine longitude by means of celestial navigation.
The mariner's astrolabe, also called sea astrolabe, was an inclinometer used to determine the latitude of a ship at sea by measuring the sun's noon altitude (declination) or the meridian altitude of a star of known declination.
A maritime pilot, also known as a marine pilot, harbor pilot or bar pilot and sometimes simply called a pilot, is a sailor who maneuvers ships through dangerous or congested waters, such as harbors or river mouths.
Stick charts were made and used by the Marshallese to navigate the Pacific Ocean by canoe off the coast of the Marshall Islands.
Martín Cortés de Albacar (1510–1582) was a Spanish cosmographer.
Medium Earth orbit (MEO), sometimes called intermediate circular orbit (ICO), is the region of space around Earth above low Earth orbit (altitude of above sea level) and below geostationary orbit (altitude of above sea level).
The Moon is an astronomical body that orbits planet Earth and is Earth's only permanent natural satellite.
A mooring refers to any permanent structure to which a vessel may be secured.
Morse code is a method of transmitting text information as a series of on-off tones, lights, or clicks that can be directly understood by a skilled listener or observer without special equipment.
Multilateration (MLAT) is a surveillance technique based on the measurement of the difference in distance to two stations at known locations by broadcast signals at known times.
A nautical almanac is a publication describing the positions of a selection of celestial bodies for the purpose of enabling navigators to use celestial navigation to determine the position of their ship while at sea.
A nautical chart is a graphic representation of a maritime area and adjacent coastal regions.
A navigator is the person on board a ship or aircraft responsible for its navigation.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
The North Pole, also known as the Geographic North Pole or Terrestrial North Pole, is (subject to the caveats explained below) defined as the point in the Northern Hemisphere where the Earth's axis of rotation meets its surface.
An oil platform, offshore platform, or offshore drilling rig is a large structure with facilities for well drilling to explore, extract, store, process petroleum and natural gas which lies in rock formations beneath the seabed.
OMEGA was the first global-range radio navigation system, operated by the United States in cooperation with six partner nations.
Orienteering is a group of sports that requires navigational skills using a map and compass to navigate from point to point in diverse and usually unfamiliar terrain whilst moving at speed.
The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions.
The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.
Piloting (on water) or pilotage (in the air also British English) or land navigation is navigating, using fixed points of reference on the sea or on land, usually with reference to a nautical chart, aeronautical chart or topographic map, to obtain a fix of the position of the vessel, aircraft or land traveler with respect to a desired course or location.
A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star or stellar remnant that is massive enough to be rounded by its own gravity, is not massive enough to cause thermonuclear fusion, and has cleared its neighbouring region of planetesimals.
Polaris, designated Alpha Ursae Minoris (Ursae Minoris, abbreviated Alpha UMi, UMi), commonly the North Star or Pole Star, is the brightest star in the constellation of Ursa Minor.
Traditional Polynesian navigation was used for thousands of years to make long voyages across thousands of miles of the open Pacific Ocean.
Portuguese discoveries (Portuguese: Descobrimentos portugueses) are the numerous territories and maritime routes discovered by the Portuguese as a result of their intensive maritime exploration during the 15th and 16th centuries.
The Portuguese Empire (Império Português), also known as the Portuguese Overseas (Ultramar Português) or the Portuguese Colonial Empire (Império Colonial Português), was one of the largest and longest-lived empires in world history and the first colonial empire of the Renaissance.
Position fixing is the branch of navigation concerned with the use of a variety of visual and electronic methods to determine the position of a vehicle or person on the surface of the Earth.
A position line is a line that can be identified both on a nautical chart or aeronautical chart and by observation out on the surface of the earth.
A prime meridian is a meridian (a line of longitude) in a geographic coordinate system at which longitude is defined to be 0°.
A prime meridian, based at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, in London, England, was established by Sir George Airy in 1851.
In astronomy and astrology, the prime vertical is the vertical circle passing east and west through the zenith of a specific location, and intersecting the horizon in its east and west points.
Infante D. Henrique of Portugal, Duke of Viseu (4 March 1394 – 13 November 1460), better known as Prince Henry the Navigator (Infante Dom Henrique, o Navegador), was a central figure in the early days of the Portuguese Empire and in the 15th-century European maritime discoveries and maritime expansion.
In economics, a public good is a good that is both non-excludable and non-rivalrous in that individuals cannot be effectively excluded from use and where use by one individual does not reduce availability to others.
Marine and aviation radar systems can provide very useful navigation information in a variety of situations.
Radio is the technology of using radio waves to carry information, such as sound, by systematically modulating properties of electromagnetic energy waves transmitted through space, such as their amplitude, frequency, phase, or pulse width.
A radio direction finder (RDF) is a device for finding the direction, or ''bearing'', to a radio source.
Radio navigation or radionavigation is the application of radio frequencies to determine a position of an object on the Earth.
The Radio Navigational Aids (Publication 117) publication contains a detailed list of selected worldwide radio stations that provide services to the mariner.
Ramon Llull, T.O.S.F. (c. 1232 – c. 1315; Anglicised Raymond Lully, Raymond Lull; in Latin Raimundus or Raymundus Lullus or Lullius) was a philosopher, logician, Franciscan tertiary and Spanish writer.
Risk management is the identification, evaluation, and prioritization of risks (defined in ISO 31000 as the effect of uncertainty on objectives) followed by coordinator and economical application of resources to minimize, monitor, and control the probability or impact of unfortunate events or to maximize the realization of opportunities.
For any mobile device, the ability to navigate in its environment is important.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
Sanlúcar de Barrameda, or simply Sanlúcar, is a city in the northwest of Cádiz province, part of the autonomous community of Andalucía in southern Spain.
In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an artificial object which has been intentionally placed into orbit.
A satellite constellation is a group of artificial satellites working in concert.
A satellite navigation or satnav system is a system that uses satellites to provide autonomous geo-spatial positioning.
A sea captain, ship's captain, captain, master, or shipmaster, is a high-grade licensed mariner in ultimate command of the merchant vessel.
Paleolithic hunter-gatherers first entered North America from the North Asian Mammoth steppe via the Beringia land bridge which had formed between northeastern Siberia and western Alaska due to the lowering of sea level during the Last Glacial Maximum.
A sextant is a doubly reflecting navigation instrument that measures the angular distance between two visible objects.
In graph theory, the shortest path problem is the problem of finding a path between two vertices (or nodes) in a graph such that the sum of the weights of its constituent edges is minimized.
A smartphone is a handheld personal computer with a mobile operating system and an integrated mobile broadband cellular network connection for voice, SMS, and Internet data communication; most, if not all, smartphones also support Wi-Fi.
South America is a continent in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere.
The South Pole, also known as the Geographic South Pole or Terrestrial South Pole, is one of the two points where the Earth's axis of rotation intersects its surface.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
Spherical trigonometry is the branch of spherical geometry that deals with the relationships between trigonometric functions of the sides and angles of the spherical polygons (especially spherical triangles) defined by a number of intersecting great circles on the sphere.
The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System.
Surveying or land surveying is the technique, profession, and science of determining the terrestrial or three-dimensional positions of points and the distances and angles between them.
Sydney is the state capital of New South Wales and the most populous city in Australia and Oceania.
Synchronization is the coordination of events to operate a system in unison.
The Stationery Office (TSO) is a British publishing company created in 1996 when the publishing arm of Her Majesty's Stationery Office was privatised.
A time signal is a visible, audible, mechanical, or electronic signal used as a reference to determine the time of day.
Time transfer is a scheme where multiple sites share a precise reference time.
TVMDC is a method for converting true, magnetic and compass headings.
The UGM-27 Polaris missile was a two-stage solid-fueled nuclear-armed submarine-launched ballistic missile.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Air Force (USAF) is the aerial and space warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.
The Department of Defense (DoD, USDOD, or DOD) is an executive branch department of the federal government of the United States charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government concerned directly with national security and the United States Armed Forces.
The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.
Vasco da Gama, 1st Count of Vidigueira (c. 1460s – 24 December 1524), was a Portuguese explorer and the first European to reach India by sea.
Wayfinding encompasses all of the ways in which people (and animals) orient themselves in physical space and navigate from place to place.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
The meridian 151° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Asia, the Pacific Ocean, Australasia, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
The 180th meridian or antimeridian is the meridian 180° east or west of the Prime Meridian, with which it forms a great circle dividing the earth into the Western and Eastern Hemispheres.
The 50th Space Wing is a wing of the United States Air Force under the major command of Air Force Space Command.
The meridian 74° west of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, North America, the Atlantic Ocean, the Caribbean Sea, South America, the Pacific Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
Estimated position, House Navigation System, Integrated bridge system, Marine navigation, Nautical, Nautical navigation, Nautical science, Navegation, Navigare, Navigate, Navigational, SAILING NAVIGATION MODERN/OLD, Sailing navigation, Ship navigation, Ship position, Ship positioning, Ship's position.