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Abstract art uses a visual language of shape, form, color and line to create a composition which may exist with a degree of independence from visual references in the world.
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Action T4 (Aktion T4) was the postwar designation for a programme of forced euthanasia in wartime Nazi Germany.
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Following the suppression of the individual Länder (states) of Weimar Germany in 1934, the Gaue (Singular: Gau) were the de facto administrative sub-divisions of Nazi Germany.
Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was an Austrian-born German politician who was the leader of the Nazi Party (NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945, and Führer ("leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.
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founding was based on Robert Ley's plan to erect a "Gauburg" (citadel) in every Gau, thereby creating an NSDAP school system.
The Afrika Korps or German Africa Corps (Deutsches Afrikakorps, DAK) was the German expeditionary force in Africa during the North African Campaign of World War II.
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Berthold Konrad Hermann Albert Speer (March 19, 1905 – September 1, 1981) was a German architect who was, for a part of World War II, Minister of Armaments and War Production for Nazi Germany.
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Alfred Ernst Rosenberg (Альфред Вольдемарович Розенберг, Alfred Voldyemarovich Rozenberg; 12 January 1893 – 16 October 1946) was a Baltic German philosopher and an influential ideologue of the Nazi Party.
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The Allied Control Council or Allied Control Authority, known in the German language as the Alliierter Kontrollrat and also referred to as the Four Powers (German: Vier Mächte), was a military occupation governing body of the Allied Occupation Zones in Germany after the end of World War II in Europe.
The Allied powers who defeated Nazi Germany in World War II asserted governmental authority over all territory of the German Reich which lay west of the Oder–Neisse line, having formally abolished the German government of Adolf Hitler.
The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that opposed the Axis powers together during the Second World War (1939–1945).
The Imperial Territory of Alsace-Lorraine (Reichsland Elsaß-Lothringen or Elsass-Lothringen) was a territory created by the German Empire in 1871 after it annexed most of Alsace and the Moselle department of Lorraine following its victory in the Franco-Prussian War.
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Ancient Roman architecture developed different aspects of Ancient Greek architecture and newer technologies such as the arch and the dome to make a new architectural style.
The Anglo-German Naval Agreement of June 18, 1935, was a naval agreement between Britain and Germany regulating the size of the Kriegsmarine in relation to the Royal Navy.
The Anschluss (or Connection) was the Nazi propaganda term for the invasion and forced incorporation of Austria by Nazi Germany in March 1938.
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The Anti-Comintern Pact was an anti-communist pact concluded between Nazi Germany and the Empire of Japan (later to be joined by other, mainly fascist, governments) on November 25, 1936 and was directed against the Third (Communist) International.
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After German doctors became the first to identify the link between smoking and lung cancer, Germany initiated a strong anti-tobacco movement and led the first public anti-smoking campaign in modern history.
Antisemitism (also spelled anti-Semitism or anti-semitism) is prejudice against, hatred of, or discrimination against Jews as an ethnic, religious, or racial group.
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The Arc de Triomphe de l'Étoile (Triumphal Arch of the Star) is one of the most famous monuments in Paris.
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There were many areas annexed by Nazi Germany both immediately before and throughout the course of World War II.
Army Group Center (Heeresgruppe Mitte) was the name of two distinct German strategic army groups that fought on the Eastern Front in World War II.
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Arthur Moeller van den Bruck (April 23, 1876 – May 30, 1925) was a German cultural historian and writer, best known for his controversial 1923 book Das Dritte Reich (The Third Reich), which promoted German nationalism and was a strong influence on the Conservative Revolutionary movement and later the National Socialist German Workers' Party.
The Aryan race was a racial grouping commonly used in the period of the late 19th century to the mid 20th century to describe peoples of European and Western Asian heritage.
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Atonality in its broadest sense is music that lacks a tonal center, or key.
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The attack on Pearl Harbor was a surprise military strike by the Imperial Japanese Navy against the United States naval base at Pearl Harbor, in the United States Territory of Hawaii, on the morning of December 7, 1941.
Auschwitz concentration camp (Konzentrationslager Auschwitz, also KZ Auschwitz) was a network of German Nazi concentration camps and extermination camps built and operated by the Third Reich in Polish areas annexed by Nazi Germany during World War II.
The Axis powers (Achsenmächte, 枢軸国 Sūjikukoku, Potenze dell'Asse), also known as the Axis, were the nations that fought in the Second World War against the Allied forces.
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The balance of payments, also known as balance of international payments and abbreviated BoP or BP, of a country is the record of all economic transactions between the residents of the country and the rest of the world in a particular period (over a quarter of a year or more commonly over a year).
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The commercial balance or net exports (sometimes symbolized as NX), is the difference between the monetary value of exports and imports of output in an economy over a certain period, measured in the currency of that economy.
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Baldur Benedikt von Schirach (9 May 1907 – 8 August 1974) was a Nazi youth leader later convicted of crimes against humanity.
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The terms Baltic region, Baltic Rim countries, and Baltic Rim refer to slightly different combinations of countries in the general area surrounding the Baltic Sea.
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The Battle of Belgium or Belgian Campaign, often referred to within Belgium as the 18 Days' Campaign (Campagne des 18 jours, Achttiendaagse Veldtocht), formed part of the greater Battle of France, an offensive campaign by Germany during the Second World War.
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The Battle of Berlin, designated the Berlin Strategic Offensive Operation by the Soviet Union, was the final major offensive of the European theatre of World War II.
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The Battle of Britain (German: Luftschlacht um England, literally "Air battle for England") is the name given to the Second World War air campaign waged by the German Air Force (Luftwaffe) against the United Kingdom during the summer and autumn of 1940.
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The Battle of France, also known as the Fall of France, was the German invasion of France and the Low Countries during the Second World War, beginning on 10 May 1940, defeating primarily French forces.
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The Battle of Greece (also known as Operation Marita, Unternehmen Marita) is the common name for the invasion of Greece by Germany in April 1941.
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The Battle of Kursk was a Second World War engagement between German and Soviet forces on the Eastern Front near Kursk (south-west of Moscow) in the Soviet Union during July and August 1943.
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The Battle of Moscow (Битва за Москву) is the name given by Soviet historians to two periods of strategically significant fighting on a sector of the Eastern Front during World War II.
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The First Battle of Smolensk was the first major battle during Operation Barbarossa in World War II that significantly delayed the advance of Hitler's Wehrmacht in the USSR.
The Battle of Stalingrad (23 August 1942 – 2 February 1943) was a major battle of World War II in which Nazi Germany and its allies fought the Soviet Union for control of the city of Stalingrad (now Volgograd) in Southern Russia, on the eastern boundary of Europe.
The Battle of the Bulge (16 December 1944 – 25 January 1945) was a major German offensive campaign launched through the densely forested Ardennes region of Wallonia in Belgium, France, and Luxembourg on the Western Front toward the end of World War II in Europe.
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The Battle of the Netherlands (Slag om Nederland) was part of Case Yellow (Fall Gelb), the German invasion of the Low Countries (Belgium, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands) and France during World War II.
The Bavarian People's Party (Bayerische Volkspartei; BVP) was the Bavarian branch of the Centre Party, a lay Roman Catholic party, which broke off from the rest of the party in 1918 to pursue a more conservative, more Bavarian particularist course.
The Bayreuth Festival (Bayreuther Festspiele) is a music festival held annually in Bayreuth, Germany, at which performances of operas by the 19th-century German composer Richard Wagner are presented.
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The Beer Hall Putsch, also known as the Munich Putsch,Dan Moorhouse, ed.
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Belarus (Белару́сь, tr.,; bʲɪlɐˈrusʲ), officially the Republic of Belarus, is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe bordered by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest.
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Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (29 July 1883 – 28 April 1945) was an Italian politician, journalist, and leader of the National Fascist Party, ruling the country as Prime Minister from 1922 until his ousting in 1943.
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By the Berlin Declaration of June 5, 1945, (officially the "Declaration regarding the defeat of Germany and the assumption of supreme authority with respect to Germany by the Governments of the United States of America, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the United Kingdom and the Provisional Government of the French Republic"), the Allies of World War II assumed "supreme authority" over German territory; and basic administrative issues were addressed.
Berlin: The Downfall 1945 (aka The Fall of Berlin 1945 in the US) is a narrative history by Antony Beevor of the Battle of Berlin during World War II.
Field Marshal Bernard Law Montgomery, 1st Viscount Montgomery of Alamein, (17 November 1887 – 24 March 1976), nicknamed "Monty" and the "Spartan General", was a senior officer of the British Army.
Bernhard Rust (30 September 1883 in Hanover – 8 May 1945) was Minister of Science, Education and National Culture (Reichserziehungsminister) in Nazi Germany.
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Blitzkrieg (German, "lightning war") is an anglicised term, describing a method of warfare, whereby an attacking force spearheaded by a dense concentration of armoured and motorized or mechanized infantry formations with close air support, breaks through the opponent's line of defense by short, fast, powerful attacks and then dislocates the defenders, using speed and surprise to encircle them.
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The Blockade of Germany (1939–1945) also known as the Economic War, was carried out during the Second World War by Great Britain and France in order to restrict the supplies of minerals, metals, food and textiles Germany needed to sustain its war effort.
Blood and Soil (Blut und Boden) refers to an ideology that focuses on ethnicity based on two factors, descent blood (of a folk) and territory.
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The Blutfahne, or Blood Flag, was an individual Nazi German Swastika flag used in the failed Beer Hall Putsch in Munich, Germany on 9 November 1923, during which it became soaked in the blood of one of the SA members who died.
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The Bolsheviks, originally also Bolshevists or Bolsheviki (p; derived from большинство bol'shinstvo, "majority", literally meaning "one of the majority") were a faction of the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) which split apart from the Menshevik faction at the Second Party Congress in 1903.
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Bountiful Harvest is a book by University of Houston economics professor Thomas R. DeGregori, debunking what he calls "anti-science environmental activists", and arguing for the employment modern agricultural innovations such as bioengineered foods, which he claims have increased life expectancy and crop yields, and generally improved human well-being.
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Case Blue (Fall Blau), later renamed Operation Braunschweig, was the German Armed Forces' (Wehrmacht) name for its plan for the 1942 strategic summer offensive in southern Russia between 28 June and 24 November 1942.
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Catholic resistance to Nazism was a component of German resistance to Nazism and of Resistance during World War II.
The German Centre Party (Deutsche Zentrumspartei or just Zentrum) is a lay Catholic political party in Germany during the Kaiserreich and the Weimar Republic.
The Chancellor of Germany is the head of government of Germany.
Christoph Bergner (born 24 November 1948 in Zwickau) is a German politician and member of the conservative CDU.
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The Cold War was a state of political and military tension after World War II between powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others) and powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its allies in the Warsaw Pact).
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Within nations occupied by the Axis Powers, some citizens, driven by nationalism, ethnic hatred, anti-communism, anti-Semitism, or opportunism knowingly engaged in collaboration with the Axis Powers during World War II.
The Commonwealth of Nations, commonly known as the Commonwealth (formerly the British Commonwealth), is an intergovernmental organization of 53 member states that were mostly territories of the former British Empire.
The Communist Party of Germany (Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands, KPD) was a major political party in Germany between 1918 and 1933, and a minor party in West Germany in the postwar period until it was banned in 1956.
Compulsory sterilization, also known as forced sterilization (or compulsory sterilisation respectively forced sterilisation – see spelling differences), programs are government policies in violation of human rights conventions which attempt to force people to undergo surgical or other sterilization.
The Confessing Church (also translated Confessional Church) (Bekennende Kirche) was a Protestant church in Nazi Germany that arose in opposition to government-sponsored efforts to nazify the German Protestant church.
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Constituent country is a term sometimes used in contexts in which a country makes up a part of a larger political entity, such as a sovereign state.
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Coventry is a city and metropolitan borough in the centre of England.
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Crimes against humanity are certain acts which are committed as part of a widespread or systematic attack directed against any civilian population.
The Cross of Honour of the German Mother, referred to colloquially as the Mutterehrenkreuz (Mother’s Cross of Honour) or simply Mutterkreuz (Mother’s Cross), was a state decoration and civil order of merit conferred by the government of the German ReichStatutory Legislation of the Deutsches Reich: Verordnung des Führers und Reichskanzlers über die Stiftung des Ehrenkreuzes der Deutschen Mutter vom 16.
A cult of personality arises when an individual uses mass media, propaganda, or other methods, to create an idealized, heroic, and at times, worshipful image, often through unquestioning flattery and praise.
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In education, a curriculum (plural: curricula or curriculums) is broadly defined as the totality of student experiences that occur in the educational process.
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Dachau concentration camp (Konzentrationslager (KZ) Dachau) was the first of the Nazi concentration camps opened in Germany, intended to hold political prisoners.
Dada or Dadaism was an art movement of the European avant-garde in the early 20th century.
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Das Dritte Reich ("The Third Reich") is a 1923 book by German author Arthur Moeller van den Bruck, the ideology of which heavily influenced the Nazi Party.
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Adolf Hitler killed himself by gunshot on 30 April 1945 in his Führerbunker in Berlin.
The Defence of the Reich (Reichsverteidigung) is the name given to the strategic defensive aerial campaign fought by the Luftwaffe over German-occupied Europe and Germany itself during World War II.
The Degenerate Art Exhibition (Die Ausstellung "Entartete Kunst") was an art exhibition organized by Adolf Ziegler and the Nazi Party in Munich from 19 July to 30 November 1937.
Democide is a term revived and redefined by the political scientist R. J. Rummel (1932-2014) as "the murder of any person or people by their government, including genocide, politicide and mass murder".
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Denazification (Entnazifizierung) was an Allied initiative to rid German and Austrian society, culture, press, economy, judiciary, and politics of any remnants of the National Socialist ideology (Nazism).
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Deputy Führer (German: Stellvertreter des Führers, more faithfully translated as "Deputy of the Führer") was the title for the deputy head of the Nazi Party, which was held by Rudolf Hess.
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Der Spiegel (lit. "The Mirror") is a German weekly news magazine published in Hamburg.
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Deutschlandfunk (DLF) is a German public broadcasting radio station, broadcasting national news and current affairs.
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The "Deutschlandlied" (English: "Song of Germany",; also known as "Das Lied der Deutschen" or "The Song of the Germans"), or part of it, has been the national anthem of Germany since 1922, except in East Germany, whose anthem was "Auferstanden aus Ruinen" ("Risen from Ruins") from 1949 to 1990.
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Devín (Dévény, Theben) originally a separate village at the confluence of the Danube and Morava rivers, is now a suburb of Bratislava, the capital of Slovakia.
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Dictatorship is a form of government where political authority is monopolized by a person (dictator) or political entity, and exercised through various mechanisms to ensure the entity's power remains strong.
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A dividend is a payment made by a corporation to its shareholders, usually as a distribution of profits.
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Duivelsberg (Wylerberg or Teufelsberg) is a hill and nature reserve in the municipality of Groesbeek in the Dutch province of Gelderland, near the border with Germany.
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East Germany, formally the German Democratic Republic or GDR (Deutsche Demokratische Republik, or DDR), was a state in the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War period.
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East Prussia (Ostpreußen,; Borussia orientalis; Восточная Пруссия) was the main part of the region of Prussia along the southeastern Baltic Coast from the 13th century to the end of World War II in May 1945.
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Einsatzgruppen (German for "task forces", "deployment groups"; singular Einsatzgruppe; official full name Einsatzgruppen der Sicherheitspolizei und des SD) were Schutzstaffel (SS) paramilitary death squads of Nazi Germany that were responsible for mass killings, primarily by shooting, during World War II.
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The Enabling Act (German: Ermächtigungsgesetz) was a 1933 Weimar Constitution amendment that gave the German Cabinet – in effect, Chancellor Adolf Hitler – the power to enact laws without the involvement of the Reichstag.
The final battles of the European Theatre of World War II as well as the German surrender to the Western Allies and the Soviet Union took place in late April and early May 1945.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
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Ernst Julius Günther Röhm (28 November 1887 – 1 July 1934) was a German officer in the Bavarian Army and was badly wounded during World War I. In the years following the war, he became an early leader of the Nazi Party (NSDAP) of Germany.
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Erwin Johannes Eugen Rommel (15 November 1891 – 14 October 1944), popularly known as the Desert Fox (Wüstenfuchs), was a German field marshal of World War II.
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Eugenics (from Greek εὐγενής eugenes "well-born" from εὖ eu, "good, well" and γένος genos, "race, stock, kin") is a set of beliefs and practices which aims at improving the genetic quality of the human population.
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Eupen-Malmedy or Eupen-Malmédy, also known as the East Cantons (Ostkantone; Cantons de l'Est; Oostkantons) within Belgium, is a geographical area and group of cantons in eastern Belgium.
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The European Theatre of World War II, also known as the European War, was a huge area of heavy fighting across Europe, from Germany's and the Soviet Union's joint invasion of Poland in September 1939 until the end of the war with the Soviet Union conquering much of Europe along with the German unconditional surrender on May 8, 1945 (V-E Day).
Eva Anna Paula Hitler (née Braun; 6 February 1912 – 30 April 1945) was the longtime companion of Adolf Hitler and, for less than 40 hours, his wife.
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Expressionism was a modernist movement, initially in poetry and painting, originating in Germany at the beginning of the 20th century.
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The Expulsions of Poles by Nazi Germany during World War II was a massive Nazi German operation consisting of the forced resettlement of over 1.7 million ethnic Poles from all territories of occupied Poland with the aim of their geopolitical Germanization (see Lebensraum) between 1939–1944.
The German extermination camps or death camps were designed and built by Nazi Germany during World War II (1939–45) to systematically kill millions, primarily by gassing, but also in mass executions and through extreme work under starvation conditions.
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Extermination through labour is a term sometimes used to describe the operation of concentration camp, death camp and forced labour systems in Nazi Germany, Soviet Union, North Korea, and elsewhere, defined as the willful or accepted killing of forced labourers or prisoners through excessively heavy labour, malnutrition and inadequate care.
Far-right politics are right-wing politics to the right of the mainstream centre right on the traditional left-right spectrum.
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Fascism is a form of radical authoritarian nationalism that came to prominence in early 20th-century Europe.
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Führer (These are also cognates of the Latin peritus ("experienced"), Sanskrit piparti "brings over" and the Greek poros "passage, way".-->, spelled Fuehrer when the umlaut is not available) is a German title meaning leader or guide now most associated with Adolf Hitler.
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The Führerbunker was an air-raid shelter located near the Reich Chancellery in Berlin, Germany.
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The Führerprinzip (German for "leader principle") prescribed the fundamental basis of political authority in the governmental structures of the Third Reich.
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The Federal Ministry of the Interior (Bundesministerium des Innern), abbreviated BMI, is cabinet-level ministry of the Federal Republic of Germany.
The Federal State of Austria (Austrian German: Bundesstaat Österreich; colloquially known as the Ständestaat, "Corporate State") refers to Austria between 1934 and 1938 while it was a single-party state led by the clerico-fascist Fatherland's Front.
Ferdinand Porsche (3 September 1875 – 30 January 1951) was an automotive engineer and founder of the Porsche car company.
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The Final Solution ((die) Endlösung) or Final Solution to the Jewish Question (die Endlösung der Judenfrage) was Nazi Germany's plan during World War II to systematically exterminate the Jewish population in Nazi-occupied Europe through genocide.
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The flag of Germany is a tricolour consisting of three equal horizontal bands displaying the national colours of Germany: black, red, and gold.
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During the later stages of World War II and the post-war period the German Reichsdeutsche (German citizens) as well as persons of German ancestry were expelled from various Eastern European countries and sent to Germany and Austria.
Forced labor of Germans in the Soviet Union was considered by the Soviet Union to be part of German war reparations for the damage inflicted by Nazi Germany on the Soviet Union during World War II.
The use of forced labour in Nazi Germany and throughout German-occupied Europe during World War II took place on an unprecedented scale.
A foreign worker is a person who works in a country other than the one of which he or she is a citizen.
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The Four Year Plan was a series of economic measures initiated by Adolf Hitler, who put Hermann Göring in charge of it.
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Francisco Franco Bahamonde (December 4, 1892 – November 20, 1975) was a Spanish general and the dictator of Spain from 1939 until his death in 1975.
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The Free City of Danzig (Freie Stadt Danzig; Wolne Miasto Gdańsk) was a semi-autonomous city-state that existed between 1920 and 1939, consisting of the Baltic Sea port of Danzig (now Gdańsk, Poland) and nearly 200 towns in the surrounding areas.
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Fritz Todt (4 September 1891 – 8 February 1942) was a German engineer and senior Nazi figure, the founder of Organisation Todt.
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A gas chamber is an apparatus for killing humans or animals with gas, consisting of a sealed chamber into which a poisonous or asphyxiant gas is introduced.
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A gas van or gas wagon (душегубка (dushegubka); Gaswagen) was a vehicle equipped as a mobile gas chamber.
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Gau (plural Gaue, Dutch: gouw, Frisian: gea or goa) is a Germanic term for a region within a country, often a former or actual province.
A Gauleiter was the party leader of a regional branch of the NSDAP (more commonly known as the Nazi Party) or the head of a Gau or of a Reichsgau.
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The General Government, sometimes also General Governorate (Generalgouvernement, Generalne Gubernatorstwo, Генеральна губернія) was a territory in Poland and Ukraine carved out by Adolf Hitler at the onset of World War II after the invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union.
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The Generalplan Ost (Master Plan East, GPO) was a secret Nazi German plan for the colonization of Central and Eastern Europe.
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AB-Aktion (Außerordentliche Befriedungsaktion), was a Nazi German campaign during World War II aimed to eliminate the intellectuals and the upper classes of the Polish people and of Polish nationhood.
The German Army (Heer) was the land forces component of the Wehrmacht, the regular German armed forces, from 1935 until it was demobilized and later dissolved in August 1946.
The Deutsche Christen (German Christians) were a pressure group and movement within German Protestantism aligned towards the antisemitic and Führerprinzip ideological principles of Nazism with the goal to align German Protestantism as a whole towards those principles.
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Parliamentary elections were held in Germany on 29 March 1936.
Parliamentary elections were held in Germany (including recently annexed Austria) on 10 April 1938.
Parliamentary elections in Germany took place on 12 November 1933.
The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich), variously referred to as the German Reich or Realm, or Imperial Germany, was the historical German nation state that existed from the unification of Germany in 1871 to the abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm II in November 1918, when Germany became a federal republic.
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Federal elections were held in Germany on 31 July 1932, following the premature dissolution of the Reichstag.
The German Instrument of Surrender ended World War II in Europe.
The German invasion of Denmark was the fighting that followed the German army crossing the Danish border on 9 April 1940 by land, sea and air.
The German Labour Front (Deutsche Arbeitsfront, DAF) was the National Socialist trade union organization which replaced the various trade unions of the Weimar Republic after Adolf Hitler's rise to power.
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The German National People's Party (DNVP) was a national conservative party in Germany during the time of the Weimar Republic.
The German Red Cross (Deutsches Rotes Kreuz), or the DRK, is the national Red Cross Society in Germany.
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A referendum on merging the posts of Chancellor and President was held in Germany on 19 August 1934,Nohlen, D & Stöver, P. (2010), Elections in Europe: A data handbook, p. 762, ISBN 978-3-8329-5609-7.
Deutsches Reich was the official name for the German nation state from 1871 to 1943 in German language.
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German resistance to Nazism (German: Widerstand) was the opposition by individuals and groups in Germany to the National Socialist regime between 1933 and 1945.
The German Workers' Party (Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, DAP) was the short-lived predecessor of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, NSDAP).
The Germanic peoples (also called Teutonic, Suebian or Gothic in older literature) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group of Northern European origin, identified by their use of the Germanic languages which diversified out of Proto-Germanic starting during the Pre-Roman Iron Age.
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The Gestapo (abbreviation of Geheime Staatspolizei, "Secret State Police") was the official secret police of Nazi Germany and German-occupied Europe.
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Beginning with the invasion of Poland during World War II, the regime of Nazi Germany set up ghettos across occupied Europe in order to segregate and confine Jews, and sometimes Gypsies, into small sections of towns and cities furthering their exploitation.
In Nazi terminology, Gleichschaltung, translated as "coordination", "making the same", "bringing into line", "synchronization") was the process by which the Nazi regime successively established a system of totalitarian control and coordination over all aspects of society. Claudia Koonz uses the term to explain the transformation of ordinary Germans - who had not, before 1933, been more prejudiced than their counterparts elsewhere - from indifferent bystanders into collaborators with persecution. Among the goals of this policy were to bring about adherence to a specific doctrine and way of thinking and to control as many aspects of life as possible. The apex of the Nazification of Germany was in the resolutions approved during the Nuremberg Rally of 1935, when the symbols of the Party and the State were fused (see Flag of Germany) and the German Jews were deprived of citizenship, paving the way for the Holocaust.
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This is a list of words, terms, concepts, and slogans that have been or are used by the German military.
This is a list of words, terms, concepts and slogans that were specifically used in Nazi Germany.
The Goebbels children were the five daughters and one son born to Nazi propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels and his wife Magda Goebbels.
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The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression in the 1930s.
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The Greater Germanic Reich (German: Großgermanisches Reich), fully styled the Greater Germanic Reich of the German Nation (German: Großgermanisches Reich Deutscher Nation) is the official state name of the political entity that Nazi Germany tried to establish in Europe during World War II.
Gregor Strasser (31 May 1892 – 30 June 1934) was a prominent German Nazi official and politician.
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Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is a measure of the size of an economy.
The Haavara Agreement was an agreement between Nazi Germany and Zionist German Jews signed on 25 August 1933.
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The Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907 are a series of international treaties and declarations negotiated at two international peace conferences at The Hague in the Netherlands.
Hanns Kerrl (11 December 1887 – 12 December 1941) was a German Nazi politician.
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Hauptsturmführer was a Nazi party paramilitary rank that was used in several Nazi organizations such as the SS, NSKK and the NSFK.
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Helmuth Otto Ludwig Weidling (2 November 1891 – 17 November 1955) was a general in the German Army (Heer) before and during the Second World War.
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Hermann Wilhelm Göring (or Goering;; 12 January 1893 – 15 October 1946) was a German politician, military leader, and leading member of the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
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Following the Pittsburgh Agreement of May 1918, the Czechoslovak declaration of independence was published by the Czechoslovak National Council, signed by Masaryk, Štefánik and Beneš on October 18, 1918 in Paris, and proclaimed on October 28 in Prague.
The term Hitler oath refers to the oaths of allegiance, or Reichswehreid, sworn by German Wehrmacht officers and soldiers as well as civil servants during the Third Reich between the years 1934 and 1945.
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The Hitler Youth (German:, often abbreviated as HJ in German) was the youth organization of the Nazi Party in Germany.
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Hitler's Willing Executioners: Ordinary Germans and the Holocaust (1996) is a book by American writer Daniel Goldhagen that argues that the vast majority of ordinary Germans were as the title indicates "willing executioners" in the Holocaust because of a unique and virulent "eliminationist antisemitism" in the German political culture, which had developed in the preceding centuries.
Hjalmar Horace Greeley Schacht (22 January 1877 – 3 June 1970) was a German economist, banker, liberal politician, and co-founder in 1918 of the German Democratic Party.
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The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum (USHMM), the United States' official memorial to the Holocaust, says that: "The Holocaust was the murder of six million Jews and millions of others by the Nazis and their collaborators during World War II." While the term Holocaust victims generally refers to the victims of a systematic genocide against the Jewish people in Nazi Germany, the Nazis systematically murdered a large number of non-Jewish people that were considered subhuman (Untermenschen) or undesirable. The non-Jewish (gentile) victims of the Holocaust included: Russians, Poles, Ukrainians, Slavs, Serbs, Romanis (often known in the English-speaking world by the ethnonym gypsies), lesbian, gay, bisexual and trans (LGBT) individuals; mentally or physically disabled people; Soviet POWs, Roman Catholics, Jehovah's Witnesses, Spanish Republicans, Freemasons, people of color (especially African-German mischlinge, who Hitler and the Nazi regime called the "Rhineland Bastards"); the Deaf, leftists, Communists, trade unionists, social democrats, socialists, anarchists, and every other minority or dissident that was not considered part of the Aryan race or Herrenvolk ("master race").Berenbaum, Michael. The World Must Know, The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, pp.125ff."Non-Jewish victims of Nazism," Encyclopædia Britannica. Taking into account all of the victims of persecution, the Nazis systematically killed an estimated six million Jews and mass murdered an additional 11 million people during the war. Donald Niewyk suggests that the broadest definition, including Soviet civilian deaths, would produce a death toll of 17 million. Despite often widely varying treatment (some groups were actively targeted for genocide, while others were not), these victims all perished alongside one another, some in concentration camps such as Dachau, and some as victims of other forms of Nazi brutality, but most in death camps, such as Auschwitz-Birkenau, according to the extensive documentation left behind by the Nazis themselves (both written and photographed), eyewitness testimony (by survivors, perpetrators, and bystanders). and the statistical records of the various countries under occupation.
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The Holy Roman Empire (Latin: Sacrum Romanum Imperium, German: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.
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Hugo Junkers (3 February 1859 – 3 February 1935) was a German engineer and aircraft designer.
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The Hunger Plan (German der Hungerplan, also der Backe-Plan) was an economic management scheme created by Nazi Germany during World War II, that was put in place to ensure that Germans were given priority in food supplies at the expense of the inhabitants of the German-occupied Soviet territories.
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The hyperinflation in the Weimar Republic was a three-year period of hyperinflation in the Weimar Republic (modern-day Germany) between June 1921 and January 1924.
IG Farben was a German chemical industry conglomerate.
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Incomes policies in economics are economy-wide wage and price controls, most commonly instituted as a response to inflation, and usually seeking to establish wages and prices below free market level.
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Inside the Third Reich is a memoir written by Albert Speer, the Nazi Minister of Armaments from 1942 to 1945, serving as Adolf Hitler's main architect before this period.
The Institut für Zeitgeschichte ("Institute of Contemporary History") in Munich was conceived in 1947 under the name Deutsches Institut für Geschichte der nationalsozialistischen Zeit ("German Institute of the History of the National Socialist Era").
The International Motor Show Germany or simply International Motor Show, in German known as the Internationale Automobil-Ausstellung (IAA - International Automobile Exhibition), is the world's largest motor show.
Internment is the imprisonment or confinement of people, commonly in large groups, without trial.
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In the context of the history of the twentieth century, the interwar period or interbellum (Latin: inter-, "between" + bellum, "war") was the period between the end of World War I and the beginning of World War II—the period beginning with the Armistice with Germany that concluded World War I in 1918 and the following Paris Peace Conference in 1919, and ending in 1939 with the invasion of Poland and the start of World War II.
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The German invasion of Luxembourg was part of Case Yellow (Fall Gelb), the German invasion of the Low Countries (Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands) and France during World War II.
The Invasion of Poland, also known as the September Campaign, or the 1939 Defensive War in Poland (Kampania wrześniowa or Wojna obronna 1939 roku), and alternatively the Poland Campaign (Polenfeldzug) or Fall Weiß in Germany (Case White), was a joint invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany, the Soviet Union, and a small Slovak contingent, that marked the beginning of World War II in Europe.
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The invasion of Yugoslavia, also known as the April War or Operation 25, was a German-led attack on the Kingdom of Yugoslavia by the Axis powers which began on 6 April 1941 during World War II.
Istria (Croatian, Slovene: Istra; Italian: Istria; Istriot: Eîstria; German: Istrien), formerly Histria (Latin), is the largest peninsula in the Adriatic Sea.
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Jewish Bolshevism also known as Judeo-Bolshevism is an antisemitic canard which alleges that the Jews were at the origin of the Russian Revolution and held the primary power among Bolsheviks.
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The Jewish question was the name given to a wide-ranging debate in European society pertaining to the appropriate status and treatment of Jews in society.
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The Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation), also known as the Jewish people, are an ethnoreligious and ethno-cultural group descended from the Israelites of the Ancient Near East and originating from the historical kingdoms of Israel and Judah.
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SS-Obergruppenführer Ulrich Friedrich Wilhelm Joachim von Ribbentrop (30 April 1893 – 16 October 1946) was Foreign Minister of Nazi Germany from 1938 until 1945.
Josef Mengele (16 March 19117 February 1979) was a German Schutzstaffel (SS) officer and physician in Auschwitz concentration camp during World War II.
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Paul Joseph Goebbels (29 October 1897 – 1 May 1945) was a German politician and Reich Minister of Propaganda in Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945.
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Joseph Stalin (birth surname: Jughashvili; 18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was the leader of the Soviet Union from the mid-1920s until his death in 1953.
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The Jungmädelbund (literally "Young Girl's League") was the section of the Hitler Youth for girls between the ages of 10 and 14.
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Junkers Flugzeug- und Motorenwerke AG (JFM, earlier JCO or JKO in World War I), more commonly Junkers, was a major German aircraft manufacturer.
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Kaliningrad Oblast (Калинингра́дская о́бласть, Kaliningradskaya oblast) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast), on the Baltic coast.
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Karl Dönitz (16 September 1891 – 24 December 1980), sometimes spelt Doenitz in English, was a German admiral who played a major role in the Naval history of World War II.
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Kidnapping of non-Germanic European children by Nazi Germany (Rabunek dzieci), part of the Generalplan Ost (GPO), involved taking children regarded as "Aryan-looking" from the rest of Europe and moving them to Nazi Germany for the purpose of Germanization, or indoctrination into becoming culturally German.
Kiev or Kyiv (Київ; Киев) is the capital and largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper River.
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The Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia) was a state founded in 1861 when King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy.
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The Klaipėda Region (Klaipėdos kraštas) or Memel Territory (Memelland or Memelgebiet) was defined by the Treaty of Versailles in 1920 and refers to the most northern part of the German province of East Prussia, when as Memelland it was put under the administration of the Council of Ambassadors.
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The Kriegsmarine (War Navy) was the navy of Nazi Germany from 1935 to 1945.
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Kristallnacht or Reichskristallnacht, also referred to as the Night of Broken Glass, Reichspogromnacht or simply Pogromnacht, and Novemberpogrome, was a pogrom (a series of coordinated deadly attacks) against Jews throughout Nazi Germany and Austria on 9–10 November 1938, carried out by SA paramilitary forces and non-Jewish civilians.
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Kurt Alois Josef Johann Schuschnigg (until 1919 Kurt Alois Josef Johann Edler von Schuschnigg, 14 December 1897 – 18 November 1977) was Chancellor of the Federal State of Austria, following the assassination of his predecessor, Engelbert Dollfuss, in July 1934, until Nazi Germany's annexing of Austria, (Anschluss), in March 1938.
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Kurt Ferdinand Friedrich Hermann von Schleicher (7 April 1882 – 30 June 1934) was a German general and the second to last Chancellor of Germany during the era of the Weimar Republic.
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The Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service (Gesetz zur Wiederherstellung des Berufsbeamtentums, shortened to Berufsbeamtengesetz), also known as Civil Service Law, Civil Service Restoration Act, and Law to Re-establish the Civil Service, was a law passed by the National Socialist regime on April 7, 1933, two months after Adolf Hitler attained power.
The League of German Girls or (cognate) Band of German Maidens (Bund Deutscher Mädel, BDM) was the girls' wing of the Nazi Party youth movement, the Hitler Youth.
The League of Nations (abbreviated as LN in English, "Société des Nations" abbreviated as SDN in French) was an intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War.
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Lebensborn e.V. (literally: "Fount of Life") was an SS-initiated, state-supported, registered association in Nazi Germany with the goal of raising the birth rate of "Aryan" children via extramarital relations of persons classified as "racially pure and healthy" based on Nazi racial hygiene and health ideology.
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Lebensraum (German: “living space”) was a racist ideology that proposed the aggressive, territorial expansion of Germany.
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Helene Bertha Amalie "Leni" Riefenstahl (22 August 1902 – 8 September 2003) was a German film director, producer, screenwriter, editor, photographer, actress and dancer.
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Leuna is a town in the Saalekreis, Saxony-Anhalt, eastern Germany, south of Merseburg and Halle.
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The phrase "life unworthy of life" (in "Lebensunwertes Leben") was a Nazi designation for the segments of populace which, according to the Nazi regime of the time, had no right to live.
This is a list of books about Nazi Germany, the state that existed in Germany during the period from 1933 to 1945, when its government was controlled by Adolf Hitler and his National Socialist German Workers' Party (NSDAP; Nazi Party).
This list of books by or about Adolf Hitler is an annotated bibliography using APA style citations.
This is a list of Nazi Party (NSDAP) leaders and officials.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
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The Low Countries (de Lage Landen., les Pays-Bas.) is a coastal region in western Europe, consisting especially of the Netherlands and Belgium, and the low-lying delta of the Rhine, Meuse, Scheldt, and Ems rivers where much of the land is at or below sea level.
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Ludwig Müller (23 June 1883 – 31 July 1945) was a German theologian and leading member of the "German Christians" (Deutsche Christen) faith movement.
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The Luftwaffe was the aerial warfare branch of the German Wehrmacht during World War II.
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Johann Ludwig Graf Schwerin von Krosigk, born Johann Ludwig von Krosigk and known as Lutz von Krosigk (22 August 18874 March 1977) was a German senior government official who served as Minister of Finance of Germany from 1932 to 1945 and Leading Minister of the German Reich (Chancellor) in May 1945.
The Madagascar Plan was a proposal of the Nazi government of Germany to relocate the Jewish population of Europe to the island of Madagascar.
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Johanna Maria Magdalena "Magda" Goebbels (née Ritschel; 11 November 1901 – 1 May 1945) was the wife of Nazi Germany's Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels.
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Marinus (Rinus) van der Lubbe (13 January 1909 – 10 January 1934) was a Dutch council communist convicted of, and executed for, setting fire to the German Reichstag building on 27 February 1933, an event known as the Reichstag fire.
The Marshall Plan (officially the European Recovery Program, ERP) was an American initiative to aid Western Europe, in which the United States gave $13 billion (approximately $130 billion in current dollar value as of August 2015) in economic support to help rebuild Western European economies after the end of World War II.
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Friedrich Gustav Emil Martin Niemöller (14 January 18926 March 1984) was a German anti-Nazi theologian and Lutheran pastor.
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On May 1, 1945, hundreds of people committed mass suicide in the town of Demmin, in the Province of Pomerania (now in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern), Germany.
The master race (die Herrenrasse) is a concept in Nazi ideology in which the Nordic race—a branch of what in late-nineteenth and early-twentieth century taxonomy was called the Aryan race—represented an ideal and pure white race.
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Materiel (from the French matériel for equipment or hardware, related to the word material, and sometimes so spelled in English) is military technology and supplies in military and commercial supply chain management.
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A Mefo bill (sometimes written as MEFO bill), named after the company Metallurgische Forschungsgesellschaft (Metallurgical Research Corporation), was a promissory note used for a system of deferred payment to finance the German rearmament, devised by the German Central Bank President, Hjalmar Schacht, in 1934.
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Mein Kampf ("My Struggle") is an autobiographical manifesto by National Socialist leader Adolf Hitler, in which he outlines his political ideology and future plans for Germany.
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During World War II, Nazi Germany created military-led regimes in occupied territories which were known as a Military administration/ Military administration authority (de: Militärverwaltung).
The Military Administration in Belgium and Northern France (Militärverwaltung in Belgien und Nordfrankreich) was an interim occupation authority established by Nazi Germany that included present-day Belgium and the French departments of Nord and Pas-de-Calais.
Mit brennender Sorge (With Burning Anxiety) On the Church and the German Reich is an encyclical of Pope Pius XI, issued during the Nazi era on 10 March 1937 (but bearing a date of Passion Sunday, 14 March).
A mixed economy is variously defined as an economic system consisting of a mixture of either markets and economic planning, public ownership and private ownership, or free markets and economic interventionism.
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Modern art includes artistic works produced during the period extending roughly from the 1860s to the 1970s, and denotes the style and philosophy of the art produced during that era.
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Modernism is a philosophical movement that, along with cultural trends and changes, arose from wide-scale and far-reaching transformations in Western society in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
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The Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, named after the Soviet foreign minister Vyacheslav Molotov and the German foreign minister Joachim von Ribbentrop, officially the Treaty of Non-aggression between Germany and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, was a non-aggression pact signed between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union in Moscow on 23 August 1939.
The Munich Agreement was a settlement permitting Nazi Germany's annexation of portions of Czechoslovakia along the country's borders mainly inhabited by German speakers, for which a new territorial designation "Sudetenland" was coined.
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National Political Institutes of Education (Nationalpolitische Erziehungsanstalten; officially abbreviated NPEA, commonly abbreviated Napola for Nationalpolitische Lehranstalt meaning National Political Institution of Teaching) were secondary boarding schools in Nazi Germany.
The National Socialist German Lecturers League (Nationalsozialistischer Deutscher Dozentenbund, also called NS-Dozentenbund, or abbreviated NSDDB), was a party organization under the NSDAP (the Nazi Party).
The National Socialist German Students' League (in German, Nationalsozialistischer Deutscher Studentenbund; abbreviated NSDStB) was founded in 1926 as a division of the NSDAP with the mission of integrating University-level education and academic life within the framework of the National Socialist worldview.
The National Socialist Teachers League (German: Nationalsozialistische Lehrerbund, NSLB), was established on 21 April 1929.
The National Socialist Women's League (German: Nationalsozialistische Frauenschaft, abbreviated "NS-Frauenschaft") was the women's wing of the Nazi Party.
The Nazi book burnings were a campaign conducted by the German Student Union to ceremonially burn books in Nazi Germany and Austria in the 1930s.
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The Nazi boycott of Jewish businesses in Germany began on 1 April 1933, in retaliation of the Jewish boycott of German goods which had started soon after Adolf Hitler was sworn in as Chancellor on 30 January 1933.
Nazi Germany maintained concentration camps (Konzentrationslager, KZ or KL) throughout the territories it controlled.
The National Socialist German Workers' Party (abbreviated NSDAP), commonly referred to in English as the Nazi Party, was a political party in Germany active between 1920 and 1945 that practised Nazism.
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The Nazi party rally grounds (German, Reichsparteitagsgelände; Literally: Reich Party Congress Grounds) covered about 11 square kilometres in the southeast of Nuremberg, Germany.
The Catholic Church in Poland was brutally suppressed by the Nazis during the German Occupation of Poland (1939-1945).
The propaganda used by the Nazi Party in the years leading up to and during Adolf Hitler's leadership of Germany (1933–1945) was a crucial instrument for acquiring and maintaining power, and for the implementation of Nazi policies.
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Nazi rule over the Danube River was brought about by force of arms, through annexation of Austria, invasion of Yugoslavia and of the Soviet Union and treaties with the Kingdom of Romania and Hungary, but a legal cover was provided through moves that resulted in a new international order on the river beginning in 1940 and ending in 1945.
The Nazi Seizure of Power (German: Machtergreifung) refers to the acquisition by Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist Party of the chancellorship of Germany, and of several other high-ranking cabinet posts, on 30 January 1933, following the appointment of Hitler as chancellor by the aged President Paul von Hindenburg, then 84.
Nazi songs deals with songs that were written for the Nazi Party (NSDAP) in Germany.
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The 20th century German Nazi Party made extensive use of graphic symbolism, especially the Hakenkreuz (swastika), which was used as its principal symbol and, in the form of the swastika flag, became the state flag of Nazi Germany.
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National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus), more commonly known as Nazism, is the ideology and practice associated with the 20th-century German Nazi Party and Nazi state as well as other far-right groups.
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Neo-Nazism consists of post-World War II social or political movements seeking to revive the far-right-wing tenets of Nazism.
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Neoclassical architecture is an architectural style produced by the neoclassical movement that began in the mid-18th century.
Neubrandenburg ("New Brandenburg") is a town in the southeast of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany.
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Arthur Neville Chamberlain (18 March 1869 – 9 November 1940) was a British Conservative politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from May 1937 to May 1940.
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The Night of the Long Knives (German), sometimes called Operation Hummingbird or, in Germany, the Röhm Putsch (German spelling: Röhm-Putsch), or sometimes mockingly Reichsmordwoche, was a purge that took place in Nazi Germany from June 30 to July 2, 1934, when the Nazi regime carried out a series of political murders.
The Nordic race was one of the putative sub-races into which some late 19th to mid 20th century anthropologists divided the Caucasian race.
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Normandy (Normandie, pronounced, Norman: Normaundie, from Old French Normanz, plural of Normant, originally from the word for "northman" in several Scandinavian languages) is a geographical region of France corresponding to the former Duchy of Normandy.
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The Normandy landings (codenamed Operation Neptune) were the landing operations on 6 June 1944 (termed D-Day) of the Allied invasion of Normandy in Operation Overlord during World War II.
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During the Second World War, the North African Campaign took place in North Africa from 10 June 1940 to 13 May 1943.
The Norwegian Campaign (9 April to 10 June 1940) was a Second World War campaign fought in Norway between the Allies and Germany after the latter's invasion of the country.
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The NS-Frauen-Warte was the Nazi magazine for women.
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In Nazi Germany, the NS-Ordensburgen ("National Socialist Order Castles", singular Ordensburg), also called Schulungsburgen, were schools developed for elite Nazi military echelons.
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Nuremberg (Nürnberg) is a city on the Pegnitz river and the Rhine–Main–Danube Canal in the German state of Bavaria, in the administrative region of Middle Franconia, about north of Munich.
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The Nuremberg Laws (Nürnberger Gesetze) were antisemitic laws in Nazi Germany.
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The Nuremberg Rally (officially, meaning National Party Convention) was the annual rally of the Nazi Party in Germany, held from 1923 to 1938.
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The Nuremberg trials were a series of military tribunals, held by the Allied forces after World War II, which were most notable for the prosecution of prominent members of the political, military, and economic leadership of Nazi Germany who allegedly planned, carried out, or otherwise participated in The Holocaust and other war crimes.
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Obergruppenführer was a Nazi Party paramilitary rank that was first created in 1932 as a rank of the SA, and adopted by the Schutzstaffel one year later.
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The occupation of Poland by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union during the Second World War (1939–1945) began with the invasion of Poland in September 1939, and formally concluded with the defeat of Nazism by the Allies in May 1945.
The Occupation of the Ruhr (Ruhrbesetzung) was a period of military occupation of the German Ruhr valley by France and Belgium between 1923 and 1925 in response to the Weimar Republic's failure to continue its reparation payments in the aftermath of World War I.
The Old Testament is the first section of the Christian Bible, based primarily upon the Hebrew Bible, a collection of religious writings by ancient Israelites.
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Olympia is a 1938 German documentary film written, directed and produced by Leni Riefenstahl, documenting the 1936 Summer Olympics, held in the Olympic Stadium in Berlin, Germany.
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Operation Barbarossa (German: Unternehmen Barbarossa) was the code name for Nazi Germany's invasion of the Soviet Union during World War II, which began on 22 June 1941.
Operation Overlord was the code name for the Battle of Normandy, the Allied operation that launched the successful invasion of German-occupied western Europe during World War II.
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Operation Sea Lion (Unternehmen Seelöwe) was Nazi Germany's plan to invade the United Kingdom during the Second World War, following the Fall of France.
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The Operational Zone of the Adriatic Littoral (Operationszone Adriatisches Küstenland (OZAK) or colloquially, Operationszone Adria; Zona d'operazioni del Litorale adriatico; Operativna zona Jadransko primorje; Operacijska zona Jadransko primorje), was a Nazi German district on the northern Adriatic coast created during World War II in 1943.
The Operational Zone of the Alpine Foothills (Operationszone Alpenvorland (OZAV); Zona d'operazione Prealpi) was a Nazi German district in the sub-Alpine area created in Italian territory during World War II.
Awards and Decorations of Nazi Germany were military, political and civilian decorations which were bestowed between 1923 and 1945 by the Nazi Party and later the state of Nazi Germany.
Otto Georg Thierack (19 April 188922 November 1946) was a Nazi jurist and politician.
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Pan-Germanism (Pangermanismus or Alldeutsche Bewegung) is a pan-nationalist political idea.
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The Pantheon (or; Pantheon,Infrequently Latinized as Pantheum, as in Pliny's ''Natural History'' (XXXVI.38): "The Pantheon of Agrippa was embellished by Diogenes of Athens; and among the supporting members of this temple there are Caryatids that are almost in a class of their own, and the same is true of the figures on the angles of the pediment, which are, however, not so well known because of their lofty position," as translated by D.E. Eichholz (Agrippae Pantheum decoravit Diogenes Atheniensis; in columnis templi eius Caryatides probantur inter pauca operum, sicut in fastigio posita signa, sed propter altitudinem loci minus celebrata). from Greek Πάνθεον meaning "every god") is a building in Rome, Italy, on the site of an earlier building commissioned by Marcus Agrippa during the reign of Augustus (27 BC – 14 AD).
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Passion Sunday is a name that has been applied both to the fifth Sunday of Lent and the sixth Sunday.
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Patriarchy is a social system in which males hold primary power, predominate in roles of political leadership, moral authority, social privilege and control of property; in the domain of the family, fathers or father-figures hold authority over women and children.
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Paul Ludwig Troost (17 August 1878 – 21 January 1934), was a German architect.
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Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg, known universally as Paul von Hindenburg (2 October 1847 – 2 August 1934) was a German Generalfeldmarschall, statesman, and politician, and served as the second President of Germany (1925–34).
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The People's Court (Volksgerichtshof) was a Sondergericht, a special court, established in 1934 by German Chancellor Adolf Hitler, who had been dissatisfied with the outcome of the Reichstag fire Trial (all but one of the accused were acquitted).
Upon the rise of Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist German Workers Party (the Nazi Party) in Germany, gay men and, to a lesser extent, lesbians, were two of the numerous groups targeted by the Nazis and were ultimately among Holocaust victims.
Jehovah's Witnesses suffered religious persecution in Nazi Germany between 1933 and 1945 after refusing to perform military service, join Nazi organizations or give allegiance to the Hitler regime.
Petržalka (Engerau / Audorf; Pozsonyligetfalu) is the largest borough of Bratislava, the capital of Slovakia.
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The Phoney War refers to the relatively quiet eight-month period at the start of World War II between the declaration of war by the Western Allies (United Kingdom and France) against Nazi Germany on just after the Invasion of Poland and the German Blitzkrieg in May 1940, that was marked by a lack of major military land operations by the Allies on Germany's Western Front.
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The word plenipotentiary (from the Latin, plenus + potens, full + power) has two meanings.
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Plymouth is a city on the south coast of Devon, England, about south-west of Exeter and west-south-west of London, between the mouths of the rivers Plym to the east and Tamar to the west where they join Plymouth Sound. Plymouth's early history extends to the Bronze Age, when a first settlement emerged at Mount Batten. This settlement continued as a trading post for the Roman Empire, until it was surpassed by the more prosperous village of Sutton, now called Plymouth. In 1620, the Pilgrim Fathers departed Plymouth for the New World and established Plymouth Colony – the second English settlement in what is now the United States of America. During the English Civil War the town was held by the Parliamentarians and was besieged between 1642 and 1646. Throughout the Industrial Revolution, Plymouth grew as a commercial shipping port, handling imports and passengers from the Americas, and exporting local minerals (tin, copper, lime, china clay and arsenic) while the neighbouring town of Devonport became a strategic Royal Naval shipbuilding and dockyard town. In 1914 three neighbouring independent towns, viz., the county borough of Plymouth, the county borough of Devonport, and the urban district of East Stonehouse were merged to form a single County Borough. The combined town took the name of Plymouth which, in 1928, achieved city status. The city's naval importance later led to its targeting and partial destruction during World War II, an act known as the Plymouth Blitz. After the war the city centre was completely rebuilt and subsequent expansion led to the incorporation of Plympton and Plymstock along with other outlying suburbs in 1967. Today the city is home to around 250,000 people, making it the 30th most populous built-up area in the United Kingdom. It is governed locally by Plymouth City Council and is represented nationally by three MPs. Plymouth's economy remains strongly influenced by shipbuilding and seafaring including ferry links to France (Roscoff and St Malo) and Spain (Santander), but has tended toward a service-based economy since the 1990s. It has the ninth largest university in the United Kingdom by number of students, the University of Plymouth, and the largest operational naval base in Western Europe – HMNB Devonport.
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A pogrom is a violent riot aimed at massacre or persecution of an ethnic or religious group, particularly one aimed at Jews.
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At the beginning of World War II, nearly a quarterMaly Rocznik Statystyczny (wrzesien 1939 – czerwiec 1941), Ministerstwo Informacji i Documentacji, London 1941, p.5, as cited in Piotr Eberhardt, Political Migrations in Poland, 1939–1948, Warsaw 2006, p.4 of the pre-war '''Polish areas''' were annexed by Nazi Germany and placed directly under German civil administration, while the rest of Nazi occupied Poland was named as General Government.
The Polish Corridor (Polnischer Korridor; Pomorze, Korytarz polski), also known as Danzig Corridor, Corridor to the Sea or Gdańsk Corridor, was a territory located in the region of Pomerelia (Pomeranian Voivodeship, eastern Pomerania, formerly part of West Prussia), which provided the Second Republic of Poland (1920–1939) with access to the Baltic Sea, thus dividing the bulk of Germany from the province of East Prussia.
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Polish culture during World War II was suppressed by the occupying powers of Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union, both of whom were hostile to Poland's people and cultural heritage.
Political Catholicism is a political and cultural conception which promotes the ideas and social teaching of the Catholic Church (Catholic social teaching) in public life through government action.
Pope Pius XI, (Pio XI) born Ambrogio Damiano Achille Ratti (31 May 1857 – 10 February 1939), reigned from 6 February 1922 to his death in 1939.
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The Potsdam Conference was held at Cecilienhof, the home of Crown Prince Wilhelm Hohenzollern, in Potsdam, occupied Germany, from 17 July to 2 August 1945.
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The Reichspräsident was the German head of state under the Weimar constitution, which was officially in force from 1919 to 1945.
The Priest Barracks of Dachau Concentration (in German Pfarrerblock, or Priesterblock) incarcerated clergy who had opposed the Nazi regime of Adolf Hitler.
The Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia (Protektorat Böhmen und Mähren; Protektorát Čechy a Morava) was the majority ethnic-Czech protectorate of Nazi Germany established following the German occupation of Czechoslovakia by annexing Sudetenland territory of Czech Lands as a Reichsgau.
The Protestant Reich Church, officially The German Evangelical Church (Deutsche Evangelische Kirche) and colloquially Reichskirche, was a unified state church that espoused a single doctrine compatible with National Socialism.
Racial hygiene was a set of early twentieth century state sanctioned policies by which certain groups of individuals were allowed to procreate and others not, with the expressed purpose of promoting certain characteristics deemed to be particularly desirable.
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As Allied troops entered and occupied German territory during the later stages of World War II, mass rapes took place both in connection with combat operations and during the subsequent occupation.
Rassenschande ("racial shame", "racial defilement", or "racial pollution") or Blutschande ("blood defilement") was the Nazi term for sexual relations between Aryans (cf. Aryan certificate) and non-Aryans, which was punishable by law.
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In economics, rationalization is an attempt to change a pre-existing ad hoc workflow into one that is based on a set of published rules.
The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (Рабоче-крестьянская Красная армия; РККА, or Raboche-krest'yanskaya Krasnaya armiya: RKKA, frequently shortened in Russian to Красная aрмия; KA, in English: Red Army) was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and after 1922 the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
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A refugee, in contrast to a migrant, is according to the Geneva Convention on Refugees applied to a person who is outside their home country of citizenship because they have well-founded grounds for fear of persecution because of their race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion, and is unable to obtain sanctuary from their home country or, owing to such fear, is unwilling to avail themselves of the protection of that country; or in the case of not having a nationality and being outside their country of former habitual residence as a result of such event, is unable or, owing to such fear, is unwilling to return to their country of former habitual residence.
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Reich is a German word meaning literally "realm".
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The Reich Chancellery (Reichskanzlei) was the traditional name of the office of the Chancellor of Germany (then called Reichskanzler) in the period of the German Reich from 1871 to 1945.
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The Reich Ministry of Public Enlightenment and Propaganda (Reichsministerium für Volksaufklärung und Propaganda, RMVP or Propagandaministerium) was a Nazi government agency to enforce Nazism ideology.
The Reich Ministry of Science, Education and Culture (Reichsministerium für Wissenschaft, Erziehung und Volksbildung, also unofficially known as the "Reich Education Ministry" (Reichserziehungsministerium), or "REM") existed from 1934 until 1945 under the leadership of Bernhard Rust and was responsible for unifying the education system of Nazi Germany and aligning it with the goals of Nazi leadership.
The Reichsarbeitsdienst (translated to 'Reich Labour Service', abbreviated RAD) was a major organisation established by Nazi Germany as an agency to help mitigate the effects of unemployment on German economy, militarise the workforce and indoctrinate it with Nazi ideology.
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The Reichsautobahn system was the beginning of the German autobahns under the Third Reich.
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The was the central bank of Germany from 1876 until 1945.
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was a special title and rank that existed between the years of 1925 and 1945 for the commander of the Schutzstaffel (SS).
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Reichskommissariat (English: literally Realm Commissariat; plural Reichskommissariate) is the German designation for a type of administrative office headed by a government official known as a Reichskommissar (English: Realm Commissioner).
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The Reichskommissariat Kaukasus (or Kaukasien; კავკასიის რაიხსკომისარიატი; Рейхскомиссариат Кавказ), was the theoretical political division and planned civilian occupation regime of Germany in the conquered territories of the Caucasus during World War II.
Reichskommissariat Moskowien (also rendered as Moskau, abbreviated as RKM; Рейхскомиссариат Московия), literally "Reich Commissariat of Muscovy (or Moscow)", was the civilian occupation regime that Nazi Germany intended to create in central and northern European Russia during World War II, one of several similar Reichskommissariate.
The Reichskommissariat Niederlande was the civilian occupation regime set up by Germany in the German-occupied Netherlands during World War II.
The Reichskommissariat Norwegen was the civilian occupation regime set up by Nazi Germany in German-occupied Norway during World War II.
Nazi Germany established the Reichskommissariat Ostland (RKO) in 1941 as the civilian occupation regime in the Baltic states (Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania), the northeastern part of Poland and the west part of the Belarusian SSR during World War II.
Reichskommissariat Turkestan (also spelled as Turkistan, abbreviated as RKT), was a projected Reichskommissariat that Germany proposed to create in the Central Asian Republics of the Soviet Union in its military conflict with that country during World War II.
During World War II, Reichskommissariat Ukraine (abbreviated as RKU), was the civilian occupation regime of much of German-occupied Ukraine (which included adjacent areas of modern Belarus and pre-war Poland).
The Reichskonkordat (Reich Concordat) is a treaty between the Holy See and Germany negotiated during its transition into Nazi Germany.
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The Reichskulturkammer (RKK) ("Reich Chamber of Culture") was an institution in Nazi Germany.
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The Reichsleiter Rosenberg Taskforce (Einsatzstab Reichsleiter Rosenberg or ERR) was a Nazi Party organization dedicated to appropriating cultural property during the Second World War.
The (sign: ℛℳ) was the currency in Germany from 1924 until 20 June 1948 and in Austria from 1938 to 1945.
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The Reichsmusikkammer (translatable variously as "Reich Music Chamber," "State Music Institute," or "State Music Bureau") was a Nazi institution.
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The Reichsrat was one of two legislative bodies in Germany during Weimar Republic (1919–1933), the other being the Reichstag.
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The Reichstag ("diet of the realm"), officially the Großdeutscher Reichstag ("Greater German Reichstag") after 1938, was the pseudo-Parliament of the Third Reich from 1933 to 1945.
The Reichstag (English: Diet of the Realm) was a legislative body of Weimar Germany (the "German Reich") from 1919, when it succeeded the Weimar National Assembly, until the Nazi takeover in 1933.
The Reichstag fire (Reichstagsbrand) was an arson attack on the Reichstag building in Berlin on 27 February 1933.
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The Reichstag Fire Decree (Reichstagsbrandverordnung) is the common name of the Decree of the Reich President for the Protection of People and State (Verordnung des Reichspräsidenten zum Schutz von Volk und Staat) issued by German President Paul von Hindenburg in direct response to the Reichstag fire of 27 February 1933.
The Reichswehr (English: Reich Defence) formed the military organization of Germany from 1919 until 1935, when it was united with the newly founded Wehrmacht ("Defence Force").
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Reichswerke Hermann Göring was an industrial conglomerate of Nazi Germany.
Reinhard Tristan Eugen Heydrich (7 March 1904 – 4 June 1942) was a high-ranking German Nazi official during World War II, and one of the main architects of the Holocaust.
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The Rhineland (Rheinland) has become the name for several areas of Western Germany along the Middle and Lower Rhine.
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Sir Richard John Evans, FBA, FRSL, FRHistS (born 29 September 1947) is a British academic and historian, best known for his research on the history of Germany in the 19th and 20th centuries, particularly the Third Reich.
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Richard James Overy (born 23 December 1947) is a British historian who has published extensively on the history of World War II and the Third Reich.
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Richard Georg Strauss (11 June 1864 – 8 September 1949) was a leading German composer of the late Romantic and early modern eras.
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Wilhelm Richard Wagner (22 May 181313 February 1883) was a German composer, theatre director, polemicist, and conductor who is primarily known for his operas (or, as some of his later works were later known, "music dramas").
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Robert Ley (15 February 1890 – 25 October 1945) was a Nazi politician and head of the German Labour Front from 1933 to 1945.
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The Roman Catholic Church in Germany, part of the worldwide Catholic Church, is under the leadership of the Pope, assisted by the Roman Curia, and of the German bishops.
The Romani (also spelled Romany), or Roma, are a traditionally itinerant ethnic group living mostly in Europe and the Americas, who originate from the northwestern regions of the Indian subcontinent.
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RomaniaIn English, Romania was formerly often spelled Rumania or sometimes Roumania.
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The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the United Kingdom's aerial warfare force.
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Rudolf Walter Richard Heß, also spelled Hess (26 April 1894 – 17 August 1987), was a prominent politician in Nazi Germany.
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The Ruhr (Ruhrgebiet), or the Ruhr district, Ruhr region or Ruhr valley, is an urban area in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.
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The Territory of the Saar Basin (French: Le Territoire du Bassin de la Sarre; German: Saarbeckengebiet), also referred as the Saar or Saargebiet, was a region of Germany occupied and governed by the United Kingdom and France from 1920 to 1935 under a League of Nations mandate.
Sachsenhausen ("Saxon's Houses") or Sachsenhausen-Oranienburg was a Nazi concentration camp in Oranienburg, Germany, used primarily for political prisoners from 1936 to the end of the Third Reich in May 1945.
Saint Petersburg (p) is the second largest city in Russia, politically incorporated as a federal subject (a federal city).
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Słupsk (also known by several alternative names) is a city in the Pomeranian Voivodeship, in the northern part of Poland.
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The Schutzstaffel (abbreviated as SS), "protection squadron" or "defence corps"; also with stylized "Armanen" ''sig'' runes) was a major paramilitary organization under Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party (NSDAP). It began with a small, permanent guard unit known as the "Saal-Schutz" (Hall-Protection) made up of NSDAP volunteers to provide security for Nazi Party meetings in Munich. Later, in 1925, Heinrich Himmler joined the unit, which had by then been reformed and renamed the "Schutz-Staffel". Under Himmler's leadership (1929–45), it grew from a small paramilitary formation to one of the largest and most powerful organizations in the Third Reich. Built upon the Nazi ideology, the SS under Himmler's command was responsible for many crimes against humanity during World War II (1939–45). The SS, along with the Nazi Party, was declared a criminal organization by the International Military Tribunal, and banned in Germany after 1945.
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Scientific racism is the use of scientific techniques and hypotheses to support or justify the belief in racism, racial inferiority, or racial superiority, or alternatively the practice of classifying individuals of different phenotypes into discrete races.
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A scorched earth policy is a military strategy that involves destroying anything that might be useful to the enemy while advancing through or withdrawing from an area.
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The Second Czechoslovak Republic (Czech / Česko-Slovenská republika), sometimes also called the Czech-Slovak Republic, existed for 169 days, between 30 September 1938 and 15 March 1939.
The Second Italo-Ethiopian War, also referred to as the Second Italo-Abyssinian War, was a colonial war that started in October 1935 and ended in May 1936.
The Second Spanish Republic (Segunda República Española) was the republican regime that existed in Spain from 1931 to 1939, preceded by the Restoration and followed by Francoist Spain after the Spanish Civil War.
Sicherheitsdienst (Security Service), full title Sicherheitsdienst des Reichsführers-SS, or SD, was the intelligence agency of the SS and the Nazi Party in Nazi Germany.
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A single-party state, one-party state, one-party system, or single-party system is a type of state in which a single political party has the right to form the government, usually based on the existing constitution.
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Cooperation between Germany and China was instrumental in modernizing the industry and the armed forces of the Republic of China prior to the Second Sino-Japanese War.
The Slavs are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group living in Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Southeast Europe, North Asia and Central Asia, who speak the Indo-European Slavic languages, and share, to varying degrees, certain cultural traits and historical backgrounds.
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The (First) Slovak Republic (Slovenská republika) otherwise known as the Slovak State (Slovenský štát) was a client state of Nazi Germany which existed between 14 March 1939 and 4 April 1945.
Sobibór (or Sobibor) was a Nazi German extermination camp located on the outskirts of the village of Sobibór in occupied Poland within the semi-colonial territory of General Government during World War II.
A Sondergericht (plural: Sondergerichte) was a German "special court." After taking power in 1933, the Nazis quickly moved to remove internal opposition to the Nazi regime in Germany.
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South Jutland County (Danish: Sønderjyllands Amt) is a former county (Danish: amt) on the south-central portion of the Jutland Peninsula in southern Denmark.
South Tyrol (German and Ladin: Südtirol, Italian: Sudtirolo), also known by its Italian name Alto Adige, is an autonomous province in northern Italy.
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The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (a) abbreviated to USSR (r) or shortened to the Soviet Union (p), was a Marxist–Leninist state on the Eurasian continent that existed between 1922 and 1991.
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The Spanish Civil War (Guerra Civil Española),Also known as The Crusade (La Cruzada) among Nationalists, the Fourth Carlist War (Cuarta Guerra Carlista) among Carlists, and The Rebellion (La Rebelión) or Uprising (Sublevación) among Republicans.
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SS-Totenkopfverbände (SS-TV), rendered in English as "Death's-Head Units," was the SS organization responsible for administering the Nazi concentration camps for the Third Reich.
Strategic bombing during World War II was the sustained aerial attack on railways, harbours, cities, workers' housing, and industrial districts in enemy territory during World War II.
Kraft durch Freude (German for Strength through Joy, abbreviated KdF) was a large state-operated leisure organization in Nazi Germany.
The Sturmabteilung (SA;; meaning Storm Detachment or Assault Division) in Nazi Germany, functioned as the original paramilitary wing of the Nazi Party.
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The Sudeten German Party (Sudetendeutsche Partei, SdP, Sudetoněmecká strana) was created by Konrad Henlein under the name Sudetendeutsche Heimatfront ("Front of Sudeten German Homeland") on October 1, 1933, some months after the state of Czechoslovakia had outlawed the German National Socialist Workers' Party (Deutsche Nationalsozialistische Arbeiterpatei, DNSAP).
The Sudetenland (Czech and Sudety, Kraj Sudetów) is the German name (used in English in the first half of the 20th century) to refer to those northern, southwest, and western areas of Czechoslovakia which were inhabited primarily by German speakers, specifically the border districts of Bohemia, Moravia, and those parts of Silesia located within Czechoslovakia.
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The Swastika (also known as the gammadion cross, cross cramponnée, or manji) (as a character: 卐 or 卍) is a symbol that generally takes the form of an equilateral cross, with its four legs bent at 90 degrees.
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The Telegraph Media Group (previously the Telegraph Group) is the proprietor of The Daily Telegraph and The Sunday Telegraph.
The Blitz (shortened from German Blitzkrieg, "lightning war") was the period of sustained strategic bombing of the United Kingdom by Nazi Germany during the Second World War.
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The Daily Telegraph is a British daily morning English-language broadsheet newspaper, published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed throughout the United Kingdom and internationally.
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The Holocaust (from the Greek ὁλόκαυστος holókaustos: hólos, "whole" and kaustós, "burnt"), also known as the Shoah (Hebrew: השואה, HaShoah, "the catastrophe"), was a genocide in which approximately six million Jews were killed by Adolf Hitler's Nazi regime and its collaborators.
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"The Horst Wessel Song" (German: Horst-Wessel-Lied), also known by its opening words, "Die Fahne hoch" ("The Flag on High"), was the anthem of the Nazi Party from 1930 to 1945.
The Journal of Modern History is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal covering European intellectual, political, and cultural history, published by the University of Chicago Press in cooperation with the Modern European History Section of the American Historical Association.
The Myth of the Twentieth Century (Der Mythus des zwanzigsten Jahrhunderts) is a book by Alfred Rosenberg, one of the principal ideologues of the Nazi party and editor of the Nazi paper Völkischer Beobachter.
The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich: A History of Nazi Germany is a non-fiction book by William L. Shirer chronicling the rise and fall of Nazi Germany from the 1920s to 1945.
The Second World War is a narrative history of World War II by British historian Antony Beevor.
The Third Reich Trilogy is a series of three narrative history books by the British historian Richard J. Evans covering the rise and collapse of Nazi Germany in detail, with a focus on the internal politics and the decision-making process.
The Wages of Destruction is a non-fiction book detailing the economic history of Nazi Germany.
Third Rome is the idea that some city, state, or country is the successor to the legacy of ancient Rome (the "first Rome").
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Time (styled within the magazine as TIME) is an American weekly news magazine published in New York City.
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Totalitarianism is a political system in which the state holds total control over the society and seeks to control all aspects of public and private life wherever possible.
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The Treaty of Versailles (Traité de Versailles) was one of the peace treaties at the end of World War I. It ended the state of war between Germany and the Allied Powers.
The Treaty of Warsaw (Warschauer Vertrag, Polish: Układ PRL-RFN) was a treaty between West Germany and the People's Republic of Poland.
The Treaty on the Final Settlement With Respect to Germany, Vertrag über die abschließende Regelung in Bezug auf Deutschland (or the Two Plus Four Agreement, Zwei-plus-Vier-Vertrag; short: German Treaty) was negotiated in 1990 between the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic (the eponymous "Two"), and the Four Powers which occupied Germany at the end of World War II in Europe: France, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, and the United States.
Treblinka was an extermination camp, built by Nazi Germany in occupied Poland during World War II.
Trieste (Triestine Trièst; Slovene, Trst;Spezialortsrepertorium der österreichischen Länder. Bearbeiten auf Grund der Ergebnisse der Volkszälung vom 31. Dezember 1910, vol. 7: Österreichisch-Illyrisches Küstenland. 1918. Vienna: K. k. Hof- und Staatsdruckerei, pp. 1, 3. Triest) is a city and seaport in northeastern Italy.
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The Tripartite Pact, also known as the Berlin Pact, was an agreement between Germany, Italy and Japan signed in Berlin on 27 September 1940 by, respectively, Adolf Hitler, Galeazzo Ciano and Saburō Kurusu.
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Triumph of the Will (Triumph des Willens) is a 1935 propaganda film directed, produced, edited and co-written by Leni Riefenstahl.
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A triumphal arch is a monumental structure in the shape of an archway with one or more arched passageways, often designed to span a road.
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Ukraine (Україна, tr. Ukraina) is a country in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast, Belarus to the northwest, Poland and Slovakia to the west, Hungary, Romania, and Moldova to the southwest, and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
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The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum (USHMM) is the United States' official memorial to the Holocaust.
UFA (formerly Universum Film AG, today UFA GmbH) is a German motion-picture production company headquartered in Babelsberg, a district in the Brandenburg state capital of Potsdam.
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Vasily Ivanovich Chuikov (Васи́лий Ива́нович Чуйко́в; 12 February 1900 – 18 March 1982) was a Soviet lieutenant general in the Red Army during World War II, commander of the 62nd Army during the Battle of Stalingrad, twice Hero of the Soviet Union (1944, 1945), and after the war a Marshal of the Soviet Union.
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The völkisch movement (original name: völkische Bewegung) is the German interpretation of the populist movement, with a romantic focus on folklore and the "organic", i.e.: a "naturally grown community in unity" (as opposed to a refined and sophisticated society characterised by diverging interests), characterised by the one-body-metaphor (Volkskörper) for the entire population.
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The Völkischer Beobachter ("Völkisch Observer") was the newspaper of the National Socialist German Workers' Party (NSDAP or Nazi Party) from 1920.
Vergangenheitsbewältigung is a composite German word with individual and collective significance that describes processes of coming to terms with the past (Vergangenheit.
Vichy France is the Allies' description of the government of the French State (État français), following its relocation to the spa town of Vichy, headed by Marshal Philippe Pétain from 1940 to 1944 during World War II.
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Volksgemeinschaft is a German-language expression meaning "people's community".
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The Deutsche Volksliste (German People's List) was a Nazi Party institution whose purpose was the classification of inhabitants of German occupied territories into categories of desirability according to criteria systematized by Heinrich Himmler.
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Volkswagen (VW) is a German car manufacturer headquartered in Wolfsburg, Lower Saxony, Germany.
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The Waffen-SS (Armed SS) was created as the armed wing of the Nazi Party's Schutzstaffel (SS, "Protective Squadron"), and gradually developed into a multi-ethnic and multi-national military force of Nazi Germany.
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The Wall Street Crash of 1929, also known as Black Tuesday, the Great Crash, or the Stock Market Crash of 1929, began on October 24, 1929, and was the most devastating stock market crash in the history of the United States, when taking into consideration the full extent and duration of its fallout.
The Wannsee Conference (Wannseekonferenz) was a meeting of senior officials of Nazi Germany, held in the Berlin suburb of Wannsee on 20 January 1942.
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A war crime is a serious violation of the laws and customs of war (also known as international humanitarian law) giving rise to individual criminal responsibility.
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The Wehrmacht (lit. "defence force"From wehren, "to defend" and Macht, "power, force". See the Wiktionary article for more information.) was the unified armed forces of Nazi Germany from 1935 to 1946.
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The Constitution of the German Reich (Die Verfassung des Deutschen Reichs), usually known as the Weimar Constitution (Weimarer Verfassung) was the constitution that governed Germany during the Weimar Republic (1919–1933).
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The Weimar Republic (Weimarer Republik) was the federal republic and semi-presidential representative democracy established in 1919 in Germany to replace the German Empire.
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Werner Eduard Fritz von Blomberg (2 September 1878 – 14 March 1946) was a German ''Generalfeldmarschall'', Minister of War, and Commander-in-Chief of the German Armed Forces until January 1938.
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West Germany is the common English name for the Federal Republic of Germany or FRG (Bundesrepublik Deutschland or ''BRD'') in the period between its creation on 23 May 1949 to German reunification on 3 October 1990.
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Wien-Film GmbH ("Vienna Film Limited") was a large Austrian film company, which in 1938 succeeded the Tobis-Sascha-Filmindustrie AG (Sascha Film Company) and lasted until 1985.
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Wilhelm Frick (12 March 187716 October 1946) was a prominent German politician of the Nazi Party, who served as Reich Minister of the Interior in the Hitler Cabinet from 1933 to 1943 and as the last governor of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia.
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Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, (30 November 1874 – 24 January 1965) was a British statesman who was the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955.
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The Winter War (Talvisota, Vinterkriget, r) was a military conflict between the Soviet Union and Finland in 1939–1940.
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Women in the Third Reich lived within a regime characterized by a policy of confining women in the roles of mother and spouse and excluding them from all positions of responsibility, notably in the political and academic spheres.
World War I reparations were compensation imposed during the Paris Peace Conference upon the Central Powers following their defeat in the First World War by the Allied and Associate Powers.
World War II (WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, though related conflicts began earlier.
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World War II casualties of the Soviet Union from all related causes were over 20,000,000, both civilians and military, although the statistics vary to a great extent largely because these figures are currently disputed.
The 1936 Summer Olympics (German: Olympische Sommerspiele 1936), officially known as the Games of the XI Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event that was held in 1936 in Berlin, Germany.
1939 German ultimatum to Lithuania was an oral ultimatum presented to Juozas Urbšys, Foreign Minister of Lithuania, by Joachim von Ribbentrop, Foreign Minister of Nazi Germany, on March 20, 1939.
On 20 July 1944, an attempt was made to assassinate Adolf Hitler, Führer of the Third Reich, perpetrated by Claus von Stauffenberg and other conspirators, inside his Wolf's Lair field headquarters near Rastenburg, East Prussia.
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The 2nd Belorussian Front (Russian: 2-й Белорусский фронт, alternative spellings are 2nd Byelorussian Front and 2nd Belarusian Front) (2BF) was a military formation of Army group size of the Soviet Army during the Second World War.
The 6th Army was a designation for a German field army that saw action in World War II.
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