464 relations: Administrative divisions of Nazi Germany, Adolf Hitler, Adolf Hitler's rise to power, Adolf Wagner, Albert Forster, Albert Hoffmann (Nazi), Albert Krebs, Alfred Frauenfeld, Alfred Hugenberg, Alfred Meyer, Alfred Rosenberg, Allgemeine SS, Allied Control Council, Allies of World War II, Alsace, Amt Rosenberg, Andreas Bolek, Anschluss, Anti-capitalism, Anti-communism, Antisemitic canard, Antisemitism, Anton Drexler, Appenzell, Aristocracy (class), Armistice of 11 November 1918, Arthur Greiser, Arthur Seyss-Inquart, Artur Dinter, Aryan race, Augsburg, August Eigruber, Austria, Baldur von Schirach, Bavaria, Bayreuth, Beer Hall Putsch, Beneš decrees, Benito Mussolini, Bernhard Rust, Big business, Blockleiter, Blood and Soil, Bloodlands, Bochum, Bogdan Musiał, Bolsheviks, Bourgeoisie, Bremen, Brown House, Munich, ..., Bund Deutscher Osten, Burgomaster, Canton of Basel, Canton of Bern, Canton of Lucerne, Canton of Schaffhausen, Canton of Solothurn, Canton of St. Gallen, Canton 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The Gaue (Singular: Gau) were the de facto administrative sub-divisions of Nazi Germany, eclipsing the de jure Länder (states) of Weimar Germany in 1934.
Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.
Adolf Hitler's rise to power began in Germany in September 1919 when Hitler joined the political party known as the Deutsche Arbeiterpartei – DAP (German Workers' Party).
Adolf Wagner (1 October 1890 in Algrange, Alsace-Lorraine – 12 April 1944 in Bad Reichenhall) was a German soldier and high-ranking Nazi Party official born in Algrange, Alsace-Lorraine.
Albert Maria Forster (26 July 1902 – 28 February 1952) was a Nazi German politician and war criminal.
Albert Hoffmann (24 October 1907 in Bremen – 26 August 1972 in Heiligenrode near Bremen) was a German entrepreneur and during the Third Reich the Nazi Gauleiter of Westphalia-South.
Albert Krebs (3 March 1899 in Amorbach – 26 June 1974 in Hamburg) was the Nazi Gauleiter in Hamburg in the time of the Third Reich.
Alfred Eduard Frauenfeld (18 May 1898 in Vienna – 10 May 1977 in Hamburg) was an Austrian Nazi leader.
Alfred Ernst Christian Alexander Hugenberg (19 June 1865 – 12 March 1951) was an influential German businessman and politician.
Gustav Alfred Julius Meyer (5 October 1891 in Göttingen – 11 April 1945 in Hessisch Oldendorf) was a Nazi official.
Alfred Ernst Rosenberg (12 January 1893 – 16 October 1946) was a German theorist and an influential ideologue of the Nazi Party.
The Allgemeine SS (General SS) was the most numerous branch of the Schutzstaffel (SS) paramilitary forces of Nazi Germany, and it was managed by the SS Main Office (SS-Hauptamt).
The Allied Control Council or Allied Control Authority, known in the German language as the Alliierter Kontrollrat and also referred to as the Four Powers (Vier Mächte), was a military occupation governing body of the Allied Occupation Zones in Germany and Austria after the end of World War II in Europe.
The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).
Alsace (Alsatian: ’s Elsass; German: Elsass; Alsatia) is a cultural and historical region in eastern France, on the west bank of the upper Rhine next to Germany and Switzerland.
Amt Rosenberg (ARo) was an official body for cultural policy and surveillance within the Nazi party, headed by Alfred Rosenberg.
Andreas Bolek (3 May 1894 in Weinbergen near Lemberg – 5 May 1945 in Magdeburg) was an Austrian politician and a leader in the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
Anschluss ('joining') refers to the annexation of Austria into Nazi Germany on 12 March 1938.
Anti-capitalism encompasses a wide variety of movements, ideas and attitudes that oppose capitalism.
Anti-communism is opposition to communism.
Antisemitic canards are unfounded rumors or false allegations which are defamatory towards Judaism as a religion, or defamatory towards Jews as an ethnic or religious group.
Antisemitism (also spelled anti-Semitism or anti-semitism) is hostility to, prejudice, or discrimination against Jews.
Anton Drexler (13 June 1884 – 24 February 1942) was a German far-right political leader of the 1920s who was instrumental in the formation of the pan-German and anti-Semitic German Workers' Party (Deutsche Arbeiterpartei – DAP), the antecedent of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei – NSDAP).
Appenzell is an historic canton in the northeast of Switzerland, and entirely surrounded by the canton of St. Gallen.
The aristocracy is a social class that a particular society considers its highest order.
The Armistice of 11 November 1918 was the armistice that ended fighting on land, sea and air in World War I between the Allies and their last opponent, Germany.
Arthur Karl Greiser (22 January 1897 – 21 July 1946) was a Nazi German politician, SS-Obergruppenführer and Reichsstatthalter (Reich Governor) of the German-occupied territory of Wartheland.
Arthur Seyss-Inquart (German:; 22 July 189216 October 1946) was an Austrian Nazi politician who served as Chancellor of Austria for two days – from 11 to 13 March 1938 – before the Anschluss annexation of Austria by Nazi Germany, signing the constitutional law as acting head of state upon the resignation of President Wilhelm Miklas.
Artur Dinter (27 June 1876 in Mulhouse – 21 May 1948) was a German writer and Nazi politician.
The Aryan race was a racial grouping used in the period of the late 19th century and mid-20th century to describe people of European and Western Asian heritage.
Augsburg (Augschburg) is a city in Swabia, Bavaria, Germany.
August Eigruber (16 April 1907 – 28 May 1947) was an Austrian-born Nazi Gauleiter of Reichsgau Oberdonau (Upper Danube) and Landeshauptmann of Upper Austria, later hanged by the Allies.
Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.
Baldur Benedikt von Schirach (9 May 1907 – 8 August 1974) was a Nazi German politician who is best known for his role as the German Nazi Party's national youth leader and head of the Hitler Youth from 1931 to 1940.
Bavaria (Bavarian and Bayern), officially the Free State of Bavaria (Freistaat Bayern), is a landlocked federal state of Germany, occupying its southeastern corner.
Bayreuth (Bavarian: Bareid) is a medium-sized town in northern Bavaria, Germany, on the Red Main river in a valley between the Franconian Jura and the Fichtelgebirge Mountains.
The Beer Hall Putsch, also known as the Munich Putsch,Dan Moorhouse, ed.
The Decrees of the President of the Republic (Dekrety presidenta republiky, Dekréty prezidenta republiky) and the Constitutional Decrees of the President of the Republic (Ústavní dekrety presidenta republiky, Ústavné dekréty prezidenta republiky), commonly known as the Beneš decrees, were a series of laws drafted by the Czechoslovak government-in-exile in the absence of the Czechoslovak parliament during the German occupation of Czechoslovakia in World War II.
Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (29 July 1883 – 28 April 1945) was an Italian politician and journalist who was the leader of the National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista, PNF).
Bernhard Rust (30 September 1883 – 8 May 1945) was Minister of Science, Education and National Culture (Reichserziehungsminister) in Nazi Germany.
Blockleiter (Block Leader, derived from city block) from 1933 was the title of a lower Nazi Party political rank responsible for the political supervision of a neighborhood.
Blood and soil (Blut und Boden) is a slogan expressing the nineteenth-century German idealization of a racially defined national body ("blood") united with a settlement area ("soil").
Bloodlands: Europe Between Hitler and Stalin is a book by Yale historian Timothy D. Snyder, first published by Basic Books on October 28, 2010.
Bochum (Westphalian: Baukem) is a city in the state of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany and part of the Arnsberg region.
Bogdan Musiał (born 1960 in Poland) is a Polish-German historian.
The Bolsheviks, originally also Bolshevists or Bolsheviki (p; derived from bol'shinstvo (большинство), "majority", literally meaning "one of the majority"), were a faction of the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) which split apart from the Menshevik faction at the Second Party Congress in 1903.
The bourgeoisie is a polysemous French term that can mean.
The City Municipality of Bremen (Stadtgemeinde Bremen) is a Hanseatic city in northwestern Germany, which belongs to the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen (also called just "Bremen" for short), a federal state of Germany.
The Brown House (Braunes Haus) was the name given to the Munich mansion located between the Karolinenplatz and Königsplatz, known before as the Palais Barlow, which was purchased in 1930 for the Nazis.
Bund Deutscher Osten (BDO) was a German Nazi organisation founded on 26 May 1933.
Burgomaster (alternatively spelled burgermeister, literally master of the town, master of the borough, master of the fortress, or master of the citizens) is the English form of various terms in or derived from Germanic languages for the chief magistrate or chairman of the executive council, usually of a sub-national level of administration such as a city or a similar entity.
Basel was a canton of Switzerland that was in existence between 1501 and 1833, when it was split into the two half-cantons of Basel-City and Basel-Country.
The canton of Bern (Bern, canton de Berne) is the second largest of the 26 Swiss cantons by both surface area and population.
The canton of Lucerne (Kanton Luzern) is a canton of Switzerland.
The canton of Schaffhausen, also canton of Schaffouse (Schaffhausen) is the northernmost canton of Switzerland.
The canton of Solothurn, also canton of Soleure (German) is a canton of Switzerland.
The canton of St.
The canton of Thurgau (German:, anglicized as Thurgovia) is a northeast canton of Switzerland.
The canton of Zürich (Kanton) has a population (as of) of.
Carl Georg Röver (born 12 February 1889 in Lemwerder – died 15 May 1942 in Berlin) was a German Nazi Party official.
The German Centre Party (Deutsche Zentrumspartei or just Zentrum) is a lay Catholic political party in Germany, primarily influential during the Kaiserreich and the Weimar Republic.
The title Chancellor has designated different offices in the history of Germany.
Civil liberties or personal freedoms are personal guarantees and freedoms that the government cannot abridge, either by law or by judicial interpretation, without due process.
The coat of arms of Germany displays a black eagle with a red beak, tongue and feet on a golden field, which is blazoned: Or, an eagle displayed sable beaked langued and membered gules.
Within nations occupied by the Axis Powers in World War II, some citizens and organizations, prompted by nationalism, ethnic hatred, anti-communism, antisemitism, opportunism, self-defense, or often a combination, knowingly collaborated with the Axis Powers.
Collectivism is a cultural value that is characterized by emphasis on cohesiveness among individuals and prioritization of the group over self.
Cologne (Köln,, Kölle) is the largest city in the German federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia and the fourth most populated city in Germany (after Berlin, Hamburg, and Munich).
In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin communis, "common, universal") is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money and the state.
The Communist International (Comintern), known also as the Third International (1919–1943), was an international communist organization that advocated world communism.
The Communist Party of Germany (Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands, KPD) was a major political party in Germany between 1918 and 1933, and a minor party in West Germany in the postwar period until it was banned in 1956.
Czechoslovakia, or Czecho-Slovakia (Czech and Československo, Česko-Slovensko), was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until its peaceful dissolution into the:Czech Republic and:Slovakia on 1 January 1993.
Daniel Francis Jeroen van der Vat (born 28 October 1939, Alkmaar, North Holland) is a journalist, writer and military historian, with a focus on naval history.
Düsseldorf (Low Franconian, Ripuarian: Düsseldörp), often Dusseldorf in English sources, is the capital city of the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia and the seventh most populous city in Germany. Düsseldorf is an international business and financial centre, renowned for its fashion and trade fairs.
Denazification (Entnazifizierung) was an Allied initiative to rid German and Austrian society, culture, press, economy, judiciary, and politics of any remnants of the National Socialist ideology (Nazism).
Deputy Führer (German: Stellvertreter des Führers, more faithfully translated as "Deputy of the Führer") was the title for the deputy head of the Nazi Party.
Der Stürmer (lit. "The Stormer/Attacker/Striker") was a weekly German tabloid-format newspaper published by Julius Streicher, the Gauleiter of Franconia, from 1923 to the end of World War II, with brief suspensions in publication due to legal difficulties.
Dessau is a town and former municipality in Germany on the junction of the rivers Mulde and Elbe, in the Bundesland (Federal State) of Saxony-Anhalt.
Deutsche Uniformen (German for "German uniforms") was a publication of the National Socialist German Workers Party which was published in 1938 and dealt with Nazi party paramilitary ranks as well as the ranks of the Wehrmacht.
The Deutsches Jungvolk in der Hitler Jugend (DJ, also DJV; German for "German Youngsters in the Hitler Youth") was the separate section for boys aged 10 to 14 of the Hitler Youth organisation in Nazi Germany.
Developmental disability is a diverse group of chronic conditions that are due to mental or physical impairments that arise before adulthood.
Dietrich Eckart (23 March 1868 – 26 December 1923) was a German journalist, playwright, poet, and politician who was one of the founders of the Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (German Workers' Party - DAP), which later evolved into the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
In most German states, the primary administrative subdivision is a Landkreis ("rural district"); the exceptions are the states of North Rhine-Westphalia and Schleswig-Holstein, where the term is simply Kreis.
Dresden (Upper and Lower Sorbian: Drježdźany, Drážďany, Drezno) is the capital city and, after Leipzig, the second-largest city of the Free State of Saxony in Germany.
East Prussia (Ostpreußen,; Prusy Wschodnie; Rytų Prūsija; Borussia orientalis; Восточная Пруссия) was a province of the Kingdom of Prussia from 1773 to 1829 and again from 1878 (with the Kingdom itself being part of the German Empire from 1871); following World War I it formed part of the Weimar Republic's Free State of Prussia, until 1945.
The Free State of Prussia held elections to its Landtag between 1918 and 1933.
The Electorate of Hesse (Kurfürstentum Hessen), also known as Hesse-Kassel or Kurhessen) was a state elevated by Napoleon in 1803 from the Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel. When the Holy Roman Empire was abolished in 1806, the Prince-Elector of Hesse chose to remain an Elector, even though there was no longer an Emperor to elect. In 1807, with the Treaties of Tilsit the area was annexed to the Kingdom of Westphalia, but in 1814 the Congress of Vienna restored the electorate. The state was the only electorate within the German Confederation, consisting of several detached territories to the north of Frankfurt which survived until it was annexed by Prussia in 1866 following the Austro-Prussian War. It comprised a total land area of, and its population in 1864 was 745,063.
Emil Stürtz (15 November 1892 – missing 21 April 1945) was a Nazi German politician and Gauleiter.
The Enabling Act (German: Ermächtigungsgesetz) was a 1933 Weimar Constitution amendment that gave the German Cabinet—in effect, Chancellor Adolf Hitler—the power to enact laws without the involvement of the Reichstag.
Erich Koch (19 June 1896 – 12 November 1986) was a Gauleiter of the Nazi Party (NSDAP) in East Prussia from 1928 until 1945.
Erich Friedrich Wilhelm Ludendorff (9 April 1865 – 20 December 1937) was a German general, the victor of the Battle of Liège and the Battle of Tannenberg.
Ernst Julius Günther Röhm (28 November 1887 – 1 July 1934) was a German military officer and an early member of the Nazi Party.
Ernst Schlange (September 1, 1888 – † 1947) was a Nazi German politician, Gauleiter of Berlin-Brandenburg and a member of the Prussian Landtag.
Ernst Wilhelm Bohle (28 July 1903 – 9 November 1960) was the leader of the Foreign Organization of the National Socialist German Workers' Party (NSDAP; Nazi Party) from 1933 until 1945.
Essen (Latin: Assindia) is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.
Eugenics (from Greek εὐγενής eugenes 'well-born' from εὖ eu, 'good, well' and γένος genos, 'race, stock, kin') is a set of beliefs and practices that aims at improving the genetic quality of a human population.
Far-right politics are politics further on the right of the left-right spectrum than the standard political right, particularly in terms of more extreme nationalist, and nativist ideologies, as well as authoritarian tendencies.
Fascism is a form of radical authoritarian ultranationalism, characterized by dictatorial power, forcible suppression of opposition and control of industry and commerce, which came to prominence in early 20th-century Europe.
Führer (These are also cognates of the Latin peritus ("experienced"), Sanskrit piparti "brings over" and the Greek poros "passage, way".-->, spelled Fuehrer when the umlaut is not available) is a German word meaning "leader" or "guide".
The Führerprinzip (German for "leader principle") prescribed the fundamental basis of political authority in the governmental structures of the Third Reich.
Felix Graf von Bothmer (10 December 1852 – 18 March 1937) was a German general, notably during the Brusilov offensive of 1916.
The flag of Germany or German Flag (Flagge Deutschlands) is a tricolour consisting of three equal horizontal bands displaying the national colours of Germany: black, red, and gold (Schwarz-Rot-Gold).
Foreign races (German: Fremdvölkische) was a term used during the Nazi era to describe people who were not of "German or related blood" (Nuremberg Laws).
Franconia (Franken, also called Frankenland) is a region in Germany, characterised by its culture and language, and may be roughly associated with the areas in which the East Franconian dialect group, locally referred to as fränkisch, is spoken.
Frankfurt, officially the City of Frankfurt am Main ("Frankfurt on the Main"), is a metropolis and the largest city in the German state of Hesse and the fifth-largest city in Germany.
Franz Hofer (November 27, 1902 in Bad Hofgastein – February 18, 1975 in Mülheim an der Ruhr) was, in the time of the Third Reich, the Nazi Gauleiter of the Tyrol and Vorarlberg.
Franz Kutschera (22 February 1904 – 1 February 1944) was a high-ranking Austrian Nazi official, SS-Brigadeführer and member of the German security services.
Franz Pfeffer von Salomon (19 February 1888 in Düsseldorf – 12 April 1968 in Munich), also known as Franz von Pfeffer, was the first commander of the SA upon its re-establishment in 1925, following its temporary abolition in 1923 after the abortive Beer Hall Putsch.
Franz Reinhold Schwede (5 March 1888 – 19 October 1960) was a Nazi German politician, Lord Mayor of Coburg and Gauleiter of Pomerania.
Franz von Papen (29 October 18792 May 1969) was a German nobleman, General Staff officer and politician.
Franz Xaver Schwarz (27 November 1875 – 2 December 1947) was a German Schutzstaffel (SS) functionary and politician in Nazi Germany.
The Free City of Danzig (Freie Stadt Danzig; Wolne Miasto Gdańsk) was a semi-autonomous city-state that existed between 1920 and 1939, consisting of the Baltic Sea port of Danzig (now Gdańsk, Poland) and nearly 200 towns and villages in the surrounding areas.
Parliamentary elections were held in the Free City of Danzig on 13 November 1927.
Parliamentary elections were held in the Free City of Danzig on 16 November 1930.
Parliamentary elections were held in the Free City of Danzig on 28 May 1933.
Parliamentary elections were held in the Free City of Danzig on 7 April 1935.
The Free and Hanseatic City of Lübeck was a city-state from 1226 to 1937, in what is now the German states of Schleswig-Holstein and Mecklenburg-Vorpommern.
The Free State of Anhalt (Freistaat Anhalt) was formed after Joachim Ernst, Duke of Anhalt abdicated on 12 November 1918, ending the Duchy of Anhalt.
Freikorps ("Free Corps") were German volunteer units that existed from the 18th to the early 20th centuries, which effectively fought as mercenary or private armies, regardless of their own nationality.
Friedrich Hildebrandt (19 September 1898, Parchim, Mecklenburg-Schwerin – 5 November 1948, Landsberg am Lech) was an SS-Obergruppenführer, a Gauleiter and ajudged and executed for war crimes committed during the time of Nazi Germany.
Friedrich Karl Florian (4 February 1894 in Essen – 24 October 1975 in Mettmann) was the Gauleiter of Düsseldorf in Nazi Germany.
Friedrich W. Rainer (28 July 1903 – 19 July 1947) was an Austrian Nazi politician, Gauleiter as well as a state governor of Salzburg and Carinthia.
Fritz Bracht (18 January 1899 in Heiden, part of Lage near Detmold – 9 May 1945 in Bad Kudowa, now Kudowa Zdrój, Poland) was the Nazi Gauleiter of Upper Silesia.
Ernst Friedrich Christoph "Fritz" Sauckel (27 October 1894 – 16 October 1946) was a German Nazi politician, Gauleiter of Thuringia and the General Plenipotentiary for Labour Deployment from March 1942 until the end of the Second World War.
Friedrich "Fritz" Thyssen (9 November 1873 – 8 February 1951) was a German businessman, born into one of Germany's leading industrial families.
Fritz Todt (4 September 1891 – 8 February 1942) was a German construction engineer, senior Nazi figure, who rose from "Inspector General for German Roadways" where he oversaw the construction of German Autobahnen (Reichsautobahnen) to Reich Minister for Armaments and Ammunition where he led the entire war military economy.
Fritz Wächtler (7 January 1891 – 19 April 1945) was a Nazi German politician and Gauleiter of the eastern Bavarian administrative region of Gau Bayreuth.
Gau (Dutch: gouw, Frisian: gea or goa) is a Germanic term for a region within a country, often a former or actual province.
Gau Bayreuth (until 1942, Gau Bayerische Ostmark (English: Bavarian Eastern March)) was an administrative division of Nazi Germany in Lower Bavaria, Upper Palatinate and Upper Franconia, Bavaria, from 1933 to 1945.
Gau East Prussia was formed in 1933 in Nazi Germany initially as a district within the Free State of Prussia.
Gau Eastern Hanover (German: Osthannover) was a regional district of the NSDAP established in 1925 in the north eastern part of the Prussian Province of Hanover, comprising the governorates of Stade and Lunenburg in their then boundaries.
Gau Franconia (German: Gau Franken) was an administrative division of Nazi Germany in Middle Franconia, Bavaria, from 1933 to 1945.
The Gau Main Franconia (German: Gau Mainfranken), named Gau Lower Franconia (German: Gau Unterfranken) until July 30, 1935, was an administrative division of Nazi Germany in Lower Franconia, Bavaria, from 1933 to 1945.
The Gau Mark Brandenburg was formed in 1933 initially under the name Gau Kurmark in Nazi Germany initially as a district within the Free State of Prussia.
The Gau Munich–Upper Bavaria (German: Gau München–Oberbayern) was an administrative division of Nazi Germany in Upper Bavaria from 1933 to 1945.
Gau Southern Hanover–Brunswick (German: Gau Südhannover–Braunschweig) was a regional district established in 1933 in Nazi Germany.
Gau Swabia (German: Gau Schwaben) was an administrative division of Nazi Germany in Swabia, Bavaria, from 1933 to 1945.
The Gau Thuringia (German: Gau ThüringenThuringia) was an administrative division of Nazi Germany in Thuringia from 1933 to 1945.
The Gau Weser-Ems was an administrative division of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945 in the core part of the Free State of Oldenburg, the state Bremen and the western parts of the Prussian Province of Hanover.
The Gau Westmark (English: Western March) was an administrative division of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945.
The Gau Westphalia-North (German: Gau Westfalen-Nord) was an administrative division of Nazi Germany encompassing the Free State of Lippe, Free State of Schaumburg-Lippe and the northern half of the Prussian province of Westphalia between 1933 and 1945.
The Gau Westphalia-South (German: Gau Westfalen-Süd) was an administrative division of Nazi Germany encompassing the Free State of Lippe, Free State of Schaumburg-Lippe and the northern half of the Prussian province of Westphalia between 1933 and 1945.
A Gauleiter was the party leader of a regional branch of the NSDAP (more commonly known as the Nazi Party) or the head of a Gau or of a Reichsgau.
Gdańsk (Danzig) is a Polish city on the Baltic coast.
Gefreiter (abbr. Gefr.) is a German, Swiss and Austrian military rank that has existed since the 16th century.
The General Government (Generalgouvernement, Generalne Gubernatorstwo, Генеральна губернія), also referred to as the General Governorate, was a German zone of occupation established after the joint invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union in 1939 at the onset of World War II.
Genocide is intentional action to destroy a people (usually defined as an ethnic, national, racial, or religious group) in whole or in part.
The German American Bund, or German American Federation (Amerikadeutscher Bund; Amerikadeutscher Volksbund, AV), was a German-American pro-Nazi organization established in 1936 to succeed Friends of New Germany (FoNG), the new name being chosen to emphasize the group's American credentials after press criticism that the organization was unpatriotic.
The German Civil Service Federation (Deutscher Beamtenbund, DBB) is a national trade union center in Germany.
Parliamentary elections were held in Germany on 29 March 1936.
Parliamentary elections were held in Germany (including recently annexed Austria) on 10 April 1938.
Parliamentary elections in Germany took place on 12 November 1933.
The German Faith Movement (Deutsche Glaubensbewegung) was a religious movement in Nazi Germany (1933–1945), closely associated with University of Tübingen professor Jakob Wilhelm Hauer.
The German Fatherland Party (Deutsche Vaterlandspartei) was a short-lived far-right party in the German Empire, active during the last phase of World War I. It played a vital role in the emergence of the stab-in-the-back myth and the defamation of certain politicians as the "November Criminals".
Federal elections were held in Germany on 20 May 1928.
The German federal election occurred on 14 September 1930.
Federal elections were held in Germany on 7 December 1924, the second that year.
Federal elections were held in Germany on 31 July 1932, following the premature dissolution of the Reichstag.
Federal elections were held in Germany on 5 March 1933, after the Nazi seizure of power and just six days after the Reichstag fire.
Federal elections were held in Germany on 4 May 1924.
Federal elections were held in Germany on 6 November 1932.
The German Instrument of Surrender ended World War II in Europe.
The German Labour Front (Deutsche Arbeitsfront,; DAF) was the National Socialist labour organisation which replaced the various independent trade unions in Germany after Adolf Hitler's rise to power.
During World War II, Nazi Germany engaged in a policy of deliberate maltreatment of Soviet prisoners of war (POWs), in contrast to their treatment of British and American POWs.
The German National People's Party (DNVP) was a national conservative party in Germany during the time of the Weimar Republic.
German nationalism is the nationalist idea that Germans are a nation, promotes the unity of Germans and German-speakers into a nation state, and emphasizes and takes pride in the national identity of Germans.
Presidential elections were held in Germany on 29 March 1925, with a second round run-off on 26 April.
The 1932 German presidential elections were held on 13 March (first round) and 10 April (second round run-off).
The German Question was a debate in the 19th century, especially during the Revolutions of 1848, over the best way to achieve the unification of Germany.
The German Red Cross (Deutsches Rotes Kreuz), or the DRK, is the national Red Cross Society in Germany.
The German Socialist Party (German: Deutschsozialistische Partei, DSP) was a short-lived German nationalist, far-right party during the early years of the Weimar Republic.
The German Völkisch Freedom Party (Deutschvölkische Freiheitspartei, or DVFP) was a National Socialist and anti-Jewish political party of Weimar Germany that took its name from the Völkisch movement, a populist movement focused on folklore and the German ''Volk''.
The German Workers' Party (Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, DAP) was a short-lived political party established in Weimar Germany after World War I. It was the precursor of the Nazi Party, which was officially known as the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, NSDAP).
The Gestapo, abbreviation of Geheime Staatspolizei (Secret State Police), was the official secret police of Nazi Germany and German-occupied Europe.
Gleichschaltung, or in English co-ordination, was in Nazi terminology the process of Nazification by which Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party successively established a system of totalitarian control and coordination over all aspects of German society, "from the economy and trade associations to the media, culture and education".
This is a list of words, terms, concepts and slogans of Nazi Germany used in the historiography covering the Nazi regime.
The Golden Party Badge (Goldenes Parteiabzeichen) was authorized by Adolf Hitler in a degree in October 1933.
Gottfried Feder (27 January 1883 – 24 September 1941) was a German civil engineer, a self-taught economist and one of the early key members of the Nazi Party.
Graz is the capital of Styria and the second-largest city in Austria after Vienna.
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place mostly during the 1930s, beginning in the United States.
The Greater Berlin Act (Groß-Berlin-Gesetz), in full the Law Regarding the Creation of the New Municipality of Berlin (Gesetz über die Bildung einer neuen Stadtgemeinde Berlin), was a law passed by the Prussian government in 1920 that greatly expanded the size of the German capital of Berlin.
Gregor Strasser (also Straßer, see ß; 31 May 1892 – 30 June 1934) was an early prominent German Nazi official and politician who was murdered during the Night of the Long Knives in 1934.
Gustav Adolf Scheel (22 November 1907 – 25 March 1979) was a German physician and Nazi politician.
Gustav Hermann Schmischke (born December 19, 1883, death date unknown) was a Gauleiter of the Nazi Party in the district of Anhalt.
Gustav Simon (2 August 1900, Saarbrücken – 18 December 1945, Paderborn) was, as the Nazi Gauleiter in the Moselland Gau from 1940 until 1944, the Chief of the Civil Administration in Luxembourg, which was occupied at that time by Nazi Germany.
Halle (Saale) is a city in the southern part of the German state Saxony-Anhalt.
The Province of Halle-Merseburg (Provinz Halle-Merseburg) was a province of the Free State of Prussia from 1944–45.
Hamburg (locally), Hamborg, officially the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg (Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg, Friee un Hansestadt Hamborg),Constitution of Hamburg), is the second-largest city of Germany as well as one of the country's 16 constituent states, with a population of roughly 1.8 million people. The city lies at the core of the Hamburg Metropolitan Region which spreads across four German federal states and is home to more than five million people. The official name reflects Hamburg's history as a member of the medieval Hanseatic League, a free imperial city of the Holy Roman Empire, a city-state and one of the 16 states of Germany. Before the 1871 Unification of Germany, it was a fully sovereign state. Prior to the constitutional changes in 1919 it formed a civic republic headed constitutionally by a class of hereditary grand burghers or Hanseaten. The city has repeatedly been beset by disasters such as the Great Fire of Hamburg, exceptional coastal flooding and military conflicts including World War II bombing raids. Historians remark that the city has managed to recover and emerge wealthier after each catastrophe. Situated on the river Elbe, Hamburg is home to Europe's second-largest port and a broad corporate base. In media, the major regional broadcasting firm NDR, the printing and publishing firm italic and the newspapers italic and italic are based in the city. Hamburg remains an important financial center, the seat of Germany's oldest stock exchange and the world's oldest merchant bank, Berenberg Bank. Media, commercial, logistical, and industrial firms with significant locations in the city include multinationals Airbus, italic, italic, italic, and Unilever. The city is a forum for and has specialists in world economics and international law with such consular and diplomatic missions as the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, the EU-LAC Foundation, and the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning. In recent years, the city has played host to multipartite international political conferences and summits such as Europe and China and the G20. Former German Chancellor italic, who governed Germany for eight years, and Angela Merkel, German chancellor since 2005, come from Hamburg. The city is a major international and domestic tourist destination. It ranked 18th in the world for livability in 2016. The Speicherstadt and Kontorhausviertel were declared World Heritage Sites by UNESCO in 2015. Hamburg is a major European science, research, and education hub, with several universities and institutions. Among its most notable cultural venues are the italic and italic concert halls. It gave birth to movements like Hamburger Schule and paved the way for bands including The Beatles. Hamburg is also known for several theatres and a variety of musical shows. St. Pauli's italic is among the best-known European entertainment districts.
Hanover or Hannover (Hannover), on the River Leine, is the capital and largest city of the German state of Lower Saxony (Niedersachsen), and was once by personal union the family seat of the Hanoverian Kings of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, under their title as the dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg (later described as the Elector of Hanover).
Hans Michael Frank (23 May 1900 – 16 October 1946) was a German war criminal and lawyer who worked for the Nazi Party during the 1920s and 1930s, and later became Adolf Hitler's personal lawyer.
Hans Nieland (3 October 1900 in Hagen – 29 August 1976 in Reinbek near Hamburg) was a politician of the German Nazi-Party (NSDAP) and Lord Mayor of Dresden from 1940 until 1945.
Hans Schemm (6 October 1891 in Bayreuth – 5 March 1935 in Bayreuth) was a Gauleiter in Nazi Germany.
Hans Zimmermann (18 October 1906 in Nuremberg – 1984 in Bayreuth) was a German politician of the Nazi Party.
Harburg is a district (Landkreis) in Lower Saxony, Germany.
Hartmann Lauterbacher (24 May 1909 in Reutte, Tyrol – 12 April 1988 in Seebruck, Bavaria) was a senior regional leader (Obergebietsführer) of the Hitler Jugend, as well as Gauleiter of South Hanover-Braunschweig and an SS Gruppenführer.
Heinrich Aloysius Maria Elisabeth Brüning (26 November 1885 – 30 March 1970) was a German Centre Party politician and academic, who served as Chancellor of Germany during the Weimar Republic from 1930 to 1932.
Heinrich Luitpold Himmler (7 October 1900 – 23 May 1945) was Reichsführer of the Schutzstaffel (Protection Squadron; SS), and a leading member of the Nazi Party (NSDAP) of Germany.
Helmuth Brückner (7 May 1896 - 12 January 1951) was a Gauleiter of the National Socialist German Workers Party (NSDAP) from 1925 until 1934.
Herbert Czaja (November 5, 1914 – April 18, 1997) was a German Christian democratic politician.
Hermann Esser (29 July 1900 – 7 February 1981) was a very early member of the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
Hermann Wilhelm Göring (or Goering;; 12 January 1893 – 15 October 1946) was a German political and military leader as well as one of the most powerful figures in the Nazi Party (NSDAP) that ruled Germany from 1933 to 1945.
Hermann Neubacher (24 June 1893 – 1 July 1960) was an Austrian Nazi politician who held a number of diplomatic posts in the Third Reich.
The Province of Hesse-Nassau was a province of the Kingdom of Prussia from 1868 to 1918, then a province of the Free State of Prussia until 1944.
Hinrich Lohse (2 September 1896 – 25 February 1964) was a Nazi German politician and a convicted war criminal, best known for his rule of the Baltic states during World War II.
The Hitler Cabinet de jure formed the government of Nazi Germany between 30 January 1933 and 30 April 1945 upon the appointment of Adolf Hitler as Chancellor of the German Reich by president Paul von Hindenburg.
The Hitler Youth (German:, often abbreviated as HJ in German) was the youth organisation of the Nazi Party in Germany.
Hitler's Chancellery, officially known as the Kanzlei des Führers der NSDAP ("Chancellery of the Führer of the Nazi Party"; abbreviated as KdF) was a Nazi Party organization.
Hitler's Willing Executioners: Ordinary Germans and the Holocaust is a 1996 book by American writer Daniel Goldhagen, in which he argues that the vast majority of ordinary Germans were "willing executioners" in the Holocaust because of a unique and virulent "eliminationist antisemitism" in the German political culture, which had developed in the preceding centuries.
The Hofbräuhaus am Platzl is a beer hall in Munich, Germany, originally built in 1589 by Bavarian Duke Maximilian I as an extension of the Staatliches Hofbräuhaus in München brewery.
The Hofbräukeller is a restaurant in Haidhausen, Munich, Germany owned by Hofbräuhaus brewery.
Holocaust victims were people who were targeted by the government of Nazi Germany for various discriminatory practices due to their ethnicity, religion, political beliefs, or sexual orientation. These institutionalized practices came to be called The Holocaust, and they began with legalized social discrimination against specific groups, and involuntary hospitalization, euthanasia, and forced sterilization of those considered physically or mentally unfit for society. These practices escalated during World War II to include non-judicial incarceration, confiscation of property, forced labor, sexual slavery, medical experimentation, and death through overwork, undernourishment, and execution through a variety of methods, with the genocide of different groups as the primary goal. According to the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum (USHMM), the country's official memorial to the Holocaust, "The Holocaust was the murder of six million Jews and millions of others by the Nazis and their collaborators during World War II." Of those murdered for being Jewish, more than half were Ashkenazi Polish Jews.
The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.
"" (English: "Horst Wessel Song"), also known by its opening words, "" ("The Flag on High"), was used as the anthem of the Nazi Party (NSDAP) from 1930 to 1945.
Hubert Klausner (1 November 1892 – 12 February 1939) was an Austrian officer and Nazi politician.
Hugo Jury (13 July 1887, Mährisch Rothmühl (now Moravská Radiměř, Radiměř, Czech Republic) – 8 May 1945, Zwettl, Lower Austria) was an Austrian Nazi.
Ignatius is a male given name of presumed Latin or Etruscan origin, believed to mean "fiery one" (compare the word "ignite").
Reichsdeutsche, literally translated "Germans of the Reich", is an archaic term for those ethnic Germans who resided within the German state that was founded in 1871.
Innsbruck is the capital city of Tyrol in western Austria and the fifth-largest city in Austria.
Internationalism is a political principle which transcends nationalism and advocates a greater political or economic cooperation among nations and people.
Internment is the imprisonment of people, commonly in large groups, without charges or intent to file charges, and thus no trial.
The Invasion of Poland, known in Poland as the September Campaign (Kampania wrześniowa) or the 1939 Defensive War (Wojna obronna 1939 roku), and in Germany as the Poland Campaign (Polenfeldzug) or Fall Weiss ("Case White"), was a joint invasion of Poland by Germany, the Soviet Union, the Free City of Danzig, and a small Slovak contingent that marked the beginning of World War II.
Italian Fascism (fascismo italiano), also known simply as Fascism, is the original fascist ideology as developed in Italy.
Jakob Sprenger (24 July 1884 – 7 May 1945) was a Nazi politician.
Fredegardus Jacobus Josephus (Jef) van de Wiele (Deurne, Belgium, 20 July 1903 – Bruges, 4 September 1979) was a Belgian Flemish Nazi politician.
Jehovah's Witnesses is a millenarian restorationist Christian denomination with nontrinitarian beliefs distinct from mainstream Christianity.
The Jewish question was a wide-ranging debate in 19th- and 20th-century European society pertaining to the appropriate status and treatment of Jews in society.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
Joachim Albrecht Leo Eggeling (30 November 1884 – 15 April 1945) was the Nazi Gauleiter of Halle-Merseburg and the High President (Oberpräsident) of the Province of Halle-Merseburg.
Joseph Bürckel (30 March 1895, in Lingenfeld, Germersheim – 28 September 1944, in Neustadt an der Weinstraße) was a Nazi Germany politician and a member of the German parliament (the Reichstag).
Josef Grohé (6 November 1902 – 27 December 1987), was a German Nazi Party official.
Josef Leopold (18 February 1889 – 24 June 1941) was a leading member of the Nazi Party in Austria.
Josef Antonius Heinrich Terboven (23 May 1898 – 8 May 1945) was a Nazi leader, best known as the Reichskommissar for Norway during the German occupation of Norway and the Quisling regime.
Josef Wagner (12 January 1899 – 22 April or 2 May 1945) was from 1928 the Nazi Gauleiter of the Gau of Westphalia-South, and as of January 1935 also of the Gau of Silesia.
Paul Joseph Goebbels (29 October 1897 – 1 May 1945) was a German Nazi politician and Reich Minister of Propaganda of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945.
Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Soviet revolutionary and politician of Georgian nationality.
Julius Streicher (12 February 1885 – 16 October 1946) was a prominent member of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers' Party, or NSDAP).
Karl Gerland (14 July 1905 in Gottsbüren – 21 April 1945) was a Nazi Gauleiter of Kurhessen.
Karl August Hanke (24 August 1903 – 8 June 1945) was the last Reichsführer of the Schutzstaffel (SS), and an official of the Nazi Party (NSDAP) in Nazi Germany.
Karl Harrer (8 October 1890 – 5 September 1926) was a German journalist and politician, one of the founding members of the "Deutsche Arbeiterpartei" (German Workers' Party, DAP) in January 1919, the predecessor to the Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (National Socialist German Workers Party – NSDAP); more commonly known as the Nazi Party.
Karl Holz (27 December 1895 in Nuremberg – 20 April 1945 in Nuremberg) was the NSDAP Gauleiter of Gau Franconia and an SA Gruppenführer.
Karl Kaufmann (10 October 1900 in Krefeld – 4 December 1965 in Hamburg) was a Nazi Gauleiter in Hamburg—head of the Nazi Party, and government of Hamburg from 1933 until 1945.
Captain Karl Mayr (5 January 1883 in Mindelheim – 9 February 1945 in Buchenwald concentration camp) was a General Staff officer and Adolf Hitler's immediate superior in an army Intelligence Division in the Reichswehr, 1919–1920.
Karl Wahl (24 September 1892 – 18 February 1981) was the Nazi Gauleiter of Swabia from the Gau inception in 1928 until the collapse of Nazi Germany in 1945.
Karl Weinrich (2 December 1887 in Molmeck – 22 July 1973 in Hausen) was NSDAP Gauleiter of Kurhessen.
Karlsruhe (formerly Carlsruhe) is the second-largest city in the state of Baden-Württemberg, in southwest Germany, near the French-German border.
Kassel (spelled Cassel until 1928) is a city located at the Fulda River in northern Hesse, Germany.
Katowice (Katowicy; Kattowitz; officially Miasto Katowice) is a city in southern Poland, with a population of 297,197 and the center of the Silesian Metropolis, with a population of 2.2 million.
Königsberg is the name for a former German city that is now Kaliningrad, Russia.
Kiel is the capital and most populous city in the northern German state of Schleswig-Holstein, with a population of 249,023 (2016).
Klagenfurt am WörtherseeLandesgesetzblatt 2008 vom 16.
Koblenz (Coblence), spelled Coblenz before 1926, is a German city situated on both banks of the Rhine where it is joined by the Moselle.
Konrad Ernst Eduard Henlein (6 May 1898 – 10 May 1945) was a leading Sudeten German politician in Czechoslovakia.
Kreisleiter (County Leader) was a Nazi Party political rank and title which existed as a political rank between 1930 and 1945 and as a Nazi Party title from as early as 1928.
Krems an der Donau is a town of 23,992 inhabitants in Austria, in the federal state of Lower Austria.
Kriminalpolizei ("criminal police") is the standard term for the criminal investigation agency within the police forces of Germany, Austria and the German-speaking cantons of Switzerland.
Kurt Ferdinand Friedrich Hermann von Schleicher (7 April 1882 – 30 June 1934) was a German general and the last Chancellor of Germany during the Weimar Republic.
The Kyffhäuserbund (Kyffhäuser League) is an umbrella organization for War Veterans' and Reservists' Associations in Germany.
A Landtag (State Diet) is a representative assembly (parliament) in German-speaking countries with legislative authority and competence over a federated state (Land).
The Landtag of Prussia (German: Preußischer Landtag) was the representative assembly of the Kingdom of Prussia implemented in 1849, a bicameral legislature consisting of the upper House of Lords (Herrenhaus) and the lower House of Representatives (Abgeordnetenhaus).
Léon Joseph Marie Ignace Degrelle (15 June 1906 – 31 March 1994) was a Belgian politician and Nazi collaborator.
Lüneburg (officially the Hanseatic City of Lüneburg, German: Hansestadt Lüneburg,, Low German Lümborg, Latin Luneburgum or Lunaburgum, Old High German Luneburc, Old Saxon Hliuni, Polabian Glain), also called Lunenburg in English, is a town in the German state of Lower Saxony.
The League of German Girls or Band of German Maidens (Bund Deutscher Mädel, abbreviated as BDM) was the girls' wing of the Nazi Party youth movement, the Hitler Youth.
The German concept of Lebensraum ("living space") comprises policies and practices of settler colonialism which proliferated in Germany from the 1890s to the 1940s.
A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city.
Liberec (Reichenberg) is a city in the Czech Republic.
Linz (Linec) is the third-largest city of Austria and capital of the state of Upper Austria (Oberösterreich).
This is a list of books about Nazi Germany, the state that existed in Germany during the period from 1933 to 1945, when its government was controlled by Adolf Hitler and his National Socialist German Workers' Party (NSDAP; Nazi Party).
This is a list of Nazi Party (NSDAP) leaders and officials.
In developed nations across the world, the lower middle class is a sub-division of the greater middle class.
Lower Silesia (Dolny Śląsk; Dolní Slezsko; Silesia Inferior; Niederschlesien; Silesian German: Niederschläsing; Dolny Ślůnsk) is the northwestern part of the historical and geographical region of Silesia; Upper Silesia is to the southeast.
Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich (also referred to as LMU or the University of Munich, in German: Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München) is a public research university located in Munich, Germany.
Ludwig Ruckdeschel (15 March 1907 – 8 November 1986) was the Nazi Gauleiter of Bayreuth during final month of the Gau's existence before the collapse of Nazi Germany in 1945.
The Luftwaffe was the aerial warfare branch of the combined German Wehrmacht military forces during World War II.
Magdeburg (Low Saxon: Meideborg) is the capital city and the second largest city of the state of Saxony-Anhalt, Germany.
A march or mark was, in broad terms, a medieval European term for any kind of borderland, as opposed to a notional "heartland".
The March on Rome (Marcia su Roma) was an organized mass demonstration in October 1922, which resulted in Benito Mussolini's National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista, or PNF) acceding to power in the Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia).
Martin Bormann (17 June 1900 – 2 May 1945) was a prominent official in Nazi Germany as head of the Nazi Party Chancellery.
Martin Mutschmann (9 March 1879 – 14 February 1947) was the Nazi Regional Leader (Gauleiter) of the state of Saxony (Gau Saxony) during the time of the Third Reich.
During the final weeks of the Third Reich and the war in Europe, many civilians, government officials and military personnel throughout Nazi Germany committed suicide.
The master race (die Herrenrasse) is a concept in Nazi and Neo-Nazi ideology in which the Nordic or Aryan races, predominant among Germans and other northern European peoples, are deemed the highest in racial hierarchy.
Max Amann (24 November 1891 – 30 March 1957) was a German politician, businessman and a member of the Nazi Party.
Münster (Low German: Mönster; Latin: Monasterium, from the Greek μοναστήριον monastērion, "monastery") is an independent city (Kreisfreie Stadt) in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.
Mecklenburg (locally, Low German: Mękel(n)borg) is a historical region in northern Germany comprising the western and larger part of the federal-state Mecklenburg-Vorpommern.
Mein Kampf (My Struggle) is a 1925 autobiographical book by Nazi Party leader Adolf Hitler.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
Munich (München; Minga) is the capital and the most populated city in the German state of Bavaria, on the banks of the River Isar north of the Bavarian Alps.
The National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista, PNF) was an Italian political party, created by Benito Mussolini as the political expression of fascism (previously represented by groups known as Fasci).
The National Socialist Flyers Corps (Nationalsozialistisches Fliegerkorps; NSFK) was a paramilitary organization of the Nazi Party that was founded April 15, 1937 as a successor to the German Air Sports Association; the latter had been active during the years when a German air force was forbidden by the Treaty of Versailles.
The National Socialist Freedom Movement (or NSFB) or National Socialist Freedom Party (or NSFP) was a far-right political party in Weimar Germany created in April 1924 during the aftermath of the Beer Hall Putsch.
The National Socialist German Lecturers League (Nationalsozialistischer Deutscher Dozentenbund, also called NS-Dozentenbund, or abbreviated NSDDB), was a party organization under the NSDAP (the Nazi Party).
The National Socialist German Students' League (German: Nationalsozialistischer Deutscher Studentenbund, abbreviated NSDStB) was founded in 1926 as a division of the Nazi Party with the mission of integrating University-level education and academic life within the framework of the National Socialist worldview.
The National Socialist League of the Reich for Physical Exercise (Nationalsozialistischer Reichsbund für Leibesübungen, abbreviated NSRL), was the umbrella organization for sports and physical education in Nazi Germany.
The National Socialist Motor Corps (Nationalsozialistisches Kraftfahrkorps, NSKK) was a paramilitary organization of the Nazi Party (NSDAP) that officially existed from May 1931 to 1945.
The Nationalsozialistische Volkswohlfahrt (NSV), meaning "National Socialist People's Welfare", was a social welfare organization during the Third Reich.
The National Socialist Teachers League (German: Nationalsozialistische Lehrerbund, NSLB), was established on 21 April 1929.
The Nationalsozialistische Kriegsopferversorgung (NSKOV), meaning "National Socialist War Victim's Care", was a social welfare organization for seriously wounded veterans as well as frontline fighters of World War I. The NSKOV was established in 1934 and was affiliated to the Nazi Party.
The National Socialist Women's League (German: Nationalsozialistische Frauenschaft, abbreviated NS-Frauenschaft) was the women's wing of the Nazi Party.
Crimes against the Polish nation committed by Nazi Germany and the collaborationist forces during the invasion of Poland, along with auxiliary battalions during the subsequent occupation of Poland in World War II, claimed the lives of 2.77 million Poles and 2.7 to 2.9 million Polish Jews, according to estimates of the Polish government-affiliated Institute of National Remembrance (IPN).
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
National Socialist paramilitary ranks were pseudo-military titles which were used by the Nazis, represented by the Nazi Party, the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), between the years of 1920 and 1945.
The Party Chancellery (Parteikanzlei), was the name of the head office for the German Nazi Party (NSDAP), designated as such on 12 May 1941.
The Nazi salute, or Hitler salute (Hitler Greeting), is a gesture that was used as a greeting in Nazi Germany.
National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus), more commonly known as Nazism, is the ideology and practices associated with the Nazi Party – officially the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) – in Nazi Germany, and of other far-right groups with similar aims.
Nazism and race concerns the Nazi Party's adoption and further development of several hypotheses concerning their concept of race.
Neo-Nazism consists of post-World War II militant social or political movements seeking to revive and implement the ideology of Nazism.
Neustadt an der Weinstraße (formerly known as "Neustadt an der Haardt") is a town located in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.
The Night of the Long Knives (German), also called Operation Hummingbird (German: Unternehmen Kolibri) or, in Germany, the Röhm Putsch, was a purge that took place in Nazi Germany from June 30 to July 2, 1934, when the National Socialist German Workers Party, or Nazis, carried out a series of political extrajudicial executions intended to consolidate Adolf Hitler's absolute hold on power in Germany.
The North German Confederation (Norddeutscher Bund) was the German federal state which existed from July 1867 to December 1870.
The NSDAP Office of Colonial Policy (German: Kolonialpolitisches Amt der NSDAP, K.P.A. or KPA) was a Nazi Party office formed in 1934.
The NSDAP Office of Foreign Affairs (German: Außenpolitisches Amt der NSDAP, A.P.A. or APA) was a Nazi Party organization.
The NSDAP Office of Military Policy (German: Wehrpolitisches Amt der NSDAP, W.P.A. or WPA, literally "NSDAP Office of Defense Policy" in English) was a Nazi Party organization.
The Office of Racial Policy was a department of the Nazi Party (NSDAP) that was founded for "unifying and supervising all indoctrination and propaganda work in the field of population and racial politics".
The NSDAP/AO was the foreign organization branch of the National Socialist German Workers Party (NSDAP).
Nuremberg (Nürnberg) is a city on the river Pegnitz and on the Rhine–Main–Danube Canal in the German state of Bavaria, in the administrative region of Middle Franconia, about north of Munich.
The Nuremberg Laws (Nürnberger Gesetze) were antisemitic and racial laws in Nazi Germany.
The Nuremberg Rally (officially, meaning Realm Party ConventionLiterally "Realm Party Day") was the annual rally of the Nazi Party in Germany, held from 1923 to 1938.
The Nuremberg trials (Die Nürnberger Prozesse) were a series of military tribunals held by the Allied forces under international law and the laws of war after World War II.
Oberpräsident was the official title of the highest administrative officials in the Prussian provinces.
Odilo Globočnik (21 April 1904 – 31 May 1945) was an Austrian war criminal.
Oldenburg is an independent city in the district of Oldenburg in the state of Lower Saxony, Germany.
Oswald Menghin (19 April 1888 – 29 November 1973) was an Austrian Prehistorian and University professor.
Otto Hellmuth (July 22, 1896 – April 20, 1968) was a member of the Nazi Party.
Otto Telschow (27 February 1876, Wittenberge, Brandenburg – 31 May 1945), a German Nazi Party official, was born in Wittenberge and became a police official in Hamburg.
Otto Eduard Leopold, Prince of Bismarck, Duke of Lauenburg (1 April 1815 – 30 July 1898), known as Otto von Bismarck, was a conservative Prussian statesman who dominated German and European affairs from the 1860s until 1890 and was the first Chancellor of the German Empire between 1871 and 1890.
Otto Wilhelm (Wille) Kuusinen (О́тто Вильге́льмович Ку́усинен, Otto Vilgelmovich Kuusinen) (4 October 1881 – 17 May 1964) was a Finnish and, later, Soviet politician, literary historian, and poet who, after the defeat of the Reds in the Finnish Civil War, fled to the Soviet Union, where he worked until his death.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Pan-Germanism (Pangermanismus or Alldeutsche Bewegung), also occasionally known as Pan-Germanicism, is a pan-nationalist political idea.
Paul Giesler (15 June 1895 – 8 May 1945) was a member of the Nazi Party, from 1941 Gauleiter of Westphalia-South (Westfalen-Süd) and as of 1942 also acting Gauleiter of the Gau Munich-Upper Bavaria (Gau München-Oberbayern).
Paul Hofmann (20 November 1912 in Vienna – 30 December 2008) was an Austrian, later American, author, journalist, linguist, and political activist.
Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg, known generally as Paul von Hindenburg (2 October 1847 – 2 August 1934) was a Generalfeldmarschall and statesman who commanded the German military during the second half of World War I before later being elected President of the Weimar republic in 1925.
Paul Wegener (11 December 1874 – 13 September 1948) was a German actor, writer and film director known for his pioneering role in German expressionist cinema.
A peasant is a pre-industrial agricultural laborer or farmer, especially one living in the Middle Ages under feudalism and paying rent, tax, fees or services to a landlord.
Upon the rise of Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist German Workers Party (the Nazi Party) in Germany, gay men and, to a lesser extent, lesbians, were two of the numerous groups targeted by the Nazis and were ultimately among Holocaust victims.
Philipp Bouhler (11 September 1899 – 19 May 1945) was a senior Nazi Party functionary who was both a Reichsleiter (National Leader) and Chief of the Chancellery of the Führer of the NSDAP.
A physical disability is a limitation on a person's physical functioning, mobility, dexterity or stamina.
The Poles (Polacy,; singular masculine: Polak, singular feminine: Polka), commonly referred to as the Polish people, are a nation and West Slavic ethnic group native to Poland in Central Europe who share a common ancestry, culture, history and are native speakers of the Polish language.
Politischer Arbeiter-Zirkel (Political Workers' Circle) was a political activist group founded by Karl Harrer, a known rightist, in hopes of gathering intellectuals to discuss the political future of Germany in March 1918.
Pomerania (Pomorze; German, Low German and North Germanic languages: Pommern; Kashubian: Pòmòrskô) is a historical region on the southern shore of the Baltic Sea in Central Europe, split between Germany and Poland.
In politics, populism refers to a range of approaches which emphasise the role of "the people" and often juxtapose this group against "the elite".
Poznań (Posen; known also by other historical names) is a city on the Warta River in west-central Poland, in the Greater Poland region.
The Preußenschlag of 1932 (Prussian coup), also known in English as the coup in Prussia or the putsch in Prussia, was the takeover of the Free State of Prussia, the largest German state, by Chancellor Franz von Papen, using an emergency decree issued by President Paul von Hindenburg under Article 48 of the Weimar Constitution on July 20, 1932.
Preußentum und Sozialismus (Prussian-dom and Socialism) is a book by Oswald Spengler published in 1919 that addressed the connection of the Prussian character with socialism.
Profit sharing refers to various incentive plans introduced by businesses that provide direct or indirect payments to employees that depend on company's profitability in addition to employees' regular salary and bonuses.
The Province of Hohenzollern (Provinz Hohenzollern) or the Hohenzollern Lands (Hohenzollernsche Lande) was a de facto province of the Kingdom of Prussia.
The Province of Schleswig-Holstein (Provinz Schleswig-Holstein) was a province of the Kingdom of Prussia and the Free State of Prussia from 1868 to 1946.
The Province of Silesia (Provinz Schlesien; Prowincja Śląska; Silesian: Prowincyjŏ Ślōnskŏ) was a province of the German Kingdom of Prussia, existing from 1815 to 1919, when it was divided into the Upper and Lower Silesia provinces, and briefly again from 1938 to 1941.
The Province of Upper Silesia (Provinz Oberschlesien; Silesian German: Provinz Oberschläsing; Prowincyjŏ Gōrny Ślōnsk; Prowincja Górny Śląsk) was a province of the Free State of Prussia from 1919 to 1945.
Prussia (Preußen) was a historically prominent German state that originated in 1525 with a duchy centred on the region of Prussia.
Racism is the belief in the superiority of one race over another, which often results in discrimination and prejudice towards people based on their race or ethnicity.
Ranks and insignia of the Nazi Party were paramilitary titles used by the National Socialist German Workers Party (NSDAP) between approximately 1928 and the fall of Nazi Germany in 1945.
Rassenschande ("race disgrace") or Blutschande ("blood disgrace") was an anti-miscegenation concept in Nazi German racial policy, pertaining to sexual relations between Aryans and non-Aryans.
Reich is a German word literally meaning "realm".
The Reich Labour Service (Reichsarbeitsdienst; RAD) was a major organisation established in Nazi Germany as an agency to help mitigate the effects of unemployment on the German economy, militarise the workforce and indoctrinate it with Nazi ideology.
The Reich Main Security OfficeReichssicherheitshauptamt is variously translated as "Reich Main Security Office", "Reich Security Main Office", "Reich Central Security Main Office", "Reich Security Central Office", "Reich Head Security Office", or "Reich Security Head Office".
The Reichsadler ("Imperial Eagle") is the heraldic eagle, derived from the Roman eagle standard, used by the Holy Roman Emperors and in modern coats of arms of Germany, including those of the Second German Empire (1871–1918), the Weimar Republic (1919–1933) and the Third Reich (Nazi Germany, 1933–1945).
Reichsbund der Kinderreichen (RDK) or (RdK), Reich's Union of Large Families or, literally: "Reich's League of those wealthy in children", was one of the most important pronatalist groups founded in Germany after World War I. To qualify as a member of this league a family should have at least four children.
Reichsführer-SS ("Reich Leader-SS") was a special title and rank that existed between the years of 1925 and 1945 for the commander of the Schutzstaffel (SS).
A Reichsgau (plural Reichsgaue) was an administrative subdivision created in a number of areas annexed to Nazi Germany between 1938 and 1945.
The Reichsgau Danzig-West Prussia (Reichsgau Danzig-Westpreussen) was a Nazi German province created on 8 October 1939 from annexed territory of the Free City of Danzig, the Greater Pomeranian Voivodship (Polish Corridor), and the ''Regierungsbezirk'' West Prussia of Gau East Prussia.
The Reichsgau Flanders (German: Reichsgau Flandern; Dutch: Rijksgouw Vlaanderen) was a short-lived Reichsgau of Nazi Germany established in 1944.
The Reichsgau Kärnten (English: Gau Carinthia) was an administrative division of Nazi Germany in Carinthia and East Tyrol (both in Austria) and Upper Carniola in Slovenia.
The Reichsgau Niederdonau (English: Gau Lower Danube) was an administrative division of Nazi Germany consisting of areas in Lower Austria, Burgenland, southeastern parts of Bohemia and southern parts of Moravia.
The Reichsgau Oberdonau (English: Reichsgau Upper Danube) was an administrative division of Nazi Germany consisting of Upper Austria and parts of Southern Bohemia.
The Reichsgau Salzburg (English: Gau Salzburg) was an administrative division of Nazi Germany in Salzburg, Austria.
The Reichsgau Steiermark (English: Gau Styria) was an administrative division of Nazi Germany consisting of areas in Styria, Lower Styria and southern parts of Burgenland.
The Reichsgau Tirol-Vorarlberg (English: Gau Tyrol-Vorarlberg) was an administrative division of Nazi Germany consisting of Vorarlberg and North Tyrol (both in Austria).
The Reichsgau Wallonia (German: Reichsgau Wallonien; French: Gau du Reich Wallonie) was a short-lived Reichsgau of Nazi Germany established in 1944.
The Reichsgau Wartheland (initially Reichsgau Posen, also: Warthegau) was a Nazi German Reichsgau formed from parts of Polish territory annexed in 1939 during World War II.
The Reichsgau Wien (English: Gau Vienna) was an administrative division of Nazi Germany based in Vienna, Austria.
The Reichskolonialbund (RKB) (Reich Colonial League) was a collective body that absorbed all German colonial organisations during the time of the Third Reich.
Reichsleiter (national leader or Reich leader) was the second highest political rank of the Nazi Party (NSDAP), next only to the office of Führer.
The Reichsluftschutzbund (RLB) (National Air Raid Protection League) was an organization in Nazi Germany in charge of air raid precautions in residential areas and among smaller businesses.
The Reichsmark (sign: ℛℳ) was the currency in Germany from 1924 until 20 June 1948 in West Germany, where it was replaced with the Deutsche Mark, and until 23 June in East Germany when it was replaced by the East German mark.
The Reichsstatthalter (Reich lieutenant) was a title used in the German Empire and later in Nazi Germany.
The Reichstag ("Diet of the Realm"), officially the Großdeutscher Reichstag ("Greater-German Reichstag") after 1938, was the pseudo-Parliament of the Third Reich from 1933 to 1945.
The Reichstag (English: Diet of the Realm) was the Lower house of the Weimar Republic's Legislature from 1919, with the creation of the Weimar constitution, to 1933, with the Reichstag fire.
The Reichstag fire (Reichstagsbrand) was an arson attack on the Reichstag building (home of the German parliament) in Berlin on 27 February 1933, just one month after Adolf Hitler had been sworn in as Chancellor of Germany.
The Reichstag Fire Decree (Reichstagsbrandverordnung) is the common name of the Decree of the Reich President for the Protection of People and State (Verordnung des Reichspräsidenten zum Schutz von Volk und Staat) issued by German President Paul von Hindenburg on the advice of Chancellor Adolf Hitler on 28 February 1933 in immediate response to the Reichstag fire.
The Reichswehr (English: Realm Defence) formed the military organisation of Germany from 1919 until 1935, when it was united with the new Wehrmacht (Defence Force).
Reims (also spelled Rheims), a city in the Grand Est region of France, lies east-northeast of Paris.
Reinhard Tristan Eugen Heydrich (7 March 1904 – 4 June 1942) was a high-ranking German Nazi official during World War II, and a main architect of the Holocaust.
The Republic of Baden (Republik Baden) was a German state that existed during the time of the Weimar Republic, formed after the abolition of the Grand Duchy of Baden in 1918.
Robert Heinrich Wagner, born as Robert Heinrich Backfisch (13 October 1895 – 14 August 1946) was Gauleiter of Baden, and Gauleiter of Alsace and Head of the Civil Government of Alsace during the German occupation of France in World War II.
Robert Ley (15 February 1890 – 25 October 1945) was a German politician during the Nazi era who headed the German Labour Front from 1933 to 1945.
Roger D. Griffin (born 31 January 1948) is a British professor of modern history and political theorist at Oxford Brookes University, England.
The Roman salute (Italian: saluto romano) is a gesture in which the arm is held out forward straight, with palm down, and fingers touching.
The Romani genocide or the Romani Holocaust—also known as the Porajmos (Romani pronunciation), the Pharrajimos ("Cutting up", "Fragmentation", "Destruction"), and the Samudaripen ("Mass killing")—was the effort by Nazi Germany and its World War II allies to commit genocide against Europe's Romani people.
The Romani (also spelled Romany), or Roma, are a traditionally itinerant ethnic group, living mostly in Europe and the Americas and originating from the northern Indian subcontinent, from the Rajasthan, Haryana, Punjab and Sindh regions of modern-day India and Pakistan.
Rudolf Walter Richard Hess (Heß in German; 26 April 1894 – 17 August 1987), was a prominent politician in Nazi Germany.
Rudolf Jordan (21 June 1902 – 27 October 1988) was a Nazi Gauleiter in Halle-Merseburg and Magdeburg-Anhalt in the time of the Third Reich.
Rudolf Much (7 September 1862 – 8 March 1936, in Vienna), the son of archaeologist Matthäus Much, was an Austrian Germanist, considered one of the founding fathers of Germanic studies.
The Ruhr (Ruhrgebiet), or the Ruhr district, Ruhr region, Ruhr area or Ruhr valley, is a polycentric urban area in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.
Rzeczpospolita Polska is a traditional and official name of the Polish State – Rzeczpospolita Polska (Res Publica Poloniae, Republic of Poland).
Saarbrücken (Sarrebruck, Rhine Franconian: Saarbrigge) is the capital and largest city of the state of Saarland, Germany.
Salzburg, literally "salt fortress", is the fourth-largest city in Austria and the capital of Salzburg state.
The Free State of Saxony (Freistaat Sachsen; Swobodny stat Sakska) is a landlocked federal state of Germany, bordering the federal states of Brandenburg, Saxony Anhalt, Thuringia, and Bavaria, as well as the countries of Poland (Lower Silesian and Lubusz Voivodeships) and the Czech Republic (Karlovy Vary, Liberec, and Ústí nad Labem Regions).
Schleswig-Holstein is the northernmost of the 16 states of Germany, comprising most of the historical duchy of Holstein and the southern part of the former Duchy of Schleswig.
The Schutzstaffel (SS; also stylized as with Armanen runes;; literally "Protection Squadron") was a major paramilitary organization under Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party (NSDAP) in Nazi Germany, and later throughout German-occupied Europe during World War II.
Schwerin (or; Mecklenburgian: Swerin; Polish: Swarzyn or Zwierzyn; Latin: Suerina) is the capital and second-largest city of the northeastern German state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern.
Sepp Helfrich (7 July 1900 – 27 January 1963) was an Austrian National Socialist and briefly the Landeshauptman (Governor) of Styria.
A shire is a traditional term for a division of land, found in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and some other English speaking countries.
Sicherheitsdienst (Security Service), full title Sicherheitsdienst des Reichsführers-SS (Security Service of the Reichsführer-SS), or SD, was the intelligence agency of the SS and the Nazi Party in Nazi Germany.
Siegfried Uiberreither (29 March 1908 in Salzburg – 29 December 1984 in Sindelfingen) was an Austrian Nazi-Gauleiter in Styria, Austria during the Third Reich.
The Simon Wiesenthal Center (often abbreviated SWC), with headquarters in Los Angeles, California, United States, was established in 1977 and named for Nazi hunter Simon Wiesenthal.
Cooperation between China and Germany was instrumental in modernizing the industry and the armed forces of the Republic of China between 1926 and 1941.
Slavs are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group who speak the various Slavic languages of the larger Balto-Slavic linguistic group.
Social democracy is a political, social and economic ideology that supports economic and social interventions to promote social justice within the framework of a liberal democratic polity and capitalist economy.
The Social Democratic Party of Germany (Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands, SPD) is a social-democratic political party in Germany.
Social fascism was a theory supported by the Communist International (Comintern) during the early 1930s, which held that social democracy was a variant of fascism because—in addition to a shared corporatist economic model—it stood in the way of a dictatorship of the proletariat.
Social ownership is any of various forms of ownership for the means of production in socialist economic systems, encompassing public ownership, employee ownership, cooperative ownership, citizen ownership of equity, common ownership and collective ownership.
The Socialist Reich Party of Germany (Sozialistische Reichspartei Deutschlands) was a West German Strasserist and Neo-fascist political party founded in the aftermath of World War II in 1949 as an openly Neo-fascist oriented split-off from the national conservative German Right Party (DKP-DRP).
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The stab-in-the-back myth (Dolchstoßlegende) was the notion, widely believed and promulgated in right-wing circles in Germany after 1918, that the German Army did not lose World War I on the battlefield but was instead betrayed by the civilians on the home front, especially the republicans who overthrew the monarchy in the German Revolution of 1918–19.
The state of affairs is the combination of circumstances applying within a society or group at a particular time.
Strasbourg (Alsatian: Strossburi; Straßburg) is the capital and largest city of the Grand Est region of France and is the official seat of the European Parliament.
Strasserism (Strasserismus or Straßerismus) is a strand of Nazism that calls for a more radical, mass-action and worker-based form of Nazism—hostile to Jews not from a racial, ethnic, cultural or religious perspective, but from an anti-capitalist basis—to achieve a national rebirth.
The Sturmabteilung (SA), literally Storm Detachment, functioned as the original paramilitary wing of the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
Stuttgart (Swabian: italics,; names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of the German state of Baden-Württemberg.
The Sudetenland (Czech and Sudety; Kraj Sudecki) is the historical German name for the northern, southern, and western areas of former Czechoslovakia which were inhabited primarily by Sudeten Germans.
The swastika (as a character 卐 or 卍) is a geometrical figure and an ancient religious icon from the cultures of Eurasia, where it has been and remains a symbol of divinity and spirituality in Indian religions, Chinese religions, Mongolian and Siberian shamanisms.
Szczecin (German and Swedish Stettin), known also by other alternative names) is the capital and largest city of the West Pomeranian Voivodeship in Poland. Located near the Baltic Sea and the German border, it is a major seaport and Poland's seventh-largest city. As of June 2011, the population was 407,811. Szczecin is located on the Oder, south of the Szczecin Lagoon and the Bay of Pomerania. The city is situated along the southwestern shore of Dąbie Lake, on both sides of the Oder and on several large islands between the western and eastern branches of the river. Szczecin is adjacent to the town of Police and is the urban centre of the Szczecin agglomeration, an extended metropolitan area that includes communities in the German states of Brandenburg and Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. The city's recorded history began in the 8th century as a Slavic Pomeranian stronghold, built at the site of the Ducal castle. In the 12th century, when Szczecin had become one of Pomerania's main urban centres, it lost its independence to Piast Poland, the Duchy of Saxony, the Holy Roman Empire and Denmark. At the same time, the House of Griffins established themselves as local rulers and the population was Christianized. After the Treaty of Stettin in 1630, the town came under the control of the Swedish Empire and became in 1648 the Capital of Swedish Pomerania until 1720, when it was acquired by the Kingdom of Prussia and then the German Empire. Following World War II Stettin became part of Poland, resulting in expulsion of the German population. Szczecin is the administrative and industrial centre of West Pomeranian Voivodeship and is the site of the University of Szczecin, Pomeranian Medical University, Maritime University, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin Art Academy, and the see of the Szczecin-Kamień Catholic Archdiocese. From 1999 onwards, Szczecin has served as the site of the headquarters of NATO's Multinational Corps Northeast. Szczecin was a candidate for the European Capital of Culture in 2016.
Technische Nothilfe (abbreviated as TN, TeNo, TENO; literally: 'Technical Emergency Help') was a German organisation.
The Territory of the Saar Basin (Saarbeckengebiet, Saarterritorium; Le Territoire du Bassin de la Sarre) was a region of Germany occupied and governed by the United Kingdom and France from 1920 to 1935 under a League of Nations mandate.
The Encyclopedia of the Third Reich is a two-volume text edited by and.
The Holocaust, also referred to as the Shoah, was a genocide during World War II in which Nazi Germany, aided by its collaborators, systematically murdered approximately 6 million European Jews, around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe, between 1941 and 1945.
The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich: A History of Nazi Germany is a book by William L. Shirer chronicling the rise and fall of Nazi Germany from the birth of Adolf Hitler in 1889 to the end of World War II in 1945.
The Third Reich Trilogy is a series of three narrative history books by the British historian Richard J. Evans covering the rise and collapse of Nazi Germany in detail, with a focus on the internal politics and the decision-making process.
Karl Theodor Vahlen (30 June 1869 in Vienna, Austria-Hungary – 16 November 1945 in Prague, Czechoslovakia) was an Austrian-born mathematician who was an ardent supporter of the Nazi Party.
The Thule Society (Thule-Gesellschaft), originally the Studiengruppe für germanisches Altertum ("Study Group for Germanic Antiquity"), was a German occultist and völkisch group founded in Munich right after World War I, named after a mythical northern country in Greek legend.
The Free State of Thuringia (Freistaat Thüringen) is a federal state in central Germany.
Benito Mussolini Totalitarianism is a political concept where the state recognizes no limits to its authority and strives to control every aspect of public and private life wherever feasible.
The Treaty of Versailles (Traité de Versailles) was the most important of the peace treaties that brought World War I to an end.
The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum (USHMM) is the United States' official memorial to the Holocaust.
The völkisch movement (völkische Bewegung, "folkish movement") was the German interpretation of a populist movement, with a romantic focus on folklore and the "organic", i.e.: a "naturally grown community in unity", characterised by the one-body-metaphor (Volkskörper) for the entire population during a period from the late 19th century up until the Nazi era.
The Völkisch-Social Bloc ("Völkisch-Sozialer Block" or "Völkisch-Sozialer-Block" or "VSB" or "V-S-B") was a right-wing electoral alliance in post World War I Germany.
The Völkischer Beobachter ("Völkisch Observer") was the newspaper of the National Socialist German Workers' Party (NSDAP or Nazi Party) from 25 December 1920.
Vienna (Wien) is the federal capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria.
In Nazi German terminology, Volksdeutsche were "Germans in regard to people or race" (Ethnic Germans), regardless of citizenship.
Volksgemeinschaft is a German expression meaning "people's community".
The Volkssturm ("people's storm") was a national militia established by Nazi Germany during the last months of World War II.
The Waffen-SS (Armed SS) was the armed wing of the Nazi Party's SS organisation.
Walter Schultz (August 20 1900 in Grevesmühlen - June 26 1957 in Schnackenburg) was a German theologist who was Landeskirchenführer in Mecklenburg 1933-1945, and bishop in Mecklenburg 1934-45.
A war profiteer is any person or organization that profits from warfare or by selling weapons and other goods to parties at war.
Württemberg is a historical German territory.
Würzburg (Main-Franconian: Wörtzburch) is a city in the region of Franconia, northern Bavaria, Germany.
Weimar (Vimaria or Vinaria) is a city in the federal state of Thuringia, Germany.
Paramilitary groups were formed throughout the Weimar Republic in the wake of Germany's defeat in World War I and the ensuing German Revolution.
The Weimar Republic (Weimarer Republik) is an unofficial, historical designation for the German state during the years 1919 to 1933.
Welfare is a government support for the citizens and residents of society.
Westphalia (Westfalen) is a region in northwestern Germany and one of the three historic parts of the state of North Rhine-Westphalia.
Wilhelm Carl Josef Cuno (2 July 1876 – 3 January 1933) was a German businessman and politician who was the Chancellor of Germany from 1922 to 1923, for a total of 264 days.
Wilhelm Friedrich Loeper (13 October 1883 in Schwerin – 23 October 1935 in Dessau) was a Nazi politician and Gauleiter in the Gau of Magdeburg-Anhalt.
Wilhelm Carl Grimm (also Karl; 24 February 1786 – 16 December 1859) was a German author and anthropologist, and the younger brother of Jacob Grimm, of the library duo the Brothers Grimm.
Wilhelm Karpenstein (born 24 May 1903 in Frankfurt am Main – died 2 May 1968 in Lauterbach, Hesse) was a German Nazi Party politician.
Wilhelm Kube (13 November 1887 – 22 September 1943) was a German politician and Nazi official.
Wilhelm Murr (16 December 1888 – 14 May 1945) was a Nazi German politician.
Willi Stöhr (6 November 1903 – after 1995) was a Nazi Party official.
A women's wing is an organisation affiliated with a political party that consists of that party's female membership or acts to promote women within that party.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War I reparations were compensation imposed during the Paris Peace Conference upon the Central Powers following their defeat in the First World War by the Allied and Associate Powers.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Wrocław (Breslau; Vratislav; Vratislavia) is the largest city in western Poland.
Zellenleiter (Cell Leader) was a Nazi Party political title which existed between the years of 1930 and 1945.
Deutsche Arbeiter-Partei, Deutsche Gemeinschaft, Eagle atop swastika, Free Committee for a German Workers Peace, Führer of the National Socialist German Workers' Party, Führer of the National Socialist Workers' Party, Führer of the Nazi Party, German National Socialist party, German Nazi Party, Hitler Party, Leader of the Nazi Party, N.S.D.A.P., NASDAP, NASDP, NDSAP, NSDAP, NSGWP, NSdAP, National Insignia of Nazi Germany, National Socialist German Worker's Party, National Socialist German Workers, National Socialist German Workers Party, National Socialist German Workers party, National Socialist German Workers' Party, National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nazi Party), National Socialist German Workers’ Party, National Socialist Workers Party of Germany, National Socialist Workers' Party of Germany, National-socialist, National-solidarist, Nationalsocialist German Workers' Party, Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, Nazi party, NaziParty, NsDAP, Nualros, Party Minister of the National Socialist German Workers' Party, Rise of Nazism, The Nazi Party, The Nazis, The nazis.