The active laser medium (also called gain medium or lasing medium) is the source of optical gain within a laser.
The Czochralski process is a method of crystal growth used to obtain single crystals of semiconductors (e.g. silicon, germanium and gallium arsenide), metals (e.g. palladium, platinum, silver, gold), salts and synthetic gemstones.
In crystallography, the monoclinic crystal system is one of the 7 crystal systems.
Neodymium is a chemical element with symbol Nd and atomic number 60.
Nonlinear optics (NLO) is the branch of optics that describes the behavior of light in nonlinear media, that is, media in which the dielectric polarization P responds nonlinearly to the electric field E of the light.
Yttrium is a chemical element with symbol Y and atomic number 39.