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Near-Earth object

Index Near-Earth object

A near-Earth object (NEO) is any small Solar System body whose orbit can bring it into proximity with Earth. [1]

208 relations: Age of Science, Albedo, Amor asteroid, Apollo 12, Apollo asteroid, Apsis, Armageddon (1998 film), Armagh Observatory, Asiago-DLR Asteroid Survey, Asteroid, Asteroid belt, Asteroid capture, Asteroid Day, Asteroid family, Asteroid impact avoidance, Asteroid mining, Asteroid Redirect Mission, Asteroid spectral types, Asteroid Terrestrial-impact Last Alert System, Astrometry, Astronomical survey, Astronomical unit, Aten asteroid, Atira asteroid, Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Bible, Campo Imperatore Near-Earth Object Survey, Catalina Sky Survey, Chang'e 2, Chelyabinsk meteor, Chicxulub crater, China National Space Administration, Chris Stewart (politician), Claimed moons of Earth, Co-orbital configuration, Comet, Comet Encke, Comet Shoemaker–Levy 9, Comet Swift–Tuttle, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization, Conspiracy theory, Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event, Culture, Deep Impact (film), Deep Impact (spacecraft), Delta-v budget, Earth, Earth-grazing fireball, Earth-grazing meteoroid of 13 October 1990, Edmond Halley, ..., Eleanor F. Helin, Eugene Merle Shoemaker, EURONEAR, European Fireball Network, European Space Agency, Evaporation, Extinct comet, Extinction, Gaia (spacecraft), Genesis flood narrative, Giotto (spacecraft), Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex, Grand Teton National Park, Halley's Comet, Hayabusa, Hayabusa2, Haystack Observatory, Horseshoe orbit, Human spaceflight, Icarus (journal), Impact crater, Impact event, Infrasound, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Interdisciplinarity, International Astronomical Union, International Cometary Explorer, International Meteor Organization, Interplanetary dust cloud, J002E3, Japan Spaceguard Association, JAXA, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, JPL Small-Body Database, Jupiter, Kirkwood gap, Kuiper belt, Lagrangian point, Leonids, Lexell's Comet, Libration, Lincoln Near-Earth Asteroid Research, List of Earth-crossing minor planets, List of impact craters on Earth, Long Duration Exposure Facility, Lowell Observatory Near-Earth-Object Search, Lunar distance (astronomy), Mars, Mesosphere, Meteor (film), Meteor shower, Meteoroid, Michael A'Hearn, Minimum orbit intersection distance, Minor Planet Center, Minor-planet moon, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Multistage rocket, NASA, NASA Deep Space Network, Nathan Myhrvold, Natural satellite, Nature (journal), NEAR Shoemaker, Near-Earth Asteroid Tracking, Near-Earth Object Camera, NEODyS, Neptune, New Frontiers program, Nibiru cataclysm, Nubian Desert, Omen, Oort cloud, Orbit@home, Orbital resonance, OSIRIS-REx, Palermo Technical Impact Hazard Scale, Peer review, Perception, Perseids, Perturbation (astronomy), Philae (spacecraft), Planetary Defense Coordination Office, Planetary Resources, Potentially hazardous object, Prince Edward Islands, Quasi-satellite, Radar, Retrograde and prograde motion, Risk, Rocky Mountains, Rosetta (spacecraft), Royal Astronomical Society, Sakigake, Saturn V, Science (journal), Scientific American, Semi-major and semi-minor axes, Sentry (monitoring system), Sky & Telescope, Slate (magazine), Small Solar System body, Snowmass, Colorado, Society, Soviet Union, Space rendezvous, Space telescope, Spacecraft, Spacecraft propulsion, Spaceguard, Spacewatch, Suisei (spacecraft), Sungrazing comet, Technology, Tempel 1, Temporary satellite, The Astronomer's Telegram, The New York Times, TNT equivalent, Torino scale, Trojan (astronomy), Tucson, Arizona, Tunguska event, Tycho Brahe, United States Congress, University of Chicago, Vega 1, Vega 2, Very Large Telescope, Vulcano, Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, Wyoming, Yarkovsky effect, YouTube, Zwicky Transient Facility, 101955 Bennu, 1036 Ganymed, 103P/Hartley, 1566 Icarus, 162173 Ryugu, 1972 Great Daylight Fireball, 2004 FH, 2011 EO40, 21P/Giacobini–Zinner, 25143 Itokawa, 26P/Grigg–Skjellerup, 3122 Florence, 367943 Duende, 3753 Cruithne, 4179 Toutatis, 433 Eros, 4581 Asclepius, 55P/Tempel–Tuttle, 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko, 69230 Hermes, 6Q0B44E, 73P/Schwassmann–Wachmann, 99942 Apophis. Expand index (158 more) »

Age of Science

Age of Science (2005) is a book about the relationship between Islam and science in Age of Science by author and Egyptian-American scientist, and the winner of the 1999 Nobel Prize in Chemistry Ahmed Zewail.

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Albedo (albedo, meaning "whiteness") is the measure of the diffuse reflection of solar radiation out of the total solar radiation received by an astronomical body (e.g. a planet like Earth).

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Amor asteroid

The Amor asteroids are a group of near-Earth asteroids named after the asteroid 1221 Amor.

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Apollo 12

Apollo 12 was the sixth manned flight in the United States Apollo program and the second to land on the Moon.

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Apollo asteroid

The Apollo asteroids are a group of near-Earth asteroids named after 1862 Apollo, discovered by German astronomer Karl Reinmuth in the 1930s.

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An apsis (ἁψίς; plural apsides, Greek: ἁψῖδες) is an extreme point in the orbit of an object.

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Armageddon (1998 film)

Armageddon is a 1998 American science fiction disaster film directed by Michael Bay, produced by Jerry Bruckheimer, and released by Touchstone Pictures.

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Armagh Observatory

Armagh Observatory is an astronomical research institute in Armagh, Northern Ireland.

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Asiago-DLR Asteroid Survey

The Asiago-DLR Asteroid Survey (ADAS; obs. code: 209) is an astronomical survey to search for comets and asteroids, with special emphasis on near-Earth objects.

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Asteroids are minor planets, especially those of the inner Solar System.

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Asteroid belt

The asteroid belt is the circumstellar disc in the Solar System located roughly between the orbits of the planets Mars and Jupiter.

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Asteroid capture

Asteroid capture is the entering by an asteroid into an orbit around a larger planetary body.

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Asteroid Day

Asteroid Day (also known as International Asteroid Day) is an annual global event which is held on the anniversary of the Siberian Tunguska event that took place on June 30th, 1908, the most harmful known asteroid-related event on Earth in recent history.

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Asteroid family

An asteroid family is a population of asteroids that share similar proper orbital elements, such as semimajor axis, eccentricity, and orbital inclination.

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Asteroid impact avoidance

Asteroid impact avoidance comprises a number of methods by which near-Earth objects (NEO) could be diverted, preventing destructive impact events.

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Asteroid mining

Asteroid mining is the exploitation of raw materials from asteroids and other minor planets, including near-Earth objects.

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Asteroid Redirect Mission

The Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM), also known as the Asteroid Retrieval and Utilization (ARU) mission and the Asteroid Initiative, was a space mission proposed by NASA in 2013.

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Asteroid spectral types

An asteroid spectral type is assigned to asteroids based on their emission spectrum, color, and sometimes albedo (reflectivity).

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Asteroid Terrestrial-impact Last Alert System

The Asteroid Terrestrial-impact Last Alert System (ATLAS; Observatory codes T05 and T08) is an astronomical survey and robotic, early-warning system for detecting smaller near-Earth objects a few weeks to days before they impact Earth.

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Astrometry is the branch of astronomy that involves precise measurements of the positions and movements of stars and other celestial bodies.

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Astronomical survey

An astronomical survey is a general map or image of a region of the sky which lacks a specific observational target.

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Astronomical unit

The astronomical unit (symbol: au, ua, or AU) is a unit of length, roughly the distance from Earth to the Sun.

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Aten asteroid

The Aten asteroids are a dynamical group of asteroids whose orbits bring them into proximity with Earth.

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Atira asteroid

Atira asteroids or Apohele asteroids, also known as Interior-Earth Objects (IEOs), are asteroids, whose orbits are entirely confined within Earth's orbit, that is, their orbit has an aphelion (farthest point from the Sun) smaller than Earth's perihelion (nearest point to the Sun), which is 0.983 astronomical units (AU).

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Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki

During the final stage of World War II, the United States detonated two nuclear weapons over the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on August 6 and 9, 1945, respectively.

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The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans.

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Campo Imperatore Near-Earth Object Survey

The CINEOS program (Campo Imperatore Near-Earth Object Survey), started in 2001, is dedicated to the discovery and follow-up of near-Earth objects (NEOs), namely asteroids and comets which periodically approach or intersect the Earth's orbit.

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Catalina Sky Survey

Catalina Sky Survey (CSS; obs. code: 703) is an astronomical survey to discover comets and asteroids.

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Chang'e 2

Chang'e 2 is a Chinese unmanned lunar probe that was launched on 1 October 2010.

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Chelyabinsk meteor

The Chelyabinsk meteor was a superbolide caused by an approximately 20-metre near-Earth asteroid that entered Earth's atmosphere over Russia on 15 February 2013 at about 09:20 YEKT (03:20 UTC), with a speed of 19.16 ± 0.15 kilometres per second (60,000–69,000 km/h or 40,000–42,900 mph).

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Chicxulub crater

The Chicxulub crater is an impact crater buried underneath the Yucatán Peninsula in Mexico.

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China National Space Administration

The China National Space Administration (CNSA) is the national space agency of China.

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Chris Stewart (politician)

Christopher Douglas Stewart (born July 15, 1960) is an American author, businessman, and politician known for his bestsellers Seven Miracles That Saved America and The Miracle of Freedom: Seven Tipping Points That Saved the World.

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Claimed moons of Earth

Claims of the existence of other moons of Earth—that is, of one or more natural satellites other than the Moon that orbit Earth—have existed for some time.

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Co-orbital configuration

In astronomy, a co-orbital configuration is a configuration of two or more astronomical objects (such as asteroids, moons, or planets) orbiting at the same, or very similar, distance from their primary, i.e. they are in a 1:1 mean-motion resonance.

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A comet is an icy small Solar System body that, when passing close to the Sun, warms and begins to release gases, a process called outgassing.

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Comet Encke

Comet Encke or Encke's Comet (official designation: 2P/Encke) is a periodic comet that completes an orbit of the Sun once every 3.3 years.

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Comet Shoemaker–Levy 9

Comet Shoemaker–Levy 9 (formally designated D/1993 F2) was a comet that broke apart in July 1992 and collided with Jupiter in July 1994, providing the first direct observation of an extraterrestrial collision of Solar System objects.

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Comet Swift–Tuttle

Comet Swift–Tuttle (formally designated 109P/Swift–Tuttle) is a periodic comet with a current (osculating) orbital period of 133 years.

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Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization

The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) is an international organization that will be established upon the entry into force of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, a Convention that outlaws nuclear test explosions.

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Conspiracy theory

A conspiracy theory is an explanation of an event or situation that invokes an unwarranted conspiracy, generally one involving an illegal or harmful act carried out by government or other powerful actors.

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Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event

The Cretaceous–Paleogene (K–Pg) extinction event, also known as the Cretaceous–Tertiary (K–T) extinction, was a sudden mass extinction of some three-quarters of the plant and animal species on Earth, approximately 66 million years ago.

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Culture is the social behavior and norms found in human societies.

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Deep Impact (film)

Deep Impact is a 1998 American science-fiction disaster film directed by Mimi Leder, written by Bruce Joel Rubin and Michael Tolkin, and starring Robert Duvall, Téa Leoni, Elijah Wood, Vanessa Redgrave, Maximilian Schell, and Morgan Freeman.

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Deep Impact (spacecraft)

Deep Impact was a NASA space probe launched from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station at 18:47 UTC on January 12, 2005.

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Delta-v budget

In astrodynamics and aerospace, a delta-v budget is an estimate of the total delta-''v'' required for a space mission.

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Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.

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Earth-grazing fireball

An Earth-grazing fireball (or Earth-grazer) is a fireball, a very bright meteor that enters Earth’s atmosphere and leaves again.

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Earth-grazing meteoroid of 13 October 1990

On 13 October 1990, meteoroid EN131090, with an estimated mass of 44 kg, entered the Earth's atmosphere above Czechoslovakia and Poland and, after a few seconds, returned to space.

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Edmond Halley

Edmond (or Edmund) Halley, FRS (–) was an English astronomer, geophysicist, mathematician, meteorologist, and physicist.

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Eleanor F. Helin

Eleanor Francis "Glo" Helin (née Francis, 19 November 1932 – 25 January 2009) was an American astronomer.

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Eugene Merle Shoemaker

Eugene Merle Shoemaker (April 28, 1928 – July 18, 1997), also known as Gene Shoemaker, was an American geologist and one of the founders of the field of planetary science.

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EURONEAR, the European Near Earth Asteroids Research, is a research project which aims to develop a research network which will search, discover and monitor near-Earth objects and potentially hazardous asteroids using two automated dedicated 1–2 metre telescopes located in both hemispheres and other facilities available to the members of the network.

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European Fireball Network

European Fireball Network is an international organization based in Central Europe (Germany and Czech Republic).

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European Space Agency

The European Space Agency (ESA; Agence spatiale européenne, ASE; Europäische Weltraumorganisation) is an intergovernmental organisation of 22 member states dedicated to the exploration of space.

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Evaporation is a type of vaporization that occurs on the surface of a liquid as it changes into the gaseous phase before reaching its boiling point.

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Extinct comet

An extinct comet is a comet that has expelled most of its volatile ice and has little left to form a tail and coma.

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In biology, extinction is the termination of an organism or of a group of organisms (taxon), normally a species.

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Gaia (spacecraft)

Gaia is a space observatory of the European Space Agency (ESA) designed for astrometry: measuring the positions and distances of stars with unprecedented precision.

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Genesis flood narrative

The Genesis flood narrative is a flood myth found in the Hebrew Bible (chapters 6–9 in the Book of Genesis).

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Giotto (spacecraft)

Giotto was a European robotic spacecraft mission from the European Space Agency.

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Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex

The Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex (GDSCC), commonly called the Goldstone Observatory, is located in the Mojave Desert near Barstow in the U.S. state of California.

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Grand Teton National Park

Grand Teton National Park is an American national park in northwestern Wyoming.

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Halley's Comet

Halley's Comet or Comet Halley, officially designated 1P/Halley, is a short-period comet visible from Earth every 74–79 years.

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No description.

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Hayabusa2 is an asteroid sample-return mission operated by the Japanese space agency, JAXA.

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Haystack Observatory

Haystack Observatory is an astronomical observatory owned by Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

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Horseshoe orbit

A horseshoe orbit is a type of co-orbital motion of a small orbiting body relative to a larger orbiting body (such as Earth).

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Human spaceflight

Human spaceflight (also referred to as crewed spaceflight or manned spaceflight) is space travel with a crew or passengers aboard the spacecraft.

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Icarus (journal)

Icarus is a scientific journal dedicated to the field of planetary science.

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Impact crater

An impact crater is an approximately circular depression in the surface of a planet, moon, or other solid body in the Solar System or elsewhere, formed by the hypervelocity impact of a smaller body.

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Impact event

An impact event is a collision between astronomical objects causing measurable effects.

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Infrasound, sometimes referred to as low-frequency sound, is sound that is lower in frequency than 20 Hz or cycles per second, the "normal" limit of human hearing.

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Institute of Space and Astronautical Science

(ISAS) is a Japanese national research organization of astrophysics using rockets, astronomical satellites and interplanetary probes which played a major role in Japan's space development.

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Interdisciplinarity or interdisciplinary studies involves the combining of two or more academic disciplines into one activity (e.g., a research project).

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International Astronomical Union

The International Astronomical Union (IAU; Union astronomique internationale, UAI) is an international association of professional astronomers, at the PhD level and beyond, active in professional research and education in astronomy.

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International Cometary Explorer

The International Cometary Explorer (ICE) spacecraft (designed and launched as the International Sun-Earth Explorer-3 (ISEE-3) satellite), was launched August 12, 1978, into a heliocentric orbit.

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International Meteor Organization

The International Meteor Organization (IMO) was formally founded in 1988 from predecessor gatherings over many years.

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Interplanetary dust cloud

The interplanetary dust cloud, or zodiacal cloud, consists of cosmic dust (small particles floating in outer space) that pervades the space between planets in the Solar System and other planetary systems.

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J002E3 is the designation given to an object in space discovered on September 3, 2002 by amateur astronomer Bill Yeung.

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Japan Spaceguard Association

The is a not-for-profit organization based in Tokyo, Japan.

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The is the Japanese national aerospace and space agency.

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Jet Propulsion Laboratory

The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is a federally funded research and development center and NASA field center in Pasadena, California, United States, with large portions of the campus in La Cañada Flintridge, California.

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JPL Small-Body Database

The JPL Small-Body Database (SBDB) is an astronomy database about small Solar System bodies.

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Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest in the Solar System.

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Kirkwood gap

A Kirkwood gap is a gap or dip in the distribution of the semi-major axes (or equivalently of the orbital periods) of the orbits of main-belt asteroids.

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Kuiper belt

The Kuiper belt, occasionally called the Edgeworth–Kuiper belt, is a circumstellar disc in the outer Solar System, extending from the orbit of Neptune (at 30 AU) to approximately 50 AU from the Sun.

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Lagrangian point

In celestial mechanics, the Lagrangian points (also Lagrange points, L-points, or libration points) are positions in an orbital configuration of two large bodies, wherein a small object, affected only by the gravitational forces from the two larger objects, will maintain its position relative to them.

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The Leonids are a prolific meteor shower associated with the comet Tempel–Tuttle.

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Lexell's Comet

D/1770 L1, popularly known as Lexell's Comet after its orbit computer Anders Johan Lexell, was a comet discovered by astronomer Charles Messier in June 1770.

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In astronomy, libration is a perceived oscillating motion of orbiting bodies relative to each other, notably including the motion of the Moon relative to Earth, or of trojan asteroids relative to planets.

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Lincoln Near-Earth Asteroid Research

The Lincoln Near-Earth Asteroid Research (LINEAR) project is a collaboration of the United States Air Force, NASA, and the MIT's Lincoln Laboratory for the systematic detection and tracking of near-Earth objects.

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List of Earth-crossing minor planets

An Earth-crosser is a near-Earth asteroid whose orbit crosses that of Earth as observed from the ecliptic pole of Earth's orbit.

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List of impact craters on Earth

This list of impact craters on Earth contains a selection of the 190 confirmed craters given in the Earth Impact Database.

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Long Duration Exposure Facility

NASA's Long Duration Exposure Facility, or LDEF (acronym pronounced "EL-deaf"), was a school bus-sized cylindrical facility designed to provide long-term experimental data on the outer space environment and its effects on space systems, materials, operations and selected spores' survival.

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Lowell Observatory Near-Earth-Object Search

Lowell Observatory Near-Earth-Object Search (LONEOS) was a project designed to discover asteroids and comets that orbit near the Earth.

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Lunar distance (astronomy)

Lunar distance (LD or \Delta_), also called Earth–Moon distance, Earth–Moon characteristic distance, or distance to the Moon, is a unit of measure in astronomy.

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Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System after Mercury.

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The mesosphere (from Greek mesos "middle" and sphaira "sphere") is the layer of the Earth's atmosphere that is directly above the stratosphere and directly below the thermosphere.

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Meteor (film)

Meteor is a 1979 Hong Kong–American science fiction disaster film in which scientists detect an asteroid on a collision course with Earth and struggle with international, Cold War politics in their efforts to prevent disaster.

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Meteor shower

A meteor shower is a celestial event in which a number of meteors are observed to radiate, or originate, from one point in the night sky.

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A meteoroid is a small rocky or metallic body in outer space.

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Michael A'Hearn

Michael Francis A'Hearn (November 17, 1940 – May 29, 2017) was an American astronomer and astronomy professor at the University of Maryland College of Computer, Mathematical, and Natural Sciences.

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Minimum orbit intersection distance

Minimum orbit intersection distance (MOID) is a measure used in astronomy to assess potential close approaches and collision risks between astronomical objects.

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Minor Planet Center

The Minor Planet Center (MPC) is the official worldwide organization in charge of collecting observational data for minor planets (such as asteroids and comets), calculating their orbits and publishing this information via the Minor Planet Circulars.

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Minor-planet moon

A minor-planet moon is an astronomical object that orbits a minor planet as its natural satellite.

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Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society

Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (MNRAS) is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research in astronomy and astrophysics.

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Multistage rocket

A multistage rocket, or step rocket is a launch vehicle that uses two or more rocket stages, each of which contains its own engines and propellant.

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The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.

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NASA Deep Space Network

The NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) is a worldwide network of US spacecraft communication facilities, located in the United States (California), Spain (Madrid), and Australia (Canberra), that supports NASA's interplanetary spacecraft missions.

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Nathan Myhrvold

Nathan Paul Myhrvold (born August 3, 1959), formerly Chief Technology Officer at Microsoft, is co-founder of Intellectual Ventures and the principal author of Modernist Cuisine and its successor books.

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Natural satellite

A natural satellite or moon is, in the most common usage, an astronomical body that orbits a planet or minor planet (or sometimes another small Solar System body).

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Nature (journal)

Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.

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NEAR Shoemaker

The Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous – Shoemaker (NEAR Shoemaker), renamed after its 1996 launch in honor of planetary scientist Eugene Shoemaker, was a robotic space probe designed by the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory for NASA to study the near-Earth asteroid Eros from close orbit over a period of a year.

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Near-Earth Asteroid Tracking

Near-Earth Asteroid Tracking (NEAT) was a program run by NASA and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, surveying the sky for near-Earth objects.

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Near-Earth Object Camera

The Near-Earth Object Camera (NEOCam) is a proposed space-based infrared telescope designed to survey the Solar System for potentially hazardous asteroids.

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NEODyS (Near Earth Objects Dynamic Site) is an Italian and Spanish service that provides information on Near Earth Objects with a Web-based interface.

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Neptune is the eighth and farthest known planet from the Sun in the Solar System.

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New Frontiers program

The New Frontiers program is a series of space exploration missions being conducted by NASA with the purpose of researching several of the Solar System bodies, including the dwarf planet Pluto.

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Nibiru cataclysm

The Nibiru cataclysm is a supposed disastrous encounter between the Earth and a large planetary object (either a collision or a near-miss) which certain groups believe will take place in the early 21st century.

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Nubian Desert

The Nubian Desert (صحراء النوبة, Şaḩrā’ an Nūbyah) is in the eastern region of the Sahara Desert, spanning approximately 400,000 km² of northeastern Sudan and northern Eritrea, between the Nile and the Red Sea.

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An omen (also called portent or presage) is a phenomenon that is believed to foretell the future, often signifying the advent of change.

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Oort cloud

The Oort cloud, named after the Dutch astronomer Jan Oort, sometimes called the Öpik–Oort cloud, is a theoretical cloud of predominantly icy planetesimals proposed to surround the Sun at distances ranging from.

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Orbit@home is a BOINC-based distributed computing project of the Planetary Science Institute.

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Orbital resonance

In celestial mechanics, an orbital resonance occurs when orbiting bodies exert a regular, periodic gravitational influence on each other, usually because their orbital periods are related by a ratio of small integers.

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The OSIRIS-REx (Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security, Regolith Explorer) is a NASA asteroid study and sample-return mission.

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Palermo Technical Impact Hazard Scale

The Palermo Technical Impact Hazard Scale is a logarithmic scale used by astronomers to rate the potential hazard of impact of a near-earth object (NEO).

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Peer review

Peer review is the evaluation of work by one or more people of similar competence to the producers of the work (peers).

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Perception (from the Latin perceptio) is the organization, identification, and interpretation of sensory information in order to represent and understand the presented information, or the environment.

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The Perseids are prolific meteor showers associated with the comet Swift–Tuttle.

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Perturbation (astronomy)

In astronomy, perturbation is the complex motion of a massive body subject to forces other than the gravitational attraction of a single other massive body.

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Philae (spacecraft)

Philae is a robotic European Space Agency lander that accompanied the ''Rosetta'' spacecraft until it separated to land on comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko, ten years and eight months after departing Earth.

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Planetary Defense Coordination Office

The Planetary Defense Coordination Office is a planetary defense organization within NASA’s Planetary Science Division.

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Planetary Resources

Planetary Resources, Inc., formerly known as Arkyd Astronautics, is an American company that was formed on 1 January 2009,ARKYD Astronautics Founded http://www.planetaryresources.com/2009/01/draft-arkyd-astronautics-founded/ and reorganized and renamed in 2012.

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Potentially hazardous object

A potentially hazardous object (PHO) is a near-Earth object – either an asteroid or a comet – with an orbit that can make exceptionally close approaches to the Earth and large enough to cause significant regional damage in the event of impact.

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Prince Edward Islands

The Prince Edward Islands are two small islands in the sub-antarctic Indian Ocean that are part of South Africa.

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A quasi-satellite is an object in a specific type of co-orbital configuration (1:1 orbital resonance) with a planet where the object stays close to that planet over many orbital periods.

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Radar is an object-detection system that uses radio waves to determine the range, angle, or velocity of objects.

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Retrograde and prograde motion

Retrograde motion in astronomy is, in general, orbital or rotational motion of an object in the direction opposite the rotation of its primary, that is the central object (right figure).

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Risk is the potential of gaining or losing something of value.

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Rocky Mountains

The Rocky Mountains, also known as the Rockies, are a major mountain range in western North America.

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Rosetta (spacecraft)

Rosetta was a space probe built by the European Space Agency launched on 2 March 2004.

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Royal Astronomical Society

The Royal Astronomical Society (RAS) is a learned society that began as the Astronomical Society of London in 1820 to support astronomical research (mainly carried on at the time by 'gentleman astronomers' rather than professionals).

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, known before launch as MS-T5, was Japan's first interplanetary spacecraft, and the first deep space probe to be launched by any country other than the USA or the Soviet Union.

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Saturn V

The Saturn V (pronounced "Saturn five") was an American human-rated expendable rocket used by NASA between 1967 and 1973.

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Science (journal)

Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.

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Scientific American

Scientific American (informally abbreviated SciAm) is an American popular science magazine.

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Semi-major and semi-minor axes

In geometry, the major axis of an ellipse is its longest diameter: a line segment that runs through the center and both foci, with ends at the widest points of the perimeter.

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Sentry (monitoring system)

Since 2002, Sentry has been a highly automated collision monitoring system that continually scans the most current asteroid catalog for possibilities of future impact with Earth over the next 100+ years.

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Sky & Telescope

Sky & Telescope (S&T) is a monthly American magazine covering all aspects of amateur astronomy, including the following.

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Slate (magazine)

Slate is an online magazine that covers current affairs, politics, and culture in the United States from a liberal perspective.

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Small Solar System body

A small Solar System body (SSSB) is an object in the Solar System that is neither a planet, nor a dwarf planet, nor a natural satellite.

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Snowmass, Colorado

Snowmass (sometimes known locally as Old Snowmass) is an unincorporated community and a U.S. Post Office located in Pitkin County, Colorado, United States.

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A society is a group of individuals involved in persistent social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same geographical or social territory, typically subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations.

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Soviet Union

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.

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Space rendezvous

A space rendezvous is an orbital maneuver during which two spacecraft, one of which is often a space station, arrive at the same orbit and approach to a very close distance (e.g. within visual contact).

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Space telescope

A space telescope or space observatory is an instrument located in outer space to observe distant planets, galaxies and other astronomical objects.

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A spacecraft is a vehicle or machine designed to fly in outer space.

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Spacecraft propulsion

Spacecraft propulsion is any method used to accelerate spacecraft and artificial satellites.

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The term Spaceguard loosely refers to a number of efforts to discover and study near-Earth objects (NEO), especially those that may impact Earth.

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The Spacewatch project is an astronomical survey that specializes in the study of minor planets, including various types of asteroids and comets at Kitt Peak National Observatory near Tucson, Arizona, in the United States.

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Suisei (spacecraft)

, originally known as Planet-A, was an unmanned space probe developed by the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (now part of the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency, or JAXA).

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Sungrazing comet

A sungrazing comet is a comet that passes extremely close to the Sun at perihelion – sometimes within a few thousand kilometres of the Sun's surface.

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Technology ("science of craft", from Greek τέχνη, techne, "art, skill, cunning of hand"; and -λογία, -logia) is first robustly defined by Jacob Bigelow in 1829 as: "...principles, processes, and nomenclatures of the more conspicuous arts, particularly those which involve applications of science, and which may be considered useful, by promoting the benefit of society, together with the emolument of those who pursue them".

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Tempel 1

Tempel 1 (official designation: 9P/Tempel) is a periodic Jupiter-family comet discovered by Wilhelm Tempel in 1867.

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Temporary satellite

A temporary satellite is an asteroid which has been captured by the gravitational field of a planet and thus became the planet's natural satellite, but, unlike irregular moons of the larger outer planets of the Solar System, will later leave its orbit around the planet.

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The Astronomer's Telegram

The Astronomer's Telegram (ATel) is an internet based short notice publication service for quickly disseminating information on new astronomical observations.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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TNT equivalent

TNT equivalent is a convention for expressing energy, typically used to describe the energy released in an explosion.

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Torino scale

The Torino Scale is a method for categorizing the impact hazard associated with near-Earth objects (NEOs) such as asteroids and comets.

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Trojan (astronomy)

In astronomy, a trojan is a minor planet or moon that shares the orbit of a planet or larger moon, wherein the trojan remains in the same, stable position relative to the larger object.

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Tucson, Arizona

Tucson is a city and the county seat of Pima County, Arizona, United States, and home to the University of Arizona.

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Tunguska event

The Tunguska event was a large explosion that occurred near the Stony Tunguska River in Yeniseysk Governorate (now Krasnoyarsk Krai), Russia, on the morning of 30 June 1908 (NS).

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Tycho Brahe

Tycho Brahe (born Tyge Ottesen Brahe;. He adopted the Latinized form "Tycho Brahe" (sometimes written Tÿcho) at around age fifteen. The name Tycho comes from Tyche (Τύχη, meaning "luck" in Greek, Roman equivalent: Fortuna), a tutelary deity of fortune and prosperity of ancient Greek city cults. He is now generally referred to as "Tycho," as was common in Scandinavia in his time, rather than by his surname "Brahe" (a spurious appellative form of his name, Tycho de Brahe, only appears much later). 14 December 154624 October 1601) was a Danish nobleman, astronomer, and writer known for his accurate and comprehensive astronomical and planetary observations.

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United States Congress

The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the Federal government of the United States.

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University of Chicago

The University of Chicago (UChicago, U of C, or Chicago) is a private, non-profit research university in Chicago, Illinois.

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Vega 1

Vega 1 (along with its twin Vega 2) is a Soviet space probe part of the Vega program.

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Vega 2

Vega 2 (along with Vega 1) is a Soviet space probe part of the Vega program.

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Very Large Telescope

The Very Large Telescope (VLT) is a telescope facility operated by the European Southern Observatory on Cerro Paranal in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile.

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Vulcano (Vurcanu) is a small volcanic island in the Tyrrhenian Sea, about north of Sicily and located at the southernmost end of the eight Aeolian Islands.

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Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer

Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) is a NASA infrared-wavelength astronomical space telescope launched in December 2009, and placed in hibernation in February 2011.

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Wyoming is a state in the mountain region of the western United States.

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Yarkovsky effect

The Yarkovsky effect is a force acting on a rotating body in space caused by the anisotropic emission of thermal photons, which carry momentum.

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YouTube is an American video-sharing website headquartered in San Bruno, California.

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Zwicky Transient Facility

The Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF, obs. code: I41) is a wide-field sky astronomical survey using a new camera attached to the Samuel Oschin Telescope at the Palomar Observatory in California, United States.

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101955 Bennu

101955 Bennu (provisional designation) is a carbonaceous asteroid in the Apollo group discovered by the LINEAR Project on September 11, 1999.

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1036 Ganymed

1036 Ganymed is the largest near-Earth asteroid, at approximately 33 kilometers in diameter.

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Comet Hartley 2, designated as 103P/Hartley by the Minor Planet Center, is a small periodic comet with an orbital period of 6.46 years.

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1566 Icarus

1566 Icarus, provisional designation, is an extremely eccentric asteroid, approximately 1.4 kilometers in diameter.

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162173 Ryugu

162173 Ryugu, provisional designation, is a near-Earth object and a potentially hazardous asteroid of the Apollo group.

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1972 Great Daylight Fireball

The Great Daylight Fireball (or US19720810) was an Earth-grazing fireball that passed within of Earth's surface at 20:29 UTC on August 10, 1972.

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2004 FH

2004 FH is a micro-asteroid and near-Earth object of the Aten group, approximately 30 meters in diameter, that passed just above the Earth's surface on 18 March 2004, at 22:08 UTC.

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2011 EO40

is an asteroid, classified as near-Earth object and potentially hazardous asteroid of the Apollo group.

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Comet Giacobini–Zinner (official designation: 21P/Giacobini–Zinner) is a periodic comet in the Solar System.

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25143 Itokawa

25143 Itokawa (イトカワ,いとかわ,糸川) is a stony sub-kilometer asteroid, classified as near-Earth object of the Apollo group and potentially hazardous asteroid, that measures approximately 350 meters in diameter.

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Comet Grigg–Skjellerup (formally designated 26P/Grigg–Skjellerup) is a periodic comet.

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3122 Florence

3122 Florence is a stony trinary asteroid of the Amor group.

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367943 Duende

367943 Duende, provisional designation, is a micro-asteroid and a near-Earth object of the Aten and Atira group, approximately in diameter.

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3753 Cruithne

3753 Cruithne (For instance, on the British television show Q.I. (Season 1; aired 11 Sept 2003).) is a Q-type, Aten asteroid in orbit around the Sun in 1:1 orbital resonance with Earth, making it a co-orbital object.

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4179 Toutatis

4179 Toutatis, provisional designation, is an elongated, stony asteroid and slow rotator, classified as near-Earth object and potentially hazardous asteroid of the Apollo and Alinda group, approximately 2.5 kilometers in diameter.

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433 Eros

433 Eros, provisional designation, is a stony and elongated asteroid of the Amor group and the first discovered and second-largest near-Earth object with a mean-diameter of approximately 16.8 kilometers.

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4581 Asclepius

4581 Asclepius, provisional designation, is a sub-kilometer-sized asteroid, classified as near-Earth object and potentially hazardous asteroid of the Apollo group that makes close orbital passes with Earth.

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55P/Tempel–Tuttle (commonly known as Comet Tempel–Tuttle) is a periodic comet with an orbital period of 33 years.

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67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko (abbreviated as 67P or 67P/C-G) is a Jupiter-family comet, originally from the Kuiper belt, with a current orbital period of 6.45 years, a rotation period of approximately 12.4 hours and a maximum velocity of.

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69230 Hermes

69230 Hermes, provisional designation, is a sub-kilometer sized asteroid and binary system on an eccentric orbit, classified as a potentially hazardous asteroid and near-Earth object of the Apollo group, that passed Earth at approximately twice the distance of the Moon on 30 October 1937.

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6Q0B44E, sometimes abbreviated to B44E, is a small object, probably an item of space debris, that is currently orbiting Earth outside the orbit of the Moon as of October 2016.

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73P/Schwassmann–Wachmann, also known as Schwassmann–Wachmann 3, is a periodic comet in the Solar System that is in the process of disintegrating.

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99942 Apophis

99942 Apophis (previously known by its provisional designation) is a near-Earth asteroid that caused a brief period of concern in December 2004 because initial observations indicated a probability of up to 2.7% that it would hit Earth on April 13, 2029.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Near-Earth_object

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