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Nectanebo II

Index Nectanebo II

Nectanebo II (Manetho's transcription of Egyptian Nḫt-Ḥr-(n)-Ḥbyt, "Strong is Horus of Hebit"), ruled in 360—342 BC) was the third and last pharaoh of the Thirtieth Dynasty of Egypt as well as the last native ruler of ancient Egypt. Under Nectanebo II, Egypt prospered. During his reign, the Egyptian artists delivered a specific style that left a distinctive mark on the reliefs of the Ptolemaic Kingdom. Like his indirect predecessor Nectanebo I, Nectanebo II showed enthusiasm for many of the cults of the gods within ancient Egyptian religion, and more than a hundred Egyptian sites bear evidence of his attentions. Nectanebo II, however, undertook more constructions and restorations than Nectanebo I, commencing in particular the enormous Egyptian temple of Isis (the Iseum). For several years, Nectanebo II was successful in keeping Egypt safe from the Achaemenid Empire. However, betrayed by his former servant, Mentor of Rhodes, Nectanebo II was ultimately defeated by the combined Persian and Greek forces in the Battle of Pelusium (343 BC). The Persians occupied Memphis and then seized the rest of Egypt, incorporating the country into the Achaemenid Empire. Nectanebo fled south and preserved his power for some time; his subsequent fate is unknown. [1]

90 relations: Abydos, Egypt, Achaemenid Empire, Agesilaus II, Aidan Dodson, Al-Biruni, Alexander romance, Alexander the Great, Alexandria, Amun, Ancient Egypt, Ancient Egyptian religion, Anhur, Apis (deity), Argos, Artaxerxes III, Athribis, Basalt, Battle of Pelusium (343 BC), Behbeit El Hagar, Bibliothèque nationale de France, Bubastis, Buchis, Cella, Chabrias, Christie's, Classical Athens, Cult (religious practice), Cyprus, Diorite, Egyptian language, Egyptian temple, Elephantine, Granite, Greywacke, Hakor, Hathor, Heliopolis (ancient Egypt), Hepit, Hoplite, Horus, Ionians, Isis, Jürgen von Beckerath, Khabash, Khepresh, Khnum, Libu, Libyan Sibyl, Machimoi, Magic (supernatural), ..., Manetho, Memphis, Egypt, Mendes, Mentor of Rhodes, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Museum of Fine Arts of Lyon, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Nectanebo I, Nemes, Nepherites I, New Kingdom of Egypt, Nicolas Grimal, Nile Delta, Nubia, Olympias, Peace of Antalcidas, Pharaoh, Philae, Philip II of Macedon, Phoenicia, Polis, Ptolemaic Kingdom, Quartzite, Ra, Relief, Satrap, Sebennytos, Serapeum, Sidon, Siwa Oasis, Sparta, Talent (measurement), Teos of Egypt, Thebes, Greece, Thirtieth Dynasty of Egypt, Tjahapimu, University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, Upper and Lower Egypt, Upper Egypt, Uraeus. Expand index (40 more) »

Abydos, Egypt

Abydos (أبيدوس.; Sahidic Ⲉⲃⲱⲧ) is one of the oldest cities of ancient Egypt, and also of the eighth nome in Upper Egypt, of which it was the capital city.

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Achaemenid Empire

The Achaemenid Empire, also called the First Persian Empire, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great.

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Agesilaus II

Agesilaus II (Ἀγησίλαος Agesilaos; c. 444 – c. 360 BC), was a Eurypontid king of the Ancient Greek city-state of Sparta, ruling from 398 to about 360 BC, during most of which time he was, in Plutarch's words, "as good as though commander and king of all Greece," and was for the whole of it greatly identified with his country's deeds and fortunes.

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Aidan Dodson

Aidan Mark Dodson (born 1962) is an English Egyptologist and historian.

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Al-Biruni

Abū Rayḥān Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad Al-Bīrūnī (Chorasmian/ابوریحان بیرونی Abū Rayḥān Bērōnī; New Persian: Abū Rayḥān Bīrūnī) (973–1050), known as Al-Biruni (البيروني) in English, was an IranianD.J. Boilot, "Al-Biruni (Beruni), Abu'l Rayhan Muhammad b. Ahmad", in Encyclopaedia of Islam (Leiden), New Ed., vol.1:1236–1238.

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Alexander romance

The Romance of Alexander is any of several collections of legends concerning the exploits of Alexander the Great.

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Alexander the Great

Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.

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Alexandria

Alexandria (or; Arabic: الإسكندرية; Egyptian Arabic: إسكندرية; Ⲁⲗⲉⲝⲁⲛⲇⲣⲓⲁ; Ⲣⲁⲕⲟⲧⲉ) is the second-largest city in Egypt and a major economic centre, extending about along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the north central part of the country.

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Amun

Amun (also Amon, Ammon, Amen; Greek Ἄμμων Ámmōn, Ἅμμων Hámmōn) was a major ancient Egyptian deity who appears as a member of the Hermopolitan ogdoad.

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Ancient Egypt

Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.

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Ancient Egyptian religion

Ancient Egyptian religion was a complex system of polytheistic beliefs and rituals which were an integral part of ancient Egyptian society.

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Anhur

In early Egyptian mythology, Anhur (also spelled Onuris, Onouris, An-Her, Anhuret, Han-Her, Inhert) was originally a god of war who was worshipped in the Egyptian area of Abydos, and particularly in Thinis.

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Apis (deity)

In ancient Egyptian religion, Apis or Hapis (ḥjpw, reconstructed as Old Egyptian with unknown final vowel > Middle Egyptian, ϩⲁⲡⲉ), alternatively spelled Hapi-ankh, was a sacred bull worshipped in the Memphis region, identified as the son of Hathor, a primary deity in the pantheon of Ancient Egypt.

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Argos

Argos (Modern Greek: Άργος; Ancient Greek: Ἄργος) is a city in Argolis, the Peloponnese, Greece and is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world.

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Artaxerxes III

Artaxerxes III Ochus of Persia (𐎠𐎼𐎫𐎧𐏁𐏂 Artaxšaçā) (338 BC) was the eleventh emperor of the Achaemenid Empire, as well as the first Pharaoh of the 31st dynasty of Egypt.

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Athribis

Athribis (أتريب; Greek: Ἄθλιβις, from the original Egyptian Hut-heryib, Ⲁⲑⲣⲏⲃⲓ) was an ancient city in Lower Egypt.

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Basalt

Basalt is a common extrusive igneous (volcanic) rock formed from the rapid cooling of basaltic lava exposed at or very near the surface of a planet or moon.

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Battle of Pelusium (343 BC)

The Battle of Pelusium in 343 was fought between the Persians, with their Greek mercenaries, and the Egyptians with their Greek mercenaries.

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Behbeit El Hagar

Behbeit El Hagar is an archaeological site in Lower Egypt.

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Bibliothèque nationale de France

The (BnF, English: National Library of France) is the national library of France, located in Paris.

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Bubastis

Bubastis (Bohairic Coptic: Ⲡⲟⲩⲃⲁⲥϯ Poubasti; Greek: Βούβαστις Boubastis or Βούβαστος Boubastos), also known in Arabic as Tell-Basta or in Egyptian as Per-Bast, was an Ancient Egyptian city.

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Buchis

In Egyptian mythology, Buchis (also spelt Bakh and Bakha) was the manifestation of the deification of Ka (power/life-force) of the war god Montu, worshipped in the region of Hermonthis.

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Cella

A cella (from Latin for small chamber) or naos (from the Greek ναός, "temple") is the inner chamber of a temple in classical architecture, or a shop facing the street in domestic Roman architecture, such as a domus.

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Chabrias

Chabrias (Χαβρίας) was an Athenian general of the 4th century BC.

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Christie's

Christie's is a British auction house.

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Classical Athens

The city of Athens (Ἀθῆναι, Athênai a.tʰɛ̂ː.nai̯; Modern Greek: Ἀθῆναι, Athínai) during the classical period of Ancient Greece (508–322 BC) was the major urban center of the notable polis (city-state) of the same name, located in Attica, Greece, leading the Delian League in the Peloponnesian War against Sparta and the Peloponnesian League.

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Cult (religious practice)

Cult is literally the "care" (Latin cultus) owed to deities and to temples, shrines, or churches.

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Cyprus

Cyprus (Κύπρος; Kıbrıs), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία; Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean.

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Diorite

Diorite is an intrusive igneous rock composed principally of the silicate minerals plagioclase feldspar (typically andesine), biotite, hornblende, and/or pyroxene.

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Egyptian language

The Egyptian language was spoken in ancient Egypt and was a branch of the Afro-Asiatic languages.

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Egyptian temple

Egyptian temples were built for the official worship of the gods and in commemoration of the pharaohs in ancient Egypt and regions under Egyptian control.

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Elephantine

Elephantine (Gazīrat il-Fantīn; Ἐλεφαντίνη) is an island on the Nile, forming part of the city of Aswan in Upper Egypt.

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Granite

Granite is a common type of felsic intrusive igneous rock that is granular and phaneritic in texture.

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Greywacke

Greywacke or Graywacke (German grauwacke, signifying a grey, earthy rock) is a variety of sandstone generally characterized by its hardness, dark color, and poorly sorted angular grains of quartz, feldspar, and small rock fragments or lithic fragments set in a compact, clay-fine matrix.

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Hakor

Hakor or Hagar, also known by the hellenized forms Achoris or Hakoris, was an ancient Egyptian pharaoh of the 29th Dynasty.

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Hathor

Hathor (or; Egyptian:; in Ἅθωρ, meaning "mansion of Horus")Hathor and Thoth: two key figures of the ancient Egyptian religion, Claas Jouco Bleeker, pp.

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Heliopolis (ancient Egypt)

Heliopolis was a major city of ancient Egypt.

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Hepit

Hepit is the Hurrian goddess of the sky.

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Hoplite

Hoplites were citizen-soldiers of Ancient Greek city-states who were primarily armed with spears and shields.

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Horus

Horus is one of the most significant ancient Egyptian deities.

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Ionians

The Ionians (Ἴωνες, Íōnes, singular Ἴων, Íōn) were one of the four major tribes that the Greeks considered themselves to be divided into during the ancient period; the other three being the Dorians, Aeolians, and Achaeans.

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Isis

Isis was a major goddess in ancient Egyptian religion whose worship spread throughout the Greco-Roman world.

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Jürgen von Beckerath

Jürgen von Beckerath (19 February 1920 – 26 June 2016) was a German Egyptologist.

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Khabash

Khabash, also Khababash or Khabbash, resided at Sais in the fifth nome of Lower Egypt in the fourth century BCE.

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Khepresh

The khepresh was an ancient Egyptian royal headdress.

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Khnum

Khnum (also spelled Khnemu) was one of the earliest Egyptian deities, originally the god of the source of the Nile River.

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Libu

The Libu (rbw; also transcribed Rebu, Lebu) were an Ancient Libyan tribe of Berber origin, from which the name ''Libya'' derives.

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Libyan Sibyl

The Libyan Sibyl, named Phemonoe, was the prophetic priestess presiding over the Oracle of Zeus-Ammon (Zeus represented with the horns of Ammon) at Siwa Oasis in the Libyan Desert.

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Machimoi

The term Máchimoi (μάχιμοι, plural; μάχιμος, máchimos, singular) commonly refers to a broad category of ancient Egyptian low-ranked soldiers which rose during the Late Period of Egypt (664–332 BCE) and, more prominently, during the Ptolemaic dynasty (323–30 BCE).

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Magic (supernatural)

Magic is a category in Western culture into which have been placed various beliefs and practices considered separate from both religion and science.

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Manetho

Manetho (Μανέθων Manethōn, gen.: Μανέθωνος) is believed to have been an Egyptian priest from Sebennytus (ancient Egyptian: Tjebnutjer) who lived during the Ptolemaic era in the early 3rd century BC.

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Memphis, Egypt

Memphis (مَنْف; ⲙⲉⲙϥⲓ; Μέμφις) was the ancient capital of Aneb-Hetch, the first nome of Lower Egypt.

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Mendes

Mendes (Μένδης, gen.: Μένδητος), the Greek name of the Ancient Egyptian city of Djedet, also known in Ancient Egypt as Per-Banebdjedet ("The Domain of the Ram Lord of Djedet") and Anpet, is known today as Tell El-Ruba (تل الربع).

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Mentor of Rhodes

Mentor of Rhodes was a Greek mercenary and later Satrap of the Asiatic coast.

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Metropolitan Museum of Art

The Metropolitan Museum of Art of New York, colloquially "the Met", is the largest art museum in the United States.

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Museum of Fine Arts of Lyon

The Museum of Fine Arts of Lyon (Musée des beaux-arts de Lyon) is a municipal museum of fine arts in the French city of Lyon.

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Museum of Fine Arts, Boston

The Museum of Fine Arts in Boston, Massachusetts, is the fifth largest museum in the United States.

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Nectanebo I

Kheperkare Nakhtnebef, better known by his hellenized name Nectanebo I, was an ancient Egyptian pharaoh, founder of the last native dynasty of Egypt, the thirtieth.

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Nemes

The nemes is the striped headcloth worn by pharaohs in ancient Egypt.

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Nepherites I

Nefaarud I or Nayfaurud I, better known with his hellenised name Nepherites I, was an ancient Egyptian pharaoh, the founder of the 29th Dynasty in 399 BC.

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New Kingdom of Egypt

The New Kingdom, also referred to as the Egyptian Empire, is the period in ancient Egyptian history between the 16th century BC and the 11th century BC, covering the 18th, 19th, and 20th dynasties of Egypt.

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Nicolas Grimal

Nicolas-Christophe Grimal (born 13 November 1948 in Libourne) is a French Egyptologist.

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Nile Delta

The Nile Delta (دلتا النيل or simply الدلتا) is the delta formed in Northern Egypt (Lower Egypt) where the Nile River spreads out and drains into the Mediterranean Sea.

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Nubia

Nubia is a region along the Nile river encompassing the area between Aswan in southern Egypt and Khartoum in central Sudan.

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Olympias

Olympias (Ὀλυμπιάς,, c. 375–316 BC) was a daughter of king Neoptolemus I of Epirus, sister to Alexander I of Epirus, fourth wife of Philip II, the king of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedonia, and mother of Alexander the Great.

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Peace of Antalcidas

The King's Peace (387 BC), also known as the Peace of Antalcidas, was a peace treaty guaranteed by the Persian King Artaxerxes II that ended the Corinthian War in ancient Greece.

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Pharaoh

Pharaoh (ⲡⲣ̅ⲣⲟ Prro) is the common title of the monarchs of ancient Egypt from the First Dynasty (c. 3150 BCE) until the annexation of Egypt by the Roman Empire in 30 BCE, although the actual term "Pharaoh" was not used contemporaneously for a ruler until circa 1200 BCE.

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Philae

Philae (Φιλαί, فيله, Egyptian: p3-jw-rķ' or 'pA-jw-rq; Coptic) is currently an island in the reservoir of the Aswan Low Dam, downstream of the Aswan Dam and Lake Nasser, Egypt.

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Philip II of Macedon

Philip II of Macedon (Φίλιππος Β΄ ὁ Μακεδών; 382–336 BC) was the king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon from until his assassination in.

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Phoenicia

Phoenicia (or; from the Φοινίκη, meaning "purple country") was a thalassocratic ancient Semitic civilization that originated in the Eastern Mediterranean and in the west of the Fertile Crescent.

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Polis

Polis (πόλις), plural poleis (πόλεις), literally means city in Greek.

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Ptolemaic Kingdom

The Ptolemaic Kingdom (Πτολεμαϊκὴ βασιλεία, Ptolemaïkḕ basileía) was a Hellenistic kingdom based in Egypt.

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Quartzite

Quartzite (from Quarzit) is a hard, non-foliated metamorphic rock which was originally pure quartz sandstone.

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Ra

Ra (rꜥ or rˤ; also transliterated rˤw; cuneiform: ri-a or ri-ia) or Re (ⲣⲏ, Rē) is the ancient Egyptian sun god.

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Relief

Relief is a sculptural technique where the sculpted elements remain attached to a solid background of the same material.

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Satrap

Satraps were the governors of the provinces of the ancient Median and Achaemenid Empires and in several of their successors, such as in the Sasanian Empire and the Hellenistic empires.

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Sebennytos

Sebennytos or Sebennytus (سمندود Samannūd, ϫⲉⲙⲛⲟⲩϯ, Greek: Σεβέννυτος, Ptol. iv. 5. § 50, Steph. B. s. v. or ἡ Σεβεννυτικὴ πόλις, Strabo xvii. p. 802, Egyptian: ṯb-nṯr, probably pronounced * in Old Egyptian, * in Late Egyptian), was an ancient city of Lower Egypt, located on the Damietta (Sebennytic) branch of the Nile in the Delta.

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Serapeum

A serapeum is a temple or other religious institution dedicated to the syncretic Greco-Egyptian deity Serapis, who combined aspects of Osiris and Apis in a humanized form that was accepted by the Ptolemaic Greeks of Alexandria.

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Sidon

Sidon (صيدا, صيدون,; French: Saida; Phoenician: 𐤑𐤃𐤍, Ṣīdūn; Biblical Hebrew:, Ṣīḏōn; Σιδών), translated to 'fishery' or 'fishing-town', is the third-largest city in Lebanon.

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Siwa Oasis

The Siwa Oasis (واحة سيوة, Wāḥat Sīwah) is an urban oasis in Egypt between the Qattara Depression and the Great Sand Sea in the Western Desert, nearly 50 km (30 mi) east of the Libyan border, and 560 km (348 mi) from Cairo.

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Sparta

Sparta (Doric Greek: Σπάρτα, Spártā; Attic Greek: Σπάρτη, Spártē) was a prominent city-state in ancient Greece.

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Talent (measurement)

The talent (talentum, from Ancient Greek: τάλαντον, talanton 'scale, balance, sum') was one of several ancient units of mass, a commercial weight, as well as corresponding units of value equivalent to these masses of a precious metal.

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Teos of Egypt

Djedhor, better known as Teos (Τέως) or Tachos (Τάχως), was an ancient Egyptian pharaoh of the 30th Dynasty.

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Thebes, Greece

Thebes (Θῆβαι, Thēbai,;. Θήβα, Thíva) is a city in Boeotia, central Greece.

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Thirtieth Dynasty of Egypt

The Thirtieth Dynasty of Egypt (notated Dynasty XXX, alternatively 30th Dynasty or Dynasty 30) is usually classified as the fifth Dynasty of the Late Period of ancient Egypt.

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Tjahapimu

Tjahapimu or Tjahepimu, (fl. c.360 BCE) was an ancient Egyptian prince, general and regent during the 30th Dynasty.

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University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology

The University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology—commonly called the Penn Museum—is an archaeology and anthropology museum that is part of the University of Pennsylvania.

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Upper and Lower Egypt

In Egyptian history, the Upper and Lower Egypt period (also known as The Two Lands, a name for Ancient Egypt during this time) was the final stage of its prehistory and directly preceded the nation's unification.

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Upper Egypt

Upper Egypt (صعيد مصر, shortened to الصعيد) is the strip of land on both sides of the Nile that extends between Nubia and downriver (northwards) to Lower Egypt.

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Uraeus

The Uraeus (plural Uraei or Uraeuses; from the Greek οὐραῖος, ouraîos, "on its tail"; from Egyptian jʿr.t (iaret), "rearing cobra") is the stylized, upright form of an Egyptian cobra (asp, serpent, or snake), used as a symbol of sovereignty, royalty, deity and divine authority in ancient Egypt.

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References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nectanebo_II

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