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Negative resistance

Index Negative resistance

In electronics, negative resistance (NR) is a property of some electrical circuits and devices in which an increase in voltage across the device's terminals results in a decrease in electric current through it. [1]

187 relations: Active filter, Alternating current, Amplifier, Antenna (radio), Arc converter, Arc lamp, Bandwidth (signal processing), Barkhausen stability criterion, Bell Labs, Biasing, BIBO stability, Bipolar junction transistor, Bistability, Cavity magnetron, Chaos theory, Choke (electronics), Chord (geometry), Chua's circuit, Chua's diode, Chu–Harrington limit, Circulator, Colpitts oscillator, Complex conjugate, Conservation of energy, Continuous function, Counter (digital), Crystal detector, Crystal oscillator, Current source, Current–voltage characteristic, Damping ratio, Derivative, Dielectric resonator, Digital electronics, Diode, Direct coupling, Direct current, Distortion, Dynatron oscillator, Edwin Howard Armstrong, Electric arc, Electric battery, Electric current, Electric discharge in gases, Electric field, Electric generator, Electric potential, Electric power, Electrical impedance, Electrical network, ..., Electrical reactance, Electrical resistance and conductance, Electronic component, Electronic oscillator, Electronics, Elihu Thomson, Emile Garcke, Equilibrium point, Equivalent circuit, Exponential function, Extremely high frequency, Feedback, Flip-flop (electronics), Fluorescent lamp, Foster's reactance theorem, Frequency, Frequency domain, Gain (electronics), Gas-filled tube, General Electric, George Francis FitzGerald, Greenleaf Whittier Pickard, Gunn diode, Gyrator, Hartley oscillator, Heinrich Barkhausen, Hertha Ayrton, Hodgkin–Huxley model, Hugo Gernsback, Hysteresis, IMPATT diode, Impedance matching, Input impedance, Institution of Electrical Engineers, Isolator (microwave), Joule heating, Kirchhoff's circuit laws, Lambda diode, LC circuit, Leo Esaki, Linear circuit, Load line (electronics), Local oscillator, Loop gain, Many-valued logic, Maser, Mechanical equilibrium, Mercury-vapor lamp, Mertens-stable equilibrium, Microwave, Microwave cavity, Microwave oven, Monotonic function, Multiplicative inverse, Multivalued function, Multivibrator, Negative impedance converter, Neon lamp, Neon lighting, Network analysis (electrical circuits), Noise (electronics), Nyquist stability criterion, Ohm, Ohm's law, Oleg Losev, Operational amplifier, Oscillation, Output impedance, Parametric oscillator, Parasitic capacitance, Passive sign convention, Passivity (engineering), Phase (waves), Plate electrode, Positive feedback, Potential energy, Power dividers and directional couplers, Power gain, Q factor, Radar, Radar gun, Radio receiver, Radio telescope, Rechargeable battery, Reciprocity (electromagnetism), Reflection coefficient, Regenerative circuit, Relaxation oscillator, Repeater, Resistor, Resonance, Resonant-tunneling diode, Resonator, RLC circuit, S-plane, Satellite dish, Schmitt trigger, Second law of thermodynamics, Secondary emission, Selectivity (electronic), Semiconductor, Semiconductor memory, Siemens (unit), Silicon controlled rectifier, Sine wave, Slope, Smith chart, Solid-state electronics, Square wave, Stability theory, Superheterodyne receiver, Superposition principle, Switching circuit theory, Telephone line, Terahertz radiation, Tetrode, Thyratron, Thyristor, Transfer function, Transistor, Transmission line, Triangle wave, Triode, Tunnel diode, Two-port network, Unijunction transistor, Vacuum tube, Valdemar Poulsen, Voltage, Voltage divider, Voltage source, William Duddell, William Eccles, Work (physics), Zeros and poles, Zinc oxide, Zincite. Expand index (137 more) »

Active filter

An active filter is a type of analog circuit implementing an electronic filter using active components, typically an amplifier.

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Alternating current

Alternating current (AC) is an electric current which periodically reverses direction, in contrast to direct current (DC) which flows only in one direction.

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An amplifier, electronic amplifier or (informally) amp is an electronic device that can increase the power of a signal (a time-varying voltage or current).

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Antenna (radio)

In radio, an antenna is the interface between radio waves propagating through space and electric currents moving in metal conductors, used with a transmitter or receiver.

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Arc converter

The arc converter, sometimes called the arc transmitter, or Poulsen arc after Danish engineer Valdemar Poulsen who invented it in 1903, was a variety of spark transmitter used in early wireless telegraphy.

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Arc lamp

An arc lamp or arc light is a lamp that produces light by an electric arc (also called a voltaic arc).

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Bandwidth (signal processing)

Bandwidth is the difference between the upper and lower frequencies in a continuous band of frequencies.

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Barkhausen stability criterion

In electronics, the Barkhausen stability criterion is a mathematical condition to determine when a linear electronic circuit will oscillate.

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Bell Labs

Nokia Bell Labs (formerly named AT&T Bell Laboratories, Bell Telephone Laboratories and Bell Labs) is an American research and scientific development company, owned by Finnish company Nokia.

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Biasing in electronics means establishing predetermined voltages or currents at various points of an electronic circuit for the purpose of establishing proper operating conditions in electronic components.

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BIBO stability

In signal processing, specifically control theory, bounded-input, bounded-output (BIBO) stability is a form of stability for linear signals and systems that take inputs.

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Bipolar junction transistor

|- align.

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In a dynamical system, bistability means the system has two stable equilibrium states.

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Cavity magnetron

The cavity magnetron is a high-powered vacuum tube that generates microwaves using the interaction of a stream of electrons with a magnetic field while moving past a series of open metal cavities (cavity resonators).

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Chaos theory

Chaos theory is a branch of mathematics focusing on the behavior of dynamical systems that are highly sensitive to initial conditions.

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Choke (electronics)

In electronics, a choke is an inductor used to block higher-frequency alternating current (AC) in an electrical circuit, while passing lower-frequency or direct current (DC).

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Chord (geometry)

A chord of a circle is a straight line segment whose endpoints both lie on the circle.

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Chua's circuit

Chua's circuit (also known as a Chua circuit) is a simple electronic circuit that exhibits classic chaotic behavior.

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Chua's diode

In electronics and chaos theory, Chua's diode is a type of two-terminal, nonlinear active resistor which can be described with piecewise-linear equations.

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Chu–Harrington limit

In electrical engineering and telecommunications the Chu–Harrington limit or Chu limit sets a lower limit on the Q factor for a small radio antenna.

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A circulator is a passive non-reciprocal three- or four-port device, in which a microwave or radio frequency signal entering any port is transmitted to the next port in rotation (only).

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Colpitts oscillator

A Colpitts oscillator, invented in 1918 by American engineer Edwin H. Colpitts, is one of a number of designs for LC oscillators, electronic oscillators that use a combination of inductors (L) and capacitors (C) to produce an oscillation at a certain frequency.

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Complex conjugate

In mathematics, the complex conjugate of a complex number is the number with an equal real part and an imaginary part equal in magnitude but opposite in sign.

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Conservation of energy

In physics, the law of conservation of energy states that the total energy of an isolated system remains constant, it is said to be ''conserved'' over time.

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Continuous function

In mathematics, a continuous function is a function for which sufficiently small changes in the input result in arbitrarily small changes in the output.

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Counter (digital)

In digital logic and computing, a counter is a device which stores (and sometimes displays) the number of times a particular event or process has occurred, often in relationship to a clock signal.

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Crystal detector

A crystal detector is an obsolete electronic component in some early 20th century radio receivers that used a piece of crystalline mineral as a detector (demodulator) to rectify the alternating current radio signal to extract the audio modulation which produced the sound in the earphones.

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Crystal oscillator

A crystal oscillator is an electronic oscillator circuit that uses the mechanical resonance of a vibrating crystal of piezoelectric material to create an electrical signal with a precise frequency.

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Current source

A current source is an electronic circuit that delivers or absorbs an electric current which is independent of the voltage across it.

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Current–voltage characteristic

A current–voltage characteristic or I–V curve (current–voltage curve) is a relationship, typically represented as a chart or graph, between the electric current through a circuit, device, or material, and the corresponding voltage, or potential difference across it.

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Damping ratio

Damping is an influence within or upon an oscillatory system that has the effect of reducing, restricting or preventing its oscillations.

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The derivative of a function of a real variable measures the sensitivity to change of the function value (output value) with respect to a change in its argument (input value).

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Dielectric resonator

A dielectric resonator is a piece of dielectric (nonconductive) material, usually ceramic, that is designed to function as a resonator for radio waves, generally in the microwave and millimeter wave bands.

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Digital electronics

Digital electronics or digital (electronic) circuits are electronics that operate on digital signals.

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A diode is a two-terminal electronic component that conducts current primarily in one direction (asymmetric conductance); it has low (ideally zero) resistance in one direction, and high (ideally infinite) resistance in the other.

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Direct coupling

In electronics, direct coupling or DC coupling (also called conductive coupling) is the transfer of electrical energy by means of physical contact via a conductive medium, in contrast to inductive coupling and capacitive coupling.

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Direct current

Direct current (DC) is the unidirectional flow of electric charge.

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Distortion is the alteration of the original shape (or other characteristic) of something.

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Dynatron oscillator

In electronics, the dynatron oscillator, invented in 1918 by Albert Hull at General Electric, is an obsolete vacuum tube electronic oscillator circuit which uses a negative resistance characteristic in early tetrode vacuum tubes, caused by a process called secondary emission.

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Edwin Howard Armstrong

Edwin Howard Armstrong (December 18, 1890 – February 1, 1954) was an American electrical engineer and inventor, best known for developing FM (frequency modulation) radio and the superheterodyne receiver system.

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Electric arc

An electric arc, or arc discharge, is an electrical breakdown of a gas that produces an ongoing electrical discharge.

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Electric battery

An electric battery is a device consisting of one or more electrochemical cells with external connections provided to power electrical devices such as flashlights, smartphones, and electric cars.

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Electric current

An electric current is a flow of electric charge.

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Electric discharge in gases

Electric discharge in gases occurs when electric current flows through a gaseous medium due to ionization of the gas.

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Electric field

An electric field is a vector field surrounding an electric charge that exerts force on other charges, attracting or repelling them.

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Electric generator

In electricity generation, a generator is a device that converts motive power (mechanical energy) into electrical power for use in an external circuit.

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Electric potential

An electric potential (also called the electric field potential, potential drop or the electrostatic potential) is the amount of work needed to move a unit positive charge from a reference point to a specific point inside the field without producing any acceleration.

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Electric power

Electric power is the rate, per unit time, at which electrical energy is transferred by an electric circuit.

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Electrical impedance

Electrical impedance is the measure of the opposition that a circuit presents to a current when a voltage is applied.

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Electrical network

An electrical network is an interconnection of electrical components (e.g. batteries, resistors, inductors, capacitors, switches) or a model of such an interconnection, consisting of electrical elements (e.g. voltage sources, current sources, resistances, inductances, capacitances).

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Electrical reactance

In electrical and electronic systems, reactance is the opposition of a circuit element to a change in current or voltage, due to that element's inductance or capacitance.

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Electrical resistance and conductance

The electrical resistance of an electrical conductor is a measure of the difficulty to pass an electric current through that conductor.

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Electronic component

An electronic component is any basic discrete device or physical entity in an electronic system used to affect electrons or their associated fields.

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Electronic oscillator

An electronic oscillator is an electronic circuit that produces a periodic, oscillating electronic signal, often a sine wave or a square wave.

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Electronics is the discipline dealing with the development and application of devices and systems involving the flow of electrons in a vacuum, in gaseous media, and in semiconductors.

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Elihu Thomson

Elihu Thomson (March 29, 1853 – March 13, 1937) was an English-born American engineer and inventor who was instrumental in the founding of major electrical companies in the United States, the United Kingdom and France.

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Emile Garcke

Emile Oscar Garcke (1856 – 14 November 1930) was a naturalised British electrical engineer, industrial, commercial and political entrepreneur managing director of the British Electric Traction Company (BET), and early author on accounting.

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Equilibrium point

In mathematics, specifically in differential equations, an equilibrium point is a constant solution to a differential equation.

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Equivalent circuit

In electrical engineering and science, an equivalent circuit refers to a theoretical circuit that retains all of the electrical characteristics of a given circuit.

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Exponential function

In mathematics, an exponential function is a function of the form in which the argument occurs as an exponent.

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Extremely high frequency

Extremely high frequency (EHF) is the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) designation for the band of radio frequencies in the electromagnetic spectrum from 30 to 300 gigahertz (GHz).

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Feedback occurs when outputs of a system are routed back as inputs as part of a chain of cause-and-effect that forms a circuit or loop.

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Flip-flop (electronics)

In electronics, a flip-flop or latch is a circuit that has two stable states and can be used to store state information.

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Fluorescent lamp

A fluorescent lamp, or fluorescent tube, is a low-pressure mercury-vapor gas-discharge lamp that uses fluorescence to produce visible light.

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Foster's reactance theorem

Foster's reactance theorem is an important theorem in the fields of electrical network analysis and synthesis.

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Frequency is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit of time.

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Frequency domain

In electronics, control systems engineering, and statistics, the frequency domain refers to the analysis of mathematical functions or signals with respect to frequency, rather than time.

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Gain (electronics)

In electronics, gain is a measure of the ability of a two-port circuit (often an amplifier) to increase the power or amplitude of a signal from the input to the output port by adding energy converted from some power supply to the signal.

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Gas-filled tube

A gas-filled tube, also known as a discharge tube, is an arrangement of electrodes in a gas within an insulating, temperature-resistant envelope.

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General Electric

General Electric Company (GE) is an American multinational conglomerate incorporated in New York and headquartered in Boston, Massachusetts.

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George Francis FitzGerald

Prof George Francis FitzGerald FRS FRSE (3 August 1851 – 22 February 1901) was an Irish professor of "natural and experimental philosophy" (i.e., physics) at Trinity College in Dublin, Ireland, during the last quarter of the 19th century.

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Greenleaf Whittier Pickard

Greenleaf Whittier Pickard (February 14, 1877, Portland, Maine – January 8, 1956, Newton, Massachusetts) was a United States radio pioneer.

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Gunn diode

A Gunn diode, also known as a transferred electron device (TED), is a form of diode, a two-terminal passive semiconductor electronic component, with negative resistance, used in high-frequency electronics.

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A gyrator is a passive, linear, lossless, two-port electrical network element proposed in 1948 by Bernard D. H. Tellegen as a hypothetical fifth linear element after the resistor, capacitor, inductor and ideal transformer.

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Hartley oscillator

The Hartley oscillator is an electronic oscillator circuit in which the oscillation frequency is determined by a tuned circuit consisting of capacitors and inductors, that is, an LC oscillator.

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Heinrich Barkhausen

Heinrich Georg Barkhausen (2 December 1881 – 20 February 1956), born at Bremen, was a German physicist.

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Hertha Ayrton

Phoebe Sarah Hertha Ayrton (28 April 1854 – 23 August 1923) was a British engineer, mathematician, physicist and inventor.

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Hodgkin–Huxley model

The Hodgkin–Huxley model, or conductance-based model, is a mathematical model that describes how action potentials in neurons are initiated and propagated.

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Hugo Gernsback

Hugo Gernsback (born Hugo Gernsbacher, August 16, 1884 – August 19, 1967) was a Luxembourgish-American inventor, writer, editor, and magazine publisher, best known for publications including the first science fiction magazine.

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Hysteresis is the dependence of the state of a system on its history.

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IMPATT diode

An IMPATT diode (IMPact ionization Avalanche Transit-Time diode) is a form of high-power semiconductor diode used in high-frequency microwave electronics devices.

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Impedance matching

In electronics, impedance matching is the practice of designing the input impedance of an electrical load or the output impedance of its corresponding signal source to maximize the power transfer or minimize signal reflection from the load.

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Input impedance

The input impedance of an electrical network is the measure of the opposition to current flow (impedance), both static (resistance) and dynamic (reactance), into the load network being that is external to the electrical source.

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Institution of Electrical Engineers

The Institution of Electrical Engineers (IEE, pronounced I-E-E) was a British professional organisation of electronics, electrical, manufacturing, and Information Technology professionals, especially electrical engineers.

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Isolator (microwave)

An isolator is a two-port device that transmits microwave or radio frequency power in one direction only.

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Joule heating

Joule heating, also known as Ohmic heating and resistive heating, is the process by which the passage of an electric current through a conductor produces heat.

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Kirchhoff's circuit laws

Kirchhoff's circuit laws are two equalities that deal with the current and potential difference (commonly known as voltage) in the lumped element model of electrical circuits.

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Lambda diode

A lambda diode is an electronic circuit that combines a complementary pair of field-effect transistors into a two-terminal device that exhibits an area of differential negative resistance much like a tunnel diode.

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LC circuit

An LC circuit, also called a resonant circuit, tank circuit, or tuned circuit, is an electric circuit consisting of an inductor, represented by the letter L, and a capacitor, represented by the letter C, connected together.

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Leo Esaki

Reona Esaki (江崎 玲於奈 Esaki Reona, born March 12, 1925), also known as Leo Esaki, is a Japanese physicist who shared the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1973 with Ivar Giaever and Brian David Josephson for his discovery of the phenomenon of electron tunneling.

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Linear circuit

A linear circuit is an electronic circuit in which, for a sinusoidal input voltage of frequency f, any steady-state output of the circuit (the current through any component, or the voltage between any two points) is also sinusoidal with frequency f. Note that the output need not be in phase with the input.

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Load line (electronics)

In graphical analysis of nonlinear electronic circuits, a load line is a line drawn on the characteristic curve, a graph of the current vs the voltage in a nonlinear device like a diode or transistor.

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Local oscillator

In electronics, a local oscillator (LO) is an electronic oscillator used with a mixer to change the frequency of a signal.

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Loop gain

In electronics and control system theory, loop gain is the sum of the gain, expressed as a ratio or in decibels, around a feedback loop.

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Many-valued logic

In logic, a many-valued logic (also multi- or multiple-valued logic) is a propositional calculus in which there are more than two truth values.

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A maser (an acronym for "microwave amplification by stimulated emission of radiation") is a device that produces coherent electromagnetic waves through amplification by stimulated emission.

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Mechanical equilibrium

In classical mechanics, a particle is in mechanical equilibrium if the net force on that particle is zero.

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Mercury-vapor lamp

A mercury-vapor lamp is a gas discharge lamp that uses an electric arc through vaporized mercury to produce light.

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Mertens-stable equilibrium

Mertens stability is a solution concept used to predict the outcome of a non-cooperative game.

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Microwaves are a form of electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths ranging from one meter to one millimeter; with frequencies between and.

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Microwave cavity

A microwave cavity or radio frequency (RF) cavity is a special type of resonator, consisting of a closed (or largely closed) metal structure that confines electromagnetic fields in the microwave region of the spectrum.

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Microwave oven

A microwave oven (also commonly referred to as a microwave) is an electric oven that heats and cooks food by exposing it to electromagnetic radiation in the microwave frequency range.

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Monotonic function

In mathematics, a monotonic function (or monotone function) is a function between ordered sets that preserves or reverses the given order.

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Multiplicative inverse

In mathematics, a multiplicative inverse or reciprocal for a number x, denoted by 1/x or x−1, is a number which when multiplied by x yields the multiplicative identity, 1.

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Multivalued function

In mathematics, a multivalued function from a domain to a codomain is a heterogeneous relation.

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A multivibrator is an electronic circuit used to implement a variety of simple two-state devices such as relaxation oscillators, timers and flip-flops.

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Negative impedance converter

The negative impedance converter (NIC) is a one-port op-amp circuit acting as a negative load which injects energy into circuits in contrast to an ordinary load that consumes energy from them.

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Neon lamp

A neon lamp (also neon glow lamp) is a miniature gas discharge lamp.

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Neon lighting

Neon lighting consists of brightly glowing, electrified glass tubes or bulbs that contain rarefied neon or other gases.

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Network analysis (electrical circuits)

A network, in the context of electronics, is a collection of interconnected components.

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Noise (electronics)

In electronics, noise is an unwanted disturbance in an electrical signal.

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Nyquist stability criterion

In control theory and stability theory, the Nyquist stability criterion, discovered by Swedish-American electrical engineer Harry Nyquist at Bell Telephone Laboratories in 1932, on is a graphical technique for determining the stability of a dynamical system.

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The ohm (symbol: Ω) is the SI derived unit of electrical resistance, named after German physicist Georg Simon Ohm.

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Ohm's law

Ohm's law states that the current through a conductor between two points is directly proportional to the voltage across the two points.

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Oleg Losev

Oleg Vladimirovich Losev (Оле́г Влади́мирович Ло́сев, sometimes spelled Lossev or Lossew in English) (10 May 1903 – 22 January 1942) was a Russian scientist and inventor, An English translation is on the Springer archive who made significant discoveries in the field of semiconductor junctions.

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Operational amplifier

An operational amplifier (often op-amp or opamp) is a DC-coupled high-gain electronic voltage amplifier with a differential input and, usually, a single-ended output.

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Oscillation is the repetitive variation, typically in time, of some measure about a central value (often a point of equilibrium) or between two or more different states.

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Output impedance

The output impedance of an electrical network is the measure of the opposition to current flow (impedance), both static (resistance) and dynamic (reactance), into the load network being connected that is internal to the electrical source.

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Parametric oscillator

A parametric oscillator is a driven harmonic oscillator in which the oscillations are driven by varying some parameter of the system at some frequency, typically different from the natural frequency of the oscillator.

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Parasitic capacitance

Parasitic capacitance, or stray capacitance is an unavoidable and usually unwanted capacitance that exists between the parts of an electronic component or circuit simply because of their proximity to each other.

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Passive sign convention

In electrical engineering, the passive sign convention (PSC) is a sign convention or arbitrary standard rule adopted universally by the electrical engineering community for defining the sign of electric power in an electric circuit.

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Passivity (engineering)

Passivity is a property of engineering systems, used in a variety of engineering disciplines, but most commonly found in analog electronics and control systems.

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Phase (waves)

Phase is the position of a point in time (an instant) on a waveform cycle.

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Plate electrode

A plate, usually called anode in Britain, is a type of electrode that forms part of a vacuum tube.

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Positive feedback

Positive feedback is a process that occurs in a feedback loop in which the effects of a small disturbance on a system include an increase in the magnitude of the perturbation.

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Potential energy

In physics, potential energy is the energy possessed by an object because of its position relative to other objects, stresses within itself, its electric charge, or other factors.

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Power dividers and directional couplers

Power dividers (also power splitters and, when used in reverse, power combiners) and directional couplers are passive devices used mostly in the field of radio technology.

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Power gain

The power gain of an electrical network is the ratio of an output power to an input power.

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Q factor

In physics and engineering the quality factor or Q factor is a dimensionless parameter that describes how underdamped an oscillator or resonator is, and characterizes a resonator's bandwidth relative to its centre frequency.

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Radar is an object-detection system that uses radio waves to determine the range, angle, or velocity of objects.

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Radar gun

A radar speed gun (also radar gun and speed gun) is a device used to measure the speed of moving objects.

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Radio receiver

In radio communications, a radio receiver (receiver or simply radio) is an electronic device that receives radio waves and converts the information carried by them to a usable form.

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Radio telescope

A radio telescope is a specialized antenna and radio receiver used to receive radio waves from astronomical radio sources in the sky in radio astronomy.

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Rechargeable battery

A rechargeable battery, storage battery, secondary cell, or accumulator is a type of electrical battery which can be charged, discharged into a load, and recharged many times, as opposed to a disposable or primary battery, which is supplied fully charged and discarded after use.

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Reciprocity (electromagnetism)

In classical electromagnetism, reciprocity refers to a variety of related theorems involving the interchange of time-harmonic electric current densities (sources) and the resulting electromagnetic fields in Maxwell's equations for time-invariant linear media under certain constraints.

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Reflection coefficient

In physics and electrical engineering the reflection coefficient is a parameter that describes how much of an electromagnetic wave is reflected by an impedance discontinuity in the transmission medium.

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Regenerative circuit

A regenerative circuit is an amplifier circuit that employs positive feedback (also known as regeneration); some of the output of the amplifying device is applied to its input without phase inversion, which reinforces the signal, increasing the amplification.

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Relaxation oscillator

In electronics a relaxation oscillator is a nonlinear electronic oscillator circuit that produces a nonsinusoidal repetitive output signal, such as a triangle wave or square wave.

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In telecommunications, a repeater is an electronic device that receives a signal and retransmits it.

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A resistor is a passive two-terminal electrical component that implements electrical resistance as a circuit element.

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In physics, resonance is a phenomenon in which a vibrating system or external force drives another system to oscillate with greater amplitude at specific frequencies.

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Resonant-tunneling diode

A resonant-tunneling diode (RTD) is a diode with a resonant-tunneling structure in which electrons can tunnel through some resonant states at certain energy levels.

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A resonator is a device or system that exhibits resonance or resonant behavior, that is, it naturally oscillates at some frequencies, called its resonant frequencies, with greater amplitude than at others.

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RLC circuit

An RLC circuit is an electrical circuit consisting of a resistor (R), an inductor (L), and a capacitor (C), connected in series or in parallel.

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In mathematics and engineering, the s-plane is the complex plane on which Laplace transforms are graphed.

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Satellite dish

A satellite dish is a dish-shaped type of parabolic antenna designed to receive or transmit information by radio waves to or from a communication satellite.

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Schmitt trigger

In electronics, a Schmitt trigger is a comparator circuit with hysteresis implemented by applying positive feedback to the noninverting input of a comparator or differential amplifier.

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Second law of thermodynamics

The second law of thermodynamics states that the total entropy of an isolated system can never decrease over time.

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Secondary emission

Secondary emission in physics is a phenomenon where primary incident particles of sufficient energy, when hitting a surface or passing through some material, induce the emission of secondary particles.

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Selectivity (electronic)

Selectivity is a measure of the performance of a radio receiver to respond only to the radio signal it is tuned to (such as a radio station) and reject other signals nearby in frequency, such as another broadcast on an adjacent channel.

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A semiconductor material has an electrical conductivity value falling between that of a conductor – such as copper, gold etc.

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Semiconductor memory

Semiconductor memory is a digital electronic data storage device, often used as computer memory, implemented with semiconductor electronic devices on an integrated circuit (IC).

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Siemens (unit)

The siemens (symbol: S) is the derived unit of electric conductance, electric susceptance and electric admittance in the International System of Units (SI).

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Silicon controlled rectifier

A silicon controlled rectifier or semiconductor-controlled rectifier is a four-layer solid-state current-controlling device.

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Sine wave

A sine wave or sinusoid is a mathematical curve that describes a smooth periodic oscillation.

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In mathematics, the slope or gradient of a line is a number that describes both the direction and the steepness of the line.

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Smith chart

The Smith chart, invented by Phillip H. Smith (1905–1987), is a graphical aid or nomogram designed for electrical and electronics engineers specializing in radio frequency (RF) engineering to assist in solving problems with transmission lines and matching circuits.

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Solid-state electronics

Solid-state electronics means semiconductor electronics; electronic equipment using semiconductor devices such as semiconductor diodes, transistors, and integrated circuits (ICs).

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Square wave

A square wave is a non-sinusoidal periodic waveform in which the amplitude alternates at a steady frequency between fixed minimum and maximum values, with the same duration at minimum and maximum.

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Stability theory

In mathematics, stability theory addresses the stability of solutions of differential equations and of trajectories of dynamical systems under small perturbations of initial conditions.

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Superheterodyne receiver

A superheterodyne receiver, often shortened to superhet, is a type of radio receiver that uses frequency mixing to convert a received signal to a fixed intermediate frequency (IF) which can be more conveniently processed than the original carrier frequency.

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Superposition principle

In physics and systems theory, the superposition principle, also known as superposition property, states that, for all linear systems, the net response caused by two or more stimuli is the sum of the responses that would have been caused by each stimulus individually.

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Switching circuit theory

Switching circuit theory is the mathematical study of the properties of networks of idealized switches.

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Telephone line

A telephone line or telephone circuit (or just line or circuit within the industry) is a single-user circuit on a telephone communication system.

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Terahertz radiation

Terahertz radiation – also known as submillimeter radiation, terahertz waves, tremendously high frequency (THF), T-rays, T-waves, T-light, T-lux or THz – consists of electromagnetic waves within the ITU-designated band of frequencies from 0.3 to 3 terahertz (THz; 1012 Hz).

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A tetrode is a vacuum tube (called valve in British English) having four active electrodes.

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A thyratron is a type of gas-filled tube used as a high-power electrical switch and controlled rectifier.

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A thyristor is a solid-state semiconductor device with four layers of alternating P- and N-type materials.

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Transfer function

In engineering, a transfer function (also known as system function or network function) of an electronic or control system component is a mathematical function giving the corresponding output value for each possible value of the input to the device.

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A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify or switch electronic signals and electrical power.

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Transmission line

In communications and electronic engineering, a transmission line is a specialized cable or other structure designed to conduct alternating current of radio frequency, that is, currents with a frequency high enough that their wave nature must be taken into account.

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Triangle wave

A triangle wave is a non-sinusoidal waveform named for its triangular shape.

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A triode is an electronic amplifying vacuum tube (or valve in British English) consisting of three electrodes inside an evacuated glass envelope: a heated filament or cathode, a grid, and a plate (anode).

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Tunnel diode

A tunnel diode or Esaki diode is a type of semiconductor that is capable of very fast operation, well into the microwave frequency region (up to), made possible by the use of the quantum mechanical effect called tunneling.

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Two-port network

A two-port network (a kind of four-terminal network or quadripole) is an electrical network (circuit) or device with two pairs of terminals to connect to external circuits.

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Unijunction transistor

A unijunction transistor (UJT) is a three-lead electronic semiconductor device with only one junction that acts exclusively as an electrically controlled switch.

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Vacuum tube

In electronics, a vacuum tube, an electron tube, or just a tube (North America), or valve (Britain and some other regions) is a device that controls electric current between electrodes in an evacuated container.

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Valdemar Poulsen

Valdemar Poulsen (23 November 1869 – 23 July 1942) was a Danish engineer who made significant contributions to early radio technology.

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Voltage, electric potential difference, electric pressure or electric tension (formally denoted or, but more often simply as V or U, for instance in the context of Ohm's or Kirchhoff's circuit laws) is the difference in electric potential between two points.

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Voltage divider

In electronics, a voltage divider (also known as a potential divider) is a passive linear circuit that produces an output voltage (Vout) that is a fraction of its input voltage (Vin).

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Voltage source

A voltage source is a two-terminal device which can maintain a fixed voltage.

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William Duddell

William Du Bois Duddell (1 July 1872, Kensington, London – 4 November 1917, Wandsworth, London) was an English physicist and electrical engineer.

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William Eccles

William Henry Eccles FRS (23 August 1875 – 29 April 1966) was a British physicist and a pioneer in the development of radio communication.

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Work (physics)

In physics, a force is said to do work if, when acting, there is a displacement of the point of application in the direction of the force.

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Zeros and poles

In mathematics, a zero of a function is a value such that.

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Zinc oxide

Zinc oxide is an inorganic compound with the formula ZnO.

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Zincite is the mineral form of zinc oxide (ZnO).

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Current filament, Negative Differential Resistance, Negative Impedance, Negative Resistance, Negative differential conductivity, Negative differential resistance, Negative dynamic resistance, Negative impedance, Negative-resistance amplifier, Negative-resistance circuits.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Negative_resistance

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