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Abdelbaset Ali Mohmed al-Megrahi (عبد الباسط محمد علي المقرحي,; 1 April 1952 – 20 May 2012) was a Libyan who was head of security for Libyan Arab Airlines, director of the Centre for Strategic Studies in Tripoli, Libya, and an alleged Libyan intelligence officer.
Abraham Lincoln (February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865) was an American statesman and lawyer who served as the 16th President of the United States from March 1861 until his assassination in April 1865.
Addis Ababa (አዲስ አበባ,, "new flower"; or Addis Abeba (the spelling used by the official Ethiopian Mapping Authority); Finfinne "natural spring") is the capital and largest city of Ethiopia.
Affirmative action, also known as reservation in India and Nepal, positive action in the UK, and employment equity (in a narrower context) in Canada and South Africa, is the policy of protecting members of groups that are known to have previously suffered from discrimination.
African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans) are an ethnic group of Americans with total or partial ancestry from any of the black racial groups of Africa.
The African National Congress (ANC) is the Republic of South Africa's governing political party.
The African National Congress Youth League (ANCYL) is the youth wing of the African National Congress.
African nationalism is an umbrella term which refers to a group of political ideologies, mainly within Sub-Saharan Africa, which are based on the idea of national self-determination and the creation of nation states.
The African Renaissance is the concept that African people and nations shall overcome the current challenges confronting the continent and achieve cultural, scientific, and economic renewal.
Afrikaans is a West Germanic language spoken in South Africa, Namibia and, to a lesser extent, Botswana and Zimbabwe.
Afrikaner nationalism is a political ideology that was born in the late nineteenth century among Afrikaners in South Africa.
The Afrikaner Party (AP) was a South African political party from 1941 to 1951.
The Afrikaner Weerstandsbeweging, meaning Afrikaner Resistance Movement, commonly known by its abbreviation AWB is a South African neo-Nazi separatist political and paramilitary organisation, often described as a white supremacist group.
Ahmed Mohamed Kathrada (21 August 1929 – 28 March 2017), sometimes known by the nickname "Kathy", was a South African politician, political prisoner and anti-apartheid activist.
Ahmed Sékou Touré (var. Ahmed Sheku Turay) (January 9, 1922 – March 26, 1984) was a Guinean political leader who was elected as the first President of Guinea, serving from 1958 until his death in 1984.
The Al-Gaddafi International Prize for Human Rights was an annual human rights prize founded by the Libyan People's Congress in late 1988, in "indebtedness and gratitude for Muammar Gaddafi and in appreciation for his role in firmly establishing the principle of direct democracy, his persistent struggle, his distinctive inspiration and continuous instigation for the consolidation of human liberty and for issuing the Great Green Document in the era of the masses, for the purpose of bestowing tribute upon symbolic figures of struggle and faith in the values of freedom to all humans, nations, groups and individuals".
Inkosi Albert John Lutuli (commonly spelled Luthuli; – 21 July 1967), also known by his Zulu name Mvumbi, was a South African teacher, activist, Nobel Peace Prize winner, and politician.
Alexandra, informally abbreviated to Alex, is a township in the Gauteng province of South Africa.
Alfred Baphethuxolo Nzo (19 June 1925 – 13 January 2000) was a South African politician.
Alfred Bathini Xuma, OLG, commonly referred to by his initials as AB Xuma (8 March 1893, Transkei – 27 January 1962), was the first black South African to become a medical doctor, as well as a leader, activist and president-general of the African National Congress (ANC) from 1940 to 1949.
Alice is a town in South Africa that is named after The Princess Alice, daughter of the British Queen Victoria.
AllAfrica.com is a website that aggregates news produced primarily on the African continent about all areas of African life, politics, issues and culture.
Andrés Pastrana Arango (born August 17, 1954) was the 30th President of Colombia from 1998 to 2002, following in the footsteps of his father, Misael Pastrana Borrero, who was president from 1970 to 1974.
The Diocese of Cape Town is a diocese of the Anglican Church of Southern Africa (ACSA) which presently covers central Cape Town, some of its suburbs and the island of Tristan da Cunha, though in the past it has covered a much larger territory.
Anglo American plc is a multinational mining company based in Johannesburg, South Africa and London, United Kingdom.
An Anglophile is a person who admires England, its people, and its culture.
Anthony Terrell Seward Sampson (3 August 1926 – 18 December 2004) was a British writer and journalist.
Anthropology is the study of humans and human behaviour and societies in the past and present.
Anti-imperialism in political science and international relations is a term used in a variety of contexts, usually by nationalist movements who want to secede from a larger polity (usually in the form of an empire, but also in a multi-ethnic sovereign state) or as a specific theory opposed to capitalism in Marxist–Leninist discourse, derived from Vladimir Lenin's work Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism.
Anton Lembede (21 January 1914 – 30 July 1947) was a South African activist and founding president of the African National Congress Youth League (ANCYL).
Apartheid started in 1948 in theUnion of South Africa |year_start.
The system of racial segregation in South Africa known as apartheid was implemented and enforced by a large number of acts and other laws.
Armscor (or ARMSCOR), the Armaments Corporation of South Africa is the arms procurement agency of the South African Department of Defence.
Arranged marriage is a type of marital union where the bride and groom are selected by individuals other than the couple themselves, particularly family members, such as the parents.
An articled clerk is someone who is studying to either be an accountant or lawyer.
Asian South Africans are South Africans of Asian descent.
Atheism is, in the broadest sense, the absence of belief in the existence of deities.
During the final stage of World War II, the United States detonated two nuclear weapons over the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on August 6 and 9, 1945, respectively.
The Azanian People's Liberation Army (APLA), formerly known as Poqo, was the military wing of the Pan Africanist Congress, an African nationalist movement in South Africa.
A Bachelor of Arts (BA or AB, from the Latin baccalaureus artium or artium baccalaureus) is a bachelor's degree awarded for an undergraduate course or program in either the liberal arts, sciences, or both.
The Bachelor of Laws (Legum Baccalaureus; LL.B. or B.L.) is an undergraduate degree in law (or a first professional degree in law, depending on jurisdiction) originating in England and offered in Japan and most common law jurisdictionsexcept the United States and Canadaas the degree which allows a person to become a lawyer.
Bangkok is the capital and most populous city of the Kingdom of Thailand.
The Bantu Authorities Act, 1951 (Act No. 68 of 1951; subsequently renamed the Black Authorities Act, 1951) was to give authority to Traditional Tribal Leader within their traditional tribal homelands in South Africa.
The Bantu Men's Social Centre, founded in 1924 in Johannesburg, South Africa, played social, political, and cultural roles in the lives of black South Africans.
The Bantu peoples are the speakers of Bantu languages, comprising several hundred ethnic groups in sub-Saharan Africa, spread over a vast area from Central Africa across the African Great Lakes to Southern Africa.
Barack Hussein Obama II (born August 4, 1961) is an American politician who served as the 44th President of the United States from January 20, 2009, to January 20, 2017.
Basutoland was a British Crown colony established in 1884 due to the Cape Colony's inability to control the territory.
Batik (Javanese: ꦧꦠꦶꦏ꧀) is a technique of wax-resist dyeing applied to whole cloth, or cloth made using this technique originated from Indonesia.
The Bechuanaland Protectorate was a protectorate established on 31 March 1885, by the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland in southern Africa.
Berea is a suburb of Johannesburg, in the South African province of Gauteng.
The Berlin Wall (Berliner Mauer) was a guarded concrete barrier that physically and ideologically divided Berlin from 1961 to 1989.
Elizabeth "Betsie" Verwoerd, (née Schoombie; 17 May 1901 – 29 February 2000) was the spouse of the Prime Minister of South Africa from 2 September 1958 until the assassination of her husband Hendrik Verwoerd on 6 September 1966.
Betty Glad (1927–2010) was an American political scientist who specialized in the American presidency and American foreign policy.
The Bharat Ratna (Jewel of India) is the highest civilian award of the Republic of India.
The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans.
William Jefferson Clinton (born August 19, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 42nd President of the United States from 1993 to 2001.
A bill of rights, sometimes called a declaration of rights or a charter of rights, is a list of the most important rights to the citizens of a country.
The Bisho massacre occurred on 7 September 1992 in Bisho, in the then nominally independent homeland of Ciskei which is now part of the Eastern Cape in South Africa.
Bizana is a town in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa.
The Black Consciousness Movement (BCM) was a grassroots anti-Apartheid activist movement that emerged in South Africa in the mid-1960s out of the political vacuum created by the jailing and banning of the African National Congress and Pan Africanist Congress leadership after the Sharpeville Massacre in 1960.
Bloemfontein (Afrikaans and Dutch "fountain of flowers" or "blooming fountain"; also known as Bloem) is the capital city of the province of Free State of South Africa; and, as the judicial capital of the nation, one of South Africa's three national capitals (the other two being Cape Town, the legislative capital, and Pretoria, the administrative capital) and is the seventh largest city in South Africa.
Robert James Lee Hawke, (born 9 December 1929) is a former Australian politician who was the 23rd Prime Minister of Australia, serving from 1983 to 1991.
The Boipatong massacre took place on the night of 17 June 1992 in the township of Boipatong, South Africa.
Brandfort is a small agricultural town in the central Free State province of South Africa, about 60 km northeast of Bloemfontein.
"Bring Him Back Home (Nelson Mandela)", also known as "Bring Him Back Home", is an anthemic anti-apartheid protest song written by South African musician Hugh Masekela.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
When the United Kingdom declared war on Nazi Germany at the outset of World War II it controlled to varying degrees numerous crown colonies, protectorates and the Indian Empire.
The Brookings Institution is a century-old American research group on Think Tank Row in Washington, D.C. It conducts research and education in the social sciences, primarily in economics, metropolitan policy, governance, foreign policy, and global economy and development.
The South African Bureau for State Security (given the acronym BOSS by journalists, Buro vir Staatsveiligheid) was established in 1969 and replaced by the National Intelligence Service (NIS) in 1980.
The Burundian Civil War was an armed conflict lasting from 1993 to 2005.
In history and heraldry, a cadet branch consists of the male-line descendants of a monarch or patriarch's younger sons (cadets).
Cairo (القاهرة) is the capital of Egypt.
The Province of the Cape of Good Hope (Provinsie van die Kaap die Goeie Hoop), commonly referred to as the Cape Province (Kaapprovinsie) and colloquially as The Cape (Die Kaap), was a province in the Union of South Africa and subsequently the Republic of South Africa.
Cape Town (Kaapstad,; Xhosa: iKapa) is a coastal city in South Africa.
Cape Town City Hall is a large Edwardian building in Cape Town city centre which was built in 1905.
Capital punishment, also known as the death penalty, is a government-sanctioned practice whereby a person is put to death by the state as a punishment for a crime.
Capitalism is an economic system based upon private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit.
Carl Philipp Gottfried (or Gottlieb) von Clausewitz (1 June 1780 – 16 November 1831)Bassford, Christopher (2002).
Cecil Williams (1909–1979) was an English-South African theatre director and anti-apartheid activist.
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).
Charismatic authority is a concept about leadership that was developed in 1922 (he died in 1920) by the German sociologist Max Weber.
Ernesto "Che" Guevara (June 14, 1928 – October 9, 1967)The date of birth recorded on was June 14, 1928, although one tertiary source, (Julia Constenla, quoted by Jon Lee Anderson), asserts that he was actually born on May 14 of that year.
Chris Hani (28 June 1942 – 10 April 1993), born Martin Thembisile Hani, was the leader of the South African Communist Party and chief of staff of uMkhonto we Sizwe, the armed wing of the African National Congress (ANC).
Christian humanism is a philosophy that combines Christian ethics and humanist principles.
Christian theology is the theology of Christian belief and practice.
Male circumcision is the removal of the foreskin from the human penis.
The Ciskei Defence Force (CDF) was established during March 1981 from the 141 Battalion of the South African Defence Force (SADF).
The civil service is independent of government and composed mainly of career bureaucrats hired on professional merit rather than appointed or elected, whose institutional tenure typically survives transitions of political leadership.
A clandestine cell system is a method for organizing a group of people such as resistance fighters, sleeper agents, or terrorists so that such people can more effectively resist penetration by an opposing organization (such as law enforcement).
Clarkebury is a village in Chris Hani District Municipality in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa.
Class conflict, frequently referred to as class warfare or class struggle, is the tension or antagonism which exists in society due to competing socioeconomic interests and desires between people of different classes.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
The Collins English Dictionary is a printed and online dictionary of English.
Coloureds (Kleurlinge) are a multiracial ethnic group native to Southern Africa who have ancestry from various populations inhabiting the region, including Khoisan, Bantu speakers, Afrikaners, and sometimes also Austronesians and South Asians.
In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin communis, "common, universal") is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money and the state.
Conflict resolution is conceptualized as the methods and processes involved in facilitating the peaceful ending of conflict and retribution.
The Congress of the People was a gathering held in Kliptown on 26 June 1955 to lay out the vision of the South African people.
Constand Laubscher Viljoen (born 28 October 1933) is a former South African military commander and politician.
The Constitution of South Africa is the supreme law of the Republic of South Africa.
The Cuban Revolution (Revolución cubana) was an armed revolt conducted by Fidel Castro's revolutionary 26th of July Movement and its allies against the authoritarian government of Cuban President Fulgencio Batista.
A cult of personality arises when a country's regime – or, more rarely, an individual politician – uses the techniques of mass media, propaganda, the big lie, spectacle, the arts, patriotism, and government-organized demonstrations and rallies to create an idealized, heroic, and worshipful image of a leader, often through unquestioning flattery and praise.
The culture of Africa is varied and manifold, consisting of a mixture of countries with various tribes that each have their own unique characteristics from the continent of Africa.
The culture of England is defined by the idiosyncratic cultural norms of England and the English people.
Matamela Cyril Ramaphosa (born 17 November 1952) is a South African politician and, since 15 February 2018, the fifth and current President of South Africa.
Daniel François Malan (22 May 1874 – 7 February 1959), more commonly known as D. F. Malan, was a South African politician who served as Prime Minister of South Africa from 1948 to 1954.
Daniël Johannes Stephanus "Danie" Theron, (9 May 1872 - 5 September 1900) was a Boer Army military leader.
The Day of Reconciliation is a public holiday in South Africa held annually on 16 December.
The Day of the Vow (Geloftedag or Dingaansdag) is the name of a religious public holiday in South Africa until 1994, when it was renamed the Day of Reconciliation.
The Defiance Campaign against Unjust Laws was presented by the African National Congress (ANC) at a conference held in Bloemfontein, South Africa in December 1951.
Democracy (δημοκρατία dēmokraa thetía, literally "rule by people"), in modern usage, has three senses all for a system of government where the citizens exercise power by voting.
The Democratic Party (DP) was the name of the South African political party now called the Democratic Alliance.
Denis Winston Healey, Baron Healey, (30 August 1917 – 3 October 2015) was a British Labour Party politician who served as Secretary of State for Defence from 1964 to 1970, Chancellor of the Exchequer from 1974 to 1979 and Deputy Leader of the Labour Party from 1980 to 1983.
The Deputy President of South Africa is the deputy head of government of South Africa.
Desmond Mpilo Tutu (born 7 October 1931) is a South African Anglican cleric and theologian known for his work as an anti-apartheid and human rights activist.
Dialectical materialism (sometimes abbreviated diamat) is a philosophy of science and nature developed in Europe and based on the writings of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.
A dictator is a political leader who possesses absolute power.
Direct action occurs when a group takes an action which is intended to reveal an existing problem, highlight an alternative, or demonstrate a possible solution to a social issue.
A dominant minority is a minority group that has overwhelming political, economic, or cultural dominance in a country, despite representing a small fraction of the overall population (a demographic minority).
Drakenstein Correctional Centre (formerly Victor Verster Prison) is a low-security prison between Paarl and Franschhoek, on the R301 road 5 km from the R45 Huguenot Road, in the valley of the Dwars River in the Western Cape of South Africa.
Abdullah Mohamed Omar (26 May 1934 – 13 March 2004), better known as Dullah Omar, was a South African anti-Apartheid activist, lawyer, and a minister in the South African cabinet from 1994 till his death.
Durban (eThekwini, from itheku meaning "bay/lagoon") is the largest city in the South African province of KwaZulu-Natal and the third most populous in South Africa after Johannesburg and Cape Town.
The Eastern Bloc was the group of socialist states of Central and Eastern Europe, generally the Soviet Union and the countries of the Warsaw Pact.
The Eastern Cape is a province of South Africa.
Economic growth is the increase in the inflation-adjusted market value of the goods and services produced by an economy over time.
Economic liberalism is an economic system organized on individual lines, which means the greatest possible number of economic decisions are made by individuals or households rather than by collective institutions or organizations.
Edward "Eddie" Daniels (25 October 1928 - 30 November 2017) is a South African former anti-apartheid activist who spent fifteen years as a political prisoner on Robben Island, during the years that Nelson Mandela was imprisoned there.
Edwin Cameron (born 15 February 1953 in Pretoria) is a judge on the Constitutional Court of South Africa.
Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms.
Baroness Emma Magdolna Rozália Mária Jozefa Borbála "Emmuska" Orczy de Orci (23 September 1865 – 12 November 1947) was a Hungarian-born British novelist and playwright.
Evelyn Mase (18 May 1922 – 30 April 2004) was a South African nurse, who was the first wife of the anti-apartheid activist and future politician Nelson Mandela, to whom she was married from 1944 to 1958.
Excellency is an honorific style given to certain high-level officers of a sovereign state, officials of an international organization, or members of an aristocracy.
Frederik Willem de Klerk (born 18 March 1936) is a South African politician who served as State President of South Africa from 1989 to 1994 and as Deputy President from 1994 to 1996.
Far-left politics are political views located further on the left of the left-right spectrum than the standard political left.
The Father of the Nation is an honorific title given to a man considered the driving force behind the establishment of his country, state, or nation.
Fatima Meer (12 August 1928 – 12 March 2010) was a South African writer, academic, screenwriter, and prominent anti-apartheid activist.
Federalism is the mixed or compound mode of government, combining a general government (the central or 'federal' government) with regional governments (provincial, state, cantonal, territorial or other sub-unit governments) in a single political system.
Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (August 13, 1926 – November 25, 2016) was a Cuban communist revolutionary and politician who governed the Republic of Cuba as Prime Minister from 1959 to 1976 and then as President from 1976 to 2008.
The First Congo War (1996–1997) was a foreign invasion of Zaire led by Rwanda that replaced President Mobutu Sésé Seko with the rebel leader Laurent-Désiré Kabila.
First National Bank Stadium or simply FNB Stadium, also known as Soccer City and The Calabash, is a stadium located in Nasrec, bordering the Soweto area of Johannesburg, South Africa.
Fort Beaufort is a town in the Amatole District of South Africa's Eastern Cape Province, and had a population of 25,668 in 2011.
François Maurice Adrien Marie Mitterrand (26 October 1916 – 8 January 1996) was a French statesman who was President of France from 1981 to 1995, the longest time in office of any French president.
Jacobus Francois Pienaar (born 2 January 1967) is a retired South African rugby union player.
Frank B Wilderson III (born April 11, 1956, New Orleans, Louisiana) is an American writer, dramatist, filmmaker and critic.
"Nelson Mandela" (known in some versions as "Free Nelson Mandela") is a song written by British musician Jerry Dammers, and performed by band The Special A.K.A. – with lead vocal by Stan Campbell – released on the single "Nelson Mandela"/"Break Down The Door" in 1984.
The Freedom Charter was the statement of core principles of the South African Congress Alliance, which consisted of the African National Congress (ANC) and its allies - the South African Indian Congress, the South African Congress of Democrats and the Coloured People's Congress.
The Freedom of the City is an honour bestowed by a municipality upon a valued member of the community, or upon a visiting celebrity or dignitary.
Freedom of the press or freedom of the media is the principle that communication and expression through various media, including printed and electronic media, especially published materials, should be considered a right to be exercised freely.
A gallstone is a stone formed within the gallbladder out of bile components. The term cholelithiasis may refer to the presence of gallstones or to the diseases caused by gallstones. Most people with gallstones (about 80%) never have symptoms. When a gallstone blocks the bile duct, a crampy pain in the right upper part of the abdomen, known as biliary colic (gallbladder attack) can result. This happens in 1–4% of those with gallstones each year. Complications of gallstones may include inflammation of the gallbladder (cholecystitis), inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis), jaundice, and infection of a bile duct (cholangitis). Symptoms of these complications may include pain of more than five hours duration, fever, yellowish skin, vomiting, dark urine, and pale stools. Risk factors for gallstones include birth control pills, pregnancy, a family history of gallstones, obesity, diabetes, liver disease, or rapid weight loss. The bile components that form gallstones include cholesterol, bile salts, and bilirubin. Gallstones formed mainly from cholesterol are termed cholesterol stones, and those mainly from bilirubin are termed pigment stones. Gallstones may be suspected based on symptoms. Diagnosis is then typically confirmed by ultrasound. Complications may be detected on blood tests. The risk of gallstones may be decreased by maintaining a healthy weight through sufficient exercise and eating a healthy diet. If there are no symptoms, treatment is usually not needed. In those who are having gallbladder attacks, surgery to remove the gallbladder is typically recommended. This can be carried out either through several small incisions or through a single larger incision, usually under general anesthesia. In rare cases when surgery is not possible medication may be used to try to dissolve the stones or lithotripsy to break down the stones. In developed countries, 10–15% of adults have gallstones. Rates in many parts of Africa, however, are as low as 3%. Gallbladder and biliary related diseases occurred in about 104 million people (1.6%) in 2013 and they resulted in 106,000 deaths. Women more commonly have stones than men and they occur more commonly after the age of 40. Certain ethnic groups have gallstones more often than others. For example, 48% of Native Americans have gallstones. Once the gallbladder is removed, outcomes are generally good.
Gamal Abdel Nasser Hussein (جمال عبد الناصر حسين,; 15 January 1918 – 28 September 1970) was the second President of Egypt, serving from 1956 until his death in 1970.
Gandhism is a body of ideas that describes the inspiration, vision and the life work of Mohandas Gandhi.
The Gauteng Division of the High Court of South Africa is a superior court of law which has, at present, general jurisdiction over the South African provinces of Gauteng, Mpumalanga and Limpopo, and the eastern part of North West province.
Genadendal Residence is the official residence of the President of South Africa when in office at Tuynhuys, Cape Town.
A general strike (or mass strike) is a strike action in which a substantial proportion of the total labour force in a city, region, or country participates.
George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) is an American politician who served as the 41st President of the United States from 1989 to 1993.
George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 43rd President of the United States from 2001 to 2009.
Glasgow (Glesga; Glaschu) is the largest city in Scotland, and third most populous in the United Kingdom.
Govan Archibald Mvuyelwa Mbeki (9 July 1910 – 30 August 2001) was a South African politician and son of Chief Sikelewu Mbeki and Johanna Mahala and also the father of the former South African president Thabo Mbeki and political economist Moeletsi Mbeki.
Between 27 April 1994 and 3 February 1997 South Africa was governed under the terms of the interim Constitution of South Africa.
Graça Machel (née Simbine,, 17 October 1945) is a Mozambican politician and humanitarian.
Groote Schuur (Dutch for "great granary") is an estate in Cape Town, South Africa.
Group Areas Act was the title of three acts of the Parliament of South Africa enacted under the apartheid government of South Africa.
Guerrilla warfare is a form of irregular warfare in which a small group of combatants, such as paramilitary personnel, armed civilians, or irregulars, use military tactics including ambushes, sabotage, raids, petty warfare, hit-and-run tactics, and mobility to fight a larger and less-mobile traditional military.
Habib Ben Ali Bourguiba (الحبيب بورقيبة al-Ḥabīb Būrqībah; 3 August 1903 – 6 April 2000) was a Tunisian lawyer, nationalist leader and statesman who served as the country's leader from independence in 1956 to 1987.
Haile Selassie I (ቀዳማዊ ኃይለ ሥላሴ, qädamawi haylä səllasé,;, born Ras Tafari Makonnen, was Ethiopia's regent from 1916 to 1930 and emperor from 1930 to 1974.
Harry Frederick Oppenheimer (28 October 1908 – 19 August 2000) was a prominent South African businessman, industrialist and philanthropist.
Healdtown Comprehensive School is a Methodist school located near Fort Beaufort, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.
Helen Suzman, DBE (7 November 1917 – 1 January 2009) was a South African anti-apartheid activist and liberal politician.
Hendrik Frensch Verwoerd (8 September 1901 – 6 September 1966), also commonly referred to as H. F. Verwoerd and Dr.
The Herenigde Nasionale Party (Reunited National Party) was a political party in South Africa during the 1940s.
Heterosexuality is romantic attraction, sexual attraction or sexual behavior between persons of the opposite sex or gender.
HighBeam Research is a paid search engine and full text online archive owned by Gale, a subsidiary Cengage, for thousands of newspapers, magazines, academic journals, newswires, trade magazines, and encyclopedias in English.
Hillary Diane Rodham Clinton (born October 26, 1947) is an American politician and diplomat who served as the First Lady of the United States from 1993 to 2001, U.S. Senator from New York from 2001 to 2009, 67th United States Secretary of State from 2009 to 2013, and the Democratic Party's nominee for President of the United States in the 2016 election.
The history of Africa begins with the emergence of hominids, archaic humans and – around 5.6 to 7.5 million years ago.
The African National Congress (ANC) is the current ruling party in the National Assembly of South Africa.
"History Will Absolve Me" (Spanish:"La historia me absolverá") is the title of a four-hour speech made by Fidel Castro on 16 October 1953.
Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
HM Prison Barlinnie is a prison operated by the Scottish Prison Service and located in the residential suburb of Riddrie, in the north east of Glasgow, Scotland.
Honorary Canadian citizenship (French: Citoyenneté canadienne honoraire) is an honour bestowed on foreigners of exceptional merit by Canada.
Houghton Estate, often simply called Houghton is a wealthy suburb of Johannesburg, South Africa, north-east of the city centre.
Howick is a town located in the uMgungundlovu District Municipality of KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa.
Hugh Ramapolo Masekela (4 April 1939 – 23 January 2018) was a South African trumpeter, flugelhornist, cornetist, composer and singer.
Human capital flight refers to the emigration of individuals who have received advanced training at home.
Human rights in South Africa are protected under the constitution.
A hunger strike is a method of non-violent resistance or pressure in which participants fast as an act of political protest, or to provoke feelings of guilt in others, usually with the objective to achieve a specific goal, such as a policy change.
The Hutu, also known as the Abahutu, are a Bantu ethnic group native to African Great Lakes region of Africa, primarily area now under Burundi and Rwanda.
Hyde Park is a Grade I-listed major park in Central London.
"I Am Prepared to Die" is the name given to the three-hour speech given by Nelson Mandela on 20 April 1964 from the dock of the defendant at the Rivonia Trial.
Illegal immigration is the illegal entry of a person or a group of persons across a country's border, in a way that violates the immigration laws of the destination country, with the intention to remain in the country, as well as people who remain living in another country when they do not have the legal right to do so.
Indian cuisine consists of a wide variety of regional and traditional cuisines native to the Indian subcontinent.
The Indonesian occupation of East Timor began in December 1975 and lasted until October 1999.
The Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP) is a political party in South Africa.
The Ministry of Internal Affairs, commonly referred to as INTAF (or Intaf), was a cabinet ministry of the Rhodesian government.
The Interim Constitution was the fundamental law of South Africa from the first non-racial general election on 27 April 1994 until it was superseded by the final constitution on 4 February 1997.
Internal resistance to apartheid in South Africa originated from several independent sectors of South African society and alternatively took the form of social movements, passive resistance, or guerrilla warfare.
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.
International Workers' Day, also known as Labour Day or Workers' Day in some countries and often referred to as May Day, is a celebration of labourers and the working classes that is promoted by the international labour movement which occurs every year on May Day (1 May), an ancient European spring festival.
An Internet meme is an activity, concept, catchphrase, or piece of media that spreads, often as mimicry or for humorous purposes, from person to person via the Internet.
Invictus is a 2009 American-South African biographical sports drama film directed by Clint Eastwood and starring Morgan Freeman and Matt Damon.
The Iraq WarThe conflict is also known as the War in Iraq, the Occupation of Iraq, the Second Gulf War, and Gulf War II.
The Israeli–Palestinian conflict (Ha'Sikhsukh Ha'Yisraeli-Falestini; al-Niza'a al-Filastini-al-Israili) is the ongoing struggle between Israelis and Palestinians that began in the mid-20th century.
Jacob Gedleyihlekisa Zuma (born 12 April 1942) is a South African politician who served as the fourth President of South Africa from the 2009 general election until his resignation on 14 February 2018.
James Sebe Moroka, OLG (16 March 1891 – 10 November 1985) was a medical doctor and a politician, who was the president of the African National Congress 1949–1952.
Jawaharlal Nehru (14 November 1889 – 27 May 1964) was the first Prime Minister of India and a central figure in Indian politics before and after independence.
The Jawaharlal Nehru Award for International Understanding is an international award presented by the Government of India in honour of Jawaharlal Nehru, the country's first prime minister.
Jeffrey Thamsanqa "Jeff" Radebe (born 18 February 1953) is a South African politician was appointed as Minister of Energy by Cyril Ramaphosa on 26 February 2018.
Jehovah's Witnesses is a millenarian restorationist Christian denomination with nontrinitarian beliefs distinct from mainstream Christianity.
James Thomas Kruger (1917 – 9 May 1987) was a Welsh-born South African politician who rose to the position of Minister of Justice and the Police in the cabinet of Prime Minister John Vorster from 1974 to 1979.
Johannes "Joe" Modise (23 May 1929 – 26 November 2001) was a South African political figure.
Joe Slovo (born Yossel Mashel Slovo; 23 May 1926 – 6 January 1995) was a South African politician, an opponent of the apartheid system.
Johannesburg (also known as Jozi, Joburg and Egoli) is the largest city in South Africa and is one of the 50 largest urban areas in the world.
Julius Kambarage Nyerere (13 April 1922 – 14 October 1999) was a Tanzanian anti-colonial activist, politician, and political theorist.
Kaiser Daliwonga Mathanzima, misspelled Matanzima (15 June 1915 – 15 June 2003), was the long-term leader of Transkei.
Karl MarxThe name "Karl Heinrich Marx", used in various lexicons, is based on an error.
A kaross is a cloak made of sheepskin, or the hide of other animals, with the hair left on.
The Kashmir conflict is a territorial conflict primarily between India and Pakistan, having started just after the partition of India in 1947.
Kliptown is a suburb of the formerly black township of Soweto in Gauteng, South Africa, located about 17 km south-west of Johannesburg.
Hendrik Jacobus (Kobie) Coetsee (19 April 1931 – 29 July 2000) was a South African lawyer, National Party politician and administrator as well as a negotiator during the country's transition to multi-racial democracy.
KwaZulu-Natal (also referred to as KZN and known as "the garden province") is a province of South Africa that was created in 1994 when the Zulu bantustan of KwaZulu ("Place of the Zulu" in Zulu) and Natal Province were merged.
The Labour Party is a centre-left political party in the United Kingdom.
Lamin Khalifa Fhimah (الأمين خليفة فحيمة, al-Amīn Khalīfah Faḥīmah; born 4 April 1956) is a former station manager for Libyan Arab Airlines at Luqa Airport, Malta.
Land reform (also agrarian reform, though that can have a broader meaning) involves the changing of laws, regulations or customs regarding land ownership.
The International Lenin Peace Prize (международная Ленинская премия мира, mezhdunarodnaya Leninskaya premiya mira) was a Soviet Union award named in honor of Vladimir Lenin.
Lesotho officially the Kingdom of Lesotho ('Muso oa Lesotho), is an enclaved country in southern Africa.
Liberal democracy is a liberal political ideology and a form of government in which representative democracy operates under the principles of classical liberalism.
Liberalism is a political and moral philosophy based on liberty and equality.
Life imprisonment (also known as imprisonment for life, life in prison, a life sentence, a life term, lifelong incarceration, life incarceration or simply life) is any sentence of imprisonment for a crime under which convicted persons are to remain in prison either for the rest of their natural life or until paroled.
Liliesleaf Farm in northern Johannesburg, South Africa, was the farm used secretly by African National Congress activists in the 1960s and was the location where many prominent African National Congress leaders were arrested, leading to the Rivonia Trial.
Lilian Masediba Matabane Ngoyi "Mma Ngoyi", (25 September 1911 – 13 March 1980), was a South African anti-apartheid activist.
Lionel "Rusty" Bernstein (20 March 1920 – 23 June 2002) was a South African anti-apartheid activist and political prisoner.
This is a comprehensive list of awards, honours and other recognitions bestowed on Nelson Mandela.
Long Walk to Freedom is an autobiography written by South African President Nelson Mandela, and first published in 1994 by Little Brown & Co.
Lying in state is the tradition in which the body of a dead official is placed in a state building, either outside or inside a coffin, to allow the public to pay their respects.
Sathyandranath Ragunanan "Mac" Maharaj (born 22 April 1935 in Newcastle, KwaZulu-Natal) is a South African politician affiliated with the African National Congress, academic and businessman of Indian origin.
A Madiba shirt is a batik silk shirt, usually adorned in a bright and colourful print.
Magnus André de Merindol Malan (30 January 1930 – 18 July 2011) was the Minister of Defence in the cabinet of President P. W. Botha, Chief of the South African Defence Force (SADF) and Chief of the South African Army.
Tun Dr. Mahathir bin Mohamad (Jawi:محضير بن محمد; IPA:; born 10 July 1925) is a Malaysian politician currently serving as the Prime Minister of Malaysia for the second time.
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (2 October 1869 – 30 January 1948) was an Indian activist who was the leader of the Indian independence movement against British rule.
The Mail & Guardian is a South African weekly newspaper, published by M&G Media in Johannesburg, South Africa.
Majority rule is a decision rule that selects alternatives which have a majority, that is, more than half the votes.
Pumla Makaziwe "Maki" Mandela-Amuah (born 1954) is the daughter of Nelson Mandela and his first wife Evelyn Mase.
Makgatho Lewanika Mandela (26 June 1950 – 6 January 2005) was the son of Nelson Mandela and his first wife Evelyn Mase.
A man is a male human.
The management of HIV/AIDS normally includes the use of multiple antiretroviral drugs in an attempt to control HIV infection.
Mandela and Tambo was a South African law firm established by Nelson Mandela and Oliver Tambo in Johannesburg in late 1952.
Nelson Mandela International Day (or Mandela Day) is an annual international day in honour of Nelson Mandela, celebrated each year on 18 July, Mandela's birthday.
A Mandela Rhodes Scholarship provides full funding for up to a maximum of two years of postgraduate study for an African citizen under 30 years of age.
Mandela: Long Walk to Freedom is a 2013 British-South African biographical film directed by Justin Chadwick from a script written by William Nicholson and starring Idris Elba and Naomie Harris.
Zwelivelile "Mandla" Mandela, MP (born 1974) is the chief of the Mvezo Traditional Council and the grandson of Nelson Mandela.
Mangosuthu Buthelezi (born 27 August 1928) is a South African politician and Zulu tribal leader who founded the Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP) in 1975 and was Chief Minister of the KwaZulu bantustan until 1994.
Mao Zedong (December 26, 1893September 9, 1976), commonly known as Chairman Mao, was a Chinese communist revolutionary who became the founding father of the People's Republic of China, which he ruled as the Chairman of the Communist Party of China from its establishment in 1949 until his death in 1976.
Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, (13 October 19258 April 2013) was a British stateswoman who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1979 to 1990 and Leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 to 1990.
A market economy is an economic system in which the decisions regarding investment, production, and distribution are guided by the price signals created by the forces of supply and demand.
Martial law is the imposition of direct military control of normal civilian functions of government, especially in response to a temporary emergency such as invasion or major disaster, or in an occupied territory. Martial law can be used by governments to enforce their rule over the public.
Martin Luther King Jr. (January 15, 1929 – April 4, 1968) was an American Baptist minister and activist who became the most visible spokesperson and leader in the civil rights movement from 1954 until his death in 1968.
Martin Meredith is a historian, journalist, and biographer.
Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that views class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation.
In political science, Marxism–Leninism is the ideology of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, of the Communist International and of Stalinist political parties.
Marxist philosophy or Marxist theory are works in philosophy that are strongly influenced by Karl Marx's materialist approach to theory, or works written by Marxists.
Mary Benson (8 December 1919 – 19 June 2000) was a South African civil rights campaigner and author.
Meningitis is an acute inflammation of the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord, known collectively as the meninges.
Methodism or the Methodist movement is a group of historically related denominations of Protestant Christianity which derive their inspiration from the life and teachings of John Wesley, an Anglican minister in England.
The Methodist Church of Southern Africa (MCSA) is a large Wesleyan Methodist denomination, with local churches across South Africa, Namibia, Botswana, Lesotho, Swaziland and a more limited presence in Mozambique.
Michael Joseph Jackson (August 29, 1958 – June 25, 2009) was an American singer, songwriter, and dancer.
A mixed economy is variously defined as an economic system blending elements of market economies with elements of planned economies, free markets with state interventionism, or private enterprise with public enterprise.
Morganatic marriage, sometimes called a left-handed marriage, is a marriage between people of unequal social rank, which in the context of royalty prevents the passage of the husband's titles and privileges to the wife and any children born of the marriage.
Moses Mauane Kotane (9 August 190519 May 1978) was a South African politician and activist.
A motion of no confidence (alternatively vote of no confidence, no-confidence motion, or (unsuccessful) confidence motion) is a statement or vote which states that a person(s) in a position of responsibility (government, managerial, etc.) is no longer deemed fit to hold that position, perhaps because they are inadequate in some respect, are failing to carry out obligations, or are making decisions that other members feel are detrimental.
Mozambique, officially the Republic of Mozambique (Moçambique or República de Moçambique) is a country in Southeast Africa bordered by the Indian Ocean to the east, Tanzania to the north, Malawi and Zambia to the northwest, Zimbabwe to the west, and Swaziland and South Africa to the southwest.
MSNBC is an American news cable and satellite television network that provides news coverage and political commentary from NBC News on current events.
Mthatha, is the main town of the King Sabata Dalindyebo Local Municipality in Eastern Cape province of South Africa and the capital of OR Tambo District Municipality.
Muammar Mohammed Abu Minyar Gaddafi (20 October 2011), commonly known as Colonel Gaddafi, was a Libyan revolutionary, politician and political theorist.
Mvezo is a small village on the banks of the Mbashe River, not far from Mthatha in the Eastern Cape of South Africa.
The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) is a civil rights organization in the United States, formed in 1909 as a bi-racial organization to advance justice for African Americans by a group, including, W. E. B. Du Bois, Mary White Ovington and Moorfield Storey.
The Province of Natal (Provinsie Natal), commonly called Natal, was a province of South Africa from 1910 until 1994.
Section 27 of the National Heritage Resources Act (NHRA) of South Africa provides for places of historic or cultural importance to be designated national heritage sites.
The National Party (Nasionale Party), also known as the Nationalist Party, was a political party in South Africa founded in 1914 and disbanded in 1997.
A national unity government, government of national unity, or national union government is a broad coalition government consisting of all parties (or all major parties) in the legislature, usually formed during a time of war or other national emergency.
Nationalization (or nationalisation) is the process of transforming private assets into public assets by bringing them under the public ownership of a national government or state.
Natural and legal rights are two types of rights.
The apartheid system in South Africa was ended through a series of negotiations between 1990 and 1993 and through unilateral steps by the de Klerk government.
The Nelson Mandela 70th Birthday Tribute was a popular-music concert staged on 11 June 1988 at Wembley Stadium, London, and broadcast to 67 countries and an audience of 600 million.
The Nelson Mandela 90th Birthday Tribute was held in Hyde Park, London on 27 June 2008 to commemorate Nelson Mandela's ninetieth birthday (18 July).
The Nelson Mandela Children's Fund (NMCF) is a charitable organisation founded by Nelson Mandela, based in South Africa.
The Nelson Mandela Foundation is a non-profit organisation founded by Nelson Mandela in 1999 to promote Mandela's vision of freedom and equality for all.
Nelson Mandela: An International Tribute for a Free South Africa was a music concert that took place on 16 April 1990 at Wembley Stadium, Wembley Park, London, United Kingdom (UK) and was broadcast to more than 60 countries.
Neoliberalism or neo-liberalism refers primarily to the 20th-century resurgence of 19th-century ideas associated with laissez-faire economic liberalism.
New Nation was a weekly newspaper published in the UK for the Black British community.
Ngcobo (formerly Engcobo) is a town in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa.
Ngubengcuka (c. 1790 – 10 August 1830) was the king of the Thembu people, in the southern part of the Transkei region of South Africa.
A homestead (Xhosa: umzi, Zulu: umuzi, Swati: umuti) in southern Africa is a cluster of several houses, typically occupied by a single extended family and often with an attached kraal.
The Nguni languages are a group of Bantu languages spoken in southern Africa by the Nguni people.
The Nishan-e-Pakistan (نشان پاکستان, English: Order of Pakistan) is the highest of civil awards and decorations given by the Government of Pakistan for the highest degree of service to the country and nation of Pakistan.
"Nkosi Sikelel' iAfrika" is a hymn originally composed in 1897 by Enoch Sontonga, a Xhosa clergyman at a Methodist mission school near Johannesburg.
The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish, Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is one of the five Nobel Prizes created by the Swedish industrialist, inventor, and armaments manufacturer Alfred Nobel, along with the prizes in Chemistry, Physics, Physiology or Medicine, and Literature.
The Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) is a group of states that are not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc.
Nonviolent resistance (NVR or nonviolent action) is the practice of achieving goals such as social change through symbolic protests, civil disobedience, economic or political noncooperation, satyagraha, or other methods, while being nonviolent.
Nostalgia is a sentimentality for the past, typically for a period or place with happy personal associations.
Ohlange High School is a secondary school in Inanda, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.
Oil reserves in Iraq are considered the world’s fifth -largest proven oil reserves, with 140 billion barrels.
Oliver Reginald Kaizana Tambo (27 October 191724 April 1993) was a South African anti-apartheid politician and revolutionary who served as President of the African National Congress (ANC) from 1967 to 1991.
The Order of Australia is an order of chivalry established on 14 February 1975 by Elizabeth II, Queen of Australia, to recognise Australian citizens and other persons for achievement or meritorious service.
The Order of Canada (Ordre du Canada) is a Canadian national order and the second highest honour for merit in the system of orders, decorations, and medals of Canada.
The Order of Good Hope or Order of the Cape of Good Hope has been a knighthood order of the Republic of South Africa.
The Order of Isabella the Catholic (Orden de Isabel la Católica) is a Spanish civil order in which membership is granted in recognition of services that benefit the country.
The Order of Jamaica is the fifth of the six orders in the Jamaican honours system.
The Order of Lenin (Orden Lenina), named after the leader of the Russian October Revolution, was established by the Central Executive Committee on April 6, 1930.
The Order of Mapungubwe is South Africa's highest honour.
The Order of Merit (Ordre du Mérite) is an order of merit recognising distinguished service in the armed forces, science, art, literature, or for the promotion of culture.
The Order of Prince Henry the Navigator (Ordem do Infante Dom Henrique) is a Portuguese National Order of Knighthood created on 2 June 1960, to commemorate the quincentenary of the death of the Infante Henry the Navigator (known in Portuguese as Henrique), third son of King John I of Portugal and his queen, Philippa of Lancaster.
The Order of St John, formally the Most Venerable Order of the Hospital of Saint John of Jerusalem (l'ordre très vénérable de l'Hôpital de Saint-Jean de Jérusalem) and also known as St John International, is a British royal order of chivalry first constituted in 1888 by royal charter from Queen Victoria.
The Order of the Federal Republic (OFR) is one of two orders of merit, established by the Federal Republic of Nigeria in 1963.
The Organisation of African Unity (OAU; Organisation de l'unité africaine (OUA)) was established on 25 May 1963 in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia with 32 signatory governments.
Orlando is a township in the urban area of Soweto, in the city of Johannesburg (South Africa).
Oswald Pirow, QC (Aberdeen, Eastern Cape, South Africa, 14 August 1890 – Pretoria, 11 October 1959) was a South African lawyer and far right politician, who held office as minister of Justice, and later minister of Defence.
Pieter Willem Botha, (12 January 1916 – 31 October 2006), commonly known as "P.
Paarl (Afrikaans: or more commonly; derived from Parel, meaning Pearl in Dutch) is a city with 191,013 inhabitants in the Western Cape province of South Africa.
Bethuel Pakalitha Mosisili (born 14 March 1945) is a Mosotho politician who was Prime Minister of Lesotho from May 1998 to June 2012 and again from March 2015 to June 2017.
The Pan Africanist Congress of Azania (formerly known as the Pan Africanist Congress, abbreviated as the PAC) is a South African Black Nationalist movement that is now a political party.
Pan Am Flight 103 was a regularly scheduled Pan Am transatlantic flight from Frankfurt to Detroit via London and New York.
The Pan Am Flight 103 bombing trial began on 3 May 2000, 11 years, 4 months and 13 days after the destruction of Pan Am Flight 103 on 21 December 1988.
In South Africa, pass laws were a form of internal passport system designed to segregate the population, manage urbanisation, and allocate migrant labour.
Penal labour is a generic term for various kinds of unfree labour which prisoners are required to perform, typically manual labour.
Percy Peter Tshidiso Qoboza was an influential black South African journalist, author, and outspoken critic of the apartheid government in South Africa during the early periods of world recognition of the problems evident in the racially divided land.
Percy Yutar (29 July 1911 – 13 July 2002) was South Africa's first Jewish attorney-general.
The Liberty Medal is an annual award administered by the National Constitution Center of the United States to recognize leadership in the pursuit of freedom.
Philanthropy means the love of humanity.
Pietermaritzburg (Zulu: umGungundlovu) is the capital and second-largest city in the province of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.
Roelof Frederik "Pik" Botha, (born 27 April 1932) is a former politician from South Africa who served as the country's foreign minister in the last years of the apartheid era.
Police brutality is one of several forms of police misconduct which involves undue violence by police members.
The Republic of South Africa is a parliamentary representative democratic republic.
Pollsmoor Prison, officially, Pollsmoor Maximum Security Prison is a prison in the Cape Town suburb of Tokai in South Africa.
Pope John Paul II (Ioannes Paulus II; Giovanni Paolo II; Jan Paweł II; born Karol Józef Wojtyła;; 18 May 1920 – 2 April 2005) served as Pope and sovereign of the Vatican City State from 1978 to 2005.
Prefect (from the Latin praefectus, substantive adjectival form of praeficere: "put in front", i.e., in charge) is a magisterial title of varying definition, but which, basically, refers to the leader of an administrative area.
Premier is a title for the head of government in some countries, states and sub-national governments.
The presidency of Nelson Mandela began on 10 May 1994, when Nelson Mandela, an anti-apartheid activist, lawyer, and former political prisoner, was inaugurated as President of South Africa, and ended on 14 June 1999.
The President of the Republic of South Africa is the head of state and head of government under the Constitution of South Africa.
The Presidential Medal of Freedom is an award bestowed by the President of the United States and is—along with the comparable Congressional Gold Medal—the highest civilian award of the United States.
Pretoria is a city in the northern part of Gauteng, South Africa.
A privy council is a body that advises the head of state of a nation, typically, but not always, in the context of a monarchic government.
The Progressive Party (Progressiewe Party) was a liberal party in South Africa which, during apartheid, was considered the left wing of the all-white parliament.
Prostate cancer is the development of cancer in the prostate, a gland in the male reproductive system.
In 1953, the Public Safety Act was enacted by the apartheid South African government (coming into force 4 March).
Qamata is the most prominent god in the Xhosa people of south-eastern Africa.
Quartus de Wet (10 March 1899 – 18 December 1980) was a South African judge who served as Judge President of the Transvaal Provincial Division of the Supreme Court of South Africa.
A Queen's Counsel (postnominal QC), or King's Counsel (postnominal KC) during the reign of a king, is an eminent lawyer (usually a barrister or advocate) who is appointed by the Monarch to be one of "Her Majesty's Counsel learned in the law." The term is also recognised as an honorific.
Queenstown, now called Komani is a town in the middle of the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa, roughly halfway between the smaller towns of Cathcart and Sterkstroom.
Qunu is a small rural village in South Africa's Eastern Cape Province, south-west of Mthatha on the road between Butterworth and Mthatha.
Ramaswamy Venkataraman (4 December 191027 January 2009) was an Indian lawyer, Indian independence activist and politician who served as a Union Minister and as the eighth President of India.
Racial segregation is the separation of people into racial or other ethnic groups in daily life.
Racialism is the belief that the human species is naturally divided into races, that are ostensibly distinct biological categories.
Racism is the belief in the superiority of one race over another, which often results in discrimination and prejudice towards people based on their race or ethnicity.
Rainbow nation is a term coined by Archbishop Desmond Tutu to describe post-apartheid South Africa, after South Africa's first fully democratic election in 1994.
The Honorable Raymond Mphakamisi Mhlaba (12 February 1920 – 20 February 2005) was an anti-apartheid activist and leader of the African National Congress (ANC).
Raymond Suttner (born in Durban, South Africa), is South African activist, academic, journalist and public figure.
Reconstruction and Development Programme (RDP) is a South African socio-economic policy framework implemented by the African National Congress (ANC) government of Nelson Mandela in 1994 after months of discussions, consultations and negotiations between the ANC, its Alliance partners the Congress of South African Trade Unions and the South African Communist Party, and "mass organisations in the wider civil society".
A regent (from the Latin regens: ruling, governing) is a person appointed to govern a state because the monarch is a minor, is absent or is incapacitated.
Representative democracy (also indirect democracy, representative republic or psephocracy) is a type of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy.
Respiratory tract infection (RTI) refers to any of a number of infectious diseases involving the respiratory tract.
Rhodes House is part of the University of Oxford in England.
Richard Allen "Rick" Stengel (born May 2, 1955) is an American editor, journalist and author.
Right-wing politics hold that certain social orders and hierarchies are inevitable, natural, normal or desirable, typically supporting this position on the basis of natural law, economics or tradition.
Rivonia is a suburb of Johannesburg, South Africa in the Sandton area.
The Rivonia Trial took place in South Africa between 9 October 1963 and 12 June 1964.
Robben Island (Robbeneiland) is an island in Table Bay, west of the coast of Bloubergstrand, Cape Town, South Africa.
Robert Gabriel Mugabe (born 21 February 1924) is a former Zimbabwean politician and revolutionary who served as Prime Minister of Zimbabwe from 1980 to 1987 and then as President from 1987 to 2017.
Roman-Dutch law (Dutch: Rooms-Hollands recht, Afrikaans: Romeins-Hollandse reg) is an uncodified, scholarship-driven, judge-made legal system based on Roman law as applied in the Netherlands in the 17th and 18th centuries.
Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was an American politician and actor who served as the 40th President of the United States from 1981 to 1989.
A roof garden is a garden on the roof of a building.
The Royal Order of the Seraphim (Swedish: Kungliga Serafimerorden; Seraphim being a category of Angels) is a Swedish order of chivalry created by King Frederick I on 23 February 1748, together with the Order of the Sword and the Order of the Polar Star.
Ruth First (4 May 1925 – 17 August 1982) was a South African anti-apartheid activist and scholar born in Johannesburg, South Africa.
Sabotage is a deliberate action aimed at weakening a polity, effort or organization through subversion, obstruction, disruption or destruction.
The Sakharov Prize for Freedom of Thought, commonly known as the Sakharov Prize, honours individuals and groups of people who have dedicated their lives to the defense of human rights and freedom of thought.
Samora Moisés Machel (29 September 1933 – 19 October 1986) was a Mozambican military commander, politician and revolutionary.
Sani Abacha (20 September 1943 – 8 June 1998) was a Nigerian Army officer and politician who served as the ''de facto'' President of Nigeria from 1993 to 1998.
Scientific socialism is a term coined in 1840 by Pierre-Joseph Proudhon in his What is Property? to mean a society ruled by a scientific government, i.e. one whose sovereignity rests upon reason, rather than sheer will: Thus, in a given society, the authority of man over man is inversely proportional to the stage of intellectual development which that society has reached; and the probable duration of that authority can be calculated from the more or less general desire for a true government, — that is, for a scientific government.
Scots law is the legal system of Scotland.
The Scottish court in the Netherlands was a special sitting of the High Court of Justiciary set up under Scots law in a former United States Air Force base called Camp Zeist in Utrecht, in the Netherlands, for the trial of two Libyans charged with 270 counts of murder in connection with the bombing of Pan Am Flight 103 over Lockerbie, Scotland, on 21 December 1988.
The Scramble for Africa was the occupation, division, and colonization of African territory by European powers during the period of New Imperialism, between 1881 and 1914.
Sebokeng is a township in southern Gauteng, South Africa near the industrial city of Vanderbijlpark (located in the district municipality of Sedibeng and the local municipality of Emfuleni).
Secretary is a title often used in organizations to indicate a person having a certain amount of authority, power, or importance in the organization.
Sedition is overt conduct, such as speech and organization, that tends toward insurrection against the established order.
"Selling out" is a common idiomatic pejorative expression for the compromising of a person's integrity, morality, authenticity, or principles in exchange for personal gain, such as money.
The Sharpeville massacre was an event which occurred on 21 March 1960, at the police station in the South African township of Sharpeville in Transvaal (today part of Gauteng).
Shell House is the former head office of the African National Congress (ANC) in South Africa.
The Shell House massacre refers to a 1994 shooting incident that took place at the headquarters of the African National Congress (ANC), in central Johannesburg, South Africa in the lead up to the 1994 elections.
Social democracy is a political, social and economic ideology that supports economic and social interventions to promote social justice within the framework of a liberal democratic polity and capitalist economy.
Social justice is a concept of fair and just relations between the individual and society.
Social media are computer-mediated technologies that facilitate the creation and sharing of information, ideas, career interests and other forms of expression via virtual communities and networks.
Socialism is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership and democratic control of the means of production as well as the political theories and movements associated with them.
A socialist state, socialist republic or socialist country (sometimes workers' state or workers' republic) is a sovereign state constitutionally dedicated to the establishment of socialism.
Soft power is the ability to attract and co-opt, rather than by coercion (hard power), which is using force or giving money as a means of persuasion.
Solitary confinement is a form of imprisonment in which an inmate is isolated from any human contact, often with the exception of members of prison staff, for 22–24 hours a day, with a sentence ranging from days to decades.
Sophiatown, also known as Sof'town or Kofifi, is a suburb of Johannesburg, South Africa.
Sotho (Sesotho; also known as Southern Sotho, or Southern Sesotho, Historically also Suto, or Suthu, Souto, Sisutho, Sutu, or Sesutu, according to the pronunciation of the name.) is a Southern Bantu language of the Sotho-Tswana (S.30) group, spoken primarily in South Africa, where it is one of the 11 official languages, and in Lesotho, where it is the national language.
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.
The South Africa national rugby union team, commonly known as the Springboks, is governed by the South African Rugby Union.
The South African Communist Party (SACP) is a communist party in South Africa.
The South African Congress of Democrats (SACOD) was a radical, left, white, anti-apartheid organization founded in South Africa in late 1953 as part of the multi-racial Congress Alliance.
The South African Congress of Trade Unions was established in 1955 after the right wing unions walked out of the South African Trades and Labour Council in 1954 to form the exclusive White, Coloured, and Indian workers’ Trade Union Council of South Africa.
The Constitution of 1983 (formally the Republic of South Africa Constitution Act, 1983) was South Africa's third constitution.
The parliamentary election in South Africa on 26 May 1948 represented a turning point in the country's history.
General elections were held in South Africa between 26 and 29 April 1994.
The South African Indian Congress (SAIC) was an organisation founded in 1921 in Natal (now KwaZulu-Natal), South Africa.
The South African Rand (sign: R; code: ZAR) is the currency of South Africa.
South African Standard Time (SAST) is the time zone used by all of South Africa, Botswana as well as Swaziland and Lesotho.
The Southern African Development Community (SADC) is an inter-governmental organization headquartered in Gaborone, Botswana.
The Southern African Development Community intervention in Lesotho, codenamed Operation Boleas, was a military invasion launched by the Southern African Development Community (SADC), and led by South Africa through its South African National Defence Force into Lesotho to quell a coup d'état.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The Soweto uprising was a series of demonstrations and protests led by black school children in South Africa that began on the morning of 16 June 1976.
The Spice Girls are an English pop girl group formed in 1994.
A state funeral is a public funeral ceremony, observing the strict rules of protocol, held to honour people of national significance.
The State President of the Republic of South Africa (Staatspresident) was the head of state of South Africa from 1961 to 1994.
State terrorism refers to acts of terrorism conducted by a state against foreign targets or against its own people.
A state visit is a formal visit by a head of state to a foreign country, at the invitation of that country's head of state, with the latter also acting as the official host for the duration of the state visit.
Bantu Stephen Biko (18 December 1946 – 12 September 1977) was a South African anti-apartheid activist.
The storming of the Kempton Park World Trade Centre took place in South Africa on 25 June 1993 when approximately three thousand members of the Afrikaner Volksfront (AVF), Afrikaner Weerstandsbeweging (AWB) and other right-wing Afrikaner paramilitary groups stormed the World Trade Centre in Kempton Park, near Johannesburg.
A students' representative council, also known as a students' administrative council, represents student interests in the government of a university, school or other educational institution.
Muhammad Suharto (also written Soeharto;, or Muhammad Soeharto; 8 June 1921 – 27 January 2008) was an Indonesian military leader and politician who served as the second President of Indonesia, holding the office for 31 years from the ousting of Sukarno in 1967 until his resignation in 1998.
The Suppression of Communism Act 44 of 1950 (renamed the Internal Security Act in 1976) was legislation of the national government in South Africa, passed on 26 June 1950 (and coming into effect on 17 July) which formally banned the Communist Party of South Africa and proscribed any party or group subscribing to communism according to a uniquely broad definition of the term.
The Supreme Court of South Africa was a superior court of law in South Africa from 1910 to 1997.
A suspended sentence is a legal term for a judge's delaying of a defendant's serving of a sentence after they have been found guilty, in order to allow the defendant to perform a period of probation.
The Swazi or Swati (Swazi: emaSwati) are a Bantu ethnic group of Southern Africa, predominantly inhabiting modern Swaziland and South Africa's Mpumalanga province.
Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.
Tanganyika was a sovereign state, comprising the mainland part of present-day Tanzania, that existed from 1961 until 1964.
Terrorism is, in the broadest sense, the use of intentionally indiscriminate violence as a means to create terror among masses of people; or fear to achieve a financial, political, religious or ideological aim.
Thabo Cecil Makgoba (born 15 December 1960"CAPE TOWN, Archbishop of," in Who's Who 2009 (London: A & C Black, 2008); online ed., (Oxford: OUP, 2008), http://www.ukwhoswho.com/view/article/oupww/whoswho/U247012 (accessed 4 January 2009)) is the South African Anglican Archbishop of Cape Town.
Thabo Mvuyelwa Mbeki (born 18 June 1942) is a South African politician who served as the second President of South Africa from 14 June 1999 to 24 September 2008.
The Elders is an international non-governmental organisation of public figures noted as elder statesmen, peace activists, and human rights advocates, who were brought together by Nelson Mandela in 2007.
The Scarlet Pimpernel is the first novel in a series of historical fiction by Baroness Orczy, published in 1905.
The Specials, also known as The Special AKA, are an English 2 Tone and ska revival band formed in 1977 in Coventry.
The Thembu people are one of the handful of nations and population groups that speak Xhosa in South Africa.
Thembuland, Temboeland, is a natural region in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa.
The "Third Force" was a term used by leaders of the ANC during the late 1980s and early 1990s to refer to a clandestine force believed to be responsible for a surge in violence in KwaZulu-Natal, and townships around and south of the Witwatersrand (or "Rand").
Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.
Tito Titus Mboweni (born 16 March 1959) was the eighth Governor of the South African Reserve Bank and the first black South African to hold the post.
Tokai, a large residential suburb of Cape Town, South Africa, is situated on the foothills of the Constantiaberg, (a large whaleback shaped mountain in the Table Mountain range) and is bordered by Steenberg and Kirstenhof to the south, Bergvliet to the east, Constantia to the north and the SAFCOL pine tree plantations against the mountain to the west.
Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born 6 May 1953) is a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1997 to 2007 and Leader of the Labour Party from 1994 to 2007.
Tourism is travel for pleasure or business; also the theory and practice of touring, the business of attracting, accommodating, and entertaining tourists, and the business of operating tours.
Transkei (meaning the area beyond the river Kei), officially the Republic of Transkei (iRiphabliki yeTranskei), was an unrecognised state in the southeastern region of South Africa from 1976 to 1994.
The Province of the Transvaal (Provinsie van die Transvaal), commonly referred to as the Transvaal, was a province of South Africa from 1910 until the end of apartheid in 1994, when a new constitution subdivided it.
The Treatment Action Campaign (TAC) is a South African HIV/AIDS activist organisation which was co-founded by the HIV-positive activist Zackie Achmat in 1998.
The Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) was a court-like restorative justice body assembled in South Africa after the end of apartheid.
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease usually caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB).
Tunis (تونس) is the capital and the largest city of Tunisia.
The Tutsi, or Abatutsi, are a social class or ethnic group of the African Great Lakes region.
De Tuynhuys (Garden House) is the Cape Town office of the Presidency of the Republic of South Africa.
Ubuntu is a Nguni Bantu term meaning "humanity".
Ulwaluko, traditional circumcision and initiation into manhood, is an ancient initiation rite practised (though not exclusively) by the amaXhosa.
uMkhonto we Sizwe (abbreviated as MK,, meaning "Spear of the Nation") was the armed wing of the African National Congress (ANC), co-founded by Nelson Mandela in the wake of the Sharpeville massacre.
The Union Buildings form the official seat of the South African Government and also house the offices of the President of South Africa.
The Union of South Africa (Unie van Zuid-Afrika, Unie van Suid-Afrika) is the historic predecessor to the present-day Republic of South Africa.
A unitary state is a state governed as a single power in which the central government is ultimately supreme and any administrative divisions (sub-national units) exercise only the powers that the central government chooses to delegate.
The United Democratic Front (UDF) was a major anti-apartheid organisation of the 1980s.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA or GA; Assemblée Générale AG) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations (UN), the only one in which all member nations have equal representation, and the main deliberative, policy-making and representative organ of the UN.
Peacekeeping by the United Nations is a role held by the Department of Peacekeeping Operations as "a unique and dynamic instrument developed by the organization as a way to help countries torn by conflict to create the conditions for lasting peace." It is distinguished from peacebuilding, peacemaking, and peace enforcement although the United Nations does acknowledge that all activities are "mutually reinforcing" and that overlap between them is frequent in practice.
The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, charged with the maintenance of international peace and security as well as accepting new members to the United Nations and approving any changes to its United Nations Charter.
The Department of Defense (DoD, USDOD, or DOD) is an executive branch department of the federal government of the United States charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government concerned directly with national security and the United States Armed Forces.
The United States Department of State (DOS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department that advises the President and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.
The concept of universal suffrage, also known as general suffrage or common suffrage, consists of the right to vote of all adult citizens, regardless of property ownership, income, race, or ethnicity, subject only to minor exceptions.
The University of Fort Hare is a public university in Alice, Eastern Cape, South Africa.
The University of London (abbreviated as Lond. or more rarely Londin. in post-nominals) is a collegiate and a federal research university located in London, England.
The University of London (formerly International Programmes) is a central academic body within the University of London, which manages external study programmes.
The University of London Union (commonly referred to as ULU, pron. 'yoo-loo') was Europe's largest students' union, with over 120,000 students as the focus of its activities.
The University of Oxford (formally The Chancellor Masters and Scholars of the University of Oxford) is a collegiate research university located in Oxford, England.
The University of South Africa (UNISA) is the largest university on the African continent and attracts a third of all higher education students in South Africa.
The University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, is a multi-campus South African public research university situated in the northern areas of central Johannesburg.
Vernon Celliers Berrangé SCOT "Defender of the People" (25 November 1900 – 14 September 1983) was an eminent South African human rights advocate (QC).
Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, better known by the alias Lenin (22 April 1870According to the new style calendar (modern Gregorian), Lenin was born on 22 April 1870. According to the old style (Old Julian) calendar used in the Russian Empire at the time, it was 10 April 1870. Russia converted from the old to the new style calendar in 1918, under Lenin's administration. – 21 January 1924), was a Russian communist revolutionary, politician and political theorist.
Walter Max Ulyate Sisulu (18 May 1912 – 5 May 2003) was a South African anti-apartheid activist and member of the African National Congress (ANC), serving at times as Secretary-General and Deputy President of the organization.
Wars of national liberation or national liberation revolutions are conflicts fought by nations to gain independence.
The Washington Consensus is a set of 10 economic policy prescriptions considered to constitute the "standard" reform package promoted for crisis-wracked developing countries by Washington, D.C.–based institutions such as the International Monetary Fund (IMF), World Bank and United States Department of the Treasury.
Wembley Park is a district of the London Borough of Brent, England.
Wembley Stadium is a football stadium in Wembley, London, England, which opened in 2007, on the site of the original Wembley Stadium, which was demolished from 2002–2003.
The Westminster system is a parliamentary system of government developed in the United Kingdom.
White South Africans are South Africans descended from any of the white racial groups of Europe and the Levant who regard themselves, or are not regarded as, not being part of another racial group (for example, as Coloureds).
Caryn Elaine Johnson (born November 13, 1955), known professionally as Whoopi Goldberg, is an American actress, comedian, author, and television host.
William Vacanarat Shadrach Tubman (November 29, 1895 – July 23, 1971) was a Liberian politician.
Winnie Madikizela-Mandela (born Nomzamo Winifred Zanyiwe Madikizela; 26 September 1936 – 2 April 2018), also known as Winnie Mandela, was a South African anti-apartheid activist and politician, and the ex-wife of Nelson Mandela.
The Witwatersrand Native Labour Association (WNLA), more popularly Wenela, was set up by the gold mines in South Africa as a recruiting agency for migrant workers.
Founded in 1894, Wolsey Hall Oxford is one of the longest established homeschooling colleges in the world.
The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.
The World Economic Forum (WEF) is a Swiss nonprofit foundation, based in Cologny, Geneva, Switzerland.
A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.
The World Peace Council (WPC) is an international organization that advocates universal disarmament, sovereignty and independence and peaceful co-existence, and campaigns against imperialism, weapons of mass destruction and all forms of discrimination.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Xhosa clan names (isiduko (sing.), iziduko (pl.) in Xhosa) are family names that are considered more important than surnames among Xhosa people.
Xhosa (Xhosa: isiXhosa) is a Nguni Bantu language with click consonants ("Xhosa" begins with a click) and one of the official languages of South Africa.
The Xhosa people are a Bantu ethnic group of Southern Africa mainly found in the Eastern and Western Cape, South Africa, and in the last two centuries throughout the southern and central-southern parts of the country.
The XIII International AIDS Conference was held in Durban, South Africa, during the week of July 9-14 2000.
The XV International AIDS Conference was held in Bangkok, the capital city of Thailand, from July 11 to July 16, 2004.
The Yu Chi Chan Club was a minor militant anti-apartheid organisation which operated within South Africa.
Yusuf Mohamed Dadoo (5 September 1909 – 19 September 1983) was a South African communist and anti-apartheid activist.
Zaire, officially the Republic of Zaire (République du Zaïre), was the name for the Democratic Republic of the Congo that existed between 1971 and 1997 in Central Africa.
Princess Zenani Mandela-Dlamini (born 4 February 1959) is a South African diplomat.
Zindziswa Mandela-Hlongwane (born 23 December 1960) is a South African politician who is currently serving as her country's ambassador to Denmark.
The Zulu (amaZulu) are a Bantu ethnic group of Southern Africa and the largest ethnic group in South Africa, with an estimated 10–12 million people living mainly in the province of KwaZulu-Natal.
The Treason Trial was a trial in Johannesburg in which 156 people, including Nelson Mandela, were arrested in a raid and accused of treason in South Africa in 1956.
The 1994 Bophuthatswana crisis was a major political crisis which began after Lucas Mangope, the president of Bophuthatswana, a South African bantustan created under apartheid, attempted to crush widespread labour unrest and popular demonstrations demanding the incorporation of the territory into South Africa pending multiracial elections later that year.
The 1995 Rugby World Cup was the third Rugby World Cup.
The 1995 Rugby World Cup Final was the final match of the 1995 Rugby World Cup, played in South Africa.
The Asian financial crisis was a period of financial crisis that gripped much of East Asia beginning in July 1997 and raised fears of a worldwide economic meltdown due to financial contagion.
The 2010 FIFA World Cup was the 19th FIFA World Cup, the world championship for men's national association football teams.
The 26th of July Movement (Movimiento 26 de Julio; M-26-7) was a vanguard revolutionary organization then a party led by Fidel Castro that in 1959 overthrew the Fulgencio Batista dictatorship in Cuba.
30 for 30 is the umbrella title for a series of documentary films airing on ESPN, its sister networks, and online highlighting interesting people and events in sports history.
46664 is a series of AIDS benefit concerts played in honour of Nelson Mandela by South African and foreign musicians between 2003 and 2008.
Black Pimpernel, Gadla Henry Mphakanyiswa, Madiba, Mandela, Mandela, Nelson, Mandella, Mr Mandela, Nelson Madela, Nelson Mandela’s, Nelson Mandella, Nelson Mendela, Nelson Mendella, Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela, Nelson mandeal, Nelson mandela, Nelson mendela, Rolihlahla, Rolihlahla Mandela, Tata Madiba, Tata Mandela.