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Index Nematode

The nematodes or roundworms constitute the phylum Nematoda (also called Nemathelminthes). [1]

205 relations: Acanthocephala, Actin, Adenophorea, Algae, Ammonia, Amoeba, Amphid, Ancient Greek, Androdioecy, Animal, Anus, Aphelenchoides, Arabis mosaic virus, Arthropod, Ascariasis, Ascaridida, Ascarididae, Ascaris, Aschelminth, Australasian Plant Pathology, Basal (phylogenetics), Baylisascaris, BBC News, Biological pest control, Brain, Brassica juncea, Bristle, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, Caenorhabditis briggsae, Caenorhabditis elegans, Capillaria (nematode), Carnivorous fungus, Cat, Cephalotes, Cestoda, Chemoreceptor, Chitin, Chitosan, Chromadorea, Cilium, Circumesophageal nerve ring, Clade, Class (biology), Cloaca, Cloning, Clonostachys rosea f. rosea, Collagen, Common marigold, CSIRO, Cuticle, ..., Cutworm, Cycloneuralia, Cyst, Detritus, Digestion, Digestive enzyme, Dioecy, Diplogasterida, Dirofilaria immitis, Ditylenchus, Dog, Dorylaimia, Dorylaimida, Ecdysozoa, Ecosystem, Embryonated, Enoplea, Enoplia, Entomopathogenic nematode, Epidermis (zoology), Eukaryote, Excretion, Family (biology), Feces, Ficus, Fig wasp, Filariasis, Filarioidea, Flatworm, Foliar nematode, Frugivore, Fungus, Gaster (insect anatomy), Gastrointestinal tract, Genus, Globodera rostochiensis, Gonad, Grapevine fanleaf virus, Haemonchus contortus, Helicoverpa zea, Helminths, Hermann Burmeister, Hermaphrodite, Heterodera, Heterorhabditis, Hookworm infection, Horticulture, Insect, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Karl Moriz Diesing, Karl Rudolphi, Larva, Lasioglossum zephyrum, Libbie Hyman, List of parasites of humans, Lithosphere, Longidorus, Maize, Meiobenthos, Meiosis, Merck Veterinary Manual, Mermithida, Mesorhabditis, Metabolic waste, Mitosis, Model organism, Monhysterida, Moulting, Muscle, Myrmeconema neotropicum, Nacobbus, Nathan Cobb, Nematoida, Nematology, Nematomorpha, Nematophagous fungus, Nerve, Nitrogen cycle, Nucleic acid sequence, Oceanic trench, Organic movement, Osmoregulation, Outline of organic gardening and farming, Oviduct, Ovoviviparity, Paraphyly, Parasitism, Parthenogenesis, Pathogen, Pest control, Pharynx, Phasmid (nematode anatomy), Phylogenetic tree, Phylum, Pigment, Pinworm infection, Plant virus, Potato, Potato cyst nematode, Pratylenchus, Precambrian, Proceedings of the USSR Academy of Sciences, Protostome, Ray Lankester, Rectum, Rhabditia, Rhabditida, Root-knot nematode, Scalidophora, Seabed, Secernentea, Seminal vesicle, Sexual intercourse, Sexual reproduction, Sister group, Soil steam sterilization, Soybean, Space Shuttle Columbia, Species, Sperm, Spermatheca, Sphincter, Spicule (nematode anatomy), Spiruria, Stomach, STS-107, Stylet (anatomy), Sugar beet, Symplesiomorphy, Syncytium, Taxon, The Journal of Experimental Biology, Tomato, Toxocara canis, Toxocara cati, Toxocariasis, Tree of Life Web Project, Trematoda, Trichinella spiralis, Trichinosis, Trichocephalida, Trichodorus, Trichuriasis, Trichuris trichiura, United States Department of Agriculture, University of Florida, Uterus, Vas deferens, Vector (epidemiology), Ventral nerve cord, Vermes, Vertebrate, Xiphinema, Xiphinema diversicaudatum, Xiphinema index. Expand index (155 more) »


Acanthocephala (Greek ἄκανθος, akanthos, thorn + κεφαλή, kephale, head) is a phylum of parasitic worms known as acanthocephalans, thorny-headed worms, or spiny-headed worms, characterized by the presence of an eversible proboscis, armed with spines, which it uses to pierce and hold the gut wall of its host.

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Actin is a family of globular multi-functional proteins that form microfilaments.

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Adenophorea or Aphasmidia was a class of nematodes (roundworms).

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Algae (singular alga) is an informal term for a large, diverse group of photosynthetic organisms that are not necessarily closely related, and is thus polyphyletic.

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Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.

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An amoeba (rarely spelled amœba, US English spelled ameba; plural am(o)ebas or am(o)ebae), often called amoeboid, is a type of cell or organism which has the ability to alter its shape, primarily by extending and retracting pseudopods.

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Amphids (Greek: amphi, around, double) are innervated invaginations of cuticle in nematodes.

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Ancient Greek

The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.

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Androdioecy is a reproductive system characterized by the coexistence of males and hermaphrodites.

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Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia.

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The anus (from Latin anus meaning "ring", "circle") is an opening at the opposite end of an animal's digestive tract from the mouth.

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Aphelenchoides is a genus of mycetophagous nematodes.

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Arabis mosaic virus

Arabis mosaic virus is a viral plant pathogen that is known to infect multiple hosts.

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An arthropod (from Greek ἄρθρον arthron, "joint" and πούς pous, "foot") is an invertebrate animal having an exoskeleton (external skeleton), a segmented body, and paired jointed appendages.

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Ascariasis is a disease caused by the parasitic roundworm Ascaris lumbricoides.

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The order Ascaridida includes several families of parasitic roundworms with three "lips" on the anterior end.

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The Ascarididae are a family of the large intestinal roundworms.

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Ascaris is a genus of parasitic nematode worms known as the "small intestinal roundworms", which is a type of helminth (parasitic worm).

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The Aschelminthes (also known as Aeschelminthes "Nemathelminthes" "Nematodes"), closely associated with the Platyhelminthes, are an obsolete phylum of pseudocoelomate and other similar animals that are no longer considered closely related and have been promoted to phyla in their own right.

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Australasian Plant Pathology

Australasian Plant Pathology is a peer-reviewed international journal that publishes original research and critical reviews on phytopathology in the Australasian region.

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Basal (phylogenetics)

In phylogenetics, basal is the direction of the base (or root) of a rooted phylogenetic tree or cladogram.

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Baylisascaris is a genus of roundworms that infect more than fifty animal species.

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BBC News

BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.

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Biological pest control

Biological control or biocontrol is a method of controlling pests such as insects, mites, weeds and plant diseases using other organisms.

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The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.

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Brassica juncea

Brassica juncea, commonly brown mustard, Chinese mustard, Indian mustard, leaf mustard, Oriental mustard and vegetable mustard, is a species of mustard plant.

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A bristle is a stiff hair or feather (natural or artificial), either on an animal, such as a pig, or on a tool such as a brush or broom.

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Bursaphelenchus xylophilus

Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, commonly known as pine wood nematode or pine wilt nematode (PWN), is a species of nematode that infects pine trees and causes the disease pine wilt.

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Caenorhabditis briggsae

Caenorhabditis briggsae is a small nematode, closely related to Caenorhabditis elegans.

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Caenorhabditis elegans

Caenorhabditis elegans is a free-living (not parasitic), transparent nematode (roundworm), about 1 mm in length, that lives in temperate soil environments.

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Capillaria (nematode)

Capillaria is a genus of nematodes in the family Capillariidae (or, according to classifications, in the family Trichinellidae).

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Carnivorous fungus

Carnivorous fungi or predaceous fungi are fungi that derive some or most of their nutrients from trapping and eating microscopic or other minute animals.

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The domestic cat (Felis silvestris catus or Felis catus) is a small, typically furry, carnivorous mammal.

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Cephalotes is a Neotropical genus of tree-dwelling ant species, commonly known as turtle ants.

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Cestoda is a class of parasitic worms in the flatworm (Platyhelminthes) phylum, commonly known as tapeworms.

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A chemoreceptor, also known as chemosensor, is a specialized sensory receptor cell which transduces (responds to) a chemical substance (endogenous or induced) and generates a biological signal.

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Chitin (C8H13O5N)n, a long-chain polymer of ''N''-acetylglucosamine, is a derivative of glucose.

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Chitosan is a linear polysaccharide composed of randomly distributed β-(1→4)-linked D-glucosamine (deacetylated unit) and ''N''-acetyl-D-glucosamine (acetylated unit).

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The Chromadorea are a class of the roundworm phylum, Nematoda.

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A cilium (the plural is cilia) is an organelle found in eukaryotic cells.

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Circumesophageal nerve ring

A circumesophageal or circumpharyngeal nerve ring is an arrangement of nerve ganglia around the esophagus/ pharynx of an animal.

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A clade (from κλάδος, klados, "branch"), also known as monophyletic group, is a group of organisms that consists of a common ancestor and all its lineal descendants, and represents a single "branch" on the "tree of life".

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Class (biology)

In biological classification, class (classis) is a taxonomic rank, as well as a taxonomic unit, a taxon, in that rank.

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In animal anatomy, a cloaca (plural cloacae or) is the posterior orifice that serves as the only opening for the digestive, reproductive, and urinary tracts (if present) of many vertebrate animals, opening at the vent.

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Cloning is the process of producing genetically identical individuals of an organism either naturally or artificially.

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Clonostachys rosea f. rosea

Clonostachys rosea f. rosea, also known as Gliocladium roseum, is a species of fungus in the family Bionectriaceae.

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Collagen is the main structural protein in the extracellular space in the various connective tissues in animal bodies.

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Common marigold

Common marigold is a common name for several plants in the Asteraceae family cultivated as ornamentals for their large, generally orange blossoms.

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The Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) is an independent Australian federal government agency responsible for scientific research.

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A cuticle, or cuticula, is any of a variety of tough but flexible, non-mineral outer coverings of an organism, or parts of an organism, that provide protection.

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Cutworms are moth larvae that hide under litter or soil during the day, coming out in the dark to feed on plants.

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Cycloneuralia is a clade of ecdysozoan animals including the Scalidophora (Kinorhynchans, Loriciferans, Priapulids) and the Nematoida (nematodes, Nematomorphs).

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A cyst is a closed sac, having a distinct membrane and division compared with the nearby tissue.

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In biology, detritus is dead particulate organic material (as opposed to dissolved organic material).

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Digestion is the breakdown of large insoluble food molecules into small water-soluble food molecules so that they can be absorbed into the watery blood plasma.

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Digestive enzyme

Digestive enzymes are a group of enzymes that break down polymeric macromolecules into their smaller building blocks, in order to facilitate their absorption by the body.

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Dioecy (Greek: διοικία "two households"; adjective form: dioecious) is a characteristic of a species, meaning that it has distinct male and female individual organisms.

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Diplogasterida was formerly an order of nematodes.

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Dirofilaria immitis

Dirofilaria immitis, the heartworm or dog heartworm, is a parasitic roundworm that is spread from host to host through the bites of mosquitoes.

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Ditylenchus is a genus of plant pathogenic nematodes.

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The domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris when considered a subspecies of the gray wolf or Canis familiaris when considered a distinct species) is a member of the genus Canis (canines), which forms part of the wolf-like canids, and is the most widely abundant terrestrial carnivore.

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Dorylaimia is a subclass of nematodes.

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Dorylaimida (dorylaims) is a diverse order of nematodes with both soil and freshwater species.

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Ecdysozoa is a group of protostome animals, including Arthropoda (insects, chelicerata, crustaceans, and myriapods), Nematoda, and several smaller phyla.

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An ecosystem is a community made up of living organisms and nonliving components such as air, water, and mineral soil.

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Embryonated, unembryonated and de-embryonated are terms generally used in reference to eggs or, in botany, to seeds.

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Not to be confused with Enopla, a clade of nemertean worms. Enoplea (enopleans) is a class, which with the classes SecernenteaTree of Life Web Project (ToL) (2002):.

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The Enoplia are a subclass of nematodes in class Enoplea.

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Entomopathogenic nematode

Entomopathogenic nematodes are a group of nematodes (thread worms), causing death to insects.

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Epidermis (zoology)

In zoology, the epidermis is an epithelium (sheet of cells) that covers the body of an eumetazoan (animal more complex than a sponge).

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Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes (Bacteria and other Archaea).

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Excretion is the process by which metabolic waste is eliminated from an organism.

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Family (biology)

In biological classification, family (familia, plural familiae) is one of the eight major taxonomic ranks; it is classified between order and genus.

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Feces (or faeces) are the solid or semisolid remains of the food that could not be digested in the small intestine.

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Ficus is a genus of about 850 species of woody trees, shrubs, vines, epiphytes and hemiepiphytes in the family Moraceae.

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Fig wasp

Fig wasps are wasps of the superfamily Chalcidoidea which spend their larval stage inside figs.

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Filariasis is a parasitic disease caused by an infection with roundworms of the Filarioidea type.

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The Filarioidea are a superfamily of highly specialised parasitic nematodes.

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The flatworms, flat worms, Platyhelminthes, Plathelminthes, or platyhelminths (from the Greek πλατύ, platy, meaning "flat" and ἕλμινς (root: ἑλμινθ-), helminth-, meaning "worm") are a phylum of relatively simple bilaterian, unsegmented, soft-bodied invertebrates.

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Foliar nematode

Foliar nematodes are plant parasitic roundworms in the genus Aphelenchoides.

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A frugivore is a fruit eater.

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A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.

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Gaster (insect anatomy)

The gaster is the bulbous posterior portion of the metasoma found in hymenopterans of the suborder Apocrita (bees, wasps and ants).

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Gastrointestinal tract

The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.

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A genus (genera) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, as well as viruses, in biology.

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Globodera rostochiensis

Globodera rostochiensis, commonly known as the golden nematode, golden eelworm or yellow potato cyst nematode, is a plant pathogenic nematode.

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A gonad or sex gland or reproductive gland is a mixed gland that produces the gametes (sex cells) and sex hormones of an organism.

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Grapevine fanleaf virus

Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) is a plant pathogenic virus of the family Secoviridae.

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Haemonchus contortus

Haemonchus contortus, also known as the barber's pole worm, is very common parasite and one of the most pathogenic nematodes of ruminants.

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Helicoverpa zea

Helicoverpa zea, commonly known as the corn earworm, is a species (formerly in the genus Heliothis) in the family Noctuidae.

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Helminths, also commonly known as parasitic worms, are large multicellular parasites, which can generally be seen with the naked eye when they are mature.

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Hermann Burmeister

Karl Hermann Konrad Burmeister (15 January 1807 – 2 May 1892) was a German Argentine zoologist, entomologist, herpetologist, and botanist.

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In biology, a hermaphrodite is an organism that has complete or partial reproductive organs and produces gametes normally associated with both male and female sexes.

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Heterodera is a genus of nematodes in the family Heteroderidae.

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Heterorhabditis is a genus of nematodes belonging to the order Rhabditida.

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Hookworm infection

Hookworm infection is an infection by a type of intestinal parasite in the roundworm group.

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Horticulture is the science and art of growing plants (fruits, vegetables, flowers, and any other cultivar).

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Insects or Insecta (from Latin insectum) are hexapod invertebrates and the largest group within the arthropod phylum.

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Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences

The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an agriculture, life science, pathogen, and invasive species research facility in Florida affiliated with University of Florida.

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Karl Moriz Diesing

Karl (Carl) Moriz (Moritz) Diesing (16 June 1800, Krakow – 10 January 1867, Vienna) was an Austrian naturalist and zoologist, specializing in the study of helminthology.

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Karl Rudolphi

Karl Asmund Rudolphi (14 July 1771 – 29 November 1832) was a Swedish-born naturalist, who is credited with being the "father of helminthology".

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A larva (plural: larvae) is a distinct juvenile form many animals undergo before metamorphosis into adults.

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Lasioglossum zephyrum

Lasioglossum zephyrum is a sweat bee of the family Halictidae, found in the U.S. and Canada.

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Libbie Hyman

Libbie Henrietta Hyman (December 6, 1888 – August 3, 1969), was a U.S. zoologist.

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List of parasites of humans

* Parasites Category:Foodborne illnesses.

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A lithosphere (λίθος for "rocky", and σφαίρα for "sphere") is the rigid, outermost shell of a terrestrial-type planet, or natural satellite, that is defined by its rigid mechanical properties.

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Longidorus is a genus of needle nematodes.

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Maize (Zea mays subsp. mays, from maíz after Taíno mahiz), also known as corn, is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples in southern Mexico about 10,000 years ago.

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Meiobenthos, also called meiofauna, are small benthic invertebrates that live in both marine and fresh water environments.

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Meiosis (from Greek μείωσις, meiosis, which means lessening) is a specialized type of cell division that reduces the chromosome number by half, creating four haploid cells, each genetically distinct from the parent cell that gave rise to them.

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Merck Veterinary Manual

The Merck Veterinary Manual is a reference manual of animal health care.

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Mermithida is an order of nematode worms.

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Mesorhabditis is a genus of nematodes.

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Metabolic waste

Metabolic wastes or excretes are substances left over from metabolic processes (such as cellular respiration) which cannot be used by the organism (they are surplus or toxic), and must therefore be excreted.

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In cell biology, mitosis is a part of the cell cycle when replicated chromosomes are separated into two new nuclei.

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Model organism

A model organism is a non-human species that is extensively studied to understand particular biological phenomena, with the expectation that discoveries made in the organism model will provide insight into the workings of other organisms.

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The Monhysterida are an order in the phylum Nematoda.

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In biology, moulting (British English), or molting (American English), also known as sloughing, shedding, or in many invertebrates, ecdysis, is the manner in which an animal routinely casts off a part of its body (often, but not always, an outer layer or covering), either at specific times of the year, or at specific points in its life cycle.

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Muscle is a soft tissue found in most animals.

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Myrmeconema neotropicum

Myrmeconema neotropicum is a tetradonematid nematode parasite.

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Nacobbus is a genus of plant-parasitic nematodes.

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Nathan Cobb

Nathan Augustus Cobb (30 June 1859, Spencer, Massachusetts – 4 June 1932, Baltimore, Maryland) is known as "the father of nematology in the United States".

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Nematoida is a grouping of animals, including the roundworms and horsehair worms.

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Nematology is the scientific discipline concerned with the study of nematodes, or roundworms.

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Nematomorpha (sometimes called Gordiacea, and commonly known as horsehair worms or Gordian worms) are a phylum of parasitoid animals superficially similar to nematode worms in morphology, hence the name.

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Nematophagous fungus

Nematophagous fungi are carnivorous fungi specialized in trapping and digesting nematodes.

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A nerve is an enclosed, cable-like bundle of axons (nerve fibers, the long and slender projections of neurons) in the peripheral nervous system.

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Nitrogen cycle

The nitrogen cycle is the biogeochemical cycle by which nitrogen is converted into multiple chemical forms as it circulates among the atmosphere, terrestrial, and marine ecosystems.

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Nucleic acid sequence

A nucleic acid sequence is a succession of letters that indicate the order of nucleotides forming alleles within a DNA (using GACT) or RNA (GACU) molecule.

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Oceanic trench

Oceanic trenches are topographic depressions of the sea floor, relatively narrow in width, but very long.

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Organic movement

The organic movement broadly refers to the organizations and individuals involved worldwide in the promotion of organic farming and other organic products.

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Osmoregulation is the active regulation of the osmotic pressure of an organism's body fluids, detected by osmoreceptors, to maintain the homeostasis of the organism's water content; that is, it maintains the fluid balance and the concentration of electrolytes (salts in solution) to keep the fluids from becoming too diluted or concentrated.

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Outline of organic gardening and farming

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to organic gardening and farming: Organic farming – alternative agricultural system that relies on fertilizers of organic origin such as compost, manure, green manure, and bone meal and places emphasis on techniques such as crop rotation and companion planting.

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In vertebrates, other than mammals, the passageway from the ovaries to the outside of the body is known as the oviduct.

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Ovoviviparity, ovovivipary, or ovivipary, is a mode of reproduction in animals in which embryos that develop inside eggs remain in the mother's body until they are ready to hatch.

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In taxonomy, a group is paraphyletic if it consists of the group's last common ancestor and all descendants of that ancestor excluding a few—typically only one or two—monophyletic subgroups.

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In evolutionary biology, parasitism is a relationship between species, where one organism, the parasite, lives on or in another organism, the host, causing it some harm, and is adapted structurally to this way of life.

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Parthenogenesis (from the Greek label + label) is a natural form of asexual reproduction in which growth and development of embryos occur without fertilization.

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In biology, a pathogen (πάθος pathos "suffering, passion" and -γενής -genēs "producer of") or a '''germ''' in the oldest and broadest sense is anything that can produce disease; the term came into use in the 1880s.

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Pest control

Pest control is the regulation or management of a species defined as a pest, a member of the animal kingdom that impacts adversely on human activities.

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The pharynx (plural: pharynges) is the part of the throat that is behind the mouth and nasal cavity and above the esophagus and the larynx, or the tubes going down to the stomach and the lungs.

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Phasmid (nematode anatomy)

Phasmids are unicellular sensilia in the lateral tail region of certain species of nematodes.

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Phylogenetic tree

A phylogenetic tree or evolutionary tree is a branching diagram or "tree" showing the evolutionary relationships among various biological species or other entities—their phylogeny—based upon similarities and differences in their physical or genetic characteristics.

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In biology, a phylum (plural: phyla) is a level of classification or taxonomic rank below Kingdom and above Class.

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A pigment is a material that changes the color of reflected or transmitted light as the result of wavelength-selective absorption.

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Pinworm infection

Pinworm infection, also known as enterobiasis, is a human parasitic disease caused by the pinworm.

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Plant virus

Plant viruses are viruses that affect plants.

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The potato is a starchy, tuberous crop from the perennial nightshade Solanum tuberosum.

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Potato cyst nematode

Potato root nematodes or potato cyst nematodes (PCN) are 1-mm long roundworms belonging to the genus Globodera, which comprises around 12 species.

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Pratylenchus is a genus of nematodes known commonly as lesion nematodes.

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The Precambrian (or Pre-Cambrian, sometimes abbreviated pЄ, or Cryptozoic) is the earliest part of Earth's history, set before the current Phanerozoic Eon.

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Proceedings of the USSR Academy of Sciences

The Proceedings of the USSR Academy of Sciences (Доклады Академии Наук СССР, Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR (DAN SSSR), Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences de l'URSS) was a Soviet journal that was dedicated to publishing original, academic research papers in physics, mathematics, chemistry, geology, and biology.

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Protostomia (from Greek πρωτο- proto- "first" and στόμα stoma "mouth") is a clade of animals.

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Ray Lankester

Sir Edwin Ray Lankester (15 May 1847 – 13 August 1929) was a British zoologist.

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The rectum is the final straight portion of the large intestine in humans and some other mammals, and the gut in others.

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Subclass Rhabditia is mostly composed of parasitic nematodes (particularly in the Strongylida), though there are some free-living species as well (particularly in the Rhabditida).

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The Rhabditida are an order of free-living, zooparasitic and phytoparasitic microbivorous nematodes (roundworms) living in soil.

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Root-knot nematode

Root-knot nematodes are plant-parasitic nematodes from the genus Meloidogyne.

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Scalidophora is a group of marine pseudocoelomate protostomes that was proposed on morphological grounds to unite three phyla: the Kinorhyncha, the Priapulida and the Loricifera.

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The seabed (also known as the seafloor, sea floor, or ocean floor) is the bottom of the ocean.

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Secernentea was a class of nematodes in the Classical Phylogeny System (Chitwood, 1958) and is no longer in use.

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Seminal vesicle

The seminal vesicles (glandulae vesiculosae), vesicular glands, or seminal glands, are a pair of simple tubular glands posteroinferior to the urinary bladder of some male mammals.

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Sexual intercourse

Sexual intercourse (or coitus or copulation) is principally the insertion and thrusting of the penis, usually when erect, into the vagina for sexual pleasure, reproduction, or both.

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Sexual reproduction

Sexual reproduction is a form of reproduction where two morphologically distinct types of specialized reproductive cells called gametes fuse together, involving a female's large ovum (or egg) and a male's smaller sperm.

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Sister group

A sister group or sister taxon is a phylogenetic term denoting the closest relatives of another given unit in an evolutionary tree.

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Soil steam sterilization

Soil steam sterilization (soil steaming) is a farming technique that sterilizes soil with steam in open fields or greenhouses.

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The soybean (Glycine max), or soya bean, is a species of legume native to East Asia, widely grown for its edible bean, which has numerous uses.

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Space Shuttle Columbia

Space Shuttle Columbia (Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-102) was the first space-rated orbiter in NASA's Space Shuttle fleet.

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In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.

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Sperm is the male reproductive cell and is derived from the Greek word (σπέρμα) sperma (meaning "seed").

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The spermatheca (pronounced plural: spermathecae), also called receptaculum seminis (plural: receptacula seminis), is an organ of the female reproductive tract in insects, e.g. bees, some molluscs, oligochaeta worms and certain other invertebrates and vertebrates.

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A sphincter is a circular muscle that normally maintains constriction of a natural body passage or orifice and which relaxes as required by normal physiological functioning.

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Spicule (nematode anatomy)

In nematodes (roundworms), spicules, or copulatory spicules, are needle-like mating structures found only in males.

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Subclass Spiruria comprises mostly parasitic secernentean nematodes.

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The stomach (from ancient Greek στόμαχος, stomachos, stoma means mouth) is a muscular, hollow organ in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and many other animals, including several invertebrates.

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STS-107 was the 113th flight of the Space Shuttle program, and the final flight of Space Shuttle ''Columbia''.

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Stylet (anatomy)

A stylet is a hard, sharp, anatomical structure found in some invertebrates.

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Sugar beet

A sugar beet is a plant whose root contains a high concentration of sucrose and which is grown commercially for sugar production.

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In phylogenetics, a plesiomorphy, symplesiomorphy or symplesiomorphic character is an ancestral character or trait state shared by two or more taxa.

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A syncytium or symplasm (plural syncytia; from Greek: σύν (syn).

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In biology, a taxon (plural taxa; back-formation from taxonomy) is a group of one or more populations of an organism or organisms seen by taxonomists to form a unit.

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The Journal of Experimental Biology

The Journal of Experimental Biology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal in the field of comparative physiology and integrative biology.

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The tomato (see pronunciation) is the edible, often red, fruit/berry of the plant Solanum lycopersicum, commonly known as a tomato plant.

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Toxocara canis

Toxocara canis (also known as dog roundworm) is worldwide-distributed helminth parasite of dogs and other canids.

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Toxocara cati

Toxocara cati, also known as the feline roundworm, is parasite of cats and other felids.

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Toxocariasis is an illness of humans caused by larvae (immature worms) of either the dog roundworm (Toxocara canis), the cat roundworm (Toxocara cati) or the fox roundworm (Toxocara canis).

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Tree of Life Web Project

The Tree of Life Web Project is an Internet project providing information about the diversity and phylogeny of life on Earth.

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Trematoda is a class within the phylum Platyhelminthes.

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Trichinella spiralis

Trichinella spiralis is an ovoviviparous nematode parasite, occurring in rodents, pigs, horses, bears, and humans, and is responsible for the disease trichinosis.

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Trichinosis is a parasitic disease caused by roundworms of the Trichinella type.

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The Trichocephalida (Trichinellida or Trichurida in other classifications) is an order of parasitic nematodes.

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Trichodorus is a genus of terrestrial root feeding (stubby-root) nematodes in the Trichodoridae family (trichorids), being one of five genera.

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Trichuriasis, also known as whipworm infection, is an infection by the parasitic worm Trichuris trichiura (whipworm).

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Trichuris trichiura

The human whipworm (Trichuris trichiura or Trichocephalus trichiuris) is a round worm (a type of helminth) that causes trichuriasis (a type of helminthiasis which is one of the neglected tropical diseases) when it infects a human large intestine.

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United States Department of Agriculture

The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), also known as the Agriculture Department, is the U.S. federal executive department responsible for developing and executing federal laws related to farming, forestry, and food.

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University of Florida

The University of Florida (commonly referred to as Florida or UF) is an American public land-grant, sea-grant, and space-grant research university on a campus in Gainesville, Florida.

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The uterus (from Latin "uterus", plural uteri) or womb is a major female hormone-responsive secondary sex organ of the reproductive system in humans and most other mammals.

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Vas deferens

The vas deferens (Latin: "carrying-away vessel"; plural: vasa deferentia), also called ductus deferens (Latin: "carrying-away duct"; plural: ductus deferentes), is part of the male reproductive system of many vertebrates; these vasa transport sperm from the epididymis to the ejaculatory ducts in anticipation of ejaculation.

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Vector (epidemiology)

In epidemiology, a disease vector is any agent that carries and transmits an infectious pathogen into another living organism; most agents regarded as vectors are organisms, such as intermediate parasites or microbes, but it could be an inanimate medium of infection such as dust particles.

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Ventral nerve cord

The ventral nerve cord (VNC) makes up a part of the central nervous system of some phyla of the bilaterians, particularly within the nematodes, annelids and the arthropods.

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Vermes ("worms") is an obsolete taxon used by Carl Linnaeus and Jean-Baptiste Lamarck for non-arthropod invertebrate animals.

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Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).

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Xiphinema is a genus of ectoparasitic root nematodes commonly known as dagger nematodes.

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Xiphinema diversicaudatum

Xiphinema diversicaudatum is an amphimitic ectoparasitic nematode species.

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Xiphinema index

Xiphinema index (California dagger nematode) is a species of plant-parasitic nematodes.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nematode

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