259 relations: Academic art, Acmeist poetry, Adam style, Age of Enlightenment, Alceste (Gluck), Alexander I of Russia, Alexander Pope, American Empire style, American Museum of Natural History, American Renaissance, Ancien Régime, Ancient Greece, Ancient Greek, Ancient Rome, André Mare, Angelica Kauffman, Anna Akhmatova, Antigone, Montpellier, Antiquities, Anton Raphael Mengs, Antonio Canova, Appian Way, Arc de Triomphe, Architecture, Art Deco, Asmus Jacob Carstens, Augustan literature, Auguste Perret, Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun, Émile-Jacques Ruhlmann, Ballet, Barcelona, Baroque, Baroque music, Basilica, Beaux-Arts architecture, Benjamin Franklin, Benjamin West, Bertel Thorvaldsen, Biedermeier, Bonnet (headgear), Boris Iofan, Bourbon Restoration, Brandenburg Gate, Breeches, Bucranium, Camaïeu, Carolingian art, Catherine the Great, Charles Cameron (architect), ..., Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord, Chatsworth House, Chiswick House, Christoph Willibald Gluck, Classical antiquity, Classical music, Colonnade, Commode, Constructivist architecture, Consular diptych, Cultural movement, Dada, Decorative arts, Dime (United States coin), Diomedes, Directoire style, Domus Aurea, Downing College, Cambridge, Driehaus Architecture Prize, Duty on Hair Powder Act 1795, Edwin Lutyens, Elizabeth Alexeievna (Louise of Baden), Emma, Lady Hamilton, Empire silhouette, Empire style, Empress Joséphine, English literature, Engraving, Eponymous hairstyle, Etching, Federal architecture, First French Empire, Fluting (architecture), François-Joseph Talma, Francis Russell, 5th Duke of Bedford, Franz Anton von Zauner, Franz Xaver Messerschmidt, French Revolution, French Revolutionary Wars, Frieze, Fritz Novotny, Gavin Hamilton (artist), George Balanchine, George IV of the United Kingdom, George Washington (Houdon), Gilding, Giovanni Battista Piranesi, Goût grec, Gothic Revival architecture, Grand Tour, Great books, Greek Revival architecture, Greek tragedy, Grigory Orlov, Henriette de Verninac, Henry Fuseli, Herculaneum, Hercules, Hiram Powers, History painting, Horatio Greenough, Hugh Honour, Igor Stravinsky, Ilya Golosov, Impressionism, Impressionism in music, Isadora Duncan, Ivan Fomin, Ivan Zholtovsky, Jacob Ungerer, Jacques-Louis David, James Dawkins (antiquarian), Jean-Antoine Houdon, Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, Jean-Pierre Cortot, Johan Tobias Sergel, Johann Gottfried Schadow, Johann Joachim Winckelmann, John Adamson (publisher), John Flaxman, John Singleton Copley, John Soane, Joseph Haydn, Josiah Wedgwood, Journal de Paris, Juliette Récamier, Karl Friedrich Schinkel, Kenneth Clark, Late antiquity, Latin, Le Antichità di Ercolano, Lincoln Memorial, Louis Süe, Louis XIV of France, Louis XVI of France, Lucius Junius Brutus, Manufacture nationale de Sèvres, Marie Antoinette, Masonry, Masquerade ball, Mathieu Kessels, Modern architecture, Modernism, Munich, Napoleon, Nashville, Tennessee, National Gallery of Art, Nazi architecture, Neo-Grec, Neoclassical architecture, Neoclassical ballet, Neoclassicism (music), Neoclassicism in France, New Classical architecture, New Delhi, Nicolas Poussin, Nicolaus Copernicus, Nikita Khrushchev, Oath of the Horatii, Octet (Stravinsky), Odyssey, Old master print, Opera, Orientalism, Ornament (music), Osip Mandelstam, Ottoman Empire, Ottorino Respighi, Pablo Picasso, Palace of Culture and Science, Palace of the Soviets, Palladian architecture, Palmyra, Pediment, Phidias, Philosophy, Physical education, Pilaster, Plato, Pliny the Younger, Pompeii, Portrait of Madame Récamier, Postmodern architecture, Pottery of ancient Greece, Pritzker Architecture Prize, Psychoanalysis, Quinlan Terry, Randolph Rogers, Raphael, Rationing, Red-figure pottery, Regency architecture, Reinforced concrete, Relief, Renaissance, Richard Sammons, Robert Wood (antiquarian), Rococo, Romanticism, Rome, Rudolph Schadow, Russian neoclassical revival, Sackler Library, Saint Petersburg, Salon (Paris), Schermerhorn Symphony Center, Sculpture, Sergei Prokofiev, Shanghai, Stalinist architecture, Steel frame, Stourhead, Stowe House, Streamline Moderne, Stucco, Symphony No. 1 (Prokofiev), T. E. Hulme, T. S. Eliot, Teatre Nacional de Catalunya, Temple, Thérésa Tallien, The Death of General Wolfe, The Death of Major Peirson, 6 January 1781, The Raft of the Medusa, Thomas Jefferson, Tim Knox, Titus, Titus Junius Brutus, Toga, Triumphal arch, Troubadour style, Trousers, United States Capitol, Vase, Vernacular architecture, Victoria and Albert Museum, Villa Albani, Visual arts, Vladimir Shchuko, Voltaire, Warsaw, Watson and the Shark, Wedgwood, William Henry Rinehart, William Kent, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, World War I, Wyndham Lewis, 1795–1820 in Western fashion. Expand index (209 more) » « Shrink index
Academic art, or academicism or academism, is a style of painting, sculpture, and architecture produced under the influence of European academies of art.
Acmeism, or the Guild of Poets, was a transient poetic school, which emerged in 1912 in Russia under the leadership of Nikolay Gumilev and Sergei Gorodetsky.
The Adam style (or Adamesque and "Style of the Brothers Adam") is an 18th-century neoclassical style of interior design and architecture, as practised by three Scottish brothers, of whom Robert Adam (1728–1792) and James Adam (1732–1794) were the most widely known.
The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".
Alceste, Wq. 37 (the later French version is Wq. 44), is an opera by Christoph Willibald Gluck from 1767.
Alexander I (Александр Павлович, Aleksandr Pavlovich; –) reigned as Emperor of Russia between 1801 and 1825.
Alexander Pope (21 May 1688 – 30 May 1744) was an 18th-century English poet.
American Empire is a French-inspired Neoclassical style of American furniture and decoration that takes its name and originates from the Empire style introduced during the First French Empire period under Napoleon's rule.
The American Museum of Natural History (abbreviated as AMNH), located on the Upper West Side of Manhattan, New York City, is one of the largest museums in the world.
In the history of American architecture and the arts, the American Renaissance was the period from 1876 to 1917 characterized by renewed national self-confidence and a feeling that the United States was the heir to Greek democracy, Roman law, and Renaissance humanism.
The Ancien Régime (French for "old regime") was the political and social system of the Kingdom of France from the Late Middle Ages (circa 15th century) until 1789, when hereditary monarchy and the feudal system of French nobility were abolished by the.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
Charles André Mare (1885–1932), or André-Charles Mare, was a French painter and designer, and founder of the Company of French Art (la Compagnie des Arts Français) in 1919.
Maria Anna Angelika Kauffmann (30 October 1741 – 5 November 1807), usually known in English as Angelica Kauffman, was a Swiss Neoclassical painter who had a successful career in London and Rome.
Anna Andreyevna Gorenkoa; Анна Андріївна Горенко, Anna Andriyivna Horenko (– 5 March 1966), better known by the pen name Anna Akhmatova (Анна Ахматова), was one of the most significant Russian poets of the 20th century.
Antigone is a neighbourhood of Montpellier, France, east of the city centre.
Antiquities are objects from antiquity, especially the civilizations of the Mediterranean: the Classical antiquity of Greece and Rome, Ancient Egypt and the other Ancient Near Eastern cultures.
Anton Raphael Mengs (March 22, 1728 – June 29, 1779) was a German Bohemian painter, active in Rome, Madrid and Saxony, who became one of the precursors to Neoclassical painting.
Antonio Canova (1 November 1757 – 13 October 1822) was an Italian Neoclassical sculptor, famous for his marble sculptures.
The Appian Way (Latin and Italian: Via Appia) is one of the earliest and strategically most important Roman roads of the ancient republic.
The Arc de Triomphe de l'Étoile (Triumphal Arch of the Star) is one of the most famous monuments in Paris, standing at the western end of the Champs-Élysées at the center of Place Charles de Gaulle, formerly named Place de l'Étoile — the étoile or "star" of the juncture formed by its twelve radiating avenues.
Architecture is both the process and the product of planning, designing, and constructing buildings or any other structures.
Art Deco, sometimes referred to as Deco, is a style of visual arts, architecture and design that first appeared in France just before World War I. Art Deco influenced the design of buildings, furniture, jewelry, fashion, cars, movie theatres, trains, ocean liners, and everyday objects such as radios and vacuum cleaners.
Asmus Jacob Carstens (or "Jakob", May 10, 1754May 25, 1798) was a Danish-German painter, one of the most committed artists of German Neoclassicism.
Augustan literature (sometimes referred to misleadingly as Georgian literature) is a style of British literature produced during the reigns of Queen Anne, King George I, and George II in the first half of the 18th century and ending in the 1740s, with the deaths of Alexander Pope and Jonathan Swift, in 1744 and 1745, respectively.
Auguste Perret (12 February 1874 – 25 February 1954) was a French architect and a pioneer of the architectural use of reinforced concrete.
Élisabeth Louise Vigée Le Brun (16 April 1755 – 30 March 1842), also known as Madame Lebrun or Madame Le Brun, was a prominent French portrait painter of the late eighteenth century.
Émile-Jacques Ruhlmann (28 August 1879 – 15 November 1933), his first names often seen reversed as Jacques-Émile, was a renowned French designer of furniture and interiors, epitomising for many the glamour of the French Art Deco style of the 1910s and 1920s.
Ballet is a type of performance dance that originated during the Italian Renaissance in the 15th century and later developed into a concert dance form in France and Russia.
Barcelona is a city in Spain.
The Baroque is a highly ornate and often extravagant style of architecture, art and music that flourished in Europe from the early 17th until the late 18th century.
Baroque music is a style of Western art music composed from approximately 1600 to 1750.
A basilica is a type of building, usually a church, that is typically rectangular with a central nave and aisles, usually with a slightly raised platform and an apse at one or both ends.
Beaux-Arts architecture was the academic architectural style taught at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris, particularly from the 1830s to the end of the 19th century.
Benjamin Franklin (April 17, 1790) was an American polymath and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States.
Benjamin West (October 10, 1738 – March 11, 1820) was an Anglo-American history painter around and after the time of the American War of Independence and the Seven Years' War.
Bertel Thorvaldsen (19 November 1770 – 24 March 1844) was a Danish sculptor of international fame, who spent most of his life (1797–1838) in Italy.
The Biedermeier period refers to an era in Central Europe between 1815 and 1848, during which the middle class grew in number and arts appealed to common sensibilities.
A bonnet is any of a wide variety of headgear for both sexes—more often female—from the Middle Ages to the present.
Boris Mihailovich Iofan (p; April 28, 1891–1976) was a Jewish Soviet architect, known for his Stalinist architecture buildings like 1931 House on the Embankment and the 1931-1933 winning draft of the Palace of Soviets.
The Bourbon Restoration was the period of French history following the fall of Napoleon in 1814 until the July Revolution of 1830.
The Brandenburg Gate (Brandenburger Tor) is an 18th-century neoclassical monument in Berlin, built on the orders of Prussian king Frederick William II after the (temporarily) successful restoration of order during the early Batavian Revolution.
Breeches are an article of clothing covering the body from the waist down, with separate coverings for each leg, usually stopping just below the knee, though in some cases reaching to the ankles.
Bucranium (plural bucrania; Latin, from Greek βουκράνιον, referring to the skull of an ox) was a common form of carved decoration in Classical architecture used to fill the metopes between the triglyphs of the frieze of Doric temples.
Camaïeu (also called en camaïeu) is a technique that employs two or three tints of a single color, other than gray, to create a monochromatic image without regard to local or realistic color.
Carolingian art comes from the Frankish Empire in the period of roughly 120 years from about 780 to 900—during the reign of Charlemagne and his immediate heirs—popularly known as the Carolingian Renaissance.
Catherine II (Russian: Екатерина Алексеевна Yekaterina Alekseyevna; –), also known as Catherine the Great (Екатери́на Вели́кая, Yekaterina Velikaya), born Princess Sophie of Anhalt-Zerbst, was Empress of Russia from 1762 until 1796, the country's longest-ruling female leader.
Charles Cameron (1745 – 19 March 1812) was a Scottish architect who made an illustrious career at the court of Catherine II of Russia.
Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord (2 February 1754 – 17 May 1838), 1st Prince of Benevento, then 1st Prince of Talleyrand, was a laicized French bishop, politician, and diplomat.
Chatsworth House is a stately home in Derbyshire, England, in the Derbyshire Dales north-east of Bakewell and west of Chesterfield.
Chiswick House is a Palladian villa in Burlington Lane, Chiswick, west London, England.
Christoph Willibald (Ritter von) Gluck (born on 2 July, baptized 4 July 1714As there is only a documentary record with Gluck's date of baptism, 4 July. According to his widow, he was born on 3 July, but nobody in the 18th century paid attention to the birthdate until Napoleon introduced it. A birth date was only known if the parents kept a diary. The authenticity of the 1785 document (published in the Allgemeinen Wiener Musik-Zeitung vom 6. April 1844) is disputed, by Robl. (Robl 2015, pp. 141–147).--> – 15 November 1787) was a composer of Italian and French opera in the early classical period.
Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.
Classical music is art music produced or rooted in the traditions of Western culture, including both liturgical (religious) and secular music.
In classical architecture, a colonnade is a long sequence of columns joined by their entablature, often free-standing, or part of a building.
A commode is any of several pieces of furniture.
Constructivist architecture was a form of modern architecture that flourished in the Soviet Union in the 1920s and early 1930s.
In Late Antiquity, a consular diptych was a type of diptych intended as a de-luxe commemorative object.
A cultural movement is a change in the way a number of different disciplines approach their work.
Dada or Dadaism was an art movement of the European avant-garde in the early 20th century, with early centers in Zürich, Switzerland, at the Cabaret Voltaire (circa 1916); New York Dada began circa 1915, and after 1920 Dada flourished in Paris.
The decorative arts are arts or crafts concerned with the design and manufacture of beautiful objects that are also functional.
The dime, in U.S. usage, is a ten-cent coin, one tenth of a United States dollar, labeled formally as "one dime".
Diomedes (Jones, Daniel; Roach, Peter, James Hartman and Jane Setter, eds. Cambridge English Pronouncing Dictionary. 17th edition. Cambridge UP, 2006. or) or Diomede (God-like cunning, advised by Zeus) is a hero in Greek mythology, known for his participation in the Trojan War.
Directoire style,, describes a period in the decorative arts, fashion, and especially furniture design, concurrent with the post-Revolution French Directory (November 2, 1795 through November 10, 1799).
The Domus Aurea (Latin, "Golden House") was a vast landscaped palace built by the Emperor Nero in the heart of ancient Rome after the great fire in 64 AD had destroyed a large part of the city and the aristocratic villas on the Palatine Hill.
Downing College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge and currently has around 650 students.
The Driehaus Architecture Prize, fully named The Richard H. Driehaus Prize at the University of Notre Dame, is a global award to honor a major contributor in the field of contemporary vernacular and classical architecture, commonly referred to as New Classical architecture.
The Duty on Hair Powder Act 1795 (35 Geo. III, c. 49) was an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain levying a tax on hair powder.
Sir Edwin Landseer Lutyens, (29 March 1869 – 1 January 1944) was an English architect known for imaginatively adapting traditional architectural styles to the requirements of his era.
Princess Louise of Baden (13/24 January 1779 – 4 May/16 May 1826) was, later known as Elizabeth Alexeievna (Елизавета Алексеевна.), Empress of Russia during her marriage with Emperor Alexander I. Born Princess Louise of Baden, she was a daughter of Charles Louis, Hereditary Prince of Baden, and his wife, Landgravine Amalie of Hesse-Darmstadt.
Dame Emma Hamilton (26 April 1765; baptised 12 May 1765 – 15 January 1815), generally known as Lady Hamilton, was an English model and actress, who is best remembered as the mistress of Lord Nelson and as the muse of the portrait artist, George Romney.
Empire silhouette, Empire line, Empire waist or just Empire is a style in clothing in which the dress has a fitted bodice ending just below the bust, giving a high-waisted appearance, and a gathered skirt which is long and loosely fitting but skims the body rather than being supported by voluminous petticoats.
The Empire style (style Empire) is an early-nineteenth-century design movement in architecture, furniture, other decorative arts, and the visual arts, representing the second phase of Neoclassicism.
Joséphine de Beauharnais (born Marie-Josèphe-Rose Tascher de la Pagerie; 23 June 1763 – 29 May 1814) was the first wife of Napoleon I, and thus the first Empress of the French as Joséphine.
This article is focused on English-language literature rather than the literature of England, so that it includes writers from Scotland, Wales, and the whole of Ireland, as well as literature in English from countries of the former British Empire, including the United States.
Engraving is the practice of incising a design onto a hard, usually flat surface by cutting grooves into it.
An eponymous hairstyle is a particular hairstyle that has become fashionable during a certain period of time through its association with a prominent individual.
Etching is traditionally the process of using strong acid or mordant to cut into the unprotected parts of a metal surface to create a design in intaglio (incised) in the metal.
Federal-style architecture is the name for the classicizing architecture built in the newly founded United States between c. 1780 and 1830, and particularly from 1785 to 1815.
The First French Empire (Empire Français) was the empire of Napoleon Bonaparte of France and the dominant power in much of continental Europe at the beginning of the 19th century.
Fluting in architecture is the shallow grooves running vertically along a surface.
François Joseph Talma (15 January 1763 – 1826) was a French actor.
Francis Russell, 5th Duke of Bedford (23 July 1765 – 2 March 1802 in Woburn, Bedfordshire, baptised 20 August 1765 at St Giles in the Fields) was an English aristocrat and Whig politician, responsible for much of the development of central Bloomsbury.
Franz Anton von Zauner (5 July 1746/48 in Falpetan im Oberinntal, Tyrolia – 3 March 1822 in Vienna) was an Austrian sculptor who worked in the Neoclassical style.
Franz Xaver Messerschmidt (February 6, 1736 – August 19, 1783) was a German-Austrian sculptor most famous for his "character heads", a collection of busts with faces contorted in extreme facial expressions.
The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.
The French Revolutionary Wars were a series of sweeping military conflicts lasting from 1792 until 1802 and resulting from the French Revolution.
In architecture the frieze is the wide central section part of an entablature and may be plain in the Ionic or Doric order, or decorated with bas-reliefs.
Fritz Novotny (10 February 1903 in Vienna – 16 April 1983 in Vienna), was an Austrian art historian.
Gavin Hamilton (1723, Lanarkshire – 4 January 1798, Rome) was a Scots neoclassical history painter, who is more widely remembered for his hunts for antiquities in the neighbourhood of Rome.
George Balanchine (born Georgiy Melitonovich Balanchivadze; January 22, 1904April 30, 1983) was a choreographer.
George IV (George Augustus Frederick; 12 August 1762 – 26 June 1830) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and King of Hanover following the death of his father, King George III, on 29 January 1820, until his own death ten years later.
George Washington is a statue by French sculptor Jean-Antoine Houdon from the late 18th century.
Gilding is any decorative technique for applying fine gold leaf or powder to solid surfaces such as wood, stone, or metal to give a thin coating of gold.
Giovanni Battista (also Giambattista or Piranesi) (4 October 1720 – 9 November 1778) was an Italian artist famous for his etchings of Rome and of fictitious and atmospheric "prisons" (Le Carceri d'Invenzione).
Goût grec (French, the "Greek taste") is the term applied to the earliest expression of the neoclassical style in France, it refers specifically to the decorative arts and architecture of the mid-1750s to the late 1760s.
Gothic Revival (also referred to as Victorian Gothic or neo-Gothic) is an architectural movement that began in the late 1740s in England.
The term "Grand Tour" refers to the 17th- and 18th-century custom of a traditional trip of Europe undertaken by mainly upper-class young European men of sufficient means and rank (typically accompanied by a chaperon, such as a family member) when they had come of age (about 21 years old).
The great books are books that are thought to constitute an essential foundation in the literature of Western culture.
The Greek Revival was an architectural movement of the late 18th and early 19th centuries, predominantly in Northern Europe and the United States.
Greek tragedy is a form of theatre from Ancient Greece and Asia Minor.
Count Grigory Grigoryevich Orlov (1734–1783) was the favorite of Empress Catherine the Great of Russia who presumably fathered her son.
Henriette de Verninac (1780–1827) was the daughter of Charles-François Delacroix, minister of Foreign Affairs under the Directory, and wife of the diplomat Raymond de Verninac Saint-Maur.
Henry Fuseli (German: Johann Heinrich Füssli; 7 February 1741 – 17 April 1825) was a Swiss painter, draughtsman and writer on art who spent much of his life in Britain.
Located in the shadow of Mount Vesuvius, Herculaneum (Italian: Ercolano) was an ancient Roman town destroyed by volcanic pyroclastic flows in 79 AD.
Hercules is a Roman hero and god.
Hiram Powers (July 29, 1805 – June 27, 1873) was an American neoclassical sculptor.
History painting is a genre in painting defined by its subject matter rather than artistic style.
Horatio Greenough (September 6, 1805 – December 18, 1852) was an American sculptor best known for his United States government commissions The Rescue (1837–50) and George Washington (1840).
Hugh Honour FRSL (26 September 1927 – 19 May 2016) was a British art historian, known for his writing partnership with John Fleming.
Igor Fyodorovich Stravinsky (ˈiɡərʲ ˈfʲɵdərəvʲɪtɕ strɐˈvʲinskʲɪj; 6 April 1971) was a Russian-born composer, pianist, and conductor.
Ilya Alexandrovich Golosov (1883 in Moscow – 1945 in Moscow) was a Russian Soviet architect.
Impressionism is a 19th-century art movement characterised by relatively small, thin, yet visible brush strokes, open composition, emphasis on accurate depiction of light in its changing qualities (often accentuating the effects of the passage of time), ordinary subject matter, inclusion of movement as a crucial element of human perception and experience, and unusual visual angles.
Impressionism in music was a movement among various composers in Western classical music (mainly during the late 19th and early 20th centuries) whose music focuses on suggestion and atmosphere, "conveying the moods and emotions aroused by the subject rather than a detailed tone‐picture".
Angela Isadora Duncan (May 26, 1877 or May 27, 1878 – September 14, 1927) was an American dancer who performed to acclaim throughout Europe.
Ivan Aleksandrovich Fomin (3 February 1872, Oryol – 12 June 1936, Moscow) was a Russian architect and educator.
Ivan Vladislavovich Zholtovsky (Иван Владиславович Жолтовский Іван Уладзіслававіч Жалтоўскі, 1867–1959) was a Russian-Soviet architect and educator.
Jacob Ungerer (13 June 1840 – 27 April 1920) was a German sculptor and Professor of Fine Arts.
Jacques-Louis David (30 August 1748 – 29 December 1825) was a French painter in the Neoclassical style, considered to be the preeminent painter of the era.
James Dawkins (1722, Jamaica – 6 September 1757, Sutton's Plantation, Jamaica) was a British antiquarian and Jacobite.
Jean-Antoine Houdon (25 March 1741 – 15 July 1828) was a French neoclassical sculptor.
Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres (29 August 1780 – 14 January 1867) was a French Neoclassical painter.
Jean-Pierre Cortot (20 August 1787 – 12 August 1843) was a French neo-classical sculptor.
Johan Tobias Sergel (7 September 1740 in Stockholm – 26 February 1814 in Stockholm) was a Swedish neoclassical sculptor.
Johann Gottfried Schadow (20 May 1764 – 27 January 1850) was a German Prussian sculptor.
Johann Joachim Winckelmann (9 December 1717 – 8 June 1768) was a German art historian and archaeologist.
John Adamson (born 1949) is a British publisher, translator and writer.
John Flaxman R.A. (6 July 1755 – 7 December 1826) was a British sculptor and draughtsman, and a leading figure in British and European Neoclassicism.
John Singleton Copley (1738 – September 9, 1815) was an Anglo-American painter, active in both colonial America and England.
Sir John Soane (né Soan; 10 September 1753 – 20 January 1837) was an English architect who specialised in the Neo-Classical style.
(Franz) Joseph HaydnSee Haydn's name.
Josiah Wedgwood (12 July 1730 – 3 January 1795) was an English potter and entrepreneur.
The Journal de Paris (1777-1840) was the first daily French newspaper.
Jeanne-Françoise Julie Adélaïde Récamier (4 December 1777 – 11 May 1849), known as Juliette, was a French socialite, whose salon drew Parisians from the leading literary and political circles of the early 19th century.
Karl Friedrich Schinkel (13 March 1781 – 9 October 1841) was a Prussian architect, city planner, and painter who also designed furniture and stage sets.
Kenneth Mackenzie Clark, Baron Clark (13 July 1903 – 21 May 1983) was a British art historian, museum director, and broadcaster.
Late antiquity is a periodization used by historians to describe the time of transition from classical antiquity to the Middle Ages in mainland Europe, the Mediterranean world, and the Near East.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
The Le Antichità di Ercolano Esposte (Antiquities of Herculaneum Exposed) is an eight-volume book of engravings of the findings from excavating the ruins of Herculaneum in the Kingdom of Naples (now Italy).
The Lincoln Memorial is an American national monument built to honor the 16th President of the United States, Abraham Lincoln.
Louis Süe (14 July 1875 – 7 August 1968) was a French painter, architect, designer and decorator.
Louis XIV (Louis Dieudonné; 5 September 16381 September 1715), known as Louis the Great (Louis le Grand) or the Sun King (Roi Soleil), was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who reigned as King of France from 1643 until his death in 1715.
Louis XVI (23 August 1754 – 21 January 1793), born Louis-Auguste, was the last King of France before the fall of the monarchy during the French Revolution.
Lucius Junius Brutus was the founder of the Roman Republic and traditionally one of the first consuls in 509 BC.
The manufacture nationale de Sèvres is one of the principal European porcelain manufactories.
Marie Antoinette (born Maria Antonia Josepha Johanna; 2 November 1755 – 16 October 1793) was the last Queen of France before the French Revolution.
Masonry is the building of structures from individual units, which are often laid in and bound together by mortar; the term masonry can also refer to the units themselves.
A masquerade ball (or bal masqué) is an event in which the participants attend in costume wearing a mask.
Mathieu Kessels (20 May 1784 - 4 March 1836) was a Dutch Neoclassical sculptor who mainly worked in Rome.
Modern architecture or modernist architecture is a term applied to a group of styles of architecture which emerged in the first half of the 20th century and became dominant after World War II.
Modernism is a philosophical movement that, along with cultural trends and changes, arose from wide-scale and far-reaching transformations in Western society during the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Munich (München; Minga) is the capital and the most populated city in the German state of Bavaria, on the banks of the River Isar north of the Bavarian Alps.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
Nashville is the capital and most populous city of the U.S. state of Tennessee and the seat of Davidson County.
The National Gallery of Art, and its attached Sculpture Garden, is a national art museum in Washington, D.C., located on the National Mall, between 3rd and 9th Streets, at Constitution Avenue NW.
Nazi architecture is the architecture promoted by the Third Reich from 1933 until its fall in 1945.
Néo-Grec was a Neoclassical revival style of the mid-to-late 19th century that was popularized in architecture, the decorative arts, and in painting during France's Second Empire, or the reign of Napoleon III (1852–1870).
Neoclassical architecture is an architectural style produced by the neoclassical movement that began in the mid-18th century.
Neoclassical ballet is the style of 20th-century classical ballet exemplified by the works of George Balanchine.
Neoclassicism in music was a twentieth-century trend, particularly current in the interwar period, in which composers sought to return to aesthetic precepts associated with the broadly defined concept of "classicism", namely order, balance, clarity, economy, and emotional restraint.
Neoclassicism is a movement in architecture, design and the arts which was dominant in France between about 1760 to 1830.
New Classical architecture is a contemporary movement in architecture that continues the practice of classical and traditional architecture.
New Delhi is an urban district of Delhi which serves as the capital of India and seat of all three branches of Government of India.
Nicolas Poussin (June 1594 – 19 November 1665) was the leading painter of the classical French Baroque style, although he spent most of his working life in Rome.
Nicolaus Copernicus (Mikołaj Kopernik; Nikolaus Kopernikus; Niklas Koppernigk; 19 February 1473 – 24 May 1543) was a Renaissance-era mathematician and astronomer who formulated a model of the universe that placed the Sun rather than the Earth at the center of the universe, likely independently of Aristarchus of Samos, who had formulated such a model some eighteen centuries earlier.
Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (15 April 1894 – 11 September 1971) was a Soviet statesman who led the Soviet Union during part of the Cold War as the First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964, and as Chairman of the Council of Ministers, or Premier, from 1958 to 1964.
Oath of the Horatii (Le Serment des Horaces), is a large painting by the French artist Jacques-Louis David painted in 1784 and now on display in the Louvre in Paris.
The Octet for wind instruments is a chamber-music composition by Igor Stravinsky, completed in 1923.
The Odyssey (Ὀδύσσεια Odýsseia, in Classical Attic) is one of two major ancient Greek epic poems attributed to Homer.
An old master print is a work of art produced by a printing process within the Western tradition.
Opera (English plural: operas; Italian plural: opere) is a form of theatre in which music has a leading role and the parts are taken by singers.
Orientalism is a term used by art historians and literary and cultural studies scholars for the imitation or depiction of aspects in Middle Eastern, South Asian, and East Asian cultures (Eastern world).
In music, ornaments or embellishments are musical flourishes—typically, added notes—that are not essential to carry the overall line of the melody (or harmony), but serve instead to decorate or "ornament" that line (or harmony), provide added interest and variety, and give the performer the opportunity to add expressiveness to a song or piece.
Osip Emilyevich Mandelstam (p; – 27 December 1938) was a Russian Jewish poet and essayist.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
Ottorino Respighi (9 July 187918 April 1936) was an Italian violinist, composer and musicologist, best known for his three orchestral tone poems Fountains of Rome (1916), Pines of Rome (1924), and Roman Festivals (1928).
Pablo Ruiz Picasso (25 October 1881 – 8 April 1973) was a Spanish painter, sculptor, printmaker, ceramicist, stage designer, poet and playwright who spent most of his adult life in France.
Palace of Culture and Science (Pałac Kultury i Nauki; abbreviated PKiN) is a notable high-rise building in Warsaw, Poland.
The Palace of the Soviets (Дворец Советов, Dvorets Sovetov) was a project to construct an administrative center and a congress hall in Moscow, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union (present-day Russian Federation) near the Kremlin, on the site of the demolished Cathedral of Christ the Saviour.
Palladian architecture is a European style of architecture derived from and inspired by the designs of the Venetian architect Andrea Palladio (1508–1580).
Palmyra (Palmyrene: Tadmor; تَدْمُر Tadmur) is an ancient Semitic city in present-day Homs Governorate, Syria.
A pediment is an architectural element found particularly in classical, neoclassical and baroque architecture, and its derivatives, consisting of a gable, usually of a triangular shape, placed above the horizontal structure of the entablature, typically supported by columns.
Phidias or Pheidias (Φειδίας, Pheidias; 480 – 430 BC) was a Greek sculptor, painter, and architect.
Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.
Physical education, also known as Phys Ed., PE, gym, or gym class, and known in many Commonwealth countries as physical training or PT, is an educational course related of maintaining the human body through physical exercises (i.e. calisthenics).
The pilaster is an architectural element in classical architecture used to give the appearance of a supporting column and to articulate an extent of wall, with only an ornamental function.
Plato (Πλάτων Plátōn, in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.
Gaius Plinius Caecilius Secundus, born Gaius Caecilius or Gaius Caecilius Cilo (61 – c. 113), better known as Pliny the Younger, was a lawyer, author, and magistrate of Ancient Rome.
Pompeii was an ancient Roman city near modern Naples in the Campania region of Italy, in the territory of the comune of Pompei.
Portrait of Madame Récamier is an 1800 portrait of the Parisian socialite Juliette Récamier by Jacques-Louis David showing her in the height of Neoclassical fashion, reclining on an Directoire style sofa in a simple Empire line dress with almost bare arms, and short hair "à la Titus".
Postmodern architecture is a style or movement which emerged in the 1960s as a reaction against the austerity, formality, and lack of variety of modern architecture, particularly in the international style advocated by Le Corbusier and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe.
Ancient Greek pottery, due to its relative durability, comprises a large part of the archaeological record of ancient Greece, and since there is so much of it (over 100,000 painted vases are recorded in the Corpus vasorum antiquorum), it has exerted a disproportionately large influence on our understanding of Greek society.
The Pritzker Architecture Prize is awarded annually "to honor a living architect or architects whose built work demonstrates a combination of those qualities of talent, vision and commitment, which has produced consistent and significant contributions to humanity and the built environment through the art of architecture." Founded in 1979 by Jay A. Pritzker and his wife Cindy, the award is funded by the Pritzker family and sponsored by the Hyatt Foundation.
Psychoanalysis is a set of theories and therapeutic techniques related to the study of the unconscious mind, which together form a method of treatment for mental-health disorders.
John Quinlan Terry CBE (born 24 July 1937 in Hampstead, London, England) is a British architect.
Randolph Rogers (July 6, 1825 in Waterloo, New York – January 15, 1892 in Rome, Italy) was an American Neoclassical sculptor.
Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino (March 28 or April 6, 1483April 6, 1520), known as Raphael, was an Italian painter and architect of the High Renaissance.
Rationing is the controlled distribution of scarce resources, goods, or services, or an artificial restriction of demand.
Red-figure vase painting is one of the most important styles of figural Greek vase painting.
Regency architecture refers to classical buildings built in Britain during the Regency era in the early 19th century when George IV was Prince Regent, and also to earlier and later buildings following the same style.
Reinforced concrete (RC) (also called reinforced cement concrete or RCC) is a composite material in which concrete's relatively low tensile strength and ductility are counteracted by the inclusion of reinforcement having higher tensile strength or ductility.
Relief is a sculptural technique where the sculpted elements remain attached to a solid background of the same material.
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.
Richard Sammons (born May 18, 1961 in Columbus, Ohio) is an architect, architectural theorist, visiting professor, and chief designer of Fairfax & Sammons Architects with offices in New York City, New York and Palm Beach, Florida.
Robert Wood (1717 – 9 September 1771) was a British traveller, classical scholar, civil servant and politician.
Rococo, less commonly roccoco, or "Late Baroque", was an exuberantly decorative 18th-century European style which was the final expression of the baroque movement.
Romanticism (also known as the Romantic era) was an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century, and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850.
Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).
Rudolph Schadow (also spelled Ridolfo Schadow; July 9, 1786 – January 31, 1822) was a German sculptor.
Russian neoclassical revival was a trend in Russian culture, mostly pronounced in architecture, that briefly replaced eclecticism and Art Nouveau as the leading architectural style between the Revolution of 1905 and the outbreak of World War I, coexisting with the Silver Age of Russian Poetry.
The Sackler Library holds a large portion of the classical, art historical, and archaeological works belonging to the University of Oxford, England.
Saint Petersburg (p) is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million (2015).
The Salon (Salon), or rarely Paris Salon (French: Salon de Paris), beginning in 1667 was the official art exhibition of the Académie des Beaux-Arts in Paris.
The Schermerhorn Symphony Center is a concert hall in downtown Nashville, Tennessee.
Sculpture is the branch of the visual arts that operates in three dimensions.
Sergei Sergeyevich Prokofiev (r; 27 April 1891 – 5 March 1953) was a Russian Soviet composer, pianist and conductor.
Shanghai (Wu Chinese) is one of the four direct-controlled municipalities of China and the most populous city proper in the world, with a population of more than 24 million.
Stalinist architecture, also referred to as Stalinist Empire style or Socialist Classicism, is a term given to architecture of the Soviet Union under the leadership of Joseph Stalin, between 1933, when Boris Iofan's draft for Palace of the Soviets was officially approved, and 1955, when Nikita Khrushchev condemned "excesses" of the past decades and disbanded the Soviet Academy of Architecture.
Steel frame is a building technique with a "skeleton frame" of vertical steel columns and horizontal ibeam-beams, constructed in a rectangular grid to support the floors, roof and walls of a building which are all attached to the frame.
Stourhead is a 1,072-hectare (2,650-acre) estate at the source of the River Stour near Mere, Wiltshire, England.
Stowe House is a grade I listed country house in Stowe, Buckinghamshire, England.
Streamline Moderne, sometimes termed Art Moderne, is a late type of the Art Deco architecture and graphic design/style that emerged in the 1930s.
Stucco or render is a material made of aggregates, a binder and water.
Sergei Prokofiev began work on his Symphony No.
Thomas Ernest Hulme (16 September 1883 – 28 September 1917) was an English critic and poet who, through his writings on art, literature and politics, had a notable influence upon modernism.
Thomas Stearns Eliot, (26 September 1888 – 4 January 1965), was an essayist, publisher, playwright, literary and social critic, and "one of the twentieth century's major poets".
Teatre Nacional de Catalunya (TNC) (National Theatre of Catalonia) is a public theatre in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain created by the Culture Department of the Catalan Government.
A temple (from the Latin word templum) is a structure reserved for religious or spiritual rituals and activities such as prayer and sacrifice.
Thérésa Cabarrus, Madame Tallien (31 July 1773 – 15 January 1835), was a Spanish-born French noble, salon holder and social figure during the Revolution.
The Death of General Wolfe is a well-known 1770 painting by Anglo-American artist Benjamin West depicting the death of British General James Wolfe at the 1759 Battle of Quebec during the French and Indian War (which was the North American theater of the Seven Years' War).
The Death of Major Peirson, 6 January 1781 is a 1783 large oil painting by John Singleton Copley.
The Raft of the Medusa (Le Radeau de la Méduse) is an oil painting of 1818–1819 by the French Romantic painter and lithographer Théodore Géricault (1791–1824).
Thomas Jefferson (April 13, [O.S. April 2] 1743 – July 4, 1826) was an American Founding Father who was the principal author of the Declaration of Independence and later served as the third president of the United States from 1801 to 1809.
Timothy Aidan John Knox, (born 9 August 1962) is a British art historian and museum director.
Titus (Titus Flavius Caesar Vespasianus Augustus; 30 December 39 – 13 September 81 AD) was Roman emperor from 79 to 81.
Titus Junius Brutus (died c. 509 BC) was the elder son of Lucius Junius Brutus, who was one of Rome's first two consuls in 509 BC.
The toga, a distinctive garment of Ancient Rome, was a roughly semicircular cloth, between in length, draped over the shoulders and around the body.
A triumphal arch is a monumental structure in the shape of an archway with one or more arched passageways, often designed to span a road.
Taking its name from medieval troubadours, the Troubadour Style, style troubadour in French, was a somewhat derisive term for French historical painting of the early 19th century with idealised depictions of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance.
Trousers (British English) or pants (American English) are an item of clothing originating in Asia, worn from the waist to the ankles, covering both legs separately (rather than with cloth extending across both legs as in robes, skirts, and dresses).
The United States Capitol, often called the Capitol Building, is the home of the United States Congress, and the seat of the legislative branch of the U.S. federal government.
A vase is an open container.
Vernacular architecture is an architectural style that is designed based on local needs, availability of construction materials and reflecting local traditions.
The Victoria and Albert Museum (often abbreviated as the V&A) in London is the world's largest museum of decorative arts and design, housing a permanent collection of over 2.3 million objects.
The Villa Albani (later Villa Albani-Torlonia) in Rome was built at the Via Salaria for Cardinal Alessandro Albani, nephew of Pope Clement XI, between 1747 and 1767 by the architect Carlo Marchionni.
The visual arts are art forms such as ceramics, drawing, painting, sculpture, printmaking, design, crafts, photography, video, filmmaking, and architecture.
Vladimir Alekseyevich Shchuko (p; October 17, 1878 – January 19, 1939) was a Russian architect, member of the Saint Petersburg school of Russian neoclassical revival notable for his giant order apartment buildings "rejecting all trace of the moderne".
François-Marie Arouet (21 November 1694 – 30 May 1778), known by his nom de plume Voltaire, was a French Enlightenment writer, historian and philosopher famous for his wit, his attacks on Christianity as a whole, especially the established Catholic Church, and his advocacy of freedom of religion, freedom of speech and separation of church and state.
Warsaw (Warszawa; see also other names) is the capital and largest city of Poland.
Watson and the Shark is a 1778 oil painting by American painter John Singleton Copley, depicting the rescue of the English boy Brook Watson from a shark attack in Havana, Cuba.
Josiah Wedgwood and Sons, commonly known as Wedgwood, is a fine china, porcelain, and luxury accessories company founded on 1 May 1759 by English potter and entrepreneur Josiah Wedgwood.
William Henry Rinehart (September 13, 1825, Union Bridge, Maryland – October 28, 1874, Rome, Italy) was a noted American sculptor.
William Kent (c. 1685 – 12 April 1748) was an eminent English architect, landscape architect and furniture designer of the early 18th century.
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (27 January 1756 – 5 December 1791), baptised as Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart, was a prolific and influential composer of the classical era.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
Percy Wyndham Lewis (18 November 1882 – 7 March 1957) was an English writer, painter and critic (he dropped the name "Percy", which he disliked).
Fashion in the period 1795–1820 in European and European-influenced countries saw the final triumph of undress or informal styles over the brocades, lace, periwigs and powder of the earlier 18th century.
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