129 relations: Absorption band, Abundances of the elements (data page), Active laser medium, Aircraft, Allotropy, Alpha decay, Ancylite, Anticoagulant, Astronomy, Atomic number, Atomic Weapons Establishment, Bass guitar, Bastnäsite, Beta decay, Biocompatibility, Bolivia, Brazil, Calcium oxide, Canada, Carl Auer von Welsbach, Centimetre, Cerium, Chemical compound, Chemical element, Chemist, Coating, Cobalt, Compact fluorescent lamp, Copper, Crust (geology), Cryocooler, Cubic crystal system, Daylight, Decay product, Didymium, Diode-pumped solid-state laser, Double beta decay, Earth, Electric generator, Electric motor, Electrolysis, Electron capture, Embolism, Emission spectrum, Fertilizer, Fluorescent lamp, Forbidden mechanism, Glass, Gold, Guitar, ..., Half-life, Halide, Halogen, Hard disk drive, Headphones, Heat capacity, Hybrid vehicle, Incandescent light bulb, Inertial confinement fusion, Infrared, Ion, Ion exchange, Iron, Isotope, Joule, Kelvin, Lanthanide, Lanthanite, Laser, Laser pointer, Llallagua, Loudspeaker, Lower Saucon Township, Northampton County, Pennsylvania, Magnet, Mercury-vapor lamp, Metal, Microphone, Mining, Mischmetal, Monazite, Mont Saint-Hilaire, Mucous membrane, Nanometre, Natural abundance, Nd:YAG laser, Neodymium magnet, Neodymium magnet toys, Neodymium(III) bromide, Neodymium(III) chloride, Neodymium(III) oxide, Neodymium-doped yttrium lithium fluoride, Neodymium-doped yttrium orthovanadate, Nickel, Nitric acid, Nonlinear optics, Nuclear isomer, Optical frequency multiplier, Pennsylvania, Pickup (music technology), Positron emission, Praseodymium, Promethium, Quebec, Radioactive decay, Radionuclide, Rare-earth element, Redox, Salt (chemistry), Samarium–cobalt magnet, Samarium–neodymium dating, Selenium, Silicon dioxide, Solid-state laser, Spectral line, Spectroscopy, Sri Lanka, Sulfuric acid, Tarnish, Tin, Toyota Prius, Trichromacy, United States Geological Survey, Vienna, Vitreous enamel, Watt, Wavelength, Welding, Wind turbine, Yttrium aluminium garnet. Expand index (79 more) » « Shrink index
According to quantum mechanics, atoms and molecules can only hold certain defined quantities of energy, or exist in specific states.
The active laser medium (also called gain medium or lasing medium) is the source of optical gain within a laser.
An aircraft is a machine that is able to fly by gaining support from the air.
Allotropy or allotropism is the property of some chemical elements to exist in two or more different forms, in the same physical state, known as allotropes of these elements.
Alpha decay or α-decay is a type of radioactive decay in which an atomic nucleus emits an alpha particle (helium nucleus) and thereby transforms or 'decays' into an atom with a mass number that is reduced by four and an atomic number that is reduced by two.
Ancylite is a group of hydrous strontium carbonate minerals containing cerium, lanthanum and minor amounts of other rare-earth elements.
Anticoagulants, commonly referred to as blood thinners, are chemical substances that prevent or reduce coagulation of blood, prolonging the clotting time.
Astronomy (from ἀστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena.
The atomic number or proton number (symbol Z) of a chemical element is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom.
The Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE) is responsible for the design, manufacture and support of warheads for the United Kingdom's nuclear weapons.
The bass guitar (also known as electric bass, or bass) is a stringed instrument similar in appearance and construction to an electric guitar, except with a longer neck and scale length, and four to six strings or courses.
The mineral bastnäsite (or bastnaesite) is one of a family of three carbonate-fluoride minerals, which includes bastnäsite-(Ce) with a formula of (Ce, La)CO3F, bastnäsite-(La) with a formula of (La, Ce)CO3F, and bastnäsite-(Y) with a formula of (Y, Ce)CO3F.
In nuclear physics, beta decay (β-decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta ray (fast energetic electron or positron) and a neutrino are emitted from an atomic nucleus.
Biocompatibility is related to the behavior of biomaterials in various contexts.
Bolivia (Mborivia; Buliwya; Wuliwya), officially known as the Plurinational State of Bolivia (Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia), is a landlocked country located in western-central South America.
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
Calcium oxide (CaO), commonly known as quicklime or burnt lime, is a widely used chemical compound.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
Carl Auer von Welsbach, also known as Carl Auer, Freiherr von Welsbach (1 September 1858 – 4 August 1929) was an Austrian scientist and inventor, who had a talent not only for discovering advances, but also for turning them into commercially successful products.
A centimetre (international spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; symbol cm) or centimeter (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one hundredth of a metre, centi being the SI prefix for a factor of.
Cerium is a chemical element with symbol Ce and atomic number 58.
A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one element held together by chemical bonds.
A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).
A chemist (from Greek chēm (ía) alchemy; replacing chymist from Medieval Latin alchimista) is a scientist trained in the study of chemistry.
A coating is a covering that is applied to the surface of an object, usually referred to as the substrate.
Cobalt is a chemical element with symbol Co and atomic number 27.
A compact fluorescent lamp (CFL), also called compact fluorescent light, energy-saving light, and compact fluorescent tube, is a fluorescent lamp designed to replace an incandescent light bulb; some types fit into light fixtures designed for incandescent bulbs.
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
In geology, the crust is the outermost solid shell of a rocky planet, dwarf planet, or natural satellite.
A Cryocooler is a substration cooler, usually of table-top size.
In crystallography, the cubic (or isometric) crystal system is a crystal system where the unit cell is in the shape of a cube.
Daylight, or the light of day, is the combination of all direct and indirect sunlight during the daytime.
In nuclear physics, a decay product (also known as a daughter product, daughter isotope, radio-daughter, or daughter nuclide) is the remaining nuclide left over from radioactive decay.
Didymium (twin element) is a mixture of the elements praseodymium and neodymium.
Diode-pumped solid-state lasers (DPSSLs) are solid-state lasers made by pumping a solid gain medium, for example, a ruby or a neodymium-doped YAG crystal, with a laser diode.
In nuclear physics, double beta decay is a type of radioactive decay in which two protons are simultaneously transformed into two neutrons, or vice versa, inside an atomic nucleus.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
In electricity generation, a generator is a device that converts motive power (mechanical energy) into electrical power for use in an external circuit.
An electric motor is an electrical machine that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy.
In chemistry and manufacturing, electrolysis is a technique that uses a direct electric current (DC) to drive an otherwise non-spontaneous chemical reaction.
Electron capture (K-electron capture, also K-capture, or L-electron capture, L-capture) is a process in which the proton-rich nucleus of an electrically neutral atom absorbs an inner atomic electron, usually from the K or L electron shell.
An embolism is the lodging of an embolus, a blockage-causing piece of material, inside a blood vessel.
The emission spectrum of a chemical element or chemical compound is the spectrum of frequencies of electromagnetic radiation emitted due to an atom or molecule making a transition from a high energy state to a lower energy state.
A fertilizer (American English) or fertiliser (British English; see spelling differences) is any material of natural or synthetic origin (other than liming materials) that is applied to soils or to plant tissues to supply one or more plant nutrients essential to the growth of plants.
A fluorescent lamp, or fluorescent tube, is a low-pressure mercury-vapor gas-discharge lamp that uses fluorescence to produce visible light.
In spectroscopy, a forbidden mechanism (forbidden transition or forbidden line) is a spectral line associated with absorption or emission of light by atomic nuclei, atoms, or molecules which undergo a transition that is not allowed by a particular selection rule but is allowed if the approximation associated with that rule is not made.
Glass is a non-crystalline amorphous solid that is often transparent and has widespread practical, technological, and decorative usage in, for example, window panes, tableware, and optoelectronics.
Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.
The guitar is a fretted musical instrument that usually has six strings.
Half-life (symbol t1⁄2) is the time required for a quantity to reduce to half its initial value.
A halide is a binary phase, of which one part is a halogen atom and the other part is an element or radical that is less electronegative (or more electropositive) than the halogen, to make a fluoride, chloride, bromide, iodide, astatide, or theoretically tennesside compound.
The halogens are a group in the periodic table consisting of five chemically related elements: fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), iodine (I), and astatine (At).
A hard disk drive (HDD), hard disk, hard drive or fixed disk is an electromechanical data storage device that uses magnetic storage to store and retrieve digital information using one or more rigid rapidly rotating disks (platters) coated with magnetic material.
Headphones (or head-phones in the early days of telephony and radio) are a pair of small loudspeaker drivers worn on or around the head over a user's ears.
Heat capacity or thermal capacity is a measurable physical quantity equal to the ratio of the heat added to (or removed from) an object to the resulting temperature change.
A hybrid vehicle uses two or more distinct types of power, such as internal combustion engine to drive an electric generator that powers an electric motor, e.g. in diesel-electric trains using diesel engines to drive an electric generator that powers an electric motor, and submarines that use diesels when surfaced and batteries when submerged.
An incandescent light bulb, incandescent lamp or incandescent light globe is an electric light with a wire filament heated to such a high temperature that it glows with visible light (incandescence).
Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is a type of fusion energy research that attempts to initiate nuclear fusion reactions by heating and compressing a fuel target, typically in the form of a pellet that most often contains a mixture of deuterium and tritium.
Infrared radiation (IR) is electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, and is therefore generally invisible to the human eye (although IR at wavelengths up to 1050 nm from specially pulsed lasers can be seen by humans under certain conditions). It is sometimes called infrared light.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
Ion exchange is an exchange of ions between two electrolytes or between an electrolyte solution and a complex.
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number.
The joule (symbol: J) is a derived unit of energy in the International System of Units.
The Kelvin scale is an absolute thermodynamic temperature scale using as its null point absolute zero, the temperature at which all thermal motion ceases in the classical description of thermodynamics.
The lanthanide or lanthanoid series of chemical elements comprises the 15 metallic chemical elements with atomic numbers 57 through 71, from lanthanum through lutetium.
Lanthanites are a group of isostructural rare earth element (REE) carbonate minerals.
A laser is a device that emits light through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation.
A laser pointer or laser pen is a small handheld device with a power source (usually a battery) and a laser diode emitting a very narrow coherent low-powered laser beam of visible light, intended to be used to highlight something of interest by illuminating it with a small bright spot of colored light.
Llallagua (in hispanicized spelling) or Llallawa (Aymara for a monstrous potato (like two potatoes) or animal, Quechua for the god of seed-time during the Inca period) is a town in the Potosí Department in Bolivia.
A loudspeaker (or loud-speaker or speaker) is an electroacoustic transducer; which converts an electrical audio signal into a corresponding sound.
Lower Saucon Township is a township in Northampton County, Pennsylvania, United States.
A magnet is a material or object that produces a magnetic field.
A mercury-vapor lamp is a gas discharge lamp that uses an electric arc through vaporized mercury to produce light.
A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is a material (an element, compound, or alloy) that is typically hard when in solid state, opaque, shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity.
A microphone, colloquially nicknamed mic or mike, is a transducer that converts sound into an electrical signal.
Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth, usually from an orebody, lode, vein, seam, reef or placer deposit.
Mischmetal (from Mischmetall – "mixed metal") is an alloy of rare-earth elements.
Monazite is a reddish-brown phosphate mineral containing rare-earth metals.
Mont Saint-Hilaire (in English: Mount Saint-Hilaire), (see names of mont Saint-Hilaire for other names) is an isolated hill, high, in the Montérégie region of southern Quebec.
A mucous membrane or mucosa is a membrane that lines various cavities in the body and covers the surface of internal organs.
The nanometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: nm) or nanometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one billionth (short scale) of a metre (m).
In physics, natural abundance (NA) refers to the abundance of isotopes of a chemical element as naturally found on a planet.
Nd:YAG (neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet; Nd:Y3Al5O12) is a crystal that is used as a lasing medium for solid-state lasers.
A neodymium magnet (also known as NdFeB, NIB or Neo magnet), the most widely used type of rare-earth magnet, is a permanent magnet made from an alloy of neodymium, iron and boron to form the Nd2Fe14B tetragonal crystalline structure.
Neodymium magnets, usually small spheres, have been manufactured as educational toys, stress relief products, and an artistic medium.
Neodymium(III) bromide is a compound of one neodymium atom and three bromine atoms.
Neodymium(III) chloride or neodymium trichloride is a chemical compound of neodymium and chlorine with the formula NdCl3.
Neodymium(III) oxide or neodymium sesquioxide is the chemical compound composed of neodymium and oxygen with the formula Nd2O3.
Neodymium-doped yttrium lithium fluoride (Nd:YLF) is a lasing medium for arc lamp-pumped and diode-pumped solid-state lasers.
Neodymium-doped yttrium orthovanadate (Nd:YVO4) is a crystalline material formed by adding neodymium ions to yttrium orthovanadate.
Nickel is a chemical element with symbol Ni and atomic number 28.
Nitric acid (HNO3), also known as aqua fortis (Latin for "strong water") and spirit of niter, is a highly corrosive mineral acid.
Nonlinear optics (NLO) is the branch of optics that describes the behavior of light in nonlinear media, that is, media in which the dielectric polarization P responds nonlinearly to the electric field E of the light.
A nuclear isomer is a metastable state of an atomic nucleus caused by the excitation of one or more of its nucleons (protons or neutrons).
An optical frequency multiplier is a nonlinear optical device in which photons interacting with a nonlinear material are effectively "combined" to form new photons with greater energy, and thus higher frequency (and shorter wavelength).
Pennsylvania (Pennsylvania German: Pennsylvaani or Pennsilfaani), officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States.
A pickup is a transducer that captures or senses mechanical vibrations produced by musical instruments, particularly stringed instruments such as the electric guitar, and converts these to an electrical signal that is amplified using an instrument amplifier to produce musical sounds through a loudspeaker in a speaker enclosure.
Positron emission or beta plus decay (β+ decay) is a subtype of radioactive decay called beta decay, in which a proton inside a radionuclide nucleus is converted into a neutron while releasing a positron and an electron neutrino (νe).
Praseodymium is a chemical element with symbol Pr and atomic number 59.
Promethium is a chemical element with symbol Pm and atomic number 61.
Quebec (Québec)According to the Canadian government, Québec (with the acute accent) is the official name in French and Quebec (without the accent) is the province's official name in English; the name is.
Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.
A radionuclide (radioactive nuclide, radioisotope or radioactive isotope) is an atom that has excess nuclear energy, making it unstable.
A rare-earth element (REE) or rare-earth metal (REM), as defined by IUPAC, is one of a set of seventeen chemical elements in the periodic table, specifically the fifteen lanthanides, as well as scandium and yttrium.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
In chemistry, a salt is an ionic compound that can be formed by the neutralization reaction of an acid and a base.
A samarium–cobalt (SmCo) magnet, a type of rare earth magnet, is a strong permanent magnet made of an alloy of samarium and cobalt.
Samarium–neodymium dating is a radiometric dating method useful for determining the ages of rocks and meteorites, based on radioactive decay of a long-lived samarium (Sm) isotope to a radiogenic neodymium (Nd) isotope.
Selenium is a chemical element with symbol Se and atomic number 34.
Silicon dioxide, also known as silica (from the Latin silex), is an oxide of silicon with the chemical formula, most commonly found in nature as quartz and in various living organisms.
A solid-state laser is a laser that uses a gain medium that is a solid, rather than a liquid such as in dye lasers or a gas as in gas lasers.
A spectral line is a dark or bright line in an otherwise uniform and continuous spectrum, resulting from emission or absorption of light in a narrow frequency range, compared with the nearby frequencies.
Spectroscopy is the study of the interaction between matter and electromagnetic radiation.
Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්රී ලංකා; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea.
Sulfuric acid (alternative spelling sulphuric acid) is a mineral acid with molecular formula H2SO4.
Tarnish is a thin layer of corrosion that forms over copper, brass, silver, aluminum, magnesium, neodymium and other similar metals as their outermost layer undergoes a chemical reaction.
Tin is a chemical element with the symbol Sn (from stannum) and atomic number 50.
The Toyota Prius (Japanese:トヨタプリウス)() is a full hybrid electric automobile developed by Toyota and manufactured by the company since 1997.
Trichromacy or trichromatism is the possessing of three independent channels for conveying color information, derived from the three different types of cone cells in the eye.
The United States Geological Survey (USGS, formerly simply Geological Survey) is a scientific agency of the United States government.
Vienna (Wien) is the federal capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria.
Vitreous enamel, also called porcelain enamel, is a material made by fusing powdered glass to a substrate by firing, usually between.
The watt (symbol: W) is a unit of power.
In physics, the wavelength is the spatial period of a periodic wave—the distance over which the wave's shape repeats.
Welding is a fabrication or sculptural process that joins materials, usually metals or thermoplastics, by causing fusion, which is distinct from lower temperature metal-joining techniques such as brazing and soldering, which do not melt the base metal.
A wind turbine is a device that converts the wind's kinetic energy into electrical energy.
Yttrium aluminium garnet (YAG, Y3Al5O12) is a synthetic crystalline material of the garnet group.