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Index Neolithic

The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC. [1]

338 relations: 'Ain Ghazal, Aşıklı Höyük, Accelerator mass spectrometry, Adze, Agriculture, Agriculture in Papua New Guinea, Ain Mallaha, Albania, Aleppo, Alps, American Antiquity, American Association for the Advancement of Science, Americas, Amman, Anatolia, Ancient Greek, Ancient Hawaii, Ancient Near East, Animal husbandry, Archaeological Institute of America, Archaeology (magazine), Archaic human admixture with modern humans, Archaic humans, Archaic period (North America), ASPRO chronology, Attersee (lake), Çatalhöyük, Ötzi, Ġgantija, Ħal-Saflieni Hypogeum, Balochistan, Pakistan, Banpo, Baodun culture, Bead, Beaker culture, Beifudi, Beixin culture, Bhirrana, Big man (anthropology), Brú na Bóinne, British Isles, Bronze Age, Brown University, Bulgaria, Byblos, Cambridge University Press, Canoe, Cardium pottery, Carriageway, Cattle, ..., Causewayed enclosure, Céide Fields, Central Anatolia Region, Central Asia, Central Europe, Cereal, Chalcolithic, Chalcolithic Europe, Chamber tomb, Chengtoushan, Chiefdom, China, Chogha Bonut, Cishan culture, City, Corded Ware culture, Cortaillod culture, Cremation, Crete, Cucuteni–Trypillia culture, Cursus, Cyprus, Dadiwan culture, Danielle Stordeur, Dark faced burnished ware, Dawenkou culture, Daxi culture, Diet (nutrition), Disease, Dolmen, Domestic pig, Domestication, Domestication of animals, Drought, Dryland farming, Dudești culture, Earthenware, Egypt, Einkorn wheat, Elam, Emmer, England, Epipalaeolithic, Erlitou culture, Ertebølle culture, Eurasia, Europe, Famine, Farm, Fertile Crescent, Ficus, Figurine, Formative stage, Franchthi Cave, Frédéric Abbès, Funnelbeaker culture, Gangwon Province, South Korea, Ganj Dareh, Gaudo culture, Göbekli Tepe, Gilgal I, Goat, Goseck circle, Goseong County, Gangwon, Gozo, Graeme Barker, Great Lakes, Greece, Grooved ware, Guilá Naquitz Cave, Halaf culture, Haryana, Hatchet, Heavy Neolithic, Hebei, Hembury, Hemudu culture, Henge, History of agriculture, Holocene, Homo sapiens, Hongshan culture, Horgen, Houli culture, Human migration, Hunter-gatherer, Ideogram, India, Institute of Archaeology, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Iran, Ireland, Iron Age, Irrigation, Jacques Cauvin, Jade, Jōmon period, Jericho, Jhusi, Jiahu, Jinsha site, John Lubbock, 1st Baron Avebury, Jordan, Jordan Valley (Middle East), Joukowsky Institute for Archaeology and the Ancient World, Kacchi Plain, Körös culture, Kfar HaHoresh, Khiamian, Khirokitia, Knap of Howar, Knossos, Korean Peninsula, Lahuradewa, Lajia, Lebanon, Lengyel culture, Levant, Liangzhu culture, Linear Pottery culture, Linen, List of archaeological periods (North America), List of archaeological sites by country, List of Neolithic cultures of China, Ljubljana Marshes, Long barrow, Longshan culture, Loom, Lough Gur, Maison de l'Orient et de la Méditerranée, Majiabang culture, Majiayao culture, Malta, Marxism, Mauritania, Megafauna, Megalith, Megalithic Temples of Malta, Mehrgarh, Mesoamerican chronology, Mesolithic, Mesopotamia, Metallurgy in pre-Columbian Mesoamerica, Mexico, Millet, Millstone, Mnajdra, Moldova, Mondsee (lake), Mudbrick, Mumun pottery period, Mureybet, Myanmar, Nahal Oren (archaeological site), Nanzhuangtou, National Geographic Society, Natufian culture, Near East, Necropolis, Neolithic circular enclosures in Central Europe, Neolithic Europe, Neolithic long house, Neolithic Revolution, Neolithic tomb, Neologism, Nevalı Çori, New Guinea, Nomad, Norte Chico civilization, Oaxaca, Origin of the domestic dog, Orkney, Pacific Ocean, Padah-Lin Caves, Pakistan, Paleo-Indians, Paleolithic, Palisade, Paola, Malta, Peiligang culture, Pengtoushan, Periodization of pre-Columbian Peru, Peru, Pest control, Petnica, Pfyn culture, Philippines, Pictogram, Pit–Comb Ware culture, Plaster, Plastered human skulls, Po Valley, Porodin, Potter's wheel, Pottery, Pre-Pottery Neolithic A, Pre-Pottery Neolithic B, Prehistoric North Africa, Prehistoric Scotland, Prehistory of Australia, Primitive communism, Projectile point, Quezon, Palawan, Qujialing culture, Republic of Macedonia, Rhine, Rock art of the Djelfa region, Romania, Salt, Sanitation, Sanxingdui, Science (journal), Scientific evidence, Selective breeding, Serbia, Sesklo, Sheep, Shijiahe culture, Sickle, Skara Brae, Slovenia, Social stratification, South Asian Stone Age, South Korea, Spear, Spelt, Spindle (textiles), Stara Zagora, Starčevo culture, Starčevo–Kőrös–Criș culture, State (polity), Stilt house, Stone Age, Stone tool, Stonehenge, Subsistence economy, Sumer, Sweet Track, Syria, Tabon Caves, Tagant Plateau, Tahunian, Taihang Mountains, Talheim Death Pit, Tamil Nadu, Technology, Tell Aswad, Tell Qaramel, Tell Zeidan, Terramare culture, The Korea Times, Three-age system, Tichit, Tishrin Dam, Tomb, Town, Trans-cultural diffusion, Transhumance, Tribal chief, Tribe, Tumulus, Turkey, Two layer hypothesis, Type site, Ubaid period, Ukraine, Upper Austria, Upper Paleolithic, V. Gordon Childe, Varna culture, Veneration of the dead, Vinča culture, Vinča symbols, Wattle and daub, West Bank, Western Asia, Western New Guinea, Wiley-Blackwell, Windmill Hill culture, Woolen, Xia dynasty, Xinglongwa culture, Xinle culture, Xishuipo, Yangshao culture, Yi County, Hebei, Younger Dryas, Zhaobaogou culture, 7th millennium BC. Expand index (288 more) »

'Ain Ghazal

Ayn Ghazal (Ain Ghazal, ʿayn ġazāl عين غزال) is a neolithic archaeological site located in metropolitan Amman, Jordan, about 2 km north-west of Amman Civil Airport.

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Aşıklı Höyük

Aşıklı Höyük is a settlement mound located nearly 1 km south of Kızılkaya village on the bank of the Melendiz brook, and 25 kilometers south - east of Aksaray, Turkey.

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Accelerator mass spectrometry

Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is a form of mass spectrometry that accelerates ions to extraordinarily high kinetic energies before mass analysis.

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The adze (alternative spelling: adz) is a cutting tool shaped somewhat like an axe that dates back to the stone age.

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Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.

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Agriculture in Papua New Guinea

Agriculture in Papua New Guinea has a more than 7,000 years old history.

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Ain Mallaha

Ain Mallaha, also known as Eynan, was a Natufian settlement built and settled circa 10,000–8,000 BCE.

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Albania (Shqipëri/Shqipëria; Shqipni/Shqipnia or Shqypni/Shqypnia), officially the Republic of Albania (Republika e Shqipërisë), is a country in Southeastern Europe.

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Aleppo (ﺣﻠﺐ / ALA-LC) is a city in Syria, serving as the capital of the Aleppo Governorate, the most-populous Syrian governorate.

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The Alps (Alpes; Alpen; Alpi; Alps; Alpe) are the highest and most extensive mountain range system that lies entirely in Europe,The Caucasus Mountains are higher, and the Urals longer, but both lie partly in Asia.

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American Antiquity

The professional journal American Antiquity is published by the Society for American Archaeology, the largest organization of professional archaeologists of the Americas in the world.

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American Association for the Advancement of Science

The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) is an American international non-profit organization with the stated goals of promoting cooperation among scientists, defending scientific freedom, encouraging scientific responsibility, and supporting scientific education and science outreach for the betterment of all humanity.

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The Americas (also collectively called America)"America." The Oxford Companion to the English Language.

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Amman (عمّان) is the capital and most populous city of Jordan, and the country's economic, political and cultural centre.

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Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.

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Ancient Greek

The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.

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Ancient Hawaii

Ancient Hawaii is the period of Hawaiian human history preceding the unification in 1810 of the Kingdom of Hawaiokinai by Kamehameha the Great.

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Ancient Near East

The ancient Near East was the home of early civilizations within a region roughly corresponding to the modern Middle East: Mesopotamia (modern Iraq, southeast Turkey, southwest Iran, northeastern Syria and Kuwait), ancient Egypt, ancient Iran (Elam, Media, Parthia and Persia), Anatolia/Asia Minor and Armenian Highlands (Turkey's Eastern Anatolia Region, Armenia, northwestern Iran, southern Georgia, and western Azerbaijan), the Levant (modern Syria, Lebanon, Palestine, Israel, and Jordan), Cyprus and the Arabian Peninsula.

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Animal husbandry

Animal husbandry is the branch of agriculture concerned with animals that are raised for meat, fibre, milk, eggs, or other products.

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Archaeological Institute of America

The Archaeological Institute of America (AIA) is a North American nonprofit organization devoted to the promotion of public interest in archaeology, and the preservation of archaeological sites.

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Archaeology (magazine)

Archaeology is a bimonthly magazine for the general public, published by the Archaeological Institute of America.

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Archaic human admixture with modern humans

There is evidence for interbreeding between archaic and modern humans during the Middle Paleolithic and early Upper Paleolithic.

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Archaic humans

A number of varieties of Homo are grouped into the broad category of archaic humans in the period contemporary and predating the emergence of the earliest anatomically modern humans (Homo sapiens) over 315 kya.

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Archaic period (North America)

In the classification of the archaeological cultures of North America, the Archaic period or "Meso-Indian period" in North America, accepted to be from around 8000 to 1000 BC in the sequence of North American pre-Columbian cultural stages, is a period defined by the archaic stage of cultural development.

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ASPRO chronology

The ASPRO chronology is a nine-period dating system of the ancient Near East used by the Maison de l'Orient et de la Méditerranée for archaeological sites aged between 14,000 and 5,700 BP.

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Attersee (lake)

Attersee, also known as Kammersee, English sometimes Lake Atter, is the largest lake of the Salzkammergut region in the Austrian state of Upper Austria.

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Çatalhöyük (also Çatal Höyük and Çatal Hüyük; from Turkish çatal "fork" + höyük "mound") was a very large Neolithic and Chalcolithic proto-city settlement in southern Anatolia, which existed from approximately 7500 BC to 5700 BC, and flourished around 7000 BC.

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Ötzi (also called the Iceman, the Similaun Man, the Man from Hauslabjoch, the Tyrolean Iceman, and the Hauslabjoch mummy) is a nickname given to the well-preserved natural mummy of a man who lived between 3400 and 3100 BCE.

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Ġgantija ("Giants' Tower") is a megalithic temple complex from the Neolithic on the Mediterranean island of Gozo.

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Ħal-Saflieni Hypogeum

The Hypogeum of Ħal-Saflieni is a Neolithic subterranean structure dating to the Saflieni phase (3300 – 3000 BC) in Maltese prehistory, located in Paola, Malta.

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Balochistan, Pakistan

Balochistan (bəloːt͡ʃɪs't̪ɑːn) (بلوچِستان), is one of the five provinces of Pakistan.

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Banpo (Bànpō) is an archaeological site discovered in 1953 and located in the Yellow River Valley just east of Xi'an, China.

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Baodun culture

The Baodun culture (2700 BC – 1700 BC) was a Neolithic culture centered on the Chengdu Plain in Sichuan, China.

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A bead is a small, decorative object that is formed in a variety of shapes and sizes of a material such as stone, bone, shell, glass, plastic, wood or pearl and with a small hole for threading or stringing.

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Beaker culture

The Bell-Beaker culture (sometimes shortened to Beaker culture), is the term for a widely scattered archaeological culture of prehistoric western and Central Europe, starting in the late Neolithic or Chalcolithic and running into the early Bronze Age (in British terminology).

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Beifudi is an archaeological site and Neolithic village in Yi County, Hebei, China.

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Beixin culture

The Beixin culture (5300–4100 BC) was a Neolithic culture in Shandong, China.

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Bhirrana, also Bhirdana and Birhana, (भिरड़ाना) is a small village located in Fatehabad District, in the Indian state of Haryana.

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Big man (anthropology)

A big man is a highly influential individual in a tribe, especially in Melanesia and Polynesia.

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Brú na Bóinne

Brú na Bóinne (Palace of the Boyne or Mansion of the Boyne) or Boyne valley tombs, is an area in County Meath, Ireland, located in a bend of the River Boyne.

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British Isles

The British Isles are a group of islands off the north-western coast of continental Europe that consist of the islands of Great Britain, Ireland, the Isle of Man and over six thousand smaller isles.

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Bronze Age

The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.

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Brown University

Brown University is a private Ivy League research university in Providence, Rhode Island, United States.

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Bulgaria (България, tr.), officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Република България, tr.), is a country in southeastern Europe.

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Byblos, in Arabic Jbail (جبيل Lebanese Arabic pronunciation:; Phoenician: 𐤂𐤁𐤋 Gebal), is a Middle Eastern city on Levant coast in the Mount Lebanon Governorate, Lebanon.

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Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

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A canoe is a lightweight narrow vessel, typically pointed at both ends and open on top, propelled by one or more seated or kneeling paddlers facing the direction of travel using a single-bladed paddle.

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Cardium pottery

Cardium pottery or Cardial ware is a Neolithic decorative style that gets its name from the imprinting of the clay with the shell of the cockle, an edible marine mollusk formerly known as Cardium edulis (now Cerastoderma edule).

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A carriageway (British English) or roadway (North American English) consists of a width of road on which a vehicle is not restricted by any physical barriers or separation to move laterally.

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Cattle—colloquially cows—are the most common type of large domesticated ungulates.

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Causewayed enclosure

A causewayed enclosure is a type of large prehistoric earthwork common to the early Neolithic in Europe.

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Céide Fields

The Céide Fields is an archaeological site on the north County Mayo coast in the west of Ireland, about 7 kilometres northwest of Ballycastle.

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Central Anatolia Region

The Central Anatolia Region (İç Anadolu Bölgesi) is a geographical region of Turkey.

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Central Asia

Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.

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Central Europe

Central Europe is the region comprising the central part of Europe.

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A cereal is any edible components of the grain (botanically, a type of fruit called a caryopsis) of cultivated grass, composed of the endosperm, germ, and bran.

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The Chalcolithic (The New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998), p. 301: "Chalcolithic /,kælkəl'lɪθɪk/ adjective Archaeology of, relating to, or denoting a period in the 4th and 3rd millennium BCE, chiefly in the Near East and SE Europe, during which some weapons and tools were made of copper. This period was still largely Neolithic in character. Also called Eneolithic... Also called Copper Age - Origin early 20th cent.: from Greek khalkos 'copper' + lithos 'stone' + -ic". χαλκός khalkós, "copper" and λίθος líthos, "stone") period or Copper Age, in particular for eastern Europe often named Eneolithic or Æneolithic (from Latin aeneus "of copper"), was a period in the development of human technology, before it was discovered that adding tin to copper formed the harder bronze, leading to the Bronze Age.

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Chalcolithic Europe

Chalcolithic Europe, the Chalcolithic (also Aeneolithic, Copper Age) period of Prehistoric Europe, lasted roughly from 3500 to 1700 BC.

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Chamber tomb

A chamber tomb is a tomb for burial used in many different cultures.

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Chengtoushan was a Neolithic settlement located on the northwestern edge of Dongting Lake in Li County, Hunan, China.

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A chiefdom is a form of hierarchical political organization in non-industrial societies usually based on kinship, and in which formal leadership is monopolized by the legitimate senior members of select families or 'houses'.

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China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.

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Chogha Bonut

Chogha Bonut (Persian Choghā bonut) is an archaeological site in south-western Iran, located in the Khuzistan Province.

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Cishan culture

The Cishan culture (6500–5000 BC) was a Neolithic culture in northern China, on the eastern foothills of the Taihang Mountains.

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A city is a large human settlement.

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Corded Ware culture

The Corded Ware culture (Schnurkeramik; céramique cordée; touwbekercultuur) comprises a broad archaeological horizon of Europe between 2900 BCE – circa 2350 BCE, thus from the late Neolithic, through the Copper Age, and ending in the early Bronze Age.

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Cortaillod culture

The Cortaillod culture is one of several archaeologically defined cultures belonging to the Neolithic period of Switzerland.

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Cremation is the combustion, vaporization, and oxidation of cadavers to basic chemical compounds, such as gases, ashes and mineral fragments retaining the appearance of dry bone.

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Crete (Κρήτη,; Ancient Greek: Κρήτη, Krḗtē) is the largest and most populous of the Greek islands, the 88th largest island in the world and the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, after Sicily, Sardinia, Cyprus, and Corsica.

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Cucuteni–Trypillia culture

The Cucuteni–Trypillia culture (and), also known as the Tripolye culture, is a Neolithic–Eneolithic archaeological culture (5200 to 3500 BC) in Eastern Europe.

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Stonehenge Cursus, Wiltshire Dorset Cursus terminal on Thickthorn Down, Dorset Cursus monuments are Neolithic structures which represent some of the oldest prehistoric monumental structures of the Islands of Britain and Ireland.

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Cyprus (Κύπρος; Kıbrıs), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία; Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean.

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Dadiwan culture

The Dadiwan culture (ca. 7900–7200 BP) was a Neolithic culture located primarily in the eastern portion of Gansu and Shaanxi provinces in modern China.

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Danielle Stordeur

Danielle Stordeur is a French Archaeologist and Directeur de Recherche at the CNRS.

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Dark faced burnished ware

Dark Faced Burnished Ware or DFBW is the earliest form of pottery developed in the western world.

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Dawenkou culture

The Dawenkou culture is a name given by archaeologists to a group of Neolithic communities who lived primarily in Shandong, but also appeared in Anhui, Henan and Jiangsu, China.

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Daxi culture

The Daxi culture (5000–3300 BC) was a Neolithic culture centered in the Three Gorges region around the middle Yangtze, China.

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Diet (nutrition)

In nutrition, diet is the sum of food consumed by a person or other organism.

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A disease is any condition which results in the disorder of a structure or function in an organism that is not due to any external injury.

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A dolmen is a type of single-chamber megalithic tomb, usually consisting of two or more vertical megaliths supporting a large flat horizontal capstone or "table".

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Domestic pig

The domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus or only Sus domesticus), often called swine, hog, or simply pig when there is no need to distinguish it from other pigs, is a large, even-toed ungulate.

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Domestication is a sustained multi-generational relationship in which one group of organisms assumes a significant degree of influence over the reproduction and care of another group to secure a more predictable supply of resources from that second group.

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Domestication of animals

The domestication of animals is the mutual relationship between animals and the humans who have influence on their care and reproduction.

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A drought is a period of below-average precipitation in a given region, resulting in prolonged shortages in the water supply, whether atmospheric, surface water or ground water.

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Dryland farming

Dryland farming and dry farming are agricultural techniques for non-irrigated cultivation of crops.

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Dudești culture

The Dudeşti culture is a farming/herding culture that occupied part of Romania in the 6th millennium BC, typified by semi-subterranean habitations (Zemlyanki) on the edges of low plateaus.

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Earthenware is glazed or unglazed nonvitreous pottery that has normally been fired below 1200°C.

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Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.

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Einkorn wheat

Einkorn wheat (from German Einkorn, literally "single grain") can refer either to the wild species of wheat, Triticum boeoticum, or to the domesticated form, Triticum monococcum.

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Elam (Elamite: haltamti, Sumerian: NIM.MAki) was an ancient Pre-Iranian civilization centered in the far west and southwest of what is now modern-day Iran, stretching from the lowlands of what is now Khuzestan and Ilam Province as well as a small part of southern Iraq.

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Emmer wheat, also known as farro especially in Italy, or hulled wheat, is a type of awned wheat.

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England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.

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In archaeology, the Epipalaeolithic, Epipaleolithic (sometimes Epi-paleolithic etc) is a term for a period intervening between the Upper Paleolithic and Neolithic in the Stone Age.

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Erlitou culture

The Erlitou culture was an early Bronze Age urban society and archaeological culture that existed in the Yellow River valley from approximately 1900 to 1500 BC.

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Ertebølle culture

The Ertebølle culture (ca 5300 BC – 3950 BC) is the name of a hunter-gatherer and fisher, pottery-making culture dating to the end of the Mesolithic period.

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Eurasia is a combined continental landmass of Europe and Asia.

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Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.

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A famine is a widespread scarcity of food, caused by several factors including war, inflation, crop failure, population imbalance, or government policies.

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A farm is an area of land that is devoted primarily to agricultural processes with the primary objective of producing food and other crops; it is the basic facility in food production.

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Fertile Crescent

The Fertile Crescent (also known as the "cradle of civilization") is a crescent-shaped region where agriculture and early human civilizations like the Sumer and Ancient Egypt flourished due to inundations from the surrounding Nile, Euphrates, and Tigris rivers.

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Ficus is a genus of about 850 species of woody trees, shrubs, vines, epiphytes and hemiepiphytes in the family Moraceae.

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A figurine (a diminutive form of the word figure) or statuette is a small statue that represents a human, deity or animal, or in practice a pair or small group of them.

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Formative stage

Several chronologies in the archaeology of the Americas include a Formative Period or Formative stage etc.

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Franchthi Cave

Franchthi cave or Frankhthi cave (Σπήλαιον Φράγχθη) is a cave overlooking the Argolic Gulf opposite the village of Koilada in southeastern Argolis, Greece.

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Frédéric Abbès

Frédéric Abbès is a French archaeologist working on postdoctoral research, specialising in the stone or lithic industry of the Near East and Mediterranean.

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Funnelbeaker culture

The Funnel(-neck-)beaker culture, in short TRB or TBK (German: Trichter(-rand-)becherkultur, Dutch: Trechterbekercultuur; c. 4300 BC–c. 2800 BC) was an archaeological culture in north-central Europe.

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Gangwon Province, South Korea

Gangwon-do is a province of South Korea, with its capital at Chuncheon.

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Ganj Dareh

Ganj Dareh (Persian: تپه گنج دره; "Treasure Valley" in Persian,Smith, Philip E.L., World Archaeology, Vol. 21, No. 3 (February, 1990), pp. 323-335 or "Treasure Valley Hill" if tepe/tappeh (hill) is appended to the name) is a Neolithic settlement in the Iranian Kurdistan.

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Gaudo culture

The Gaudo Culture is a neolithic culture from Southern Italy, primarily in the region of Campania, active at the beginning of the 3rd millennium BC, whose typesite necropolis is located near Paestum, not far from the mouth of the river Sele.

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Göbekli Tepe

Göbekli Tepe, Turkish for "Potbelly Hill", is an archaeological site in the Southeastern Anatolia Region of Turkey, approximately northeast of the city of Şanlıurfa.

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Gilgal I

Gilgal I (גלגל.) is an archaeological site in the Jordan Valley, West Bank, dated to the Neolithic period.

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The domestic goat (Capra aegagrus hircus) is a subspecies of goat domesticated from the wild goat of southwest Asia and Eastern Europe.

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Goseck circle

The Goseck circle (German: Sonnenobservatorium Goseck) is a Neolithic structure in Goseck in the Burgenlandkreis district in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany.

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Goseong County, Gangwon

Goseong (Goseong-gun) is a county in Gangwon Province, South Korea.

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Gozo (Għawdex,, formerly Gaulos) is an island of the Maltese archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea.

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Graeme Barker

Graeme William Walter Barker, CBE, FBA (born 23 October 1946) is a British archaeologist, notable for his work on the Italian Bronze Age, the Roman occupation of Libya, and landscape archaeology.

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Great Lakes

The Great Lakes (les Grands-Lacs), also called the Laurentian Great Lakes and the Great Lakes of North America, are a series of interconnected freshwater lakes located primarily in the upper mid-east region of North America, on the Canada–United States border, which connect to the Atlantic Ocean through the Saint Lawrence River.

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No description.

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Grooved ware

Grooved ware is the name given to a pottery style of the British Neolithic.

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Guilá Naquitz Cave

Guilá Naquitz Cave in Oaxaca, Mexico is the site of early domestication of several food crops, including teosinte (an ancestor of maize), squash from the genus Cucurbita, bottle gourds (Lagenaria siceraria), and beans.

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Halaf culture

The Halaf culture is a prehistoric period which lasted between about 6100 BCE and 5100 BCE.

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Haryana, carved out of the former state of East Punjab on 1November 1966 on linguistic basis, is one of the 29 states in India.

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A hatchet (from the Old French hachete, a diminutive form of hache, 'axe' of Germanic origin) is a single-handed striking tool with a sharp blade on one side used to cut and split wood, and a hammer head on the other side.

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Heavy Neolithic

Heavy Neolithic (alternatively, Gigantolithic) is a style of large stone and flint tools (or industry) associated primarily with the Qaraoun culture in the Beqaa Valley, Lebanon, dating to the Epipaleolithic or early Pre-pottery Neolithic at the end of the Stone Age.

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Hebei (postal: Hopeh) is a province of China in the North China region.

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Hembury is a Neolithic causewayed enclosure and Iron Age hill fort near Honiton in Devon.

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Hemudu culture

The Hemudu culture (5500 BC to 3300 BC) was a Neolithic culture that flourished just south of the Hangzhou Bay in Jiangnan in modern Yuyao, Zhejiang, China.

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There are three related types of Neolithic earthwork that are all sometimes loosely called henges.

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History of agriculture

The history of agriculture records the domestication of plants and animals and the development and dissemination of techniques for raising them productively.

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The Holocene is the current geological epoch.

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Homo sapiens

Homo sapiens is the systematic name used in taxonomy (also known as binomial nomenclature) for the only extant human species.

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Hongshan culture

The Hongshan culture was a Neolithic culture in northeastern China.

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Horgen is a municipality in the district of Horgen in the canton of Zürich in Switzerland.

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Houli culture

The Houli culture (6500–5500 BC) was a Neolithic culture in Shandong, China.

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Human migration

Human migration is the movement by people from one place to another with the intentions of settling, permanently or temporarily in a new location.

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A hunter-gatherer is a human living in a society in which most or all food is obtained by foraging (collecting wild plants and pursuing wild animals), in contrast to agricultural societies, which rely mainly on domesticated species.

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An ideogram or ideograph (from Greek ἰδέα idéa "idea" and γράφω gráphō "to write") is a graphic symbol that represents an idea or concept, independent of any particular language, and specific words or phrases.

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India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.

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Institute of Archaeology, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences

The Institute of Archaeology (IA) is a constituent institute of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (CASS), based in Beijing, China.

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Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).

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Ireland (Éire; Ulster-Scots: Airlann) is an island in the North Atlantic.

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Iron Age

The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, preceded by the Stone Age (Neolithic) and the Bronze Age.

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Irrigation is the application of controlled amounts of water to plants at needed intervals.

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Jacques Cauvin

Professor Jacques Cauvin (1930 – 26 December 2001) was a French archaeologist who specialised in the prehistory of the Levant and Near East.

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Jade is an ornamental mineral, mostly known for its green varieties, which is featured prominently in ancient Asian art.

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Jōmon period

The is the time in Japanese prehistory, traditionally dated between 14,000–300 BCE, recently refined to about 1000 BCE, during which Japan was inhabited by a hunter-gatherer culture, which reached a considerable degree of sedentism and cultural complexity.

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Jericho (יְרִיחוֹ; أريحا) is a city in the Palestinian Territories and is located near the Jordan River in the West Bank.

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Jhusi or Jhunsi is a town and a nagar panchayat in Allahabad district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh.

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Jiahu was the site of a Neolithic settlement based in the central plain of ancient China, near the Yellow River.

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Jinsha site

Jinsha is an archaeological site in Chengdu, capital of China's Sichuan Province.

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John Lubbock, 1st Baron Avebury

John Lubbock, 1st Baron Avebury, 4th Baronet, (30 April 183428 May 1913), known as Sir John Lubbock, 4th Baronet from 1865 until 1900, was an English banker, Liberal politician, philanthropist, scientist and polymath.

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Jordan (الْأُرْدُنّ), officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (المملكة الأردنية الهاشمية), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia, on the East Bank of the Jordan River.

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Jordan Valley (Middle East)

The Jordan Valley (עֵמֶק הַיַרְדֵּן, Emek HaYarden; الغور, Al-Ghor or Al-Ghawr) forms part of the larger Jordan Rift Valley.

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Joukowsky Institute for Archaeology and the Ancient World

The Joukowsky Institute for Archaeology and the Ancient World is an interdisciplinary center for research and teaching of archaeology, particularly archaeology and art of the ancient Mediterranean, Egypt, and the Near East, at Brown University.

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Kacchi Plain

Kacchi Plain or Kachhi Plain is located in southern Balochistan Province of southwestern Pakistan.

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Körös culture

The Körös culture is a Neolithic archaeological culture in Central Europe that was named after the river Körös in eastern Hungary.

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Kfar HaHoresh

Kfar HaHoresh (כְּפַר הַחֹרֶשׁ, כפר החורש, lit. village of the thicket) is a kibbutz in northern Israel.

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The Khiamian (also referred to as El Khiam or El-Khiam) is a period of the Near-Eastern Neolithic, marking the transition between the Natufian and the Pre-Pottery Neolithic A. Some sources date it from about 12,000 to 1,500 BP.

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Khirokitia (sometimes spelled Choirokoitia; Χοιροκοιτία, Hirokitya) is an archaeological site on the island of Cyprus dating from the Neolithic age.

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Knap of Howar

The Knap of Howar on the island of Papa Westray in Orkney, Scotland is a Neolithic farmstead which may be the oldest preserved stone house in northern Europe.

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Knossos (also Cnossos, both pronounced; Κνωσός, Knōsós) is the largest Bronze Age archaeological site on Crete and has been called Europe's oldest city.

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Korean Peninsula

The Korean Peninsula is a peninsula of Eurasia located in East Asia.

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Lahuradewa (Lat. 26°46' N; Long. 82°57' E) is located in Sant Kabir Nagar District, in Sarayupar (Trans-Sarayu) region of the Upper Gangetic Plain in Uttar Pradesh state of India.

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Lajia is an archaeological site located in Minhe County, Haidong Prefecture in Northwest China's Qinghai province.

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Lebanon (لبنان; Lebanese pronunciation:; Liban), officially known as the Lebanese RepublicRepublic of Lebanon is the most common phrase used by Lebanese government agencies.

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Lengyel culture

The Lengyel culture, is an archaeological culture of the European Neolithic, centered on the Middle Danube in Central Europe.

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The Levant is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean.

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Liangzhu culture

The Liangzhu culture (3400–2250 BC) was the last Neolithic jade culture in the Yangtze River Delta of China.

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Linear Pottery culture

The Linear Pottery culture is a major archaeological horizon of the European Neolithic, flourishing 5500–4500 BC.

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Linen is a textile made from the fibers of the flax plant.

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List of archaeological periods (North America)

North American archaeological periods divides the history of pre-Columbian North America into a number of named successive eras or periods, from the earliest-known human habitation through to the early Colonial period which followed the European colonization of the Americas.

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List of archaeological sites by country

This is a list of notable archaeological sites sorted by country and territories.

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List of Neolithic cultures of China

This is a list of Neolithic cultures of China that have been unearthed by archaeologists.

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Ljubljana Marshes

The Ljubljana Marshes (Ljubljansko barje), located south of Ljubljana, the capital of Slovenia, is the largest marsh in the country.

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Long barrow

A long barrow is a rectangular or trapezoidal tumulus; that is, a prehistoric mound of earth and stones built over a grave or group of graves.

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Longshan culture

The Longshan (or Lung-shan) culture, also sometimes referred to as the Black Pottery Culture, was a late Neolithic culture in the middle and lower Yellow River valley areas of northern China from about 3000 to 1900 BC.

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A loom is a device used to weave cloth and tapestry.

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Lough Gur

Lough Gur (Irish: Loch Gair) is a lake in County Limerick, Ireland between the towns of Herbertstown and Bruff.

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Maison de l'Orient et de la Méditerranée

The Maison de l'Orient et de la Méditerranée (or MOM) is a research body in Lyon, France that specialises in the Mediterranean and the Middle East and the first steps of humanity.

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Majiabang culture

The Majiabang culture was a Chinese Neolithic culture that existed at the mouth of the Yangtze River, primarily around Lake Tai near Shanghai and north of Hangzhou Bay.

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Majiayao culture

The Majiayao culture was a group of neolithic communities who lived primarily in the upper Yellow River region in eastern Gansu, eastern Qinghai and northern Sichuan, China.

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Malta, officially known as the Republic of Malta (Repubblika ta' Malta), is a Southern European island country consisting of an archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea.

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Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that views class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation.

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Mauritania (موريتانيا; Gànnaar; Soninke: Murutaane; Pulaar: Moritani; Mauritanie), officially the Islamic Republic of Mauritania, is a country in the Maghreb region of Northwestern Africa.

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In terrestrial zoology, megafauna (from Greek μέγας megas "large" and New Latin fauna "animal life") are large or giant animals.

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A megalith is a large stone that has been used to construct a structure or monument, either alone or together with other stones.

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Megalithic Temples of Malta

The Megalithic Temples of Malta (It-Tempji Megalitiċi ta' Malta) are several prehistoric temples, some of which are UNESCO World Heritage Sites, built during three distinct periods approximately between 3600 BC and 700 BC on the island country of Malta.

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Mehrgarh (Balochi: Mehrgaŕh; مهرګړ; مہرگڑھ), sometimes anglicized as Mehergarh or Mehrgar, is a Neolithic (7000 BCE to c. 2500/2000 BCE) site located near the Bolan Pass on the Kacchi Plain of Balochistan, Pakistan, to the west of the Indus River valley.

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Mesoamerican chronology

Mesoamerican chronology divides the history of prehispanic Mesoamerica into several periods: the Paleo-Indian (first human habitation–3500 BCE), the Archaic (before 2600 BCE), the Preclassic or Formative (2000 BCE–250 CE), the Classic (250–900CE), and the Postclassic (900–1521 CE), Colonial (1521–1821), and Postcolonial (1821–present).

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In Old World archaeology, Mesolithic (Greek: μέσος, mesos "middle"; λίθος, lithos "stone") is the period between the Upper Paleolithic and the Neolithic.

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Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.

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Metallurgy in pre-Columbian Mesoamerica

The emergence of metallurgy in pre-Columbian Mesoamerica occurred relatively late in the region's history, with distinctive works of metal apparent in West Mexico by roughly AD 800, and perhaps as early as AD 600.

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Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.

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Millets (/ˈmɪlɪts/) are a group of highly variable small-seeded grasses, widely grown around the world as cereal crops or grains for fodder and human food.

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Millstones or mill stones are stones used in gristmills, for grinding wheat or other grains.

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Mnajdra (L-Imnajdra) is a megalithic temple complex found on the southern coast of the Mediterranean island of Malta.

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Moldova (or sometimes), officially the Republic of Moldova (Republica Moldova), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe, bordered by Romania to the west and Ukraine to the north, east, and south (by way of the disputed territory of Transnistria).

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Mondsee (lake)

Mondsee (Moon Lake) is a lake in the Upper Austrian part of the Salzkammergut and near the larger Attersee.

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A mudbrick or mud-brick is a brick, made of a mixture of loam, mud, sand and water mixed with a binding material such as rice husks or straw.

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Mumun pottery period

The Mumun pottery period is an archaeological era in Korean prehistory that dates to approximately 1500-300 BC This period is named after the Korean name for undecorated or plain cooking and storage vessels that form a large part of the pottery assemblage over the entire length of the period, but especially 850-550 BC.

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Mureybet (مريبط) is a tell, or ancient settlement mound, located on the west bank of the Euphrates in Raqqa Governorate, northern Syria.

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Myanmar, officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and also known as Burma, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia.

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Nahal Oren (archaeological site)

Nahal Oren is an archaeological site on the northern bank of the wadi of Nahal Oren (Hebrew)/Wadi Fallah (Arabic) on Mount Carmel, south of Haifa, Israel.

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Nanzhuangtou (12,600–11,300 cal BPKuzmin, Yaroslav V. ANTIQUITY-OXFORD- 80, no. 308 (2006): 362. or 11,500–11,000 cal BP,Xiaoyan Yang, Zhiwei Wan, Linda Perry, Houyuan Lu, Qiang Wang, Chaohong Zhao, Jun Li, Fei Xie, Jincheng Yu, Tianxing Cui, Tao Wang, Mingqi Li, and Quansheng Ge Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2012 vol 109 (10) pp. 3726–3730. roughly 9500–9000 BC) was a Neolithic site near Lake Baiyangdian in Xushui County, Hebei, China.

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National Geographic Society

The National Geographic Society (NGS), headquartered in Washington, D.C., United States, is one of the largest non-profit scientific and educational institutions in the world.

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Natufian culture

The Epipaleolithic Natufian culture existed from around 12,500 to 9,500 BC in the Levant, a region in the Eastern Mediterranean.

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Near East

The Near East is a geographical term that roughly encompasses Western Asia.

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A necropolis (pl. necropoleis) is a large, designed cemetery with elaborate tomb monuments.

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Neolithic circular enclosures in Central Europe

Approximately 120–150 Neolithic earthworks enclosures are known in Central Europe.

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Neolithic Europe

Neolithic Europe is the period when Neolithic technology was present in Europe, roughly between 7000 BCE (the approximate time of the first farming societies in Greece) and c. 1700 BCE (the beginning of the Bronze Age in northwest Europe).

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Neolithic long house

The 'Neolithic long house' was a long, narrow timber dwelling built by the first farmers in Europe beginning at least as early as the period 5000 to 6000 BC.

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Neolithic Revolution

The Neolithic Revolution, Neolithic Demographic Transition, Agricultural Revolution, or First Agricultural Revolution, was the wide-scale transition of many human cultures during the Neolithic period from a lifestyle of hunting and gathering to one of agriculture and settlement, making an increasingly larger population possible.

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Neolithic tomb

The Neolithic tombs of Northwestern Europe, particularly Ireland, were built by the Neolithic (New Stone Age) people in the period 4000 - 2000 BC.

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A neologism (from Greek νέο- néo-, "new" and λόγος lógos, "speech, utterance") is a relatively recent or isolated term, word, or phrase that may be in the process of entering common use, but that has not yet been fully accepted into mainstream language.

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Nevalı Çori

Nevalı Çori (Nevali Çori) was an early Neolithic settlement on the middle Euphrates, in Şanlıurfa Province, Southeastern Anatolia, Turkey.

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New Guinea

New Guinea (Nugini or, more commonly known, Papua, historically, Irian) is a large island off the continent of Australia.

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A nomad (νομάς, nomas, plural tribe) is a member of a community of people who live in different locations, moving from one place to another in search of grasslands for their animals.

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Norte Chico civilization

The Norte Chico civilization (also Caral or Caral-Supe civilization)The name is disputed.

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Oaxaca (from Huāxyacac), officially the Free and Sovereign State of Oaxaca (Estado Libre y Soberano de Oaxaca), is one of the 31 states which, along with Mexico City, make up the 32 federative entities of Mexico.

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Origin of the domestic dog

The origin of the domestic dog is not clear.

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Orkney (Orkneyjar), also known as the Orkney Islands, is an archipelago in the Northern Isles of Scotland, situated off the north coast of Great Britain.

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Pacific Ocean

The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions.

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Padah-Lin Caves

Padah-Lin Caves (ဗဒလင်းဂူ,; also Padalin or Badalin) are limestone caves located in Taunggyi District, Shan State, Burma (Myanmar).

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Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.

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Paleo-Indians, Paleoindians or Paleoamericans is a classification term given to the first peoples who entered, and subsequently inhabited, the Americas during the final glacial episodes of the late Pleistocene period.

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The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic is a period in human prehistory distinguished by the original development of stone tools that covers c. 95% of human technological prehistory.

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A palisade—sometimes called a stakewall or a paling—is typically a fence or wall made from wooden stakes or tree trunks and used as a defensive structure or enclosure.

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Paola, Malta

Paola (Raħal Ġdid, Casal Nuovo, both meaning "New Town") is a town in the South Eastern Region of Malta, with a population of 7,864 people (March 2014).

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Peiligang culture

The Peiligang culture was a Neolithic culture in the Yi-Luo river basin (in modern Henan Province, China) that existed from 7000 to 5000 BC.

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The Pengtoushan culture, dating 7500–6100 BC, was a Neolithic culture centered primarily around the central Yangtze River region in northwestern Hunan, China.

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Periodization of pre-Columbian Peru

This is a chart of cultural periods of Peru and the Andean Region developed by Edward Lanning and used by some archaeologists studying the area.

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Peru (Perú; Piruw Republika; Piruw Suyu), officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America.

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Pest control

Pest control is the regulation or management of a species defined as a pest, a member of the animal kingdom that impacts adversely on human activities.

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Petnica is a small village near Valjevo, Serbia.

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Pfyn culture

The Pfyn Culture is one of several archaeological cultures of the Neolithic period in Switzerland.

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The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.

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A pictogram, also called a pictogramme, pictograph, or simply picto, and in computer usage an icon, is an ideogram that conveys its meaning through its pictorial resemblance to a physical object.

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Pit–Comb Ware culture

The Pit–Comb Ware culture or Comb Ceramic culture was a northeast European characterised by its Pit–Comb Ware.

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Plaster is a building material used for the protective and/or decorative coating of walls and ceilings and for moulding and casting decorative elements.

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Plastered human skulls

Plastered human skulls are reconstructed human skulls that were made in the ancient Levant between 7000 and 6000 BC in the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B period.

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Po Valley

The Po Valley, Po Plain, Plain of the Po, or Padan Plain (Pianura Padana, or Val Padana) is a major geographical feature of Northern Italy.

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Porodin is a village in the municipality of Žabari, Serbia.

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Potter's wheel

In pottery, a potter's wheel is a machine used in the shaping (known as throwing) of round ceramic ware.

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Pottery is the ceramic material which makes up pottery wares, of which major types include earthenware, stoneware and porcelain.

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Pre-Pottery Neolithic A

Pre-Pottery Neolithic A (PPNA) denotes the first stage in early Levantine and Anatolian Neolithic culture, dating BP.

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Pre-Pottery Neolithic B

Pre-Pottery Neolithic B (PPNB) is a Neolithic culture centered in upper Mesopotamia.

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Prehistoric North Africa

The Prehistory of North Africa spans the period of earliest human presence in the region to the beginning of the Early Dynastic Period of Egypt in c. 3100 BC.

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Prehistoric Scotland

Archaeology and geology continue to reveal the secrets of prehistoric Scotland, uncovering a complex past before the Romans brought Scotland into the scope of recorded history.

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Prehistory of Australia

The prehistory of Australia is the period between the first human habitation of the Australian continent and the colonization of Australia in 1788, which marks the start of consistent documentation of Australia.

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Primitive communism

Primitive communism is a concept originating from Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels who argued that hunter-gatherer societies were traditionally based on egalitarian social relations and common ownership.

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Projectile point

In archaeological terms, a projectile point is an object that was hafted to weapon that was capable of being thrown or projected, such as a spear, dart, or arrow, or perhaps used as a knife.

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Quezon, Palawan

, officially the, is a settlement_text in the province of,. According to the, it has a population of people.

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Qujialing culture

The Qujialing culture (3400–2600 BC) was a Neolithic civilisation centered primarily around the middle Yangtze River region in Hubei and Hunan, China.

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Republic of Macedonia

Macedonia (translit), officially the Republic of Macedonia, is a country in the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.

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--> The Rhine (Rhenus, Rein, Rhein, le Rhin,, Italiano: Reno, Rijn) is a European river that begins in the Swiss canton of Graubünden in the southeastern Swiss Alps, forms part of the Swiss-Liechtenstein, Swiss-Austrian, Swiss-German and then the Franco-German border, then flows through the German Rhineland and the Netherlands and eventually empties into the North Sea.

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Rock art of the Djelfa region

The rock art of the Djelfa region in the Ouled Naïl Range (Algeria) consists of prehistoric cave paintings and petroglyphs dating from the Neolithic age which have been recognized since 1914.

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Romania (România) is a sovereign state located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.

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Salt, table salt or common salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of salts; salt in its natural form as a crystalline mineral is known as rock salt or halite.

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Sanitation refers to public health conditions related to clean drinking water and adequate treatment and disposal of human excreta and sewage.

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Sanxingdui is the name of an archaeological site and a major Bronze Age culture in modern Sichuan, China.

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Science (journal)

Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.

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Scientific evidence

Scientific evidence is evidence which serves to either support or counter a scientific theory or hypothesis.

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Selective breeding

Selective breeding (also called artificial selection) is the process by which humans use animal breeding and plant breeding to selectively develop particular phenotypic traits (characteristics) by choosing which typically animal or plant males and females will sexually reproduce and have offspring together.

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Serbia (Србија / Srbija),Pannonian Rusyn: Сербия; Szerbia; Albanian and Romanian: Serbia; Slovak and Czech: Srbsko,; Сърбия.

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Sesklo (Σέσκλο) is a village in Greece that is located near Volos, a city located within the municipality of Aisonia.

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Domestic sheep (Ovis aries) are quadrupedal, ruminant mammal typically kept as livestock.

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Shijiahe culture

The Shijiahe culture (2500–2000 BC) was a late Neolithic culture centered on the middle Yangtze River region in Shijiahe Town, Tianmen, Hubei Province, China.

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A sickle, or bagging hook, is a hand-held agricultural tool designed with variously curved blades and typically used for harvesting, or reaping, grain crops or cutting succulent forage chiefly for feeding livestock, either freshly cut or dried as hay.

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Skara Brae

Skara Brae is a stone-built Neolithic settlement, located on the Bay of Skaill on the west coast of Mainland, the largest island in the Orkney archipelago of Scotland.

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Slovenia (Slovenija), officially the Republic of Slovenia (Slovene:, abbr.: RS), is a country in southern Central Europe, located at the crossroads of main European cultural and trade routes.

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Social stratification

Social stratification is a kind of social differentiation whereby a society groups people into socioeconomic strata, based upon their occupation and income, wealth and social status, or derived power (social and political).

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South Asian Stone Age

The South Asian Stone Age covers the Palaeolithic, Mesolithic and Neolithic periods in South Asia.

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South Korea

South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (대한민국; Hanja: 大韓民國; Daehan Minguk,; lit. "The Great Country of the Han People"), is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying east to the Asian mainland.

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A spear is a pole weapon consisting of a shaft, usually of wood, with a pointed head.

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Spelt (Triticum spelta; Triticum dicoccum), also known as dinkel wheat or hulled wheat, is a species of wheat cultivated since approximately 5000 BC.

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Spindle (textiles)

A spindle is a straight spike usually made from wood used for spinning, twisting fibers such as wool, flax, hemp, cotton into yarn.

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Stara Zagora

Stara Zagora (Стара Загора) is the fifth-largest city in Bulgaria, and the administrative capital of the homonymous Stara Zagora Province.

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Starčevo culture

The Starčevo culture, sometimes included within a larger grouping known as the Starčevo–Körös–Criş culture, is an archaeological culture of Southeastern Europe, dating to the Neolithic period between c. 6200 and 4500 BCE.

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Starčevo–Kőrös–Criș culture

The Starčevo–Körös culture or Starčevo–Körös–Criş culture is a grouping of three related Neolithic archaeological cultures in Southeastern Europe: the Starčevo culture, the Körös culture, and the Criş culture.

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State (polity)

A state is a compulsory political organization with a centralized government that maintains a monopoly of the legitimate use of force within a certain geographical territory.

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Stilt house

Stilt houses are houses raised on piles over the surface of the soil or a body of water.

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Stone Age

The Stone Age was a broad prehistoric period during which stone was widely used to make implements with an edge, a point, or a percussion surface.

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Stone tool

A stone tool is, in the most general sense, any tool made either partially or entirely out of stone.

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Stonehenge is a prehistoric monument in Wiltshire, England, west of Amesbury.

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Subsistence economy

A subsistence economy is a non-monetary economy which relies on natural resources to provide for basic needs, through hunting, gathering, and subsistence agriculture.

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SumerThe name is from Akkadian Šumeru; Sumerian en-ĝir15, approximately "land of the civilized kings" or "native land".

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Sweet Track

The Sweet Track is an ancient causeway in the Somerset Levels, England.

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Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.

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Tabon Caves

The Tabon Caves, dubbed as the Philippines' Cradle of Civilization, are a group of caves located on Lipuun Point, north of Quezon municipality, in the south western part of the province of Palawan on Palawan Island, in the Philippines.

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Tagant Plateau

The Tagant Plateau is located in eastern Mauritania, forming a stony part of the Sahara Desert.

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The Tahunian is variously referred to as an archaeological culture, flint industry and period of the Palestinian Stone Age around Wadi Tahuna near Bethlehem.

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Taihang Mountains

The Taihang Mountains are a Chinese mountain range running down the eastern edge of the Loess Plateau in Shanxi, Henan and Hebei provinces.

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Talheim Death Pit

The Talheim Death Pit (German: Massaker von Talheim), discovered in 1983, was a mass grave found in a Linear Pottery Culture settlement, also known as a Linearbandkeramik (LBK) culture.

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Tamil Nadu

Tamil Nadu (• tamiḻ nāḍu ? literally 'The Land of Tamils' or 'Tamil Country') is one of the 29 states of India.

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Technology ("science of craft", from Greek τέχνη, techne, "art, skill, cunning of hand"; and -λογία, -logia) is first robustly defined by Jacob Bigelow in 1829 as: "...principles, processes, and nomenclatures of the more conspicuous arts, particularly those which involve applications of science, and which may be considered useful, by promoting the benefit of society, together with the emolument of those who pursue them".

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Tell Aswad

Tell Aswad (تل أسود, "Black hill"), Su-uk-su or Shuksa, is a large prehistoric, neolithic tell, about in size, located around from Damascus in Syria, on a tributary of the Barada River at the eastern end of the village of Jdeidet el Khass.

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Tell Qaramel

Tell Qaramel (also Tel Qaramel or Tel al-Qaramel, تل القرامل) is a tell, or archaeological mound, located in the north of present-day Syria, 25 km north of Aleppo and about 65 km south of the Taurus mountains, adjacent to the river Quweiq that flows to Aleppo.

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Tell Zeidan

Tell Zeidan is an archaeological site of the Ubaid culture in northern Syria, from about 5500 to 4000 BC.

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Terramare culture

Terramare, Terramara, or Terremare is a technology complex mainly of the central Po valley, in Emilia-Romagna, Northern Italy, dating to the Middle and Late Bronze Age ca.

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The Korea Times

The Korea Times is the oldest of three English-language newspapers published daily in South Korea.

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Three-age system

The three-age system is the categorization of history into time periods divisible by three; for example, the Stone Age, Bronze Age, and Iron Age, although it also refers to other tripartite divisions of historic time periods.

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Tichit or Tichitt (Ticit, تيشيت) is a partly abandoned village at the foot of the Tagant Plateau in central southern Mauritania that is known for its vernacular architecture.

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Tishrin Dam

The Tishrin Dam (lit, Bendava Tişrîn, Sekro d'Teshrin) is a dam on the Euphrates, located east of Aleppo in Aleppo Governorate, Syria.

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A tomb (from τύμβος tumbos) is a repository for the remains of the dead.

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A town is a human settlement.

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Trans-cultural diffusion

In cultural anthropology and cultural geography, cultural diffusion, as conceptualized by Leo Frobenius in his 1897/98 publication Der westafrikanische Kulturkreis, is the spread of cultural items—such as ideas, styles, religions, technologies, languages—between individuals, whether within a single culture or from one culture to another.

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Transhumance is a type of nomadism or pastoralism, a seasonal movement of people with their livestock between fixed summer and winter pastures.

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Tribal chief

A tribal chief is the leader of a tribal society or chiefdom.

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A tribe is viewed developmentally, economically and historically as a social group existing outside of or before the development of states.

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A tumulus (plural tumuli) is a mound of earth and stones raised over a grave or graves.

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Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.

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Two layer hypothesis

The 'Two Layer' Hypothesis, or immigration hypothesis, is an archaeological theory that suggests the human occupation of mainland Southeast Asia occurred over two distinct periods by two separate racial groups, hence the term 'layer'.

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Type site

In archaeology a type site (also known as a type-site or typesite) is a site that is considered the model of a particular archaeological culture.

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Ubaid period

The Ubaid period (c. 6500 to 3800 BC) is a prehistoric period of Mesopotamia.

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Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.

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Upper Austria

Upper Austria (Oberösterreich; Austro-Bavarian: Obaöstarreich; Horní Rakousy) is one of the nine states or Bundesländer of Austria.

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Upper Paleolithic

The Upper Paleolithic (or Upper Palaeolithic, Late Stone Age) is the third and last subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age.

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V. Gordon Childe

Vere Gordon Childe (14 April 1892 – 19 October 1957), better known as V. Gordon Childe, was an Australian archaeologist and philologist who specialized in the study of European prehistory.

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Varna culture

The Varna culture belongs to the late Chalcolithic of northeastern Bulgaria.

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Veneration of the dead

The veneration of the dead, including one's ancestors, is based on love and respect for the deceased.

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Vinča culture

The Vinča culture, also known as Turdaș culture or Turdaș–Vinča culture, is a Neolithic archaeological culture in Serbia and smaller parts of Romania (particularly Transylvania), dated to the period 5700–4500 BC.

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Vinča symbols

The Vinča symbols, sometimes called the Danube script, Vinča signs, Vinča script, Vinča–Turdaș script, Old European script, etc., are a set of symbols found on Neolithic era (6th to 5th millennia BC) artifacts from the Vinča culture of Central Europe and Southeastern Europe.

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Wattle and daub

Wattle and daub is a composite building material used for making walls, in which a woven lattice of wooden strips called wattle is daubed with a sticky material usually made of some combination of wet soil, clay, sand, animal dung and straw.

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West Bank

The West Bank (الضفة الغربية; הגדה המערבית, HaGadah HaMa'aravit) is a landlocked territory near the Mediterranean coast of Western Asia, the bulk of it now under Israeli control, or else under joint Israeli-Palestinian Authority control.

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Western Asia

Western Asia, West Asia, Southwestern Asia or Southwest Asia is the westernmost subregion of Asia.

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Western New Guinea

Western New Guinea, also known as Papua (formerly Irian Jaya) and West Papua, is the part of the island of New Guinea (also known as Papua) annexed by Indonesia in 1962.

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Wiley-Blackwell is the international scientific, technical, medical, and scholarly publishing business of John Wiley & Sons.

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Windmill Hill culture

The Windmill Hill culture was a name given to a people inhabiting southern Britain, in particular in the Salisbury Plain area close to Stonehenge, c. 3000 BC.

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Woolen (American English) or woollen (Commonwealth English) is a type of yarn made from carded wool.

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Xia dynasty

The Xia dynasty is the legendary, possibly apocryphal first dynasty in traditional Chinese history.

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Xinglongwa culture

The Xinglongwa culture (興隆洼文化) (6200-5400 BC) was a Neolithic culture in northeastern China, found mainly around the Inner Mongolia-Liaoning border.

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Xinle culture

The Xinle culture (新樂文化) (5500–4800 BC) was a Neolithic culture in northeast China, found primarily around the lower Liao River on the Liaodong Peninsula in Liaoning.

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Xishuipo (Chinese: 西水坡; Pinyin: Xīshuǐpō) is a Neolithic site in Puyang, Henan, China, associated with the Yangshao culture.

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Yangshao culture

The Yangshao culture was a Neolithic culture that existed extensively along the Yellow River in China.

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Yi County, Hebei

Yi County or Yixian is a county in Hebei province of China, administratively under the jurisdiction of the prefecture-level city of Baoding.

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Younger Dryas

The Younger Dryas (c. 12,900 to c. 11,700 years BP) was a return to glacial conditions which temporarily reversed the gradual climatic warming after the Last Glacial Maximum started receding around 20,000 BP.

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Zhaobaogou culture

The Zhaobaogou culture (Chinese: 趙宝溝文化) (5400–4500 BC) was a Neolithic culture in northeast China, found primarily in the Luan River valley in Inner Mongolia and northern Hebei.

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7th millennium BC

The 7th millennium BC spanned the years 7000 through 6001 BC.

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Developed Neolithic, Early Neolithic, Late Neolithic, Middle Neolithic, Neolith, Neolithic Age, Neolithic American culture, Neolithic Era, Neolithic Period, Neolithic age, Neolithic epoch, Neolithic era, Neolithic period, Neolithic pottery, Neolithic toolkit, Neolithicum, Neolithization, New Stone Age, New stone age, Pottery Neolithic, Pottery Neolithic Age, Protoneolithic, Tool age, Younger Stone Age.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neolithic

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