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Nepali language

Index Nepali language

Nepali known by endonym Khas-kura (खस कुरा) is an Indo-Aryan language of the sub-branch of Eastern Pahari. [1]

127 relations: Adhyatma Ramayana, Affricate consonant, Allophone, Alveolar consonant, Approximant consonant, Arabic, Aspirated consonant, Back vowel, Balkrishna Sama, Bengali language, Bhanubhakta Acharya, Bheri River, Bhujimol, Bhutan, Bhutanese refugees, Bilabial consonant, Buffer state, Census of India prior to independence, Central vowel, Chhetri, Close vowel, Close-mid vowel, Communist Party of Nepal, Consonant, Crore, Darjeeling, Darjeeling district, Dental consonant, Devanagari, Devanagari Braille, Diphthong, Dot (diacritic), Doteli language, Dravya Shah, Dzongkha, Eighth Schedule to the Constitution of India, English language, Exonym and endonym, First language, Flap consonant, Free variation, Fricative consonant, Front vowel, Gandaki River, Gemination, Ghaghara, Glottal consonant, Gorkha Kingdom, Gorkhali, Greek language, ..., Gurung people, Hindi, India, Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Iranian languages, International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration, International Phonetic Alphabet, ISO 639 macrolanguage, Jumla District, Jung Bahadur Rana, Kathmandu, Kathmandu Valley, Kham Magar, Khas people, Koshi River, Labiodental consonant, Lakh, Languages of Nepal, Lateral consonant, Laxmi Prasad Devkota, Lekhnath Paudyal, Lhotshampa, Library of Congress, Macron (diacritic), Madhesi people, Magars, Maithili language, Mid vowel, Nasal consonant, Nasal vowel, Nepal, Nepal Academy, Nepali literature, Nepali phonology, Newar language, Newar people, North India, Northeast India, Northern Indo-Aryan languages, Numbers in Nepali language, Open vowel, Open-mid vowel, Oriental studies, Palatal consonant, Pokhara, Postalveolar consonant, Presidencies and provinces of British India, Prithvi Narayan Shah, Qanun (law), Ralph Lilley Turner, Ramayana, Retroflex consonant, Rhotic consonant, Rice, Sanskrit, Seti River, Shahid, Signed Nepali, Sikkim, Stop consonant, Subscript and superscript, Takri alphabet, Tharu people, Tibetan Plateau, Tibeto-Burman languages, Tilde, Transcription (linguistics), Translation, Transliteration, United States Department of State, Varanasi, Velar consonant, Vikram Samvat, Vowel, Vowel length, Water buffalo, West Bengal. Expand index (77 more) »

Adhyatma Ramayana

Adhyatma Ramayana (Devanāgarī: अध्यात्म रामायण, literally "Spiritual Ramayana") is a medieval Sanskrit text extolling the spiritualism in the story of Ramayana.

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Affricate consonant

An affricate is a consonant that begins as a stop and releases as a fricative, generally with the same place of articulation (most often coronal).

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In phonology, an allophone (from the ἄλλος, állos, "other" and φωνή, phōnē, "voice, sound") is one of a set of multiple possible spoken sounds, or phones, or signs used to pronounce a single phoneme in a particular language.

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Alveolar consonant

Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth.

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Approximant consonant

Approximants are speech sounds that involve the articulators approaching each other but not narrowly enough nor with enough articulatory precision to create turbulent airflow.

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Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.

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Aspirated consonant

In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of breath that accompanies either the release or, in the case of preaspiration, the closure of some obstruents.

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Back vowel

A back vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in spoken languages.

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Balkrishna Sama

Bala Krishna Sama (बालकृष्ण सम; 8 February 1903 - 20 June 1981) was a Nepalese dramatist.

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Bengali language

Bengali, also known by its endonym Bangla (বাংলা), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in South Asia.

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Bhanubhakta Acharya

Bhanubhakta Acharya (भानुभक्त आचार्य; 1814 – 1868) was a Nepalese poet and writer who translated the great epic Ramayana from Sanskrit to Khas language.

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Bheri River

The Bheri River is a major tributary of the Karnali River draining the western Dhaulagiri range in western Nepal.

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Bhujimol (or Bhujinmol, Devanagari: or) is the most ancient form of Nepal script.

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Bhutan, officially the Kingdom of Bhutan (Druk Gyal Khap), is a landlocked country in South Asia.

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Bhutanese refugees

Bhutanese refugees are Lhotshampas ("southerners"), a group of Nepali language-speaking Bhutanese people, including the Kirat, Tamang, Magar, Brahman, Chhetri and Gurung peoples.

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Bilabial consonant

In phonetics, a bilabial consonant is a consonant articulated with both lips.

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Buffer state

A buffer state is a country lying between two rival or potentially hostile greater powers.

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Census of India prior to independence

The Census of India prior to independence was conducted periodically from 1865 onward to 1947.

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Central vowel

A central vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.

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Chhetri (Kshetri, or Chhettri), (क्षेत्री; IAST: Kṣetrī) synonymous with Kshetri and Khatri are Nepali native/ indigeneos people and speakers of Khas community, an Indo-Aryan ethno-linguistic community consisting of Brahmins (Bahun), Thakuris, Kami, Damai, Sarki, Badi, and Gandarbhas.

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Close vowel

A close vowel, also known as a high vowel (in American terminology), is any in a class of vowel sound used in many spoken languages.

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Close-mid vowel

A close-mid vowel (also mid-close vowel, high-mid vowel, mid-high vowel or half-close vowel) is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.

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Communist Party of Nepal

The Communist Party of Nepal (नेपाल कम्युनिष्ट पार्टी) was founded in Calcutta, India, on September 15, 1949.

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In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract.

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A crore (abbreviated cr) or koti denotes ten million (10,000,000 or 107 in scientific notation) and is equal to 100 lakh in the Indian numbering system as 1,00,00,000 with the local style of digit group separators (a lakh is equal to one hundred thousand and is written as 1,00,000).

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Darjeeling is a town and a municipality in the Indian state of West Bengal.

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Darjeeling district

Darjeeling District (pronunciation: dɑ:rʤi:lɪŋ) is the northernmost district of the state of West Bengal in eastern India in the foothills of the Himalayas.

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Dental consonant

A dental consonant is a consonant articulated with the tongue against the upper teeth, such as,,, and in some languages.

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Devanagari (देवनागरी,, a compound of "''deva''" देव and "''nāgarī''" नागरी; Hindi pronunciation), also called Nagari (Nāgarī, नागरी),Kathleen Kuiper (2010), The Culture of India, New York: The Rosen Publishing Group,, page 83 is an abugida (alphasyllabary) used in India and Nepal.

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Devanagari Braille

Similar braille conventions are used for three languages of India and Nepal that in print are written in Devanagari script: Hindi, Marathi, and Nepali.

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A diphthong (or; from Greek: δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally "two sounds" or "two tones"), also known as a gliding vowel, is a combination of two adjacent vowel sounds within the same syllable.

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Dot (diacritic)

When used as a diacritic mark, the term dot is usually reserved for the Interpunct (·), or to the glyphs 'combining dot above' (◌̇) and 'combining dot below' (◌̣) which may be combined with some letters of the extended Latin alphabets in use in Central European languages and Vietnamese.

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Doteli language

Doteli, or Dotyali (डोटेली) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by about 800,000 people, most of whom live in Nepal.

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Dravya Shah

Dravya Shah (?–1570) was the king of the Gorkha state in Nepal.

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Dzongkha, or Bhutanese (རྫོང་ཁ་), is a Sino-Tibetan language spoken by over half a million people in Bhutan; it is the sole official and national language of the Kingdom of Bhutan.

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Eighth Schedule to the Constitution of India

The Eighth Schedule to the Constitution of India lists the official languages of the Republic of India.

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English language

English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.

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Exonym and endonym

An exonym or xenonym is an external name for a geographical place, or a group of people, an individual person, or a language or dialect.

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First language

A first language, native language or mother/father/parent tongue (also known as arterial language or L1) is a language that a person has been exposed to from birth or within the critical period.

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Flap consonant

In phonetics, a flap or tap is a type of consonantal sound, which is produced with a single contraction of the muscles so that one articulator (such as the tongue) is thrown against another.

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Free variation

Free variation in linguistics is the phenomenon of two (or more) sounds or forms appearing in the same environment without a change in meaning and without being considered incorrect by native speakers.

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Fricative consonant

Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.

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Front vowel

A front vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages, its defining characteristic being that the highest point of the tongue is positioned relatively in front in the mouth without creating a constriction that would make it a consonant.

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Gandaki River

The Gandaki River (also known as the Narayani and the Gandak) is one of the major rivers of Nepal and a left bank tributary of the Ganges in India.

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Gemination, or consonant elongation, is the pronouncing in phonetics of a spoken consonant for an audibly longer period of time than that of a short consonant.

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Ghaghara, also called Karnali (घाघरा; Ghāghrā; कर्णाली; Karṇālī; 加格拉河; Jiāgélāhé) is a perennial trans-boundary river originating on the Tibetan Plateau near Lake Manasarovar.

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Glottal consonant

Glottal consonants are consonants using the glottis as their primary articulation.

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Gorkha Kingdom

Gorkha Kingdom (गोरखा राज्य) was a former kingdom in the confederation of 24 states known as Chaubisi rajya located in present-day western Nepal.

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Gorkhali was a Nepali-language weekly newspaper published in Varanasi, India.

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Greek language

Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.

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Gurung people

The Gurung people, also called Tamu, are an ethnic group from different parts of Nepal.

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Hindi (Devanagari: हिन्दी, IAST: Hindī), or Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: मानक हिन्दी, IAST: Mānak Hindī) is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language.

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India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.

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Indo-Aryan languages

The Indo-Aryan or Indic languages are the dominant language family of the Indian subcontinent.

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Indo-Iranian languages

The Indo-Iranian languages or Indo-Iranic languages, or Aryan languages, constitute the largest and easternmost extant branch of the Indo-European language family.

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International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration

The International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration (I.A.S.T.) is a transliteration scheme that allows the lossless romanization of Indic scripts as employed by Sanskrit and related Indic languages.

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International Phonetic Alphabet

The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet.

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ISO 639 macrolanguage

ISO 639-3 is an international standard for language codes.

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Jumla District

Jumla District (जुम्ला जिल्ला, a part of Karnali province, is one of the seventy-seven districts of Nepal. The district, with Jumla as its district headquarters, covers an area of 2,531 km² and had a population of 89,427 in 2001 and 108,921 in 2011. The origin of Nepali language was from Sinja of Jumla from Khas language. Therefore, the Nepali dialect "Khas Bhasa" is still spoken among the people in this region.

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Jung Bahadur Rana

Shree Teen Maharaja Sir Jung Bahadur Kunwar Ranaji, (born as Bir Narsingh Kunwar (वीर नरसिंह कुँवर.), 18 June 1817, Borlang, Gorkha – 25 February 1877, Patharghat, Rautahat; popularly known as Jung Bahadur Rana (जङ्ग बहादुर राणा)) was a Khas Rajput (Chhetri) ruler of Nepal and founder of the Rana Dynasty of Nepal.

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Kathmandu (काठमाडौं, ये:. Yei, Nepali pronunciation) is the capital city of the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal.

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Kathmandu Valley

Population- 5 million The Kathmandu Valley (काठमाडौं उपत्यका, Nepalbhasa: स्वनिगः, नेपाः गाः), historically known as Nepal Valley or Nepa Valley, lies at the crossroads of ancient civilizations of Asia, and has at least 130 important monuments, including several pilgrimage sites for Hindus and Buddhists.

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Kham Magar

Western magar are descriptive terms invented by academic linguists and anthropologists for a nationality in the Middle Hills of mid-western Nepal inhabiting highlands extending through eastern Rukum and northern Salyan, Rolpa and Pyuthan Districts in RaptiZone as well as Dhaulagiri and Bheri Zones.

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Khas people

Khas people (खस) also called Khas Arya (खस आर्य) are an Indo-Aryan ethno-linguistic group native to the present-day Nepal as well as Kumaon and Garhwal regions of Uttarakhand and speak the Khas language (modern Nepali language).

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Koshi River

The Koshi or Kosi River (कोशी नदी,, कोसी नदी) drains the northern slopes of the Himalayas in Tibet and the southern slopes in Nepal.

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Labiodental consonant

In phonetics, labiodentals are consonants articulated with the lower lip and the upper teeth.

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A lakh (abbreviated L; sometimes written Lac or Lacs) is a unit in the Indian numbering system equal to one hundred thousand (100,000; scientific notation: 105).

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Languages of Nepal

The 2011 National census lists 123 Nepalese languages spoken as a mother tongue (first language) in Nepal.

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Lateral consonant

A lateral is an l-like consonant in which the airstream proceeds along the sides of the tongue, but it is blocked by the tongue from going through the middle of the mouth.

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Laxmi Prasad Devkota

Laxmi Prasad Devkota (लक्ष्मीप्रसाद देवकोटा, 12 November 1909 – 14 September 1959) was a Nepali poet,:playwright, and novelist.

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Lekhnath Paudyal

Lekhnath Paudyal (लेखनाथ पौड्याल; 1885–1966) is regarded as the founding father of modern Nepali poetry literature (Kabi Shiromani) in the twentieth-century. His most important contribution is believed to be to the enrichment and refinement of the language rather than to its philosophical breadth. The best of Lekhnath's poems adhered to the old-fashioned conventions of Sanskrit poetics (kavya). Lekhnath, the first modern Nepali poet, wrote in the classical style of Nepali poetry. His poems possessed a formal dignity that had been lacking in most earlier works in Nepali; many of them confirmed in their outlook with the philosophy of orthodox Vedanta, although others were essentially original in their tone and inspiration. His poems are very much popular, and often mentioned contemporary social and political issues. It is believed there were the first glimmerings of the poetic spirit that was to come after him.

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The Lhotshampa or Lhotsampa (ल्होत्साम्पा) people are a heterogeneous Bhutanese people of Nepalese descent.

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Library of Congress

The Library of Congress (LOC) is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States.

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Macron (diacritic)

A macron is a diacritical mark: it is a straight bar placed above a letter, usually a vowel.

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Madhesi people

The term Madhesi people (मधेशी) is ambiguous.

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The Magars are one of the ethno linguistic groups of Nepal representing 7.13% of the Nepal's total population as per the census of 2011.

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Maithili language

Maithili (Maithilī) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in the Bihar and Jharkhand states of India and is one of the 22 recognised Indian languages.

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Mid vowel

A mid vowel (or a true-mid vowel) is any in a class of vowel sounds used in some spoken languages.

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Nasal consonant

In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose.

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Nasal vowel

A nasal vowel is a vowel that is produced with a lowering of the velum so that air escapes both through the nose as well as the mouth, such as the French vowel.

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Nepal (नेपाल), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal (सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल), is a landlocked country in South Asia located mainly in the Himalayas but also includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain.

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Nepal Academy

The Nepal Academy (नेपाल प्रज्ञा प्रतिष्ठान) formerly Royal Nepal Academy (नेपाल राजकीय प्रज्ञा प्रतिष्ठान) is a national institution of Nepal for promotion of the languages, literature, culture, philosophy and social sciences of Nepal.

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Nepali literature

Nepali Literature (नेपाली साहित्य) refers to the literature of Nepal written in the Nepali language.

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Nepali phonology

Nepali is the national language of Nepal.

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Newar language

Newar or Newari, also known as Nepal Bhasa (नेपाल भाषा), is a Sino-Tibetan language spoken by the Newar people, the indigenous inhabitants of Nepal Mandala, which consists of the Kathmandu Valley and surrounding regions in Nepal.

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Newar people

Newar (नेवार; endonym: Newa:; नेवा), or Nepami, are the historical inhabitants of the Kathmandu Valley and its surrounding areas in Nepal and the creators of its historic heritage and civilisation.

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North India

North India is a loosely defined region consisting of the northern part of India.

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Northeast India

Northeast India (officially North Eastern Region, NER) is the easternmost region of India representing both a geographic and political administrative division of the country.

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Northern Indo-Aryan languages

The Northern Indo-Aryan languages, also known as Pahāṛi languages, are a group of Indo-Aryan languages spoken in the lower ranges of the Himalayas, from Nepal in the east, through the Indian states of Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh.

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Numbers in Nepali language

Numbers in Nepali Language दश करोड – 10,00,00,000 (Hundred Million) – eight zeros अर्ब – 1,00,00,00,000 (Billion) – nine zeros दश अर्ब – 10,00,00,00,000 (Ten Billion) – ten zeros खर्ब – 1,00,00,00,00,000 (Hundred Billion) – eleven zeros दश खर्ब – 10,00,00,00,00,000 (Trillion) – twelve zeros नील – 1,00,00,00,00,00,000 (ten trillion) – thirteen zeros दश नील – 10,00,00,00,00,00,000 (hundred trillion) – fourteen zeros पद्म – 1,00,00,00,00,00,00,000 (quadrallion) – fifteen zeros दश पद्म – 10,00,00,00,00,00,00,000 (10 quadrallion) – sixteen zeros शंख – 1,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,000 (hundred quadrallion) – seventeen zeros दश शंख – 10,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,000 (quintillion) – eighteen zeros.

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Open vowel

An open vowel is a vowel sound in which the tongue is positioned as far as possible from the roof of the mouth.

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Open-mid vowel

An open-mid vowel (also mid-open vowel, low-mid vowel, mid-low vowel or half-open vowel) is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.

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Oriental studies

Oriental studies is the academic field of study that embraces Near Eastern and Far Eastern societies and cultures, languages, peoples, history and archaeology; in recent years the subject has often been turned into the newer terms of Asian studies and Middle Eastern studies.

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Palatal consonant

Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth).

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Pokhara (पोखरा) is a metropolis, and is the largest city of Nepal in terms of area,http://kathmandupost.ekantipur.com/news/2017-03-13/pokhara-lekhnath-becomes-largest-metropolitan-city.html and the second largest city in terms of population.

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Postalveolar consonant

Postalveolar consonants (sometimes spelled post-alveolar) are consonants articulated with the tongue near or touching the back of the alveolar ridge, farther back in the mouth than the alveolar consonants, which are at the ridge itself but not as far back as the hard palate, the place of articulation for palatal consonants.

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Presidencies and provinces of British India

The Provinces of India, earlier Presidencies of British India and still earlier, Presidency towns, were the administrative divisions of British governance in the subcontinent.

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Prithvi Narayan Shah

Prithivi Narayan Shah (1723–1775; पृथ्वीनारायण शाह) was the last King of Gorkha Kingdom and first one of Kingdom of Nepal (also called Kingdom of Gorkha).

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Qanun (law)

Qanun is an Arabic word (قانون, qānūn; قانون, kānūn, derived from κανών kanōn, which is also the root for the modern English word "canon").

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Ralph Lilley Turner

Sir Ralph Lilley Turner MC (5 October 1888 – 22 April 1983) was an English Indian languages philologist and university administrator.

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Ramayana (रामायणम्) is an ancient Indian epic poem which narrates the struggle of the divine prince Rama to rescue his wife Sita from the demon king Ravana.

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Retroflex consonant

A retroflex consonant is a coronal consonant where the tongue has a flat, concave, or even curled shape, and is articulated between the alveolar ridge and the hard palate.

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Rhotic consonant

In phonetics, rhotic consonants, or "R-like" sounds, are liquid consonants that are traditionally represented orthographically by symbols derived from the Greek letter rho, including r in the Latin script and p in the Cyrillic script.

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Rice is the seed of the grass species Oryza sativa (Asian rice) or Oryza glaberrima (African rice).

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Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.

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Seti River

The Seti River is an important tributary of the Karnali system that drains western Nepal.

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Shahid and Shaheed (شهيد, plural: شُهَدَاء; female) originates from the Quranic Arabic word meaning "witness" and is also used to denote a martyr.

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Signed Nepali

Signed Nepali or Sign-Supported Nepali, is a means of communication often used by (nominally) signing hearing individuals in their interactions with signing deaf, or by deaf persons who for whatever reason acquired Nepali as their mother tongue and then acquired Nepali Sign Language subsequently, or by deaf persons with people with normal hearing whose signing is judged not to be fully fluent (i.e. not Nepali Sign Language).

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Sikkim is a state in Northeast India.

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Stop consonant

In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.

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Subscript and superscript

A subscript or superscript is a character (number, letter or symbol) that is (respectively) set slightly below or above the normal line of type.

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Takri alphabet

The Takri script (Devanagari: ताकरी; sometimes called Tankri) is an abugida writing system of the Brahmic family of scripts.

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Tharu people

The Tharu people are an ethnic group indigenous to the southern foothills of the Himalayas; most of the Tharu people live in the Nepal Terai.

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Tibetan Plateau

The Tibetan Plateau, also known in China as the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau or the Qing–Zang Plateau or Himalayan Plateau, is a vast elevated plateau in Central Asia and East Asia, covering most of the Tibet Autonomous Region and Qinghai in western China, as well as part of Ladakh in Jammu and Kashmir, India.

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Tibeto-Burman languages

The Tibeto-Burman languages are the non-Sinitic members of the Sino-Tibetan language family, over 400 of which are spoken throughout the highlands of Southeast Asia as well as certain parts of East Asia and South Asia.

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The tilde (in the American Heritage dictionary or; ˜ or ~) is a grapheme with several uses.

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Transcription (linguistics)

Transcription in the linguistic sense is the systematic representation of language in written form.

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Translation is the communication of the meaning of a source-language text by means of an equivalent target-language text.

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Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script to another that involves swapping letters (thus trans- + liter-) in predictable ways (such as α → a, д → d, χ → ch, ն → n or æ → e).

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United States Department of State

The United States Department of State (DOS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department that advises the President and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.

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Varanasi, also known as Benares, Banaras (Banāras), or Kashi (Kāśī), is a city on the banks of the Ganges in the Uttar Pradesh state of North India, south-east of the state capital, Lucknow, and east of Allahabad.

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Velar consonant

Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth (known also as the velum).

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Vikram Samvat

Vikram Samvat (विक्रम सम्वत्, विक्रम सम्वत्) (abbreviated as V.S. (or VS) or B.S. (or BS))) (also called the Bikrami calendar or sometimes just Hindu calendar) is the historical Hindu calendar of India and Nepal. It uses lunar months and solar sidereal years. It is used as the official calendar in Nepal.

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A vowel is one of the two principal classes of speech sound, the other being a consonant.

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Vowel length

In linguistics, vowel length is the perceived duration of a vowel sound.

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Water buffalo

The water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) or domestic Asian water buffalo is a large bovid originating in South Asia, Southeast Asia, and China.

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West Bengal

West Bengal (Paśchimbāṅga) is an Indian state, located in Eastern India on the Bay of Bengal.

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Bajhangi, Gorkha Bhasa, Gorkha language, Gorkhali language, Gurkhali, Gurkhali language, ISO 639:ne, ISO 639:nep, ISO 639:npi, Khas Nepali, Khas language, Khe(Nepali language), Khey language, Lotsham and Sharchop language, Naipali, Nepali (individual language), Nepali (language), Nepali (macrolanguage), Nepali (macrolanguage) language, Nepali Language, Parbatiya language, Partya language, Purbeli Nepali, Tapare language, नेपाली.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nepali_language

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