348 relations: Acetate, Acid, Actinide, Actinocene, Acute radiation syndrome, Age of the Earth, Alkali metal, Alkaline earth metal, Allotropes of phosphorus, Allotropy, Alpha decay, Alpha particle, Aluminium, Aluminium bromide, Americium, Americium-241, Amine, Ammonia, Ampoule, Antimonide, Antimony, Aristid von Grosse, Arsenic, Arsenide, Arthur Wahl, Atomic number, Aufbau principle, Ausonium, Azide, Barium, Barium sulfate, Base (chemistry), Becquerel, Belgian Congo, Bentonite, Benzene, Beta decay, Beta-decay stable isobars, Bicarbonate, Biotechnology, Bismuth, Block (periodic table), Bohemium, Bone, Boron phosphate, Bremsstrahlung, Bromide, Bromine, Bromine pentafluoride, Bromine trifluoride, ..., Butanol, Caesium, Carbide, Carbon, Carbon dioxide, Carbon disulfide, Carbon tetrachloride, Carbonate, Celsius, Chalcogen, Chelation, Chemical element, Chemical formula, Chemical transport reaction, Chloride, Chlorine, Chromate and dichromate, Chromatography, Chromium, Citric acid, Clay minerals, Cluster decay, Cobalt, Colloid, Congener (chemistry), Coordination complex, Copper, Coprecipitation, Cosmic ray spallation, Covalent bond, Critical mass, Cross section (physics), Crystal structure, Cubic crystal system, Cyclooctatetraene, Cyclopentadienyl, Cyclotron, Decay chain, Decay product, Deep geological repository, Denticity, Deuterium, Diatomic molecule, Dimer (chemistry), Disproportionation, Dmitri Mendeleev, Doctor of Science, Ductility, Edwin McMillan, Electric arc furnace, Electrical resistivity and conductivity, Electron capture, Electron configuration, Electronvolt, Electroplating, Emilio Segrè, Enriched uranium, Enrico Fermi, Equilibrium constant, Ethanol, Extraction (chemistry), Fast-neutron reactor, Fermion, Ferromagnetism, Fissile material, Fluoride, Fluorine, Formation and evolution of the Solar System, Frédéric Joliot-Curie, Gallium, Gamma ray, Gastrointestinal tract, Germanium, Glenn T. Seaborg, Glycolic acid, Goethite, Granodiorite, Graphite, Group (periodic table), Group 7 element, Half-life, Halide, Hardness, Hematite, Hexagonal crystal family, Horia Hulubei, Humic acid, Hydride, Hydrocarbon, Hydrogen, Hydrogen fluoride, Hydrogen sulfide, Hydrolysis, Ida Noddack, Indium, Induced radioactivity, Iodate, Iodide, Iodine, Ion exchange, Ionic radius, Ionization energy, Ionizing radiation, Irène Joliot-Curie, Iridium, Iron, Iron(III) oxide, Iron(III) oxide-hydroxide, Isomorphism (crystallography), Isostructural, Isotope, Isotopes of aluminium, Isotopes of lead, Isotopes of phosphorus, Isotopes of plutonium, Isotopes of protactinium, John Wiley & Sons, Kaolinite, Kazimierz Fajans, Lactic acid, Lanthanide, Lanthanide contraction, Lattice constant, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Lewis acids and bases, Ligand, Lise Meitner, Lithium, Lithium bromide, Lithium chloride, Litre, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Magnetite, Malonate, Manganese, Manganese dioxide, Manhattan Project, Matrix (chemical analysis), Mellitic acid, Metal, Metalloid, Microgram, Millimetre, Minor actinide, Molar concentration, Monoclinic crystal system, Nauka (publisher), Neptune, Neptunium(IV) oxide, Neptunium(VI) fluoride, Neptunocene, Neutron, Neutron activation, Neutron capture, Neutron detection, Nevada, Niels Bohr, Nitrate, Nitric acid, Nitride, Nitrogen, Nobel Prize in Physics, Noble gas, Non-stoichiometric compound, Nuclear fission, Nuclear fission product, Nuclear fuel, Nuclear fuel cycle, Nuclear isomer, Nuclear Physics (journal), Nuclear power, Nuclear reactor, Nuclear transmutation, Nuclear weapon, Orbital hybridisation, Organophosphorus compound, Organouranium chemistry, Orthorhombic crystal system, Osmium, Otto Hahn, Otto Robert Frisch, Oxalate, Oxidation state, Oxidizing agent, Oxohalide, Oxygen, Oxyselenide, Ozone, Pacific War, Palladium, Paramagnetism, Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, Pascal (unit), Perchlorate, Perchloric acid, Periodic table, Periodic Videos, Peroxide, PH, Philip Abelson, Phosphate, Phosphide, Phosphine, Phosphorus, Phthalate, Physical Review, Picometre, Platinum, Plutonium, Plutonium hexafluoride, Plutonium-238, Plutonium-239, Pnictogen, Polonium, Potassium, Precipitation (chemistry), Precursor (chemistry), Promethium, Propionate, Protactinium, Proton, Pyrimidine, Pyrophoricity, Quartz, Radioactive decay, Radioactive tracer, Radioactive waste, Radioisotope thermoelectric generator, Radionuclide, Radon, Rare-earth element, Redox, Reducing agent, Relative atomic mass, Relativistic quantum chemistry, Rhenium, Rhodium, Rongalite, Rubidium, Scandium, Selenide, Selenium, Semimetal, Sequanium, Smoke detector, Sodium, Sodium perchlorate, Space group, Spacecraft, Spectroscopy, Spent nuclear fuel, Spontaneous fission, Sublimation (phase transition), Sulfate, Sulfide, Sulfur, Superconductivity, Tarnish, Telluride (chemistry), Tellurium, Tetragonal crystal system, Tetrahydrofuran, Thallium, Thiocyanate, Thorium, Tin, Toluene, Trace radioisotope, Transition metal, Transuranium element, Tributyl phosphate, Trinity (nuclear test), Triple point, Tuff, Tungsten, Unified atomic mass unit, United States Department of Energy, University of California, Berkeley, Uraninite, Uranium, Uranium hexafluoride, Uranium nitride, Uranium ore, Uranium-235, Uranium-236, Uranium-238, Uranocene, Uranus, Uranyl, Valence electron, Vanadium, Vapor pressure, Weak interaction, Yoshio Nishina, Yttrium, Yvette Cauchois, Zinc, Zirconium. 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An acetate is a salt formed by the combination of acetic acid with an alkaline, earthy, metallic or nonmetallic and other base.
An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron (proton or hydrogen ion H+), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid).
The actinide or actinoid (IUPAC nomenclature) series encompasses the 15 metallic chemical elements with atomic numbers from 89 to 103, actinium through lawrencium.
An actinocene is a type of metallocene compound that contains an element from the actinide series.
Acute radiation syndrome (ARS) is a collection of health effects that are present within 24 hours of exposure to high doses of ionizing radiation.
The age of the Earth is 4.54 ± 0.05 billion years This age may represent the age of the Earth’s accretion, of core formation, or of the material from which the Earth formed.
The alkali metals are a group (column) in the periodic table consisting of the chemical elements lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K),The symbols Na and K for sodium and potassium are derived from their Latin names, natrium and kalium; these are still the names for the elements in some languages, such as German and Russian.
The alkaline earth metals are six chemical elements in group 2 of the periodic table.
Elemental phosphorus can exist in several allotropes, the most common of which are white and red solids.
Allotropy or allotropism is the property of some chemical elements to exist in two or more different forms, in the same physical state, known as allotropes of these elements.
Alpha decay or α-decay is a type of radioactive decay in which an atomic nucleus emits an alpha particle (helium nucleus) and thereby transforms or 'decays' into an atom with a mass number that is reduced by four and an atomic number that is reduced by two.
Alpha particles consist of two protons and two neutrons bound together into a particle identical to a helium-4 nucleus.
Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.
Aluminium bromide is any chemical compound with the empirical formula AlBrx.
Americium is a synthetic chemical element with symbol Am and atomic number 95.
Americium-241 (241Am) is an isotope of americium.
In organic chemistry, amines are compounds and functional groups that contain a basic nitrogen atom with a lone pair.
Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.
An ampoule (also ampul, ampule, or ampulla) is a small sealed vial which is used to contain and preserve a sample, usually a solid or liquid.
Antimonides (sometimes called stibnides) are compounds of antimony with more electropositive elements.
Antimony is a chemical element with symbol Sb (from stibium) and atomic number 51.
Aristid von Grosse was a German nuclear chemist.
Arsenic is a chemical element with symbol As and atomic number 33.
In chemistry, an arsenide is a compound of arsenic with a less electronegative element or elements.
Arthur Charles Wahl (September 8, 1917 – March 6, 2006) was an American chemist who, as a doctoral student of Glenn T. Seaborg at the University of California, Berkeley, first isolated plutonium in February 1941.
The atomic number or proton number (symbol Z) of a chemical element is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom.
The aufbau principle states that in the ground state of an atom or ion, electrons fill atomic orbitals of the lowest available energy levels before occupying higher levels.
Ausonium (atomic symbol Ao) was the name assigned to the element with atomic number 93, now known as neptunium.
Azide is the anion with the formula N. It is the conjugate base of hydrazoic acid (HN3).
Barium is a chemical element with symbol Ba and atomic number 56.
Barium sulfate (or sulphate) is the inorganic compound with the chemical formula BaSO4.
In chemistry, bases are substances that, in aqueous solution, release hydroxide (OH−) ions, are slippery to the touch, can taste bitter if an alkali, change the color of indicators (e.g., turn red litmus paper blue), react with acids to form salts, promote certain chemical reactions (base catalysis), accept protons from any proton donor, and/or contain completely or partially displaceable OH− ions.
The becquerel (symbol: Bq) is the SI derived unit of radioactivity.
The Belgian Congo (Congo Belge,; Belgisch-Congo) was a Belgian colony in Central Africa between 1908 and 1960 in what is now the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC).
Bentonite (/ˈbɛntənʌɪt/) is an absorbent aluminium phyllosilicate clay consisting mostly of montmorillonite.
Benzene is an important organic chemical compound with the chemical formula C6H6.
In nuclear physics, beta decay (β-decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta ray (fast energetic electron or positron) and a neutrino are emitted from an atomic nucleus.
Beta-decay stable isobars are the set of nuclides which cannot undergo beta decay, that is, the transformation of a neutron to a proton or a proton to a neutron within the nucleus.
In inorganic chemistry, bicarbonate (IUPAC-recommended nomenclature: hydrogencarbonate) is an intermediate form in the deprotonation of carbonic acid.
Biotechnology is the broad area of science involving living systems and organisms to develop or make products, or "any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use" (UN Convention on Biological Diversity, Art. 2).
Bismuth is a chemical element with symbol Bi and atomic number 83.
A block of the periodic table of elements is a set of adjacent groups.
Bohemium was the name assigned to the element with atomic number 93, now known as neptunium, when its discovery was first incorrectly alleged.
A bone is a rigid organ that constitutes part of the vertebrate skeleton.
Boron phosphate is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula BPO4.
Bremsstrahlung, from bremsen "to brake" and Strahlung "radiation"; i.e., "braking radiation" or "deceleration radiation", is electromagnetic radiation produced by the deceleration of a charged particle when deflected by another charged particle, typically an electron by an atomic nucleus.
A bromide is a chemical compound containing a bromide ion or ligand.
Bromine is a chemical element with symbol Br and atomic number 35.
Bromine pentafluoride, BrF5, is an interhalogen compound and a fluoride of bromine.
Bromine trifluoride is an interhalogen compound with the formula BrF3.
Butanol (also called butyl alcohol (or βουτανόλη in Greek)) is a four-carbon alcohol with a formula of C4H9OH, which occurs in five isomeric structures, from a straight-chain primary alcohol to a branched-chain tertiary alcohol; all are a butyl or isobutyl group linked to a hydroxyl group (sometimes represented as BuOH, n-BuOH, and i-BuOH).
Caesium (British spelling and IUPAC spelling) or cesium (American spelling) is a chemical element with symbol Cs and atomic number 55.
In chemistry, a carbide is a compound composed of carbon and a less electronegative element.
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
Carbon disulfide is a colorless volatile liquid with the formula CS2.
Carbon tetrachloride, also known by many other names (the most notable being tetrachloromethane, also recognized by the IUPAC, carbon tet in the cleaning industry, Halon-104 in firefighting, and Refrigerant-10 in HVACR) is an organic compound with the chemical formula CCl4.
In chemistry, a carbonate is a salt of carbonic acid (H2CO3), characterized by the presence of the carbonate ion, a polyatomic ion with the formula of.
The Celsius scale, previously known as the centigrade scale, is a temperature scale used by the International System of Units (SI).
The chalcogens are the chemical elements in group 16 of the periodic table.
Chelation is a type of bonding of ions and molecules to metal ions.
A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).
A chemical formula is a way of presenting information about the chemical proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound or molecule, using chemical element symbols, numbers, and sometimes also other symbols, such as parentheses, dashes, brackets, commas and plus (+) and minus (−) signs.
In chemistry, a chemical transport reaction describes a process for purification and crystallization of non-volatile solids.
The chloride ion is the anion (negatively charged ion) Cl−.
Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17.
Chromate salts contain the chromate anion,.
Chromatography is a laboratory technique for the separation of a mixture.
Chromium is a chemical element with symbol Cr and atomic number 24.
Citric acid is a weak organic acid that has the chemical formula.
Clay minerals are hydrous aluminium phyllosilicates, sometimes with variable amounts of iron, magnesium, alkali metals, alkaline earths, and other cations found on or near some planetary surfaces.
Cluster decay, also named heavy particle radioactivity or heavy ion radioactivity, is a type of nuclear decay in which an atomic nucleus emits a small "cluster" of neutrons and protons, more than in an alpha particle, but less than a typical binary fission fragment.
Cobalt is a chemical element with symbol Co and atomic number 27.
In chemistry, a colloid is a mixture in which one substance of microscopically dispersed insoluble particles is suspended throughout another substance.
In chemistry, congeners are related chemical substances "related to each other by origin, structure, or function".
In chemistry, a coordination complex consists of a central atom or ion, which is usually metallic and is called the coordination centre, and a surrounding array of bound molecules or ions, that are in turn known as ligands or complexing agents.
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
In chemistry, coprecipitation (CPT) or co-precipitation is the carrying down by a precipitate of substances normally soluble under the conditions employed.
Cosmic ray spallation is a naturally occurring nuclear reaction causing nucleosynthesis.
A covalent bond, also called a molecular bond, is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms.
A critical mass is the smallest amount of fissile material needed for a sustained nuclear chain reaction.
When two particles interact, their mutual cross section is the area transverse to their relative motion within which they must meet in order to scatter from each other.
In crystallography, crystal structure is a description of the ordered arrangement of atoms, ions or molecules in a crystalline material.
In crystallography, the cubic (or isometric) crystal system is a crystal system where the unit cell is in the shape of a cube.
1,3,5,7-Cyclooctatetraene (COT) is an unsaturated derivative of cyclooctane, with the formula C8H8.
Cyclopentadienyl can refer to.
A cyclotron is a type of particle accelerator invented by Ernest O. Lawrence in 1929-1930 at the University of California, Berkeley, and patented in 1932.
In nuclear science, the decay chain refers to a series of radioactive decays of different radioactive decay products as a sequential series of transformations.
In nuclear physics, a decay product (also known as a daughter product, daughter isotope, radio-daughter, or daughter nuclide) is the remaining nuclide left over from radioactive decay.
A deep geological repository is a nuclear waste repository excavated deep within a stable geologic environment (typically below 300 m or 1000 feet).
Denticity refers to the number of donor groups in a single ligand that bind to a central atom in a coordination complex.
Deuterium (or hydrogen-2, symbol or, also known as heavy hydrogen) is one of two stable isotopes of hydrogen (the other being protium, or hydrogen-1).
Diatomic molecules are molecules composed of only two atoms, of the same or different chemical elements.
A dimer (di-, "two" + -mer, "parts") is an oligomer consisting of two monomers joined by bonds that can be either strong or weak, covalent or intermolecular.
Disproportionation, sometimes called dismutation, is a redox reaction in which a compound of intermediate oxidation state converts to two different compounds, one of higher and one of lower oxidation states.
Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev (a; 8 February 18342 February 1907 O.S. 27 January 183420 January 1907) was a Russian chemist and inventor.
Doctor of Science (Latin: Scientiae Doctor), usually abbreviated Sc.D., D.Sc., S.D., or D.S., is an academic research degree awarded in a number of countries throughout the world.
Ductility is a measure of a material's ability to undergo significant plastic deformation before rupture, which may be expressed as percent elongation or percent area reduction from a tensile test.
Edwin Mattison McMillan (September 18, 1907 – September 7, 1991) was an American physicist and Nobel laureate credited with being the first-ever to produce a transuranium element, neptunium.
An electric arc furnace (EAF) is a furnace that heats charged material by means of an electric arc.
Electrical resistivity (also known as resistivity, specific electrical resistance, or volume resistivity) is a fundamental property that quantifies how strongly a given material opposes the flow of electric current.
Electron capture (K-electron capture, also K-capture, or L-electron capture, L-capture) is a process in which the proton-rich nucleus of an electrically neutral atom absorbs an inner atomic electron, usually from the K or L electron shell.
In atomic physics and quantum chemistry, the electron configuration is the distribution of electrons of an atom or molecule (or other physical structure) in atomic or molecular orbitals.
In physics, the electronvolt (symbol eV, also written electron-volt and electron volt) is a unit of energy equal to approximately joules (symbol J).
Electroplating is a process that uses an electric current to reduce dissolved metal cations so that they form a thin coherent metal coating on an electrode.
Emilio Gino Segrè (1 February 1905 – 22 April 1989) was an Italian-American physicist and Nobel laureate, who discovered the elements technetium and astatine, and the antiproton, a subatomic antiparticle, for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1959.
Enriched uranium is a type of uranium in which the percent composition of uranium-235 has been increased through the process of isotope separation.
Enrico Fermi (29 September 1901 – 28 November 1954) was an Italian-American physicist and the creator of the world's first nuclear reactor, the Chicago Pile-1.
The equilibrium constant of a chemical reaction is the value of its reaction quotient at chemical equilibrium, a state approached by a dynamic chemical system after sufficient time has elapsed at which its composition has no measurable tendency towards further change.
Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.
Extraction in chemistry is a separation process consisting in the separation of a substance from a matrix.
A fast-neutron reactor or simply a fast reactor is a category of nuclear reactor in which the fission chain reaction is sustained by fast neutrons, as opposed to thermal neutrons used in thermal-neutron reactors.
In particle physics, a fermion is a particle that follows Fermi–Dirac statistics.
Ferromagnetism is the basic mechanism by which certain materials (such as iron) form permanent magnets, or are attracted to magnets.
In nuclear engineering, fissile material is material capable of sustaining a nuclear fission chain reaction.
Fluorine is a chemical element with symbol F and atomic number 9.
The formation and evolution of the Solar System began 4.6 billion years ago with the gravitational collapse of a small part of a giant molecular cloud.
Jean Frédéric Joliot-Curie (19 March 1900 – 14 August 1958), born Jean Frédéric Joliot, was a French physicist, husband of Irène Joliot-Curie with whom he was jointly awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
Gallium is a chemical element with symbol Ga and atomic number 31.
A gamma ray or gamma radiation (symbol γ or \gamma), is penetrating electromagnetic radiation arising from the radioactive decay of atomic nuclei.
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.
Germanium is a chemical element with symbol Ge and atomic number 32.
Glenn Theodore Seaborg (April 19, 1912February 25, 1999) was an American chemist whose involvement in the synthesis, discovery and investigation of ten transuranium elements earned him a share of the 1951 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
Glycolic acid (hydroacetic acid or hydroxyacetic acid); chemical formula C2H4O3 (also written as HOCH2CO2H), is the smallest α-hydroxy acid (AHA).
Goethite (FeO(OH)) is an iron bearing hydroxide mineral of the diaspore group.
Granodiorite is a phaneritic-textured intrusive igneous rock similar to granite, but containing more plagioclase feldspar than orthoclase feldspar.
Graphite, archaically referred to as plumbago, is a crystalline allotrope of carbon, a semimetal, a native element mineral, and a form of coal.
In chemistry, a group (also known as a family) is a column of elements in the periodic table of the chemical elements.
Group 7, numbered by IUPAC nomenclature, is a group of elements in the periodic table.
Half-life (symbol t1⁄2) is the time required for a quantity to reduce to half its initial value.
A halide is a binary phase, of which one part is a halogen atom and the other part is an element or radical that is less electronegative (or more electropositive) than the halogen, to make a fluoride, chloride, bromide, iodide, astatide, or theoretically tennesside compound.
Hardness is a measure of the resistance to localized plastic deformation induced by either mechanical indentation or abrasion.
Hematite, also spelled as haematite, is the mineral form of iron(III) oxide (Fe2O3), one of several iron oxides.
In crystallography, the hexagonal crystal family is one of the 6 crystal families, which includes 2 crystal systems (hexagonal and trigonal) and 2 lattice systems (hexagonal and rhombohedral).
Horia Hulubei (15 November 1896 – 22 November 1972) was a Romanian nuclear physicist, known for his contributions to the development of X-ray spectroscopy.
Humic acids are the result of a severe chemical extraction from the soil organic matter, and recently their natural existence was jeopardized, since it is a product of the chemical procedure.
In chemistry, a hydride is the anion of hydrogen, H−, or, more commonly, it is a compound in which one or more hydrogen centres have nucleophilic, reducing, or basic properties.
In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
Hydrogen fluoride is a chemical compound with the chemical formula.
Hydrogen sulfide is the chemical compound with the chemical formula H2S.
Hydrolysis is a term used for both an electro-chemical process and a biological one.
Ida Noddack (25 February 1896 – 24 September 1978), née Ida Tacke, was a German chemist and physicist.
Indium is a chemical element with symbol In and atomic number 49.
Induced radioactivity occurs when a previously stable material has been made radioactive by exposure to specific radiation.
An iodate is a conjugate base of iodic acid.
An iodide ion is the ion I−.
Iodine is a chemical element with symbol I and atomic number 53.
Ion exchange is an exchange of ions between two electrolytes or between an electrolyte solution and a complex.
Ionic radius, rion, is the radius of an atom's ion in ionic crystals structure.
The ionization energy (Ei) is qualitatively defined as the amount of energy required to remove the most loosely bound electron, the valence electron, of an isolated gaseous atom to form a cation.
Ionizing radiation (ionising radiation) is radiation that carries enough energy to liberate electrons from atoms or molecules, thereby ionizing them.
Irène Joliot-Curie (12 September 1897 – 17 March 1956) was a French scientist, the daughter of Marie Curie and Pierre Curie and the wife of Frédéric Joliot-Curie.
Iridium is a chemical element with symbol Ir and atomic number 77.
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
Iron(III) oxide or ferric oxide is the inorganic compound with the formula Fe2O3.
A number of chemicals are dubbed iron(III) oxide-hydroxide.
In crystallography crystals are described as isomorphous if they are closely similar in shape.
Isostructural chemical compounds have similar chemical structures.
Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number.
Aluminium (13Al; or aluminum) has 24 known isotopes from 19Al to 42Al and 4 known isomers.
Lead (82Pb) has four stable isotopes: 204Pb, 206Pb, 207Pb, 208Pb.
Although phosphorus (15P) has 23 isotopes from 24P to 46P, only one of these isotopes is stable 31P; as such, it is considered a monoisotopic element.
Plutonium (94Pu) is an artificial element, except for trace quantities resulting from neutron capture by uranium, and thus a standard atomic weight cannot be given.
Protactinium (91Pa) has no stable isotopes.
John Wiley & Sons, Inc., also referred to as Wiley, is a global publishing company that specializes in academic publishing.
Kaolinite is a clay mineral, part of the group of industrial minerals, with the chemical composition Al2Si2O5(OH)4.
Kazimierz Fajans (Kasimir Fajans in many American publications; 27 May 1887 – 18 May 1975) was a Polish American physical chemist of Polish-Jewish origin, a pioneer in the science of radioactivity and the discoverer of chemical element protactinium.
Lactic acid is an organic compound with the formula CH3CH(OH)COOH.
The lanthanide or lanthanoid series of chemical elements comprises the 15 metallic chemical elements with atomic numbers 57 through 71, from lanthanum through lutetium.
The lanthanide contraction is the greater-than-expected decrease in ionic radii of the elements in the lanthanide series from atomic number 57, lanthanum, to 71, lutetium, which results in smaller than otherwise expected ionic radii for the subsequent elements starting with 72, hafnium.
The lattice constant, or lattice parameter, refers to the physical dimension of unit cells in a crystal lattice.
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), commonly referred to as Berkeley Lab, is a United States national laboratory located in the Berkeley Hills near Berkeley, California that conducts scientific research on behalf of the United States Department of Energy (DOE).
A Lewis acid is a chemical species that contains an empty orbital which is capable of accepting an electron pair from a Lewis base to form a Lewis adduct.
In coordination chemistry, a ligand is an ion or molecule (functional group) that binds to a central metal atom to form a coordination complex.
Lise Meitner (7 November 1878 – 27 October 1968) was an Austrian-Swedish physicist who worked on radioactivity and nuclear physics.
Lithium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol Li and atomic number 3.
Lithium bromide (LiBr) is a chemical compound of lithium and bromine.
Lithium chloride is a chemical compound with the formula LiCl.
The litre (SI spelling) or liter (American spelling) (symbols L or l, sometimes abbreviated ltr) is an SI accepted metric system unit of volume equal to 1 cubic decimetre (dm3), 1,000 cubic centimetres (cm3) or 1/1,000 cubic metre. A cubic decimetre (or litre) occupies a volume of 10 cm×10 cm×10 cm (see figure) and is thus equal to one-thousandth of a cubic metre. The original French metric system used the litre as a base unit. The word litre is derived from an older French unit, the litron, whose name came from Greek — where it was a unit of weight, not volume — via Latin, and which equalled approximately 0.831 litres. The litre was also used in several subsequent versions of the metric system and is accepted for use with the SI,, p. 124. ("Days" and "hours" are examples of other non-SI units that SI accepts.) although not an SI unit — the SI unit of volume is the cubic metre (m3). The spelling used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures is "litre", a spelling which is shared by almost all English-speaking countries. The spelling "liter" is predominantly used in American English. One litre of liquid water has a mass of almost exactly one kilogram, because the kilogram was originally defined in 1795 as the mass of one cubic decimetre of water at the temperature of melting ice. Subsequent redefinitions of the metre and kilogram mean that this relationship is no longer exact.
Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos or LANL for short) is a United States Department of Energy national laboratory initially organized during World War II for the design of nuclear weapons as part of the Manhattan Project.
Magnetite is a rock mineral and one of the main iron ores, with the chemical formula Fe3O4.
The malonate or propanedioate ion is CH2(COO)22− (malonic acid minus two hydrogen ions).
Manganese is a chemical element with symbol Mn and atomic number 25.
Manganese(IV) oxide is the inorganic compound with the formula.
The Manhattan Project was a research and development undertaking during World War II that produced the first nuclear weapons.
In chemical analysis, matrix refers to the components of a sample other than the analyte of interest.
Mellitic acid, also called graphitic acid or benzenehexacarboxylic acid, is an acid first discovered in 1799 by M. H. Klaproth in the mineral mellite (honeystone), which is the aluminium salt of the acid.
A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is a material (an element, compound, or alloy) that is typically hard when in solid state, opaque, shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity.
A metalloid is any chemical element which has properties in between those of metals and nonmetals, or that has a mixture of them.
In the metric system, a microgram or microgramme (μg; the recommended symbol in the United States when communicating medical information is mcg) is a unit of mass equal to one millionth of a gram.
The millimetre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI unit symbol mm) or millimeter (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one thousandth of a metre, which is the SI base unit of length.
The minor actinides are the actinide elements in used nuclear fuel other than uranium and plutonium, which are termed the major actinides.
Molar concentration (also called molarity, amount concentration or substance concentration) is a measure of the concentration of a chemical species, in particular of a solute in a solution, in terms of amount of substance per unit volume of solution.
In crystallography, the monoclinic crystal system is one of the 7 crystal systems.
Nauka (Наука, lit. trans.: Science) is a Russian publisher of academic books and journals.
Neptune is the eighth and farthest known planet from the Sun in the Solar System.
Neptunium(IV) oxide, or neptunium dioxide, is a radioactive, olive green cubic crystalline solid with the formula NpO2.
Neptunium hexafluoride (NpF6) is the highest fluoride of neptunium.
Neptunocene, Np(C8H8)2, is an organoneptunium compound composed of a neptunium atom sandwiched between two cyclooctatetraenide rings.
Neutron activation is the process in which neutron radiation induces radioactivity in materials, and occurs when atomic nuclei capture free neutrons, becoming heavier and entering excited states.
Neutron capture is a nuclear reaction in which an atomic nucleus and one or more neutrons collide and merge to form a heavier nucleus.
Neutron detection is the effective detection of neutrons entering a well-positioned detector.
Nevada (see pronunciations) is a state in the Western, Mountain West, and Southwestern regions of the United States of America.
Niels Henrik David Bohr (7 October 1885 – 18 November 1962) was a Danish physicist who made foundational contributions to understanding atomic structure and quantum theory, for which he received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1922.
Nitrate is a polyatomic ion with the molecular formula and a molecular mass of 62.0049 u.
Nitric acid (HNO3), also known as aqua fortis (Latin for "strong water") and spirit of niter, is a highly corrosive mineral acid.
In chemistry, a nitride is a compound of nitrogen where nitrogen has a formal oxidation state of 3-.
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
The Nobel Prize in Physics (Nobelpriset i fysik) is a yearly award given by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences for those who conferred the most outstanding contributions for mankind in the field of physics.
The noble gases (historically also the inert gases) make up a group of chemical elements with similar properties; under standard conditions, they are all odorless, colorless, monatomic gases with very low chemical reactivity.
Non-stoichiometric compounds are chemical compounds, almost always solid inorganic compounds, having elemental composition whose proportions cannot be represented by integers; most often, in such materials, some small percentage of atoms are missing or too many atoms are packed into an otherwise perfect lattice work.
In nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, nuclear fission is either a nuclear reaction or a radioactive decay process in which the nucleus of an atom splits into smaller parts (lighter nuclei).
Nuclear fission products are the atomic fragments left after a large atomic nucleus undergoes nuclear fission.
Nuclear fuel is a substance that is used in nuclear power stations to produce heat to power turbines.
The nuclear fuel cycle, also called nuclear fuel chain, is the progression of nuclear fuel through a series of differing stages.
A nuclear isomer is a metastable state of an atomic nucleus caused by the excitation of one or more of its nucleons (protons or neutrons).
Nuclear Physics is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Elsevier.
Nuclear power is the use of nuclear reactions that release nuclear energy to generate heat, which most frequently is then used in steam turbines to produce electricity in a nuclear power plant.
A nuclear reactor, formerly known as an atomic pile, is a device used to initiate and control a self-sustained nuclear chain reaction.
Nuclear transmutation is the conversion of one chemical element or an isotope into another chemical element.
A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions (thermonuclear bomb).
In chemistry, orbital hybridisation (or hybridization) is the concept of mixing atomic orbitals into new hybrid orbitals (with different energies, shapes, etc., than the component atomic orbitals) suitable for the pairing of electrons to form chemical bonds in valence bond theory.
Organophosphorus compounds are organic compounds containing phosphorus.
Organouranium chemistry is the science exploring the properties, structure and reactivity of organouranium compounds, which are organometallic compounds containing a carbon to uranium chemical bond.
In crystallography, the orthorhombic crystal system is one of the 7 crystal systems.
Osmium (from Greek ὀσμή osme, "smell") is a chemical element with symbol Os and atomic number 76.
Otto Hahn, (8 March 1879 – 28 July 1968) was a German chemist and pioneer in the fields of radioactivity and radiochemistry.
Otto Robert Frisch FRS (1 October 1904 – 22 September 1979) was an Austrian-British physicist.
Oxalate (IUPAC: ethanedioate) is the dianion with the formula, also written.
The oxidation state, sometimes referred to as oxidation number, describes degree of oxidation (loss of electrons) of an atom in a chemical compound.
In chemistry, an oxidizing agent (oxidant, oxidizer) is a substance that has the ability to oxidize other substances — in other words to cause them to lose electrons.
Molecular oxohalides (oxyhalides) are a group of chemical compounds in which both oxygen and halogen atoms are attached to another chemical element A in a single molecule.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Oxyselenides are a group of chemical compounds that contain oxygen and selenium atoms (Figure 1).
Ozone, or trioxygen, is an inorganic molecule with the chemical formula.
The Pacific War, sometimes called the Asia-Pacific War, was the theater of World War II that was fought in the Pacific and Asia. It was fought over a vast area that included the Pacific Ocean and islands, the South West Pacific, South-East Asia, and in China (including the 1945 Soviet–Japanese conflict). The Second Sino-Japanese War between the Empire of Japan and the Republic of China had been in progress since 7 July 1937, with hostilities dating back as far as 19 September 1931 with the Japanese invasion of Manchuria. However, it is more widely accepted that the Pacific War itself began on 7/8 December 1941, when Japan invaded Thailand and attacked the British possessions of Malaya, Singapore, and Hong Kong as well as the United States military and naval bases in Hawaii, Wake Island, Guam and the Philippines. The Pacific War saw the Allies pitted against Japan, the latter briefly aided by Thailand and to a much lesser extent by the Axis allied Germany and Italy. The war culminated in the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and other large aerial bomb attacks by the Allies, accompanied by the Soviet declaration of war and invasion of Manchuria on 9 August 1945, resulting in the Japanese announcement of intent to surrender on 15 August 1945. The formal surrender of Japan ceremony took place aboard the battleship in Tokyo Bay on 2 September 1945. Japan's Shinto Emperor was forced to relinquish much of his authority and his divine status through the Shinto Directive in order to pave the way for extensive cultural and political reforms. After the war, Japan lost all rights and titles to its former possessions in Asia and the Pacific, and its sovereignty was limited to the four main home islands.
Palladium is a chemical element with symbol Pd and atomic number 46.
Paramagnetism is a form of magnetism whereby certain materials are weakly attracted by an externally applied magnetic field, and form internal, induced magnetic fields in the direction of the applied magnetic field.
The Partial Test Ban Treaty (PTBT) is the abbreviated name of the 1963 Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapon Tests in the Atmosphere, in Outer Space and Under Water, which prohibited all test detonations of nuclear weapons except for those conducted underground.
The pascal (symbol: Pa) is the SI derived unit of pressure used to quantify internal pressure, stress, Young's modulus and ultimate tensile strength.
A perchlorate is the name for a chemical compound containing the perchlorate ion,.
Perchloric acid is a mineral acid with the formula HClO4.
The periodic table is a tabular arrangement of the chemical elements, ordered by their atomic number, electron configuration, and recurring chemical properties, whose structure shows periodic trends.
The Periodic Table of Videos (usually shortened to Periodic Videos) is a series of videos about chemical elements and the periodic table.
Peroxide is a compound with the structure R-O-O-R. The O−O group in a peroxide is called the peroxide group or peroxo group.
In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.
Philip Hauge Abelson (April 27, 1913 – August 1, 2004) was an American physicist, a scientific editor, and a science writer.
A phosphate is chemical derivative of phosphoric acid.
In chemistry, a phosphide is a compound containing the P3− ion or its equivalent.
Phosphine (IUPAC name: phosphane) is the compound with the chemical formula PH3.
Phosphorus is a chemical element with symbol P and atomic number 15.
Phthalates, or phthalate esters, are esters of phthalic acid.
Physical Review is an American peer-reviewed scientific journal established in 1893 by Edward Nichols.
The picometre (international spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: pm) or picometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to, or one trillionth of a metre, which is the SI base unit of length.
Platinum is a chemical element with symbol Pt and atomic number 78.
Plutonium is a radioactive chemical element with symbol Pu and atomic number 94.
Plutonium hexafluoride is the highest fluoride of plutonium, and is of interest for laser enrichment of plutonium, in particular for the production of pure plutonium-239 from irradiated uranium.
Plutonium-238 (also known as Pu-238 or 238Pu) is a radioactive isotope of plutonium that has a half-life of 87.7 years.
Plutonium-239 is an isotope of plutonium.
A pnictogen is one of the chemical elements in group 15 of the periodic table.
Polonium is a chemical element with symbol Po and atomic number 84.
Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.
Precipitation is the creation of a solid from a solution.
In chemistry, a precursor is a compound that participates in a chemical reaction that produces another compound.
Promethium is a chemical element with symbol Pm and atomic number 61.
The propionate, or propanoate ion, is C2H5COO− (the conjugate base of propionic acid).
Protactinium (formerly protoactinium) is a chemical element with symbol Pa and atomic number 91.
Pyrimidine is an aromatic heterocyclic organic compound similar to pyridine.
A pyrophoric substance (from Greek πυροφόρος, pyrophoros, "fire-bearing") ignites spontaneously in air at or below 55 °C (130 °F).
Quartz is a mineral composed of silicon and oxygen atoms in a continuous framework of SiO4 silicon–oxygen tetrahedra, with each oxygen being shared between two tetrahedra, giving an overall chemical formula of SiO2.
Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.
A radioactive tracer, or radioactive label, is a chemical compound in which one or more atoms have been replaced by a radionuclide so by virtue of its radioactive decay it can be used to explore the mechanism of chemical reactions by tracing the path that the radioisotope follows from reactants to products.
Radioactive waste is waste that contains radioactive material.
A Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG, RITEG) is an electrical generator that uses an array of thermocouples to convert the heat released by the decay of a suitable radioactive material into electricity by the Seebeck effect.
A radionuclide (radioactive nuclide, radioisotope or radioactive isotope) is an atom that has excess nuclear energy, making it unstable.
Radon is a chemical element with symbol Rn and atomic number 86.
A rare-earth element (REE) or rare-earth metal (REM), as defined by IUPAC, is one of a set of seventeen chemical elements in the periodic table, specifically the fifteen lanthanides, as well as scandium and yttrium.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
A reducing agent (also called a reductant or reducer) is an element (such as calcium) or compound that loses (or "donates") an electron to another chemical species in a redox chemical reaction.
Relative atomic mass (symbol: A) or atomic weight is a dimensionless physical quantity defined as the ratio of the average mass of atoms of a chemical element in a given sample to one unified atomic mass unit.
Relativistic quantum chemistry combines relativistic mechanics with quantum chemistry to explain elemental properties and structure, especially for the heavier elements of the periodic table.
Rhenium is a chemical element with symbol Re and atomic number 75.
Rhodium is a chemical element with symbol Rh and atomic number 45.
Rongalite, also called Rongalit (registered trademark of BASF), is sodium hydroxymethylsulfinate, or Na+HOCH2SO2−.
Rubidium is a chemical element with symbol Rb and atomic number 37.
Scandium is a chemical element with symbol Sc and atomic number 21.
A selenide is a chemical compound containing a selenium anion with oxidation number of −2 (Se2&minus), much as sulfur does in a sulfide.
Selenium is a chemical element with symbol Se and atomic number 34.
A semimetal is a material with a very small overlap between the bottom of the conduction band and the top of the valence band.
Sequanium was the proposed name for a new element found by the Romanian physicist Horia Hulubei in 1939.
A smoke detector is a device that senses smoke, typically as an indicator of fire.
Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.
Sodium perchlorate is the inorganic compound with the chemical formula NaClO4.
In mathematics, physics and chemistry, a space group is the symmetry group of a configuration in space, usually in three dimensions.
A spacecraft is a vehicle or machine designed to fly in outer space.
Spectroscopy is the study of the interaction between matter and electromagnetic radiation.
Spent nuclear fuel, occasionally called used nuclear fuel, is nuclear fuel that has been irradiated in a nuclear reactor (usually at a nuclear power plant).
Spontaneous fission (SF) is a form of radioactive decay that is found only in very heavy chemical elements.
Sublimation is the transition of a substance directly from the solid to the gas phase, without passing through the intermediate liquid phase.
The sulfate or sulphate (see spelling differences) ion is a polyatomic anion with the empirical formula.
Sulfide (systematically named sulfanediide, and sulfide(2−)) (British English sulphide) is an inorganic anion of sulfur with the chemical formula S2− or a compound containing one or more S2− ions.
Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.
Superconductivity is a phenomenon of exactly zero electrical resistance and expulsion of magnetic flux fields occurring in certain materials, called superconductors, when cooled below a characteristic critical temperature.
Tarnish is a thin layer of corrosion that forms over copper, brass, silver, aluminum, magnesium, neodymium and other similar metals as their outermost layer undergoes a chemical reaction.
The telluride ion is the anion Te2− and its derivatives.
Tellurium is a chemical element with symbol Te and atomic number 52.
In crystallography, the tetragonal crystal system is one of the 7 crystal systems.
Tetrahydrofuran (THF) is an organic compound with the formula (CH2)4O.
Thallium is a chemical element with symbol Tl and atomic number 81.
Thiocyanate (also known as rhodanide) is the anion −. It is the conjugate base of thiocyanic acid.
Thorium is a weakly radioactive metallic chemical element with symbol Th and atomic number 90.
Tin is a chemical element with the symbol Sn (from stannum) and atomic number 50.
Toluene, also known as toluol, is an aromatic hydrocarbon.
A trace radioisotope is a radioisotope that occurs naturally in trace amounts (i.e. extremely small).
In chemistry, the term transition metal (or transition element) has three possible meanings.
The transuranium elements (also known as transuranic elements) are the chemical elements with atomic numbers greater than 92 (the atomic number of uranium).
Tributyl phosphate, known commonly as TBP, is an organophosphorus compound with the chemical formula (CH3CH2CH2CH2O)3PO.
Trinity was the code name of the first detonation of a nuclear weapon.
In thermodynamics, the triple point of a substance is the temperature and pressure at which the three phases (gas, liquid, and solid) of that substance coexist in thermodynamic equilibrium.
Tuff (from the Italian tufo) is a type of rock made of volcanic ash ejected from a vent during a volcanic eruption.
Tungsten, or wolfram, is a chemical element with symbol W (referring to wolfram) and atomic number 74.
The unified atomic mass unit or dalton (symbol: u, or Da) is a standard unit of mass that quantifies mass on an atomic or molecular scale (atomic mass).
The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is a cabinet-level department of the United States Government concerned with the United States' policies regarding energy and safety in handling nuclear material.
The University of California, Berkeley (UC Berkeley, Berkeley, Cal, or California) is a public research university in Berkeley, California.
Uraninite, formerly pitchblende, is a radioactive, uranium-rich mineral and ore with a chemical composition that is largely UO2, but due to oxidation the mineral typically contains variable proportions of U3O8.
Uranium is a chemical element with symbol U and atomic number 92.
Uranium hexafluoride, referred to as "hex" in the nuclear industry, is a compound used in the uranium enrichment process that produces fuel for nuclear reactors and nuclear weapons.
Uranium nitride refers to a family of several ceramic materials: uranium mononitride (UN), uranium sesquinitride (U2N3) and uranium dinitride (UN2).
Uranium ore deposits are economically recoverable concentrations of uranium within the Earth's crust.
Uranium-235 (235U) is an isotope of uranium making up about 0.72% of natural uranium.
Uranium-236 is an isotope of uranium that is neither fissile with thermal neutrons, nor very good fertile material, but is generally considered a nuisance and long-lived radioactive waste.
Uranium-238 (238U or U-238) is the most common isotope of uranium found in nature, with a relative abundance of 99%.
Uranocene, U(C8H8)2, is an organouranium compound composed of a uranium atom sandwiched between two cyclooctatetraenide rings.
Uranus is the seventh planet from the Sun.
The uranyl ion is an oxycation of uranium in the oxidation state +6, with the chemical formula.
In chemistry, a valence electron is an outer shell electron that is associated with an atom, and that can participate in the formation of a chemical bond if the outer shell is not closed; in a single covalent bond, both atoms in the bond contribute one valence electron in order to form a shared pair.
Vanadium is a chemical element with symbol V and atomic number 23.
Vapor pressure or equilibrium vapor pressure is defined as the pressure exerted by a vapor in thermodynamic equilibrium with its condensed phases (solid or liquid) at a given temperature in a closed system.
In particle physics, the weak interaction (the weak force or weak nuclear force) is the mechanism of interaction between sub-atomic particles that causes radioactive decay and thus plays an essential role in nuclear fission.
was a Japanese physicist.
Yttrium is a chemical element with symbol Y and atomic number 39.
Yvette Cauchois (19 December 1908 – 19 November 1999) was a French physicist known for her contributions to x-ray spectroscopy and x-ray optics, and for pioneering European synchrotron research.
Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.
Zirconium is a chemical element with symbol Zr and atomic number 40.