220 relations: Abdomen, Acetylcholine, Action potential, Alan Lloyd Hodgkin, Amacrine cell, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Andrew Huxley, Animal, Antenna (biology), Arthropod, Arthropod mouthparts, Artificial neural network, Attractor, Autonomic nervous system, Axon, Axon guidance, Axon terminal, Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Basal ganglia, Behaviorism, Bilateria, Blood–brain barrier, Bone morphogenetic protein, Bone morphogenetic protein 4, Brain, Caenorhabditis elegans, Carpal tunnel syndrome, Cell migration, Cell signaling, Cellular differentiation, Central nervous system, Central pattern generator, Chaos theory, Charles Scott Sherrington, Chemical synapse, Chordin, Circadian rhythm, Circumesophageal nerve ring, Cnidaria, Command neuron, Common coding theory, Compound eye, Connectome, Coordinate system, Coral, Cranial cavity, Cranial nerves, Crustacean, Ctenophora, Dale's principle, ..., David H. Hubel, Decision-making, Deuterostome, Development of the nervous system, Diabetes mellitus, Diabetic neuropathy, Dopamine, Dorsal root ganglion, Drosophila, Dura mater, Earthworm, Echinoderm, Ectoderm, Ediacaran, Ediacaran biota, Efferent nerve fiber, Electrical synapse, Electrophysiology, Endoderm, Engram (neuropsychology), Enteric nervous system, Eric Kandel, Fate mapping, Feature detection (nervous system), Fibroblast growth factor, Fly, Gamma-Aminobutyric acid, Ganglion, Gastrointestinal tract, Gastrulation, Glutamic acid, Gray's Anatomy, Grey matter, Growth cone, Guillain–Barré syndrome, Hemichordate, Henry Hallett Dale, Hermaphrodite, Homeostasis, Homology (biology), Hormone, Human brain, Hydra (genus), Idiopathic disease, Insect, Interneuron, Jellyfish, John Eccles (neurophysiologist), Language, Large scale brain networks, Leprosy, Lidocaine, Ligand-gated ion channel, Local anesthetic, Long-term potentiation, Lupus erythematosus, Mauthner cell, Meninges, Mesoderm, Mesozoa, Mirror neuron, Mollusca, Motor neuron, Motor planning, Multiple sclerosis, Muscle, Myelin, Myocyte, Nematode, Nerve, Nerve fascicle, Nerve net, Nervous tissue, Neural circuit, Neural crest, Neural groove, Neural pathway, Neural plate, Neural tube, Neuroblast, Neurogenesis, Neuroglia, Neurology, Neuron, Neuropil, Neuroplasticity, Neuroregeneration, Neuroscience, Neurotransmitter, Neurotransmitter receptor, Neurotrophin, Neurulation, NMDA receptor, Noggin (protein), Nucleus (neuroanatomy), Nutrition, Olfaction, Oligodendrocyte, Otto Loewi, Parallel (geometry), Paralysis, Parasympathetic nervous system, Parietal lobe, Pathogen, Peptide, Perception, Peripheral nervous system, Peripheral neuropathy, Pheromone, Phylum, Placozoa, Polarity in embryogenesis, Postsynaptic density, Premotor cortex, Primary somatosensory cortex, Primate, Protostome, Psychology, Radiata, Recall (memory), Reflex, Reflex arc, Retina, Reward system, Salivary gland, Santiago Ramón y Cajal, Scholarpedia, Schwann cell, Sea anemone, Second messenger system, Sense, Sensory nervous system, Sensory neuron, Series and parallel circuits, Sexual dimorphism, Shingles, Simple eye in invertebrates, Skull, Somatic nervous system, Spinal canal, Spinal cord, Spinal nerve, Sponge, Squid giant axon, Squid giant synapse, Stem cell, Suboesophageal ganglion, Supplementary motor area, Suprachiasmatic nucleus, Supraesophageal ganglion, Symmetry in biology, Sympathetic nervous system, Synapse, Synaptic plasticity, Synaptic vesicle, Theory of mind, Torsten Wiesel, Transcription (biology), Transverse plane, Turing machine, Ulnar nerve, Ventral nerve cord, Vertebra, Vertebrate, Visual system, Walter Pitts, Warren Sturgis McCulloch, White matter, Worm, Xenoturbella. Expand index (170 more) » « Shrink index
The abdomen (less formally called the belly, stomach, tummy or midriff) constitutes the part of the body between the thorax (chest) and pelvis, in humans and in other vertebrates.
Acetylcholine (ACh) is an organic chemical that functions in the brain and body of many types of animals, including humans, as a neurotransmitter—a chemical message released by nerve cells to send signals to other cells.
In physiology, an action potential occurs when the membrane potential of a specific axon location rapidly rises and falls: this depolarisation then causes adjacent locations to similarly depolarise.
Sir Alan Lloyd Hodgkin (5 February 1914 – 20 December 1998) was an English physiologist and biophysicist, who shared the 1963 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Andrew Huxley and John Eccles.
Amacrine cells are interneurons in the retina.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as motor neurone disease (MND), and Lou Gehrig's disease, is a specific disease which causes the death of neurons controlling voluntary muscles.
Sir Andrew Fielding Huxley (22 November 191730 May 2012) was a Nobel Prize-winning English physiologist and biophysicist.
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia.
Antennae (singular: antenna), sometimes referred to as "feelers," are paired appendages used for sensing in arthropods.
An arthropod (from Greek ἄρθρον arthron, "joint" and πούς pous, "foot") is an invertebrate animal having an exoskeleton (external skeleton), a segmented body, and paired jointed appendages.
The mouthparts of arthropods have evolved into a number of forms, each adapted to a different style or mode of feeding.
Artificial neural networks (ANNs) or connectionist systems are computing systems vaguely inspired by the biological neural networks that constitute animal brains.
In the mathematical field of dynamical systems, an attractor is a set of numerical values toward which a system tends to evolve, for a wide variety of starting conditions of the system.
The autonomic nervous system (ANS), formerly the vegetative nervous system, is a division of the peripheral nervous system that supplies smooth muscle and glands, and thus influences the function of internal organs.
An axon (from Greek ἄξων áxōn, axis) or nerve fiber, is a long, slender projection of a nerve cell, or neuron, that typically conducts electrical impulses known as action potentials, away from the nerve cell body.
Axon guidance (also called axon pathfinding) is a subfield of neural development concerning the process by which neurons send out axons to reach the correct targets.
Axon terminals (also called synaptic boutons or terminal boutons) are distal terminations of the telodendria (branches) of an axon.
Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire (15 April 1772 – 19 June 1844) was a French naturalist who established the principle of "unity of composition".
The basal ganglia (or basal nuclei) is a group of subcortical nuclei, of varied origin, in the brains of vertebrates including humans, which are situated at the base of the forebrain.
Behaviorism (or behaviourism) is a systematic approach to understanding the behavior of humans and other animals.
The Bilateria or bilaterians, or triploblasts, are animals with bilateral symmetry, i.e., they have a head (anterior) and a tail (posterior) as well as a back (dorsal) and a belly (ventral); therefore they also have a left side and a right side.
The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a highly selective semipermeable membrane barrier that separates the circulating blood from the brain and extracellular fluid in the central nervous system (CNS).
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are a group of growth factors also known as cytokines and as metabologens.
Bone morphogenetic protein 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by BMP4 gene.
The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.
Caenorhabditis elegans is a free-living (not parasitic), transparent nematode (roundworm), about 1 mm in length, that lives in temperate soil environments.
Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a medical condition due to compression of the median nerve as it travels through the wrist at the carpal tunnel.
Cell migration is a central process in the development and maintenance of multicellular organisms.
Cell signaling (cell signalling in British English) is part of any communication process that governs basic activities of cells and coordinates all cell actions.
In developmental biology, cellular differentiation is the process where a cell changes from one cell type to another.
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
Central pattern generators (CPGs) are biological neural circuits that produce rhythmic outputs in the absence of rhythmic input.
Chaos theory is a branch of mathematics focusing on the behavior of dynamical systems that are highly sensitive to initial conditions.
Sir Charles Scott Sherrington (27 November 1857 – 4 March 1952) was an English neurophysiologist, histologist, bacteriologist, and a pathologist, Nobel laureate and president of the Royal Society in the early 1920s.
Chemical synapses are biological junctions through which neurons' signals can be exchanged to each other and to non-neuronal cells such as those in muscles or glands.
Chordin is a bone morphogenetic protein antagonist composed of four small cysteine-rich domains, whose function is not known.
A circadian rhythm is any biological process that displays an endogenous, entrainable oscillation of about 24 hours.
A circumesophageal or circumpharyngeal nerve ring is an arrangement of nerve ganglia around the esophagus/ pharynx of an animal.
Cnidaria is a phylum containing over 10,000 species of animals found exclusively in aquatic (freshwater and marine) environments: they are predominantly marine species.
A command neuron is a single neuron (or small set of neurons) whose stimulation results in the evocation of an endogenous, specific, naturally occurring behavior pattern (Carew, 2000).
Common coding theory is a cognitive psychology theory describing how perceptual representations (e.g. of things we can see and hear) and motor representations (e.g. of hand actions) are linked.
A compound eye is a visual organ found in arthropods such as insects and crustaceans.
A connectome is a comprehensive map of neural connections in the brain, and may be thought of as its "wiring diagram".
In geometry, a coordinate system is a system which uses one or more numbers, or coordinates, to uniquely determine the position of the points or other geometric elements on a manifold such as Euclidean space.
Corals are marine invertebrates in the class Anthozoa of phylum Cnidaria.
The cranial cavity, also known as intracranial space, is the space within the skull.
Cranial nerves are the nerves that emerge directly from the brain (including the brainstem), in contrast to spinal nerves (which emerge from segments of the spinal cord).
Crustaceans (Crustacea) form a large, diverse arthropod taxon which includes such familiar animals as crabs, lobsters, crayfish, shrimp, krill, woodlice, and barnacles.
Ctenophora (singular ctenophore, or; from the Greek κτείς kteis 'comb' and φέρω pherō 'to carry'; commonly known as comb jellies) is a phylum of invertebrate animals that live in marine waters worldwide.
In neuroscience, Dale's principle (or Dale's law) is a rule attributed to the English neuroscientist Henry Hallett Dale.
David Hunter Hubel (February 27, 1926 – September 22, 2013) was a Canadian neurophysiologist noted for his studies of the structure and function of the visual cortex.
In psychology, decision-making (also spelled decision making and decisionmaking) is regarded as the cognitive process resulting in the selection of a belief or a course of action among several alternative possibilities.
Deuterostomes (taxonomic term: Deuterostomia; meaning "second mouth" in Greek) are any members of a superphylum of animals.
Development of the nervous system refers to the processes that generate, shape, and reshape the nervous system of animals, from the earliest stages of embryogenesis to adulthood.
Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.
Diabetic neuropathies are nerve damaging disorders associated with diabetes mellitus.
Dopamine (DA, a contraction of 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays several important roles in the brain and body.
A dorsal root ganglion (or spinal ganglion) (also known as a posterior root ganglion), is a cluster of neurons (a ganglion) in a dorsal root of a spinal nerve.
Drosophila is a genus of flies, belonging to the family Drosophilidae, whose members are often called "small fruit flies" or (less frequently) pomace flies, vinegar flies, or wine flies, a reference to the characteristic of many species to linger around overripe or rotting fruit.
Dura mater, or dura, is a thick membrane made of dense irregular connective tissue that surrounds the brain and spinal cord.
An earthworm is a tube-shaped, segmented worm found in the phylum Annelida.
Echinoderm is the common name given to any member of the phylum Echinodermata (from Ancient Greek, ἐχῖνος, echinos – "hedgehog" and δέρμα, derma – "skin") of marine animals.
Ectoderm is one of the three primary germ layers in the very early embryo.
The Ediacaran Period, spans 94 million years from the end of the Cryogenian Period 635 million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Cambrian Period 541 Mya.
The Ediacaran (formerly Vendian) biota consisted of enigmatic tubular and frond-shaped, mostly sessile organisms that lived during the Ediacaran Period (ca. 635–542 Mya).
In the peripheral nervous system, an efferent nerve fiber is the axon of a motor neuron.
An electrical synapse is a mechanical and electrically conductive link between two neighboring neurons that is formed at a narrow gap between the pre- and postsynaptic neurons known as a gap junction.
Electrophysiology (from Greek ἥλεκτρον, ēlektron, "amber"; φύσις, physis, "nature, origin"; and -λογία, -logia) is the study of the electrical properties of biological cells and tissues.
Endoderm is one of the three primary germ layers in the very early embryo.
Engrams are theorized to be means by which memories are stored as biophysical or biochemical changes in the brain (and other neural tissue) in response to external stimuli.
The enteric nervous system (ENS) or intrinsic nervous system is one of the main divisions of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and consists of a mesh-like system of neurons that governs the function of the gastrointestinal tract.
Eric Richard Kandel (born November 7, 1929) is an Austrian-American neuroscientist and a University Professor of biochemistry and biophysics at the College of Physicians and Surgeons at Columbia University.
In developmental biology, fate mapping is a method of understanding the embryonic origin of various tissues in the adult organism by establishing the correspondence between individual cells (or groups of cells) at one stage of development, and their progeny at later stages of development.
Feature detection is a process by which the nervous system sorts or filters complex natural stimuli in order to extract behaviorally relevant cues that have a high probability of being associated with important objects or organisms in their environment, as opposed to irrelevant background or noise.
The fibroblast growth factors are a family of cell signalling proteins that are involved in a wide variety of processes, most notably as crucial elements for normal development.
True flies are insects of the order Diptera, the name being derived from the Greek δι- di- "two", and πτερόν pteron "wings".
gamma-Aminobutyric acid, or γ-aminobutyric acid, or GABA, is the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system.
A ganglion is a nerve cell cluster or a group of nerve cell bodies located in the autonomic nervous system and sensory system.
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.
Gastrulation is a phase early in the embryonic development of most animals, during which the single-layered blastula is reorganized into a multilayered structure known as the gastrula.
Glutamic acid (symbol Glu or E) is an α-amino acid with formula.
Gray's Anatomy is an English-language textbook of human anatomy originally written by Henry Gray and illustrated by Henry Vandyke Carter.
Grey matter (or gray matter) is a major component of the central nervous system, consisting of neuronal cell bodies, neuropil (dendrites and myelinated as well as unmyelinated axons), glial cells (astrocytes and oligodendrocytes), synapses, and capillaries.
A growth cone is a big actin-supported extension of a developing or regenerating neurite seeking its synaptic target.
Guillain–Barré syndrome (GBS) is a rapid-onset muscle weakness caused by the immune system damaging the peripheral nervous system.
Hemichordata is a phylum of marine deuterostome animals, generally considered the sister group of the echinoderms.
Sir Henry Hallett Dale (9 June 1875 – 23 July 1968) was an English pharmacologist and physiologist.
In biology, a hermaphrodite is an organism that has complete or partial reproductive organs and produces gametes normally associated with both male and female sexes.
Homeostasis is the tendency of organisms to auto-regulate and maintain their internal environment in a stable state.
In biology, homology is the existence of shared ancestry between a pair of structures, or genes, in different taxa.
A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.
The human brain is the central organ of the human nervous system, and with the spinal cord makes up the central nervous system.
Hydra is a genus of small, fresh-water organisms of the phylum Cnidaria and class Hydrozoa.
An idiopathic disease is any disease with an unknown cause or mechanism of apparently spontaneous origin.
Insects or Insecta (from Latin insectum) are hexapod invertebrates and the largest group within the arthropod phylum.
An interneuron (also called internuncial neuron, relay neuron, association neuron, connector neuron, intermediate neuron or local circuit neuron) is a broad class of neurons found in the human body.
Jellyfish or sea jelly is the informal common name given to the medusa-phase of certain gelatinous members of the subphylum Medusozoa, a major part of the phylum Cnidaria.
Sir John Carew Eccles (27 January 1903 – 2 May 1997) was an Australian neurophysiologist and philosopher who won the 1963 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his work on the synapse.
Language is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so; and a language is any specific example of such a system.
Large scale brain networks are collections of widespread brain regions showing functional connectivity by statistical analysis of the fMRI BOLD signal or other signal fluctuations.
Leprosy, also known as Hansen's disease (HD), is a long-term infection by the bacterium Mycobacterium leprae or Mycobacterium lepromatosis.
Lidocaine, also known as xylocaine and lignocaine, is a medication used to numb tissue in a specific area.
Ligand-gated ion channels (LICs, LGIC), also commonly referred as ionotropic receptors, are a group of transmembrane ion-channel proteins which open to allow ions such as Na+, K+, Ca2+, and/or Cl− to pass through the membrane in response to the binding of a chemical messenger (i.e. a ligand), such as a neurotransmitter.
A local anesthetic (LA) is a medication that causes reversible absence of pain sensation, although other senses are often affected, as well.
In neuroscience, long-term potentiation (LTP) is a persistent strengthening of synapses based on recent patterns of activity.
Lupus erythematosus is a collection of autoimmune diseases in which the human immune system becomes hyperactive and attacks healthy tissues.
The Mauthner cells are a pair of big and easily identifiable neurons (one for each half of the body) located in the rhombomere 4 of the hindbrain in fish and amphibians that are responsible for a very fast escape reflex (in the majority of animals – a so-called C-start response).
The meninges (singular: meninx, from membrane, adjectival: meningeal) are the three membranes that envelop the brain and spinal cord.
In all bilaterian animals, the mesoderm is one of the three primary germ layers in the very early embryo.
The Mesozoa (singular: mesozoon) are minuscule, worm-like parasites of marine invertebrates.
A mirror neuron is a neuron that fires both when an animal acts and when the animal observes the same action performed by another.
Mollusca is a large phylum of invertebrate animals whose members are known as molluscs or mollusksThe formerly dominant spelling mollusk is still used in the U.S. — see the reasons given in Gary Rosenberg's.
A motor neuron (or motoneuron) is a neuron whose cell body is located in the motor cortex, brainstem or the spinal cord, and whose axon (fiber) projects to the spinal cord or outside of the spinal cord to directly or indirectly control effector organs, mainly muscles and glands.
In psychology and neuroscience, motor planning is a set of processes related to the preparation of a movement that occurs during the reaction time (the time between the presentation of a stimulus to a person and that person's initiation of a motor response).
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease in which the insulating covers of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord are damaged.
Muscle is a soft tissue found in most animals.
Myelin is a lipid-rich substance that surrounds the axon of some nerve cells, forming an electrically insulating layer.
A myocyte (also known as a muscle cell) is the type of cell found in muscle tissue.
The nematodes or roundworms constitute the phylum Nematoda (also called Nemathelminthes).
A nerve is an enclosed, cable-like bundle of axons (nerve fibers, the long and slender projections of neurons) in the peripheral nervous system.
A nerve fascicle, or fasciculus is a bundle of funiculi.
A nerve net consists of interconnected neurons lacking a brain or any form of cephalization.
Nervous tissue or nerve tissue is the main tissue component of the two parts of the nervous system; the brain and spinal cord of the central nervous system (CNS), and the branching peripheral nerves of the peripheral nervous system (PNS), which regulates and controls bodily functions and activity.
A neural circuit, is a population of neurons interconnected by synapses to carry out a specific function when activated.
Neural crest cells are a temporary group of cells unique to chordates of the group Cristozoa that arise from the embryonic ectoderm cell layer, and in turn give rise to a diverse cell lineage—including melanocytes, craniofacial cartilage and bone, smooth muscle, peripheral and enteric neurons and glia.
The neural groove is a shallow median groove of the neural plate between the neural folds of an embryo.
A neural pathway is the connection formed by axons that project from neurons to make synapses onto neurons in another location, to enable a signal to be sent from one region of the nervous system to another.
The neural plate is a key developmental structure that serves as the basis for the nervous system.
In the developing chordate (including vertebrates), the neural tube is the embryonic precursor to the central nervous system, which is made up of the brain and spinal cord.
A neuroblast or primitive nerve cell is a dividing cell that will develop into a neuron often after a migration phase.
Neurogenesis is the process by which nervous system cells, known as neurons, are produced by neural stem cells (NSC)s, and it occurs in all species of animals except the porifera (sponges) and placozoans.
Neuroglia, also called glial cells or simply glia, are non-neuronal cells in the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) and the peripheral nervous system.
Neurology (from νεῦρον (neûron), "string, nerve" and the suffix -logia, "study of") is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system.
A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.
Neuropil (or "neuropile") is any area in the nervous system composed of mostly unmyelinated axons, dendrites and glial cell processes that forms a synaptically dense region containing a relatively low number of cell bodies.
Neuroplasticity, also known as brain plasticity and neural plasticity, is the ability of the brain to change throughout an individual's life, e.g., brain activity associated with a given function can be transferred to a different location, the proportion of grey matter can change, and synapses may strengthen or weaken over time.
Neuroregeneration refers to the regrowth or repair of nervous tissues, cells or cell products.
Neuroscience (or neurobiology) is the scientific study of the nervous system.
Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.
A neurotransmitter receptor (also known as a neuroreceptor) is a membrane receptor protein that is activated by a neurotransmitter.
Neurotrophins are a family of proteins that induce the survival, development, and function of neurons.
Neurulation refers to the folding process in vertebrate embryos, which includes the transformation of the neural plate into the neural tube.
The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (also known as the NMDA receptor or NMDAR), is a glutamate receptor and ion channel protein found in nerve cells.
Noggin, also known as NOG, is a protein that is involved in the development of many body tissues, including nerve tissue, muscles, and bones.
In neuroanatomy, a nucleus (plural form: nuclei) is a cluster of neurons in the central nervous system, located deep within the cerebral hemispheres and brainstem.
Nutrition is the science that interprets the interaction of nutrients and other substances in food in relation to maintenance, growth, reproduction, health and disease of an organism.
Olfaction is a chemoreception that forms the sense of smell.
Oligodendrocytes, or oligodendroglia,.
Otto Loewi (3 June 1873 – 25 December 1961) was a German-born pharmacologist and psychobiologist who discovered the role of acetylcholine as an endogenous neurotransmitter. For his discovery he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1936, which he shared with Sir Henry Dale, who was a lifelong friend who helped to inspire the neurotransmitter experiment. Loewi met Dale in 1902 when spending some months in Ernest Starling's laboratory at University College, London.
In geometry, parallel lines are lines in a plane which do not meet; that is, two lines in a plane that do not intersect or touch each other at any point are said to be parallel.
Paralysis is a loss of muscle function for one or more muscles.
The parasympathetic nervous system (PSNS) is one of the two divisions of the autonomic nervous system (a division of the peripheral nervous system (PNS)), the other being the sympathetic nervous system.
The parietal lobe is one of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain of mammals. The parietal lobe is positioned above the temporal lobe and behind the frontal lobe and central sulcus. The parietal lobe integrates sensory information among various modalities, including spatial sense and navigation (proprioception), the main sensory receptive area for the sense of touch (mechanoreception) in the somatosensory cortex which is just posterior to the central sulcus in the postcentral gyrus, and the dorsal stream of the visual system. The major sensory inputs from the skin (touch, temperature, and pain receptors), relay through the thalamus to the parietal lobe. Several areas of the parietal lobe are important in language processing. The somatosensory cortex can be illustrated as a distorted figure – the homunculus (Latin: "little man"), in which the body parts are rendered according to how much of the somatosensory cortex is devoted to them.Schacter, D. L., Gilbert, D. L. & Wegner, D. M. (2009). Psychology. (2nd ed.). New York (NY): Worth Publishers. The superior parietal lobule and inferior parietal lobule are the primary areas of body or spacial awareness. A lesion commonly in the right superior or inferior parietal lobule leads to hemineglect. The name comes from the parietal bone, which is named from the Latin paries-, meaning "wall".
In biology, a pathogen (πάθος pathos "suffering, passion" and -γενής -genēs "producer of") or a '''germ''' in the oldest and broadest sense is anything that can produce disease; the term came into use in the 1880s.
Peptides (from Gr.: πεπτός, peptós "digested"; derived from πέσσειν, péssein "to digest") are short chains of amino acid monomers linked by peptide (amide) bonds.
Perception (from the Latin perceptio) is the organization, identification, and interpretation of sensory information in order to represent and understand the presented information, or the environment.
The peripheral nervous system (PNS) is one of the two components of the nervous system, the other part is the central nervous system (CNS).
Peripheral neuropathy (PN) is damage to or disease affecting nerves, which may impair sensation, movement, gland or organ function, or other aspects of health, depending on the type of nerve affected.
A pheromone (from Ancient Greek φέρω phero "to bear" and hormone, from Ancient Greek ὁρμή "impetus") is a secreted or excreted chemical factor that triggers a social response in members of the same species.
In biology, a phylum (plural: phyla) is a level of classification or taxonomic rank below Kingdom and above Class.
The Placozoa are a basal form of free-living (non-parasitic) multicellular organism.
In developmental biology, an embryo is divided into two hemispheres: the animal pole and the vegetal pole within a blastula.
The postsynaptic density (PSD) is a protein dense specialization attached to the postsynaptic membrane.
The premotor cortex is an area of motor cortex lying within the frontal lobe of the brain just anterior to the primary motor cortex.
The primary somatosensory cortex is located in the postcentral gyrus, and is part of the somatosensory system.
A primate is a mammal of the order Primates (Latin: "prime, first rank").
Protostomia (from Greek πρωτο- proto- "first" and στόμα stoma "mouth") is a clade of animals.
Psychology is the science of behavior and mind, including conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought.
Radiata or Radiates is a historical taxonomic rank that was used to classify animals with radially symmetric body plans, and is no longer accepted.
Recall in memory refers to the mental process of retrieval of information from the past.
A reflex, or reflex action, is an involuntary and nearly instantaneous movement in response to a stimulus.
A reflex arc is a neural pathway that controls a reflex.
The retina is the innermost, light-sensitive "coat", or layer, of shell tissue of the eye of most vertebrates and some molluscs.
The reward system is a group of neural structures responsible for incentive salience (i.e., motivation and "wanting", desire, or craving for a reward), associative learning (primarily positive reinforcement and classical conditioning), and positive emotions, particularly ones which involve pleasure as a core component (e.g., joy, euphoria and ecstasy).
The salivary glands in mammals are exocrine glands that produce saliva through a system of ducts.
Santiago Ramón y Cajal (1 May 1852 – 17 October 1934) was a Spanish neuroscientist and pathologist, specializing in neuroanatomy, particularly the histology of the central nervous system.
Scholarpedia is an English-language online wiki-based encyclopedia with features commonly associated with open-access online academic journals, which aims to have quality content.
Schwann cells (named after physiologist Theodor Schwann) or neurolemmocytes are the principal glia of the peripheral nervous system (PNS).
Sea anemones are a group of marine, predatory animals of the order Actiniaria.
Second messengers are intracellular signaling molecules released by the cell in response to exposure to extracellular signaling molecules—the first messengers.
A sense is a physiological capacity of organisms that provides data for perception.
The sensory nervous system is a part of the nervous system responsible for processing sensory information.
Sensory neurons also known as afferent neurons are neurons that convert a specific type of stimulus, via their receptors, into action potentials or graded potentials.
Components of an electrical circuit or electronic circuit can be connected in many different ways.
Sexual dimorphism is the condition where the two sexes of the same species exhibit different characteristics beyond the differences in their sexual organs.
Shingles, also known as herpes zoster, is a viral disease characterized by a painful skin rash with blisters in a localized area.
A simple eye (sometimes called a pigment pit) refers to a type of eye form or optical arrangement that contains a single lens.
The skull is a bony structure that forms the head in vertebrates.
The somatic nervous system (SNS or voluntary nervous system) is the part of the peripheral nervous system associated with the voluntary control of body movements via skeletal muscles.
The spinal canal (or vertebral canal or spinal cavity) is the space in the vertebral column formed by the vertebrae through which the spinal cord passes.
The spinal cord is a long, thin, tubular bundle of nervous tissue and support cells that extends from the medulla oblongata in the brainstem to the lumbar region of the vertebral column.
A spinal nerve is a mixed nerve, which carries motor, sensory, and autonomic signals between the spinal cord and the body.
Sponges, the members of the phylum Porifera (meaning "pore bearer"), are a basal Metazoa clade as sister of the Diploblasts.
The squid giant axon is the very large (up to 1 mm in diameter; typically around 0.5 mm) axon that controls part of the water jet propulsion system in squid.
The squid giant synapse is a chemical synapse found in squid.
Stem cells are biological cells that can differentiate into other types of cells and can divide to produce more of the same type of stem cells.
The suboesophageal ganglion (acronym: SOG; synonym: subesophageal ganglion) of arthropods and in particular insects is part of the arthropod central nervous system (CNS).
The supplementary motor area (SMA) is a part of the primate cerebral cortex that contributes to the control of movement.
The suprachiasmatic nucleus or nuclei (SCN) is a tiny region of the brain in the hypothalamus, situated directly above the optic chiasm.
The supraesophageal ganglion ("arthropod brain" or "a. microbrain") is the first part of the arthropod and especially insect central nervous system.
Symmetry in biology is the balanced distribution of duplicate body parts or shapes within the body of an organism.
The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is one of the two main divisions of the autonomic nervous system, the other being the parasympathetic nervous system.
In the nervous system, a synapse is a structure that permits a neuron (or nerve cell) to pass an electrical or chemical signal to another neuron or to the target efferent cell.
In neuroscience, synaptic plasticity is the ability of synapses to strengthen or weaken over time, in response to increases or decreases in their activity.
In a neuron, synaptic vesicles (or neurotransmitter vesicles) store various neurotransmitters that are released at the synapse.
Theory of mind is the ability to attribute mental states—beliefs, intents, desires, emotions, knowledge, etc.—to oneself, and to others, and to understand that others have beliefs, desires, intentions, and perspectives that are different from one's own.
Torsten Nils Wiesel (born 3 June 1924) is a Swedish neurophysiologist.
Transcription is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA (especially mRNA) by the enzyme RNA polymerase.
The transverse plane (also called the horizontal plane, axial plane, or transaxial plane) is an imaginary plane that divides the body into superior and inferior parts.
A Turing machine is a mathematical model of computation that defines an abstract machine, which manipulates symbols on a strip of tape according to a table of rules.
In human anatomy, the ulnar nerve is a nerve that runs near the ulna bone.
The ventral nerve cord (VNC) makes up a part of the central nervous system of some phyla of the bilaterians, particularly within the nematodes, annelids and the arthropods.
In the vertebrate spinal column, each vertebra is an irregular bone with a complex structure composed of bone and some hyaline cartilage, the proportions of which vary according to the segment of the backbone and the species of vertebrate.
Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).
The visual system is the part of the central nervous system which gives organisms the ability to process visual detail, as well as enabling the formation of several non-image photo response functions.
Walter Harry Pitts, Jr. (23 April 1923 – 14 May 1969) was a logician who worked in the field of computational neuroscience.
Warren Sturgis McCulloch (November 16, 1898 – September 24, 1969) was an American neurophysiologist and cybernetician, known for his work on the foundation for certain brain theories and his contribution to the cybernetics movement.
White matter refers to areas of the central nervous system (CNS) that are mainly made up of myelinated axons, also called tracts.
Worms are many different distantly related animals that typically have a long cylindrical tube-like body and no limbs.
Xenoturbella is a genus of very simple bilaterians up to a few centimeters long.
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