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Neural tube

Index Neural tube

In the developing chordate (including vertebrates), the neural tube is the embryonic precursor to the central nervous system, which is made up of the brain and spinal cord. [1]

45 relations: Alar plate, Anatomical terms of location, Anencephaly, Basal plate (neural tube), Bird, Brain, Cdx protein family, Central nervous system, Cerebellum, Cerebrum, Chordate, Diencephalon, Ectoderm, Embryo, Fish, Floor plate, Forebrain, French flag model, Hindbrain, Hypothalamus, Interneuron, List of human cell types derived from the germ layers, Mammal, Medulla oblongata, Metencephalon, Midbrain, Motor neuron, Muscle, Myelencephalon, Neural crest, Neural fold, Neural groove, Neural plate, Neural tube defect, Neuroepithelial cell, Neurulation, Optic vesicle, Pons, Retinoic acid, Somite, Sonic hedgehog, Spina bifida, Spinal cord, Vertebrate, Vestigiality.

Alar plate

The alar plate (or alar lamina) is a neural structure in the embryonic nervous system, part of the dorsal side of neural tube, that involves the communication of general somatic and general visceral sensory impulses.

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Anatomical terms of location

Standard anatomical terms of location deal unambiguously with the anatomy of animals, including humans.

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Anencephaly is the absence of a major portion of the brain, skull, and scalp that occurs during embryonic development.

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Basal plate (neural tube)

In the developing nervous system, the basal plate is the region of the neural tube ventral to the sulcus limitans.

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Birds, also known as Aves, are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a strong yet lightweight skeleton.

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The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.

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Cdx protein family

The Cdx protein family is a group of the transcription factor proteins which bind to DNA to regulate the expression of genes.

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Central nervous system

The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.

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The cerebellum (Latin for "little brain") is a major feature of the hindbrain of all vertebrates.

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The cerebrum is a large part of the brain containing the cerebral cortex (of the two cerebral hemispheres), as well as several subcortical structures, including the hippocampus, basal ganglia, and olfactory bulb.

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A chordate is an animal belonging to the phylum Chordata; chordates possess a notochord, a hollow dorsal nerve cord, pharyngeal slits, an endostyle, and a post-anal tail, for at least some period of their life cycle.

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The diencephalon is a division of the forebrain (embryonic prosencephalon), and is situated between the telencephalon and the midbrain (embryonic mesencephalon).

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Ectoderm is one of the three primary germ layers in the very early embryo.

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An embryo is an early stage of development of a multicellular diploid eukaryotic organism.

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Fish are gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits.

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Floor plate

The floor plate is a structure integral to the developing nervous system of vertebrate organisms.

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In the anatomy of the brain of vertebrates, the forebrain or prosencephalon is the rostral-most (forward-most) portion of the brain.

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French flag model

The French flag model is a conceptual definition of a morphogen, described by Lewis Wolpert in the 1960s.

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The hindbrain or rhombencephalon is a developmental categorization of portions of the central nervous system in vertebrates.

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The hypothalamus(from Greek ὑπό, "under" and θάλαμος, thalamus) is a portion of the brain that contains a number of small nuclei with a variety of functions.

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An interneuron (also called internuncial neuron, relay neuron, association neuron, connector neuron, intermediate neuron or local circuit neuron) is a broad class of neurons found in the human body.

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List of human cell types derived from the germ layers

This is a list of cells in humans derived from the germ layers, which includes the ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm.

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Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.

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Medulla oblongata

The medulla oblongata (or medulla) is located in the brainstem, anterior and partially inferior to the cerebellum.

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The metencephalon is the embryonic part of the hindbrain that differentiates into the pons and the cerebellum.

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The midbrain or mesencephalon (from Greek mesos 'middle', and enkephalos 'brain') is a portion of the central nervous system associated with vision, hearing, motor control, sleep/wake, arousal (alertness), and temperature regulation.

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Motor neuron

A motor neuron (or motoneuron) is a neuron whose cell body is located in the motor cortex, brainstem or the spinal cord, and whose axon (fiber) projects to the spinal cord or outside of the spinal cord to directly or indirectly control effector organs, mainly muscles and glands.

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Muscle is a soft tissue found in most animals.

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The myelencephalon or afterbrain is the most posterior region of the embryonic hindbrain, from which the medulla oblongata develops.

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Neural crest

Neural crest cells are a temporary group of cells unique to chordates of the group Cristozoa that arise from the embryonic ectoderm cell layer, and in turn give rise to a diverse cell lineage—including melanocytes, craniofacial cartilage and bone, smooth muscle, peripheral and enteric neurons and glia.

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Neural fold

The neural fold is a structure that arises during neurulation in the embryonic development of both birds and mammals among other organisms.

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Neural groove

The neural groove is a shallow median groove of the neural plate between the neural folds of an embryo.

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Neural plate

The neural plate is a key developmental structure that serves as the basis for the nervous system.

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Neural tube defect

Neural tube defects (NTDs) are a group of birth defects in which an opening in the spinal cord or brain remains from early in human development.

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Neuroepithelial cell

Neuroepithelial cells are the "stem cells" of the nervous system, deriving from actual stem cells in several different stages of neural development.

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Neurulation refers to the folding process in vertebrate embryos, which includes the transformation of the neural plate into the neural tube.

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Optic vesicle

The eyes begin to develop as a pair of diverticula from the lateral aspects of the forebrain.

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The pons (Latin for "bridge") is part of the brainstem, and in humans and other bipeds lies inferior to the midbrain, superior to the medulla oblongata and anterior to the cerebellum.

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Retinoic acid

Retinoic acid is a metabolite of vitamin A (retinol) that mediates the functions of vitamin A required for growth and development.

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Somites (outdated: primitive segments) are divisions of the body of an animal or embryo.

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Sonic hedgehog

Sonic hedgehog is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SHH ("sonic hedgehog") gene.

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Spina bifida

Spina bifida is a birth defect where there is incomplete closing of the backbone and membranes around the spinal cord.

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Spinal cord

The spinal cord is a long, thin, tubular bundle of nervous tissue and support cells that extends from the medulla oblongata in the brainstem to the lumbar region of the vertebral column.

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Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).

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Vestigiality is the retention during the process of evolution of genetically determined structures or attributes that have lost some or all of their ancestral function in a given species.

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Neural canal.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neural_tube

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