170 relations: Adaptation, Agnosia, Alien hand syndrome, Altered level of consciousness, Alzheimer's disease, Amnesia, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Animal, Aphasia, Apraxia, Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Autism, Autoimmunity, Back pain, Basal ganglia, Behavior, Behavioral neurology, Biochemistry, Biological psychiatry, Biological system, Birth defect, Blood vessel, Blood–brain barrier, Brain, Brain damage, Brain injury, Brain tumor, Brainstem, Cancer, Central nervous system, Central nervous system disease, Cerebellum, Cerebrovascular disease, Circulatory system, Clinical neuropsychology, Clinical psychology, Cluster headache, Coeliac disease, Cognition, Cognitive science, Coma, Complex regional pain syndrome, Confusion, Consciousness, Conversion disorder, Cranial nerve disease, Daniel Amen, Degenerative disease, Delirium, Dementia, ..., Demyelinating disease, Depersonalization disorder, Diagnosis of exclusion, Disability, Discrimination, Disease, Dissociation (psychology), Dizziness, Dysarthria, Dysautonomia, Dysgraphia, Environmental health, Epilepsy, Epileptic seizure, Essential tremor, Etiology, European Brain Council, Free will, Frontal lobe disorder, Functional neurological symptom disorder, Functional weakness, Genetic disorder, Head injury, Headache, Health equity, Human brain, Huntington's disease, Hypokalemic sensory overstimulation, ICD-10 Chapter VI: Diseases of the nervous system, Idiopathic disease, Immune system, Infection, Intellectual disability, Learning disability, Lifestyle (sociology), Lifestyle medicine, List of neurological conditions and disorders, Lobes of the brain, Lysosomal storage disease, Malnutrition, Medication, Memory, Meninges, Meningitis, Mental disorder, Mental health professional, Mental status examination, Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy, Migraine, Mind, Moral responsibility, Motor coordination, Movement disorders, Multiple sclerosis, Multiple system atrophy, Muscle weakness, Myelitis, Myelopathy, Narcolepsy, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Neoplasm, Nerve, Nerve injury, Nervous system, Neural circuit, Neurodiversity, Neuroimaging, Neurological examination, Neurology, Neuron, Neuropathic pain, Neuroplasticity, Neuropsychiatry, Neuropsychological assessment, Neuroregeneration, Neurorehabilitation, Neurosurgery, Niemann–Pick disease, Obsessive–compulsive disorder, Occipital lobe, Pain, Pain management, Paralysis, Paresthesia, Parietal lobe, Parkinson's disease, Peripheral nervous system, Peripheral neuropathy, Phantom pain, Physical therapy, Prion, Psychiatry, Psychogenic non-epileptic seizure, Psychometrics, Sensory nervous system, Sequela, Skull, Sleep disorder, Social norm, Social stigma, Spinal cord, Spinal cord injury, Stress (biology), Stroke, Stupor, Suffering, Surgery, Symptom, Synesthesia, Temporal lobe, Tension headache, Therapy, Tourette syndrome, Trigeminal neuralgia, Vertebra, Vertigo, Veterinary physician, World Health Organization, 1,000,000,000. Expand index (120 more) » « Shrink index
In biology, adaptation has three related meanings.
Agnosia is the inability to process sensory information.
Alien hand syndrome (AHS) or Dr.
An altered level of consciousness is any measure of arousal other than normal.
Alzheimer's disease (AD), also referred to simply as Alzheimer's, is a chronic neurodegenerative disease that usually starts slowly and worsens over time.
Amnesia is a deficit in memory caused by brain damage, disease, or psychological trauma.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as motor neurone disease (MND), and Lou Gehrig's disease, is a specific disease which causes the death of neurons controlling voluntary muscles.
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia.
Aphasia is an inability to comprehend and formulate language because of damage to specific brain regions.
Apraxia is a motor disorder caused by damage to the brain (specifically the posterior parietal cortex) in which the individual has difficulty with the motor planning to perform tasks or movements when asked, provided that the request or command is understood and he/she is willing to perform the task.
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a mental disorder of the neurodevelopmental type.
Autism is a developmental disorder characterized by troubles with social interaction and communication and by restricted and repetitive behavior.
Autoimmunity is the system of immune responses of an organism against its own healthy cells and tissues.
Back pain is pain felt in the back of the body.
The basal ganglia (or basal nuclei) is a group of subcortical nuclei, of varied origin, in the brains of vertebrates including humans, which are situated at the base of the forebrain.
Behavior (American English) or behaviour (Commonwealth English) is the range of actions and mannerisms made by individuals, organisms, systems, or artificial entities in conjunction with themselves or their environment, which includes the other systems or organisms around as well as the (inanimate) physical environment.
Behavioral neurology is a subspecialty of neurology that studies the impact of neurological damage and disease upon behavior, memory, and cognition, and the treatment thereof.
Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.
Biological psychiatry or biopsychiatry is an approach to psychiatry that aims to understand mental disorder in terms of the biological function of the nervous system.
A biological system is a complex network of biologically relevant entities.
A birth defect, also known as a congenital disorder, is a condition present at birth regardless of its cause.
The blood vessels are the part of the circulatory system, and microcirculation, that transports blood throughout the human body.
The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a highly selective semipermeable membrane barrier that separates the circulating blood from the brain and extracellular fluid in the central nervous system (CNS).
The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.
Brain damage or brain injury (BI) is the destruction or degeneration of brain cells.
A brain injury is an injury to the brain of a living organism, and can be categorized by many properties.
A brain tumor occurs when abnormal cells form within the brain.
The brainstem (or brain stem) is the posterior part of the brain, adjoining and structurally continuous with the spinal cord.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
Central nervous system diseases, also known as central nervous system disorders, are a group of neurological disorders that affect the structure or function of the brain or spinal cord, which collectively form the central nervous system (CNS).
The cerebellum (Latin for "little brain") is a major feature of the hindbrain of all vertebrates.
Cerebrovascular disease includes a variety of medical conditions that affect the blood vessels of the brain and the cerebral circulation.
The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.
Clinical neuropsychology is a sub-field of psychology concerned with the applied science of brain-behaviour relationships.
Clinical psychology is an integration of science, theory and clinical knowledge for the purpose of understanding, preventing, and relieving psychologically-based distress or dysfunction and to promote subjective well-being and personal development.
Cluster headache (CH) is a neurological disorder characterized by recurrent, severe headaches on one side of the head, typically around the eye.
Coeliac disease, also spelled celiac disease, is a long-term autoimmune disorder that primarily affects the small intestine.
Cognition is "the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses".
Cognitive science is the interdisciplinary, scientific study of the mind and its processes.
Coma is a state of unconsciousness in which a person cannot be awaken; fails to respond normally to painful stimuli, light, or sound; lacks a normal wake-sleep cycle; and does not initiate voluntary actions.
Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), also known as reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD) or algodystrophy, is a disorder of a portion of the body, usually the arms or legs, which manifests as pain, swelling, limited range of motion, and changes to the skin and bones.
Confusion (from Latin confusĭo, -ōnis, from confundere: "to pour together;" "to mingle together;" "to confuse") is the state of being bewildered or unclear in one’s mind about something.
Consciousness is the state or quality of awareness, or, of being aware of an external object or something within oneself.
Conversion disorder (CD) is a diagnostic category used in some psychiatric classification systems.
Cranial nerve disease is an impaired functioning of one of the twelve cranial nerves.
Daniel Gregory Amen (born 1954) is an American celebrity doctor who practices as a psychiatrist and brain disorder specialist as director of the Amen Clinics.
Degenerative disease is the result of a continuous process based on degenerative cell changes, affecting tissues or organs, which will increasingly deteriorate over time, whether due to normal bodily wear or lifestyle choices such as exercise or eating habits.
Delirium, also known as acute confusional state, is an organically caused decline from a previously baseline level of mental function.
Dementia is a broad category of brain diseases that cause a long-term and often gradual decrease in the ability to think and remember that is great enough to affect a person's daily functioning.
A demyelinating disease is any disease of the nervous system in which the myelin sheath of neurons is damaged.
Depersonalization disorder (DPD), also known as depersonalization/derealization disorder, is a mental disorder in which the person has persistent or recurrent feelings of depersonalization or derealization.
A diagnosis of exclusion (per exclusionem) is a diagnosis of a medical condition reached by a process of elimination, which may be necessary if presence cannot be established with complete confidence from history, examination or testing.
A disability is an impairment that may be cognitive, developmental, intellectual, mental, physical, sensory, or some combination of these.
In human social affairs, discrimination is treatment or consideration of, or making a distinction in favor of or against, a person based on the group, class, or category to which the person is perceived to belong.
A disease is any condition which results in the disorder of a structure or function in an organism that is not due to any external injury.
In psychology, dissociation is any of a wide array of experiences from mild detachment from immediate surroundings to more severe detachment from physical and emotional experiences.
Dizziness is an impairment in spatial perception and stability.
Dysarthria is a motor speech disorder resulting from neurological injury of the motor component of the motor-speech system and is characterized by poor articulation of phonemes.
Dysautonomia or autonomic dysfunction is a condition in which the autonomic nervous system (ANS) does not work properly.
Dysgraphia is a deficiency in the ability to write, primarily handwriting, but also coherence.
Environmental health is the branch of public health concerned with all aspects of the natural and built environment affecting human health.
Epilepsy is a group of neurological disorders characterized by epileptic seizures.
An epileptic seizure is a brief episode of signs or symptoms due to abnormally excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
Essential tremor (ET, also referred to as benign tremor, familial tremor, or idiopathic tremor) is a progressive neurological disorder that is also the most common movement disorder.
Etiology (alternatively aetiology or ætiology) is the study of causation, or origination.
The European Brain Council (EBC) is a coordinating international health organization founded in 2002.
Free will is the ability to choose between different possible courses of action unimpeded.
Frontal lobe disorder is an impairment of the frontal lobe that occurs due to disease or head trauma.
A functional neurological disorder (FND) is a condition in which patients experience neurological symptoms such as weakness, movement disorders, sensory symptoms and blackouts.
Functional weakness is weakness of an arm or leg due to the nervous system not working properly.
A genetic disorder is a genetic problem caused by one or more abnormalities in the genome.
A head injury is any injury that results in trauma to the skull or brain.
Headache is the symptom of pain anywhere in the region of the head or neck.
Health equity refers to the study and causes of differences in the quality of health and healthcare across different populations.
The human brain is the central organ of the human nervous system, and with the spinal cord makes up the central nervous system.
Huntington's disease (HD), also known as Huntington's chorea, is an inherited disorder that results in death of brain cells.
Hypokalemic sensory overstimulation is characterized by a subjective experience of sensory overload and a relative resistance to lidocaine local anesthesia.
ICD-10 is an international statistical classification used in health care and related industries.
An idiopathic disease is any disease with an unknown cause or mechanism of apparently spontaneous origin.
The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.
Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.
Intellectual disability (ID), also known as general learning disability, and mental retardation (MR), is a generalized neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by significantly impaired intellectual and adaptive functioning.
Learning disability is a classification that includes several areas of functioning in which a person has difficulty learning in a typical manner, usually caused by an unknown factor or factors.
Lifestyle is the interests, opinions, behaviours, and behavioural orientations of an individual, group, or culture.
Lifestyle medicine is a branch of medicine dealing with research, prevention and treatment of disorders caused by lifestyle factors such as nutrition, physical inactivity, and chronic stress.
This is a list of major and frequently observed neurological disorders (e.g., Alzheimer's disease), symptoms (e.g., back pain), signs (e.g., aphasia) and syndromes (e.g., Aicardi syndrome).
The lobes of the brain were originally a purely anatomical classification, but have been shown also to be related to different brain functions.
Lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs) are a group of about 50 rare inherited metabolic disorders that result from defects in lysosomal function.
Malnutrition is a condition that results from eating a diet in which one or more nutrients are either not enough or are too much such that the diet causes health problems.
A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.
Memory is the faculty of the mind by which information is encoded, stored, and retrieved.
The meninges (singular: meninx, from membrane, adjectival: meningeal) are the three membranes that envelop the brain and spinal cord.
Meningitis is an acute inflammation of the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord, known collectively as the meninges.
A mental disorder, also called a mental illness or psychiatric disorder, is a behavioral or mental pattern that causes significant distress or impairment of personal functioning.
A mental health professional is a health care practitioner or community services provider who offers services for the purpose of improving an individual's mental health or to treat mental disorders.
The mental status examination or mental state examination (MSE) is an important part of the clinical assessment process in psychiatric practice.
The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy, referred to as The Merck Manual, is the world's best-selling medical textbook, and the oldest continuously published English language medical textbook.
A migraine is a primary headache disorder characterized by recurrent headaches that are moderate to severe.
The mind is a set of cognitive faculties including consciousness, perception, thinking, judgement, language and memory.
In philosophy, moral responsibility is the status of morally deserving praise, blame, reward, or punishment for an act or omission, in accordance with one's moral obligations.
Motor coordination is the combination of body movements created with the kinematic (such as spatial direction) and kinetic (force) parameters that result in intended actions.
Movement disorders are clinical syndromes with either an excess of movement or a paucity of voluntary and involuntary movements, unrelated to weakness or spasticity.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease in which the insulating covers of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord are damaged.
Multiple system atrophy (MSA), also known as Shy–Drager syndrome, is a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized by tremors, slow movement, muscle rigidity, and postural instability (collectively known as parkinsonism) due to dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system, and ataxia.
Muscle weakness or myasthenia (my- from Greek μυο meaning "muscle" + -asthenia ἀσθένεια meaning "weakness") is a lack of muscle strength.
Myelitis is inflammation of the spinal cord which can disrupt the normal responses from the brain to the rest of the body, and from the rest of the body to the brain.
Myelopathy describes any neurologic deficit related to the spinal cord.
Narcolepsy is a long-term neurological disorder that involves a decreased ability to regulate sleep-wake cycles.
The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) is a part of the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH).
The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is the primary agency of the United States government responsible for biomedical and public health research, founded in the late 1870s.
Neoplasia is a type of abnormal and excessive growth of tissue.
A nerve is an enclosed, cable-like bundle of axons (nerve fibers, the long and slender projections of neurons) in the peripheral nervous system.
Nerve injury is injury to nervous tissue.
The nervous system is the part of an animal that coordinates its actions by transmitting signals to and from different parts of its body.
A neural circuit, is a population of neurons interconnected by synapses to carry out a specific function when activated.
Neurodiversity is an approach to learning and disability that argues diverse neurological conditions are the result of normal variations in the human genome.
Neuroimaging or brain imaging is the use of various techniques to either directly or indirectly image the structure, function/pharmacology of the nervous system.
A neurological examination is the assessment of sensory neuron and motor responses, especially reflexes, to determine whether the nervous system is impaired.
Neurology (from νεῦρον (neûron), "string, nerve" and the suffix -logia, "study of") is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system.
A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.
Neuropathic pain is pain caused by damage or disease affecting the somatosensory nervous system.
Neuroplasticity, also known as brain plasticity and neural plasticity, is the ability of the brain to change throughout an individual's life, e.g., brain activity associated with a given function can be transferred to a different location, the proportion of grey matter can change, and synapses may strengthen or weaken over time.
Neuropsychiatry is a branch of medicine that deals with mental disorders attributable to diseases of the nervous system.
Neuropsychological assessment was traditionally carried out to assess the extent of impairment to a particular skill and to attempt to determine the area of the brain which may have been damaged following brain injury or neurological illness.
Neuroregeneration refers to the regrowth or repair of nervous tissues, cells or cell products.
Neurorehabilitation is a complex medical process which aims to aid recovery from a nervous system injury, and to minimize and/or compensate for any functional alterations resulting from it.
Neurosurgery, or neurological surgery, is the medical specialty concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, surgical treatment, and rehabilitation of disorders which affect any portion of the nervous system including the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, and extra-cranial cerebrovascular system.
Niemann–Pick disease is a group of inherited, severe metabolic disorders in which sphingomyelin accumulates in lysosomes in cells.
Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is a mental disorder where people feel the need to check things repeatedly, perform certain routines repeatedly (called "rituals"), or have certain thoughts repeatedly (called "obsessions").
The occipital lobe is one of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain of mammals.
Pain is a distressing feeling often caused by intense or damaging stimuli.
Pain management, pain medicine, pain control or algiatry, is a branch of medicine employing an interdisciplinary approach for easing the suffering and improving the quality of life of those living with chronic pain The typical pain management team includes medical practitioners, pharmacists, clinical psychologists, physiotherapists, occupational therapists, physician assistants, nurses.
Paralysis is a loss of muscle function for one or more muscles.
Paresthesia is an abnormal sensation such as tingling, tickling, pricking, numbness or burning of a person's skin with no apparent physical cause.
The parietal lobe is one of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain of mammals. The parietal lobe is positioned above the temporal lobe and behind the frontal lobe and central sulcus. The parietal lobe integrates sensory information among various modalities, including spatial sense and navigation (proprioception), the main sensory receptive area for the sense of touch (mechanoreception) in the somatosensory cortex which is just posterior to the central sulcus in the postcentral gyrus, and the dorsal stream of the visual system. The major sensory inputs from the skin (touch, temperature, and pain receptors), relay through the thalamus to the parietal lobe. Several areas of the parietal lobe are important in language processing. The somatosensory cortex can be illustrated as a distorted figure – the homunculus (Latin: "little man"), in which the body parts are rendered according to how much of the somatosensory cortex is devoted to them.Schacter, D. L., Gilbert, D. L. & Wegner, D. M. (2009). Psychology. (2nd ed.). New York (NY): Worth Publishers. The superior parietal lobule and inferior parietal lobule are the primary areas of body or spacial awareness. A lesion commonly in the right superior or inferior parietal lobule leads to hemineglect. The name comes from the parietal bone, which is named from the Latin paries-, meaning "wall".
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a long-term degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects the motor system.
The peripheral nervous system (PNS) is one of the two components of the nervous system, the other part is the central nervous system (CNS).
Peripheral neuropathy (PN) is damage to or disease affecting nerves, which may impair sensation, movement, gland or organ function, or other aspects of health, depending on the type of nerve affected.
Phantom pain sensations are described as perceptions that an individual experiences relating to a limb or an organ that is not physically part of the body.
Physical therapy (PT), also known as physiotherapy, is one of the allied health professions that, by using mechanical force and movements (bio-mechanics or kinesiology), manual therapy, exercise therapy, and electrotherapy, remediates impairments and promotes mobility and function.
Prions are misfolded proteins that are associated with several fatal neurodegenerative diseases in animals and humans.
Psychiatry is the medical specialty devoted to the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of mental disorders.
Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) are events resembling an epileptic seizure, but without the characteristic electrical discharges associated with epilepsy.
Psychometrics is a field of study concerned with the theory and technique of psychological measurement.
The sensory nervous system is a part of the nervous system responsible for processing sensory information.
A sequela (usually used in the plural, sequelae) is a pathological condition resulting from a disease, injury, therapy, or other trauma.
The skull is a bony structure that forms the head in vertebrates.
A sleep disorder, or somnipathy, is a medical disorder of the sleep patterns of a person or animal.
From a sociological perspective, social norms are informal understandings that govern the behavior of members of a society.
Social stigma is disapproval of (or discontent with) a person based on socially characteristic grounds that are perceived.
The spinal cord is a long, thin, tubular bundle of nervous tissue and support cells that extends from the medulla oblongata in the brainstem to the lumbar region of the vertebral column.
A spinal cord injury (SCI) is damage to the spinal cord that causes temporary or permanent changes in its function.
Physiological or biological stress is an organism's response to a stressor such as an environmental condition.
A stroke is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death.
Stupor (from Latin stupere, "be stunned or amazed") is the lack of critical mental function and a level of consciousness wherein a sufferer is almost entirely unresponsive and only responds to base stimuli such as pain.
Suffering, or pain in a broad sense, may be an experience of unpleasantness and aversion associated with the perception of harm or threat of harm in an individual.
Surgery (from the χειρουργική cheirourgikē (composed of χείρ, "hand", and ἔργον, "work"), via chirurgiae, meaning "hand work") is a medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a patient to investigate or treat a pathological condition such as a disease or injury, to help improve bodily function or appearance or to repair unwanted ruptured areas.
A symptom (from Greek σύμπτωμα, "accident, misfortune, that which befalls", from συμπίπτω, "I befall", from συν- "together, with" and πίπτω, "I fall") is a departure from normal function or feeling which is noticed by a patient, reflecting the presence of an unusual state, or of a disease.
Synesthesia is a perceptual phenomenon in which stimulation of one sensory or cognitive pathway leads to automatic, involuntary experiences in a second sensory or cognitive pathway.
The temporal lobe is one of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain of mammals.
Tension headache, also known as tension-type headache, is the most common type of primary headache.
Therapy (often abbreviated tx, Tx, or Tx) is the attempted remediation of a health problem, usually following a diagnosis.
Tourette syndrome (TS or simply Tourette's) is a common neuropsychiatric disorder with onset in childhood, characterized by multiple motor tics and at least one vocal (phonic) tic.
Trigeminal neuralgia (TN or TGN) is a chronic pain disorder that affects the trigeminal nerve.
In the vertebrate spinal column, each vertebra is an irregular bone with a complex structure composed of bone and some hyaline cartilage, the proportions of which vary according to the segment of the backbone and the species of vertebrate.
Vertigo is a symptom where a person feels as if they or the objects around them are moving when they are not.
A veterinary physician, usually called a vet, which is shortened from veterinarian (American English) or veterinary surgeon (British English), is a professional who practices veterinary medicine by treating diseases, disorders, and injuries in animals.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
1,000,000,000 (one billion, short scale; one thousand million or milliard, yard, long scale) is the natural number following 999,999,999 and preceding 1,000,000,001.
Brain disorders, Causes of neurological disorders, Genetic brain disorders, Nerologic disease, Nervous Diseases, Neural disease, Neurobiological brain disorder, Neurologic disease, Neurologic diseases, Neurologic disorder, Neurologic disorders, Neurological condition, Neurological disease, Neurological diseases, Neurological disorders, Neurological illness, Neurological injury, Neurological symptoms.