133 relations: Ageing, Alzheimer's disease, American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology, American Journal of Psychiatry, American Osteopathic Board of Neurology and Psychiatry, Anesthesiology, Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Autonomic nervous system, Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery, Basic research, Behavioral neurology, Biomarker, Brain death, Central nervous system, Cerebral palsy, Cerebrospinal fluid, Charles Bell, Clinic, Clinical neurophysiology, Clinical neuropsychology, Clinical research, Clinical trial, Cognition, Conceptual model, Cranial nerves, CT scan, Dementia, Dendrite, Developmental Neurorehabilitation, Differential diagnosis, Doctor of Medicine, Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine, Duchenne de Boulogne, Electrodiagnostic medicine, Electroencephalography, Electromyography, Epilepsy, Epileptic seizure, Evoked potential, Family medicine, Fellowship (medicine), Gait, General practitioner, Genetic testing, Genetics, Geriatrics, Glossary of medicine, Harvard Medical School, Head injury, Hippocampus, ..., Hospice and palliative medicine, Human behavior, Huntington's disease, Infection, Internal medicine, Interventional neuroradiology, Intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring, Jean-Martin Charcot, John Hughlings Jackson, Joint Commission, Life support, Lifestyle drug, List of neurological conditions and disorders, List of neurologists and neurosurgeons, Lumbar puncture, Magnetic resonance imaging, Matthew Baillie, Medical history, Medical school, Medical test, Membership of the Royal Colleges of Physicians of the United Kingdom, Mental disorder, Moritz Heinrich Romberg, Motor coordination, Movement disorders, Multiple sclerosis, Muscular system, Nerve conduction study, Nervous system, Neuroepigenetics, Neuroethics, Neurohospitalist, Neurointensive care, Neurological disorder, Neurological examination, Neurology, Neuromuscular disease, Neuromuscular junction, Neuromuscular medicine, Neuron, Neuropsychological assessment, Neuroscience, Neurosurgery, Orthopedic surgery, Pain, Pain management, Parkinson's disease, Patient, Pediatrics, Peripheral nervous system, Peripheral neuropathy, Physical examination, Physical medicine and rehabilitation, Physical therapy, Physician, Profession, Psychiatrist, Psychiatry, Psychoanalysis, Psychopharmacology, Pulmonology, Queen Square, London, Radiculopathy, Reflex, Residency (medicine), Robert Whytt, Sciatica, Sensory nervous system, Sequela, Sleep disorder, Sleep medicine, Somatic nervous system, Specialty (medicine), Spinal cord, Stroke, Surgery, Thomas Willis, Tourette syndrome, Translational research, Traumatic brain injury, Ultrasound, Visual snow, William A. Hammond. Expand index (83 more) » « Shrink index
Ageing or aging (see spelling differences) is the process of becoming older.
Alzheimer's disease (AD), also referred to simply as Alzheimer's, is a chronic neurodegenerative disease that usually starts slowly and worsens over time.
The American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology, Inc. (ABPN) is a nonprofit corporation that was founded in 1934 following conferences of committees appointed by the American Psychiatric Association, the American Neurological Association, and the then "Section on Nervous and Mental Diseases" of the American Medical Association.
The American Journal of Psychiatry is a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal covering all aspects of psychiatry and the official journal of the American Psychiatric Association.
The American Osteopathic Board of Neurology and Psychiatry (AOBNP) is an organization that provides board certification to qualified Doctors of Osteopathic Medicine (D.O.) who specialize in disorders of the nervous system (neurologists) and to qualified Doctors of Osteopathic Medicine who specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders (psychiatrists).
Anesthesiology (spelled anaesthesiology in UK English), called anaesthetics in UK English according to some sources but not according to others, is the medical speciality concerned with anesthesia (loss of sensation) and anesthetics (substances that cause this loss).
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a mental disorder of the neurodevelopmental type.
The autonomic nervous system (ANS), formerly the vegetative nervous system, is a division of the peripheral nervous system that supplies smooth muscle and glands, and thus influences the function of internal organs.
Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery, or in '''Medicinae Baccalaureus, Baccalaureus Chirurgiae'''. (abbreviated in many ways, e.g. MBBS, MB ChB, MB BCh, MB BChir (Cantab), BM BCh (Oxon), BMBS), are the two first professional degrees in medicine and surgery awarded upon graduation from medical school by universities in countries that follow the tradition of the United Kingdom.
Basic research, also called pure research or fundamental research, has the scientific research aim to improve scientific theories for improved understanding or prediction of natural or other phenomena.
Behavioral neurology is a subspecialty of neurology that studies the impact of neurological damage and disease upon behavior, memory, and cognition, and the treatment thereof.
A biomarker, or biological marker, generally refers to a measurable indicator of some biological state or condition.
Brain death is the complete loss of brain function (including involuntary activity necessary to sustain life).
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
Cerebral palsy (CP) is a group of permanent movement disorders that appear in early childhood.
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a clear, colorless body fluid found in the brain and spinal cord.
Sir Charles Bell (12 November 177428 April 1842) was a Scottish surgeon, anatomist, physiologist, neurologist, artist, and philosophical theologian.
A clinic (or outpatient clinic or ambulatory care clinic) is a healthcare facility that is primarily focused on the care of outpatients.
Clinical neurophysiology is a medical specialty that studies the central and peripheral nervous systems through the recording of bioelectrical activity, whether spontaneous or stimulated.
Clinical neuropsychology is a sub-field of psychology concerned with the applied science of brain-behaviour relationships.
Clinical research is a branch of healthcare science that determines the safety and effectiveness (efficacy) of medications, devices, diagnostic products and treatment regimens intended for human use.
Clinical trials are experiments or observations done in clinical research.
Cognition is "the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses".
A conceptual model is a representation of a system, made of the composition of concepts which are used to help people know, understand, or simulate a subject the model represents.
Cranial nerves are the nerves that emerge directly from the brain (including the brainstem), in contrast to spinal nerves (which emerge from segments of the spinal cord).
A CT scan, also known as computed tomography scan, makes use of computer-processed combinations of many X-ray measurements taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of specific areas of a scanned object, allowing the user to see inside the object without cutting.
Dementia is a broad category of brain diseases that cause a long-term and often gradual decrease in the ability to think and remember that is great enough to affect a person's daily functioning.
Dendrites (from Greek δένδρον déndron, "tree"), also dendrons, are branched protoplasmic extensions of a nerve cell that propagate the electrochemical stimulation received from other neural cells to the cell body, or soma, of the neuron from which the dendrites project.
Developmental Neurorehabilitiation is a peer-reviewed medical journal which covers research into recovery and rehabilitation in children with brain injury and neurological disorders.
In medicine, a differential diagnosis is the distinguishing of a particular disease or condition from others that present similar clinical features.
A Doctor of Medicine (MD from Latin Medicinae Doctor) is a medical degree, the meaning of which varies between different jurisdictions.
Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine (D.O.) is a professional doctoral degree for physicians and surgeons offered by medical schools in the United States.
Guillaume-Benjamin-Amand Duchenne (de Boulogne) (September 17, 1806 in Boulogne-sur-Mer – September 15, 1875 in Paris) was a French neurologist who revived Galvani's research and greatly advanced the science of electrophysiology.
Electrodiagnosis (EDX) is a method of medical diagnosis that obtains information about diseases by passively recording the electrical activity of body parts (that is, their natural electrophysiology) or by measuring their response to external electrical stimuli (evoked potentials).
Electroencephalography (EEG) is an electrophysiological monitoring method to record electrical activity of the brain.
Electromyography (EMG) is an electrodiagnostic medicine technique for evaluating and recording the electrical activity produced by skeletal muscles.
Epilepsy is a group of neurological disorders characterized by epileptic seizures.
An epileptic seizure is a brief episode of signs or symptoms due to abnormally excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
An evoked potential or evoked response is an electrical potential recorded from the nervous system of a human or other animal following presentation of a stimulus, as distinct from spontaneous potentials as detected by electroencephalography (EEG), electromyography (EMG), or other electrophysiologic recording method.
Family medicine (FM), formerly family practice (FP), is a medical specialty devoted to comprehensive health care for people of all ages; the specialist is named a family physician or family doctor.
A Fellowship is the period of medical training, in the United States and Canada, that a physician or dentist may undertake after completing a specialty training program (residency).
Gait is the pattern of movement of the limbs of animals, including humans, during locomotion over a solid substrate.
In the medical profession, a general practitioner (GP) is a medical doctor who treats acute and chronic illnesses and provides preventive care and health education to patients.
Genetic testing, also known as DNA testing, allows the determination of bloodlines and the genetic diagnosis of vulnerabilities to inherited diseases.
Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.
Geriatrics, or geriatric medicine, is a specialty that focuses on health care of elderly people.
This glossary of medical terms is a list of definitions about medicine, its sub-disciplines, and related fields.
Harvard Medical School (HMS) is the graduate medical school of Harvard University.
A head injury is any injury that results in trauma to the skull or brain.
The hippocampus (named after its resemblance to the seahorse, from the Greek ἱππόκαμπος, "seahorse" from ἵππος hippos, "horse" and κάμπος kampos, "sea monster") is a major component of the brains of humans and other vertebrates.
Hospice and palliative medicine is a formal subspecialty of medicine in the United States that focuses on symptom management, relief of suffering and end-of-life care.
Human behavior is the responses of individuals or groups of humans to internal and external stimuli.
Huntington's disease (HD), also known as Huntington's chorea, is an inherited disorder that results in death of brain cells.
Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.
Internal medicine or general medicine (in Commonwealth nations) is the medical specialty dealing with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of adult diseases.
Interventional Neuroradiology (INR) or Endovascular Surgical Neuroradiology (ESN) is an Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) and European Union of Medical Specialists (UEMS) medical subspecialty specializing in minimally invasive image-based technologies and procedures used in diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the head, neck, and spine.
Intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM) or intraoperative neuromonitoring is the use of electrophysiological methods such as electroencephalography (EEG), electromyography (EMG), and evoked potentials to monitor the functional integrity of certain neural structures (e.g., nerves, spinal cord and parts of the brain) during surgery.
Jean-Martin Charcot (29 November 1825 – 16 August 1893) was a French neurologist and professor of anatomical pathology.
John Hughlings Jackson, FRS (4 April 1835 – 7 October 1911) was an English neurologist.
The Joint Commission is a United States-based nonprofit tax-exempt 501(c) organization that accredits more than 21,000 US health care organizations and programs.
Life support refers to the treatments and techniques performed in an emergency in order to support life after the failure of one or more vital organs.
Lifestyle drug is an imprecise term commonly applied to medications which treat non–life-threatening and non-painful conditions such as baldness, wrinkles, erectile dysfunction, or acne, which the speaker perceives as either not medical problems at all or as minor medical conditions relative to others.
This is a list of major and frequently observed neurological disorders (e.g., Alzheimer's disease), symptoms (e.g., back pain), signs (e.g., aphasia) and syndromes (e.g., Aicardi syndrome).
This is a list of neurologists and neurosurgeons, with their year of birth and death and nationality.
Lumbar puncture (LP), also known as a spinal tap, is a medical procedure in which a needle is inserted into the spinal canal, most commonly to collect cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for diagnostic testing.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to form pictures of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the body in both health and disease.
Matthew Baillie FRS FRSE FRCP FRCSE FRSE (27 October 1761 – 23 September 1823, Duntisbourne, Gloucestershire, England) was a Scottish-born physician and pathologist.
The medical history or case history of a patient is information gained by a physician by asking specific questions, either of the patient or of other people who know the person and can give suitable information, with the aim of obtaining information useful in formulating a diagnosis and providing medical care to the patient.
A medical school is a tertiary educational institution —or part of such an institution— that teaches medicine, and awards a professional degree for physicians and surgeons.
A medical test is a medical procedure performed to detect, diagnose, or monitor diseases, disease processes, susceptibility, and determine a course of treatment.
Membership of the Royal Colleges of Physicians of the United Kingdom (MRCP(UK)) is a postgraduate medical diploma in the United Kingdom (UK).
A mental disorder, also called a mental illness or psychiatric disorder, is a behavioral or mental pattern that causes significant distress or impairment of personal functioning.
Moritz Heinrich Romberg (11 November 1795 – 16 June 1873) was a Jewish physician from Berlin who published his classic textbook in sections between 1840 and 1846; Edward Henry Sieveking translated it into English in 1853.
Motor coordination is the combination of body movements created with the kinematic (such as spatial direction) and kinetic (force) parameters that result in intended actions.
Movement disorders are clinical syndromes with either an excess of movement or a paucity of voluntary and involuntary movements, unrelated to weakness or spasticity.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease in which the insulating covers of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord are damaged.
The muscular system is an organ system consisting of skeletal, smooth and cardiac muscles.
A nerve conduction study (NCS) is a medical diagnostic test commonly used to evaluate the function, especially the ability of electrical conduction, of the motor and sensory nerves of the human body.
The nervous system is the part of an animal that coordinates its actions by transmitting signals to and from different parts of its body.
Neuroepigenetics is the study of how epigenetic changes to genes affect the nervous system.
Neuroethics refers to two related fields of study: what the philosopher Adina Roskies has called the ethics of neuroscience, and the neuroscience of ethics.
Neurohospitalist is a term used for physicians interested in inpatient neurological care.
Neurocritical care (or neurointensive care) is a medical field that treats life-threatening diseases of the nervous system and identifies, prevents/treats secondary brain injury.
A neurological disorder is any disorder of the nervous system.
A neurological examination is the assessment of sensory neuron and motor responses, especially reflexes, to determine whether the nervous system is impaired.
Neurology (from νεῦρον (neûron), "string, nerve" and the suffix -logia, "study of") is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system.
Neuromuscular disease is a very broad term that encompasses many diseases and ailments that impair the functioning of the muscles, either directly, being pathologies of the voluntary muscle, or indirectly, being pathologies of nerves or neuromuscular junctions.
A neuromuscular junction (or myoneural junction) is a chemical synapse formed by the contact between a motor neuron and a muscle fiber.
The field of neuromuscular medicine is subspecialty of neurology and physical medicine and rehabilitation.
A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.
Neuropsychological assessment was traditionally carried out to assess the extent of impairment to a particular skill and to attempt to determine the area of the brain which may have been damaged following brain injury or neurological illness.
Neuroscience (or neurobiology) is the scientific study of the nervous system.
Neurosurgery, or neurological surgery, is the medical specialty concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, surgical treatment, and rehabilitation of disorders which affect any portion of the nervous system including the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, and extra-cranial cerebrovascular system.
Orthopedic surgery or orthopedics, also spelled orthopaedic, is the branch of surgery concerned with conditions involving the musculoskeletal system.
Pain is a distressing feeling often caused by intense or damaging stimuli.
Pain management, pain medicine, pain control or algiatry, is a branch of medicine employing an interdisciplinary approach for easing the suffering and improving the quality of life of those living with chronic pain The typical pain management team includes medical practitioners, pharmacists, clinical psychologists, physiotherapists, occupational therapists, physician assistants, nurses.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a long-term degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects the motor system.
A patient is any recipient of health care services.
Pediatrics (also spelled paediatrics or pædiatrics) is the branch of medicine that involves the medical care of infants, children, and adolescents.
The peripheral nervous system (PNS) is one of the two components of the nervous system, the other part is the central nervous system (CNS).
Peripheral neuropathy (PN) is damage to or disease affecting nerves, which may impair sensation, movement, gland or organ function, or other aspects of health, depending on the type of nerve affected.
A physical examination, medical examination, or clinical examination (more popularly known as a check-up) is the process by which a medical professional investigates the body of a patient for signs of disease.
Physical medicine and rehabilitation, also known as physiatry, is a branch of medicine that aims to enhance and restore functional ability and quality of life to those with physical impairments or disabilities.
Physical therapy (PT), also known as physiotherapy, is one of the allied health professions that, by using mechanical force and movements (bio-mechanics or kinesiology), manual therapy, exercise therapy, and electrotherapy, remediates impairments and promotes mobility and function.
A physician, medical practitioner, medical doctor, or simply doctor is a professional who practises medicine, which is concerned with promoting, maintaining, or restoring health through the study, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, injury, and other physical and mental impairments.
A profession is a vocation founded upon specialized educational training, the purpose of which is to supply disinterested objective counsel and service to others, for a direct and definite compensation, wholly apart from expectation of other business gain.
A psychiatrist is a physician who specializes in psychiatry, the branch of medicine devoted to the diagnosis, prevention, study, and treatment of mental disorders.
Psychiatry is the medical specialty devoted to the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of mental disorders.
Psychoanalysis is a set of theories and therapeutic techniques related to the study of the unconscious mind, which together form a method of treatment for mental-health disorders.
Psychopharmacology (from Greek label; label; and label) is the scientific study of the effects drugs have on mood, sensation, thinking, and behavior.
Pulmonology is a medical speciality that deals with diseases involving the respiratory tract.
Queen Square is a garden square in the Bloomsbury district of central London.
Radiculopathy, also commonly referred to as pinched nerve, refers to a set of conditions in which one or more nerves are affected and do not work properly (a neuropathy).
A reflex, or reflex action, is an involuntary and nearly instantaneous movement in response to a stimulus.
Residency is a stage of graduate medical training.
Dr Robert Whytt (1714–1766) was a Scottish physician.
Sciatica is a medical condition characterized by pain going down the leg from the lower back.
The sensory nervous system is a part of the nervous system responsible for processing sensory information.
A sequela (usually used in the plural, sequelae) is a pathological condition resulting from a disease, injury, therapy, or other trauma.
A sleep disorder, or somnipathy, is a medical disorder of the sleep patterns of a person or animal.
Sleep medicine is a medical specialty or subspecialty devoted to the diagnosis and therapy of sleep disturbances and disorders.
The somatic nervous system (SNS or voluntary nervous system) is the part of the peripheral nervous system associated with the voluntary control of body movements via skeletal muscles.
A specialty, or speciality, in medicine is a branch of medical practice.
The spinal cord is a long, thin, tubular bundle of nervous tissue and support cells that extends from the medulla oblongata in the brainstem to the lumbar region of the vertebral column.
A stroke is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death.
Surgery (from the χειρουργική cheirourgikē (composed of χείρ, "hand", and ἔργον, "work"), via chirurgiae, meaning "hand work") is a medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a patient to investigate or treat a pathological condition such as a disease or injury, to help improve bodily function or appearance or to repair unwanted ruptured areas.
Thomas Willis (27 January 1621 – 11 November 1675) was an English doctor who played an important part in the history of anatomy, neurology and psychiatry.
Tourette syndrome (TS or simply Tourette's) is a common neuropsychiatric disorder with onset in childhood, characterized by multiple motor tics and at least one vocal (phonic) tic.
Translational research – often used interchangeably with translational medicine or translational science or bench to bedside – is an effort to build on basic scientific research to create new therapies, medical procedures, or diagnostics.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI), also known as intracranial injury, occurs when an external force injures the brain.
Ultrasound is sound waves with frequencies higher than the upper audible limit of human hearing.
Visual snow, also known as visual static, is a proposed condition in which people see white or black dots in parts or the whole of their visual fields.
William Alexander Hammond (28 August 1828 – 5 January 1900) was an American military physician and neurologist.
Clinical neurology, Movement disorder specialist, Neurbotics, Neurologic, Neurologic manifestation, Neurologic manifestations, Neurological, Neurological Science, Neurological science, Neurological sciences, Neurologist, Neurologists.