225 relations: Acetyl-CoA, Acetylcholine, Acetylcholine receptor, Actin, Action potential, Adult neurogenesis, Afferent nerve fiber, Agnosia, All-or-none law, Alpha motor neuron, Alzheimer's disease, Amnesia, Analog signal, Anastomosis, Anaxonic neuron, Aniline, Anterior grey column, Antibody, Aphasia, Apraxia, Artificial neuron, Astrocyte, Autapse, Autonomic nervous system, Axolemma, Axon, Axon hillock, Axon terminal, Basal ganglia, Basket cell, Betz cell, Bidirectional cell, Bioenergetics, Biological neuron model, Bipolar neuron, Brain, Caenorhabditis elegans, Calcium, Calcium in biology, Calpain, Camillo Golgi, Catecholamine, Cell (biology), Cell membrane, Cell nucleus, Cell potency, Cellular differentiation, Central nervous system, Cerebellum, Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease, ..., Chemical synapse, Chloride, Choline, Cholinesterase, Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, Cochlea, Cognition, Cognitive disorder, Cytoskeleton, Demyelinating disease, Dendrite, Dendritic spine, Digital data, Dogiel cells, Dopamine, Drosophila melanogaster, Efferent nerve fiber, Electrical synapse, Electrochemistry, Electrophysiology, Endoplasmic reticulum, Eumetazoa, Excitatory postsynaptic potential, Franz Nissl, G0 phase, Gamma-Aminobutyric acid, Ganglion, Gap junction, Gert Hauske, Giraffe, Gland, Globus pallidus, Glutamate decarboxylase, Glutamate receptor, Glutamic acid, Glutamine oxoglutarate aminotransferase, Glycine, Golgi I, Golgi II, Golgi's method, Graded potential, Granule cell, Growth cone, Haematoxylin, Heinrich Wilhelm Gottfried von Waldeyer-Hartz, Hippocampus, Human brain, Human skin, Hypokinesia, Immunosuppression, Inhibitory postsynaptic potential, Insulator (electricity), Interneuron, Ion, Ion channel, Ion transporter, John Zachary Young, L-DOPA, Lamellar corpuscle, Ligand-gated ion channel, Lipid, Lipofuscin, List of neuroscience databases, Llinás's law, Lugaro cell, Mechanoreceptor, Medium spiny neuron, Membrane potential, Metabolism, Metabotropic receptor, Micrometre, Microtubule, Mitochondrion, Motor cortex, Motor neuron, Movement disorders, Multiple sclerosis, Multipolar neuron, Muscle contraction, Muscle weakness, Myasthenia gravis, Myelin, Nature (journal), Nematode, Neocortex, Nerve, Nerve fascicle, Nerve tract, Neural circuit, Neural coding, Neural ensemble, Neural oscillation, Neurite, Neuroanatomy, Neurodegeneration, Neurofilament, Neurogenesis, Neuroglia, NeuroLex, Neuromelanin, Neuron doctrine, Neuroplasticity, Neuropsychiatry, Neuroscience, Neuroscience Information Framework, Neurotransmission, Neurotransmitter, Nicotine, Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, Nissl body, Node of Ranvier, Non-spiking neuron, Olfactory bulb, Oligodendrocyte, Organelle, Parkinson's disease, Parvalbumin, Peripheral nervous system, Peripheral neuropathy, Photoreceptor cell, Posterior column, Potassium, Protease, Protein biosynthesis, Pseudounipolar neuron, Purkinje cell, Pyramidal cell, Receptor (biochemistry), Renshaw cell, Retina, Retina bipolar cell, Retinal ganglion cell, Ribosomal RNA, Ribosome, Saltatory conduction, Santiago Ramón y Cajal, Schwann cell, Sense, Sensory neuron, Serotonin, Serotonin transporter, Sholl analysis, Sodium, Sodium channel, Soma (biology), Somatic nervous system, Somatostatin, Spinal cord, Spinal neuron, Spindle neuron, Sponge, Squid giant axon, Stem cell, Stimulus (physiology), Striatum, Subgranular zone, Substantia nigra, Subventricular zone, Supraoptic nucleus, Synapse, Synaptic vesicle, Thymectomy, Tonic (physiology), Transdifferentiation, Tremor, Tubulin, Tyrosine, Ubiquitin, Unipolar brush cell, Unipolar neuron, Vertebrate, Visual cortex, Voltage, Voltage-gated calcium channel, Voltage-gated ion channel. Expand index (175 more) » « Shrink index
Acetyl-CoA (acetyl coenzyme A) is a molecule that participates in many biochemical reactions in protein, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.
Acetylcholine (ACh) is an organic chemical that functions in the brain and body of many types of animals, including humans, as a neurotransmitter—a chemical message released by nerve cells to send signals to other cells.
An acetylcholine receptor (abbreviated AChR) is an integral membrane protein that responds to the binding of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter.
Actin is a family of globular multi-functional proteins that form microfilaments.
In physiology, an action potential occurs when the membrane potential of a specific axon location rapidly rises and falls: this depolarisation then causes adjacent locations to similarly depolarise.
Neurogenesis is the process by which neurons are generated from neural stem cells.
Afferent nerve fibers refer to axonal projections that arrive at a particular region; as opposed to efferent projections that exit the region.
Agnosia is the inability to process sensory information.
The all-or-none law is the principle that the strength by which a nerve or muscle fibre responds to a stimulus is independent of the strength of the stimulus.
Alpha (α) motor neurons (also called alpha motoneurons), are large, multipolar lower motor neurons of the brainstem and spinal cord.
Alzheimer's disease (AD), also referred to simply as Alzheimer's, is a chronic neurodegenerative disease that usually starts slowly and worsens over time.
Amnesia is a deficit in memory caused by brain damage, disease, or psychological trauma.
An analog signal is any continuous signal for which the time varying feature (variable) of the signal is a representation of some other time varying quantity, i.e., analogous to another time varying signal.
An anastomosis (plural anastomoses) is a connection or opening between two things (especially cavities or passages) that are normally diverging or branching, such as between blood vessels, leaf veins, or streams.
An anaxonic neuron is a neuron where the axon cannot be differentiated from the dendrites.
Aniline is an organic compound with the formula C6H5NH2.
The anterior grey column (also called the anterior cornu, anterior horn of spinal cord or ventral horn) is the front column of grey matter in the spinal cord.
An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses.
Aphasia is an inability to comprehend and formulate language because of damage to specific brain regions.
Apraxia is a motor disorder caused by damage to the brain (specifically the posterior parietal cortex) in which the individual has difficulty with the motor planning to perform tasks or movements when asked, provided that the request or command is understood and he/she is willing to perform the task.
An artificial neuron is a mathematical function conceived as a model of biological neurons, a neural network.
Astrocytes (Astro from Greek astron.
An autapse is a chemical or electrical synapse from a neuron onto itself.
The autonomic nervous system (ANS), formerly the vegetative nervous system, is a division of the peripheral nervous system that supplies smooth muscle and glands, and thus influences the function of internal organs.
The axolemma is the cell membrane surrounding an axon.
An axon (from Greek ἄξων áxōn, axis) or nerve fiber, is a long, slender projection of a nerve cell, or neuron, that typically conducts electrical impulses known as action potentials, away from the nerve cell body.
The axon hillock is a specialized part of the cell body (or soma) of a neuron that connects to the axon.
Axon terminals (also called synaptic boutons or terminal boutons) are distal terminations of the telodendria (branches) of an axon.
The basal ganglia (or basal nuclei) is a group of subcortical nuclei, of varied origin, in the brains of vertebrates including humans, which are situated at the base of the forebrain.
Basket cells are inhibitory GABAergic interneurons of the brain, found throughout different regions of the cortex and cerebellum.
Betz cells (also known as pyramidal cells of Betz) are giant pyramidal cells (neurons) located within the fifth layer of the grey matter in the primary motor cortex.
Bidirectional cells are a subset of neurons found in mammalian brains in region MT.
Bioenergetics is a field in biochemistry and cell biology that concerns energy flow through living systems.
A biological neuron model, also known as a spiking neuron model, is a mathematical description of the properties of certain cells in the nervous system that generate sharp electrical potentials across their cell membrane, roughly one millisecond in duration, as shown in Fig.
A bipolar neuron or bipolar cell, is a type of neuron which has two extensions.
The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.
Caenorhabditis elegans is a free-living (not parasitic), transparent nematode (roundworm), about 1 mm in length, that lives in temperate soil environments.
Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.
Calcium ions (Ca2+) play a vital role in the physiology and biochemistry of organisms and the cell.
A calpain is a protein belonging to the family of calcium-dependent, non-lysosomal cysteine proteases (proteolytic enzymes) expressed ubiquitously in mammals and many other organisms.
Camillo Golgi (7 July 1843 – 21 January 1926) was an Italian biologist and pathologist known for his works on the central nervous system.
A catecholamine (CA) is a monoamine, an organic compound that has a catechol (benzene with two hydroxyl side groups at carbons 1 and 2) and a side-chain amine.
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment (the extracellular space).
In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel or seed) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells.
Cell potency is a cell's ability to differentiate into other cell types The more cell types a cell can differentiate into, the greater its potency.
In developmental biology, cellular differentiation is the process where a cell changes from one cell type to another.
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
The cerebellum (Latin for "little brain") is a major feature of the hindbrain of all vertebrates.
Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease (CMT) is one of the hereditary motor and sensory neuropathies, a group of varied inherited disorders of the peripheral nervous system characterized by progressive loss of muscle tissue and touch sensation across various parts of the body.
Chemical synapses are biological junctions through which neurons' signals can be exchanged to each other and to non-neuronal cells such as those in muscles or glands.
The chloride ion is the anion (negatively charged ion) Cl−.
Choline is a water-soluble vitamin-like essential nutrient.
In biochemistry, a cholinesterase or choline esterase is an esterase that lyses choline-based esters, several of which serve as neurotransmitters.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is an acquired immune-mediated inflammatory disorder of the peripheral nervous system.
The cochlea is the part of the inner ear involved in hearing.
Cognition is "the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses".
Cognitive disorders (CDs), also known as neurocognitive disorders (NCDs), are a category of mental health disorders that primarily affect cognitive abilities including learning, memory, perception, and problem solving.
A cytoskeleton is present in all cells of all domains of life (archaea, bacteria, eukaryotes).
A demyelinating disease is any disease of the nervous system in which the myelin sheath of neurons is damaged.
Dendrites (from Greek δένδρον déndron, "tree"), also dendrons, are branched protoplasmic extensions of a nerve cell that propagate the electrochemical stimulation received from other neural cells to the cell body, or soma, of the neuron from which the dendrites project.
A dendritic spine (or spine) is a small membranous protrusion from a neuron's dendrite that typically receives input from a single axon at the synapse.
Digital data, in information theory and information systems, is the discrete, discontinuous representation of information or works.
Dogiel cells, also known as cells of Dogiel, refers to a type of multipolar neuronal cells within the prevertebral sympathetic ganglia.
Dopamine (DA, a contraction of 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays several important roles in the brain and body.
Drosophila melanogaster is a species of fly (the taxonomic order Diptera) in the family Drosophilidae.
In the peripheral nervous system, an efferent nerve fiber is the axon of a motor neuron.
An electrical synapse is a mechanical and electrically conductive link between two neighboring neurons that is formed at a narrow gap between the pre- and postsynaptic neurons known as a gap junction.
Electrochemistry is the branch of physical chemistry that studies the relationship between electricity, as a measurable and quantitative phenomenon, and identifiable chemical change, with either electricity considered an outcome of a particular chemical change or vice versa.
Electrophysiology (from Greek ἥλεκτρον, ēlektron, "amber"; φύσις, physis, "nature, origin"; and -λογία, -logia) is the study of the electrical properties of biological cells and tissues.
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a type of organelle found in eukaryotic cells that forms an interconnected network of flattened, membrane-enclosed sacs or tube-like structures known as cisternae.
Eumetazoa (Greek: εὖ, well + μετά, after + ζῷον, animal) or '''Diploblasts''', or Epitheliozoa, or Histozoa are a proposed basal animal clade as sister group of the Porifera.
In neuroscience, an excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) is a postsynaptic potential that makes the postsynaptic neuron more likely to fire an action potential.
Franz Alexander Nissl (9 September 1860, Frankenthal – 11 August 1919, Munich) was a German psychiatrist and medical researcher.
The G0 phase describes a cellular state outside of the replicative cell cycle.
gamma-Aminobutyric acid, or γ-aminobutyric acid, or GABA, is the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system.
A ganglion is a nerve cell cluster or a group of nerve cell bodies located in the autonomic nervous system and sensory system.
A gap junction may also be called a nexus or macula communicans.
Gert Hauske (born 1940) is a German engineer and Emeritus Associate Professor at the Institute for Communications Engineering, Technische Universität München, known for his work in the field of vision research, especially his work on a system theory of visual perception.
The giraffe (Giraffa) is a genus of African even-toed ungulate mammals, the tallest living terrestrial animals and the largest ruminants.
A gland is a group of cells in an animal's body that synthesizes substances (such as hormones) for release into the bloodstream (endocrine gland) or into cavities inside the body or its outer surface (exocrine gland).
The globus pallidus (Latin for "pale globe") also known as paleostriatum or dorsal pallidum, is a subcortical structure of the brain.
Glutamate decarboxylase or glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) is an enzyme that catalyzes the decarboxylation of glutamate to GABA and CO2.
Glutamate receptors are synaptic and non synaptic receptors located primarily on the membranes of neuronal and glial cells.
Glutamic acid (symbol Glu or E) is an α-amino acid with formula.
Glutamine oxoglutarate aminotransferase (also known as Glutamate synthase) is an enzyme and frequently abbreviated as GOGAT.
Glycine (symbol Gly or G) is the amino acid that has a single hydrogen atom as its side chain.
A Golgi I or Golgi type I neuron is a neuron which has a long axon that begins in the grey matter of the central nervous system and may extend from there.
A Golgi II or Golgi type II neuron is a neuron having either no axon or else a short axon that does not send branches out of the gray matter of the central nervous system.
Golgi's method is a silver staining technique that is used to visualize nervous tissue under light microscopy.
Graded potentials are changes in membrane potential that vary in size, as opposed to being all-or-none.
The name granule cell has been used by anatomists for a number of different types of neuron whose only common feature is that they all have very small cell bodies.
A growth cone is a big actin-supported extension of a developing or regenerating neurite seeking its synaptic target.
Haematoxylin or hematoxylin, also called natural black 1 or C.I. 75290, is a compound extracted from the heartwood of the logwood tree (Haematoxylum campechianum).
Heinrich Wilhelm Gottfried von Waldeyer-Hartz (6 October 1836 – 23 January 1921) was a German anatomist, famous for consolidating the neuron theory of organization of the nervous system and for naming the chromosome.
The hippocampus (named after its resemblance to the seahorse, from the Greek ἱππόκαμπος, "seahorse" from ἵππος hippos, "horse" and κάμπος kampos, "sea monster") is a major component of the brains of humans and other vertebrates.
The human brain is the central organ of the human nervous system, and with the spinal cord makes up the central nervous system.
The human skin is the outer covering of the body.
Hypokinesia refers to decreased bodily movement.
Immunosuppression is a reduction of the activation or efficacy of the immune system.
An inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP) is a kind of synaptic potential that makes a postsynaptic neuron less likely to generate an action potential.
An electrical insulator is a material whose internal electric charges do not flow freely; very little electric current will flow through it under the influence of an electric field.
An interneuron (also called internuncial neuron, relay neuron, association neuron, connector neuron, intermediate neuron or local circuit neuron) is a broad class of neurons found in the human body.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
Ion channels are pore-forming membrane proteins that allow ions to pass through the channel pore.
In biology, an ion transporter (or ion pump) is a transmembrane protein that moves ions across a plasma membrane against their concentration gradient through active transport.
John Zachary Young FRS (18 March 1907 – 4 July 1997), generally known as "JZ" or "JZY", was an English zoologist and neurophysiologist, described as "one of the most influential biologists of the 20th century".
L-DOPA, also known as levodopa or L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine is an amino acid that is made and used as part of the normal biology of humans, as well as some animals and plants.
Lamellar corpuscles, or Pacinian corpuscles, are one of the four major types of mechanoreceptor cell in glabrous (hairless) mammalian skin.
Ligand-gated ion channels (LICs, LGIC), also commonly referred as ionotropic receptors, are a group of transmembrane ion-channel proteins which open to allow ions such as Na+, K+, Ca2+, and/or Cl− to pass through the membrane in response to the binding of a chemical messenger (i.e. a ligand), such as a neurotransmitter.
In biology and biochemistry, a lipid is a biomolecule that is soluble in nonpolar solvents.
Lipofuscin is the name given to fine yellow-brown pigment granules composed of lipid-containing residues of lysosomal digestion.
A number of online neuroscience databases are available which provide information regarding gene expression, neurons, macroscopic brain structure, and neurological or psychiatric disorders.
Llinás's law, or law of no interchangeability of neurons, is a statement in neuroscience made by Rodolfo Llinás in 1989, during his Luigi Galvani Award Lecture at the Fidia Research Foundation Neuroscience Award Lectures.
Lugaro cells are primary sensory interneurons of the cerebellum, that have an inhibitory function.
A mechanoreceptor is a sensory receptor that responds to mechanical pressure or distortion.
Medium spiny neurons (MSNs), also known as spiny projection neurons, are a special type of GABAergic inhibitory cell representing 95% of neurons within the human striatum, a basal ganglia structure.
The term "membrane potential" may refer to one of three kinds of membrane potential.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
A metabotropic receptor is a type of membrane receptor of eukaryotic cells that acts through a second messenger.
The micrometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: μm) or micrometer (American spelling), also commonly known as a micron, is an SI derived unit of length equaling (SI standard prefix "micro-".
Microtubules are tubular polymers of tubulin that form part of the cytoskeleton that provides the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells and some bacteria with structure and shape.
The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double-membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms.
The motor cortex is the region of the cerebral cortex involved in the planning, control, and execution of voluntary movements.
A motor neuron (or motoneuron) is a neuron whose cell body is located in the motor cortex, brainstem or the spinal cord, and whose axon (fiber) projects to the spinal cord or outside of the spinal cord to directly or indirectly control effector organs, mainly muscles and glands.
Movement disorders are clinical syndromes with either an excess of movement or a paucity of voluntary and involuntary movements, unrelated to weakness or spasticity.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease in which the insulating covers of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord are damaged.
A multipolar neuron (or multipolar neurone) is a type of neuron that possesses a single axon and many dendrites (and dendritic branches), allowing for the integration of a great deal of information from other neurons.
Muscle contraction is the activation of tension-generating sites within muscle fibers.
Muscle weakness or myasthenia (my- from Greek μυο meaning "muscle" + -asthenia ἀσθένεια meaning "weakness") is a lack of muscle strength.
Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a long-term neuromuscular disease that leads to varying degrees of skeletal muscle weakness.
Myelin is a lipid-rich substance that surrounds the axon of some nerve cells, forming an electrically insulating layer.
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
The nematodes or roundworms constitute the phylum Nematoda (also called Nemathelminthes).
The neocortex, also called the neopallium and isocortex, is the part of the mammalian brain involved in higher-order brain functions such as sensory perception, cognition, generation of motor commands, spatial reasoning and language.
A nerve is an enclosed, cable-like bundle of axons (nerve fibers, the long and slender projections of neurons) in the peripheral nervous system.
A nerve fascicle, or fasciculus is a bundle of funiculi.
A nerve tract, is a bundle of nerve fibers (axons) connecting nuclei of the central nervous system.
A neural circuit, is a population of neurons interconnected by synapses to carry out a specific function when activated.
Neural coding is a neuroscience field concerned with characterising the hypothetical relationship between the stimulus and the individual or ensemble neuronal responses and the relationship among the electrical activity of the neurons in the ensemble.
A neural ensemble is a population of nervous system cells (or cultured neurons) involved in a particular neural computation.
Neural oscillations, or brainwaves, are rhythmic or repetitive patterns of neural activity in the central nervous system.
A neurite or neuronal process refers to any projection from the cell body of a neuron.
Neuroanatomy is the study of the structure and organization of the nervous system.
Neurodegeneration is the progressive loss of structure or function of neurons, including death of neurons.
Neurofilaments (NF) are intermediate filaments found in the cytoplasm of neurons.
Neurogenesis is the process by which nervous system cells, known as neurons, are produced by neural stem cells (NSC)s, and it occurs in all species of animals except the porifera (sponges) and placozoans.
Neuroglia, also called glial cells or simply glia, are non-neuronal cells in the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) and the peripheral nervous system.
NeuroLex is a dynamic lexicon of neuroscience concepts.
Neuromelanin (NM) is a dark pigment found in the brain which is structurally related to melanin.
The neuron doctrine is the concept that the nervous system is made up of discrete individual cells, a discovery due to decisive neuro-anatomical work of Santiago Ramón y Cajal and later presented by, among others, H. Waldeyer-Hartz.
Neuroplasticity, also known as brain plasticity and neural plasticity, is the ability of the brain to change throughout an individual's life, e.g., brain activity associated with a given function can be transferred to a different location, the proportion of grey matter can change, and synapses may strengthen or weaken over time.
Neuropsychiatry is a branch of medicine that deals with mental disorders attributable to diseases of the nervous system.
Neuroscience (or neurobiology) is the scientific study of the nervous system.
The Neuroscience Information Framework is a repository of global neuroscience web resources, including experimental, clinical, and translational neuroscience databases, knowledge bases, atlases, and genetic/genomic resources and provides many authoritative links throughout the neuroscience portal of Wikipedia.
Neurotransmission (Latin: transmissio "passage, crossing" from transmittere "send, let through"), also called synaptic transmission, is the process by which signaling molecules called neurotransmitters are released by the axon terminal of a neuron (the presynaptic neuron), and bind to and activate the receptors on the dendrites of another neuron (the postsynaptic neuron).
Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
Nicotine is a potent parasympathomimetic stimulant and an alkaloid found in the nightshade family of plants.
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, or nAChRs, are receptor proteins that respond to the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.
A Nissl body, also known as Nissl substance and Nissl material, is a large granular body found in neurons.
Nodes of Ranvier, also known as myelin-sheath gaps, occur along a myelinated axon where the axolemma is exposed to the extracellular space.
Non-spiking neurons are neurons that are located in the central and peripheral nervous systems and function as intermediary relays for sensory-motor neurons.
The olfactory bulb (bulbus olfactorius) is a neural structure of the vertebrate forebrain involved in olfaction, the sense of smell.
Oligodendrocytes, or oligodendroglia,.
In cell biology, an organelle is a specialized subunit within a cell that has a specific function, in which their function is vital for the cell to live.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a long-term degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects the motor system.
Parvalbumin is a calcium-binding albumin protein with low molecular weight (typically 9-11 kDa).
The peripheral nervous system (PNS) is one of the two components of the nervous system, the other part is the central nervous system (CNS).
Peripheral neuropathy (PN) is damage to or disease affecting nerves, which may impair sensation, movement, gland or organ function, or other aspects of health, depending on the type of nerve affected.
A photoreceptor cell is a specialized type of neuroepithelial cell found in the retina that is capable of visual phototransduction.
The posterior columns (dorsal columns) are nerve tracts in the white matter of the spinal cord.
Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.
A protease (also called a peptidase or proteinase) is an enzyme that performs proteolysis: protein catabolism by hydrolysis of peptide bonds.
Protein synthesis is the process whereby biological cells generate new proteins; it is balanced by the loss of cellular proteins via degradation or export.
A pseudounipolar neuron (pseudo – false, uni – one) is a kind of sensory neuron in the peripheral nervous system.
Purkinje cells, or Purkinje neurons, are a class of GABAergic neurons located in the cerebellum.
Pyramidal cells, or (pyramidal neurons), are a type of multipolar neuron found in areas of the brain including the cerebral cortex, the hippocampus, and the amygdala.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a receptor is a protein molecule that receives chemical signals from outside a cell.
Renshaw cells are inhibitory interneurons found in the gray matter of the spinal cord, and are associated in two ways with an alpha motor neuron.
The retina is the innermost, light-sensitive "coat", or layer, of shell tissue of the eye of most vertebrates and some molluscs.
As a part of the retina, bipolar cells exist between photoreceptors (rod cells and cone cells) and ganglion cells.
A retinal ganglion cell (RGC) is a type of neuron located near the inner surface (the ganglion cell layer) of the retina of the eye.
Ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) is the RNA component of the ribosome, and is essential for protein synthesis in all living organisms.
The ribosome is a complex molecular machine, found within all living cells, that serves as the site of biological protein synthesis (translation).
Saltatory conduction (from the Latin saltare, to hop or leap) is the propagation of action potentials along myelinated axons from one node of Ranvier to the next node, increasing the conduction velocity of action potentials.
Santiago Ramón y Cajal (1 May 1852 – 17 October 1934) was a Spanish neuroscientist and pathologist, specializing in neuroanatomy, particularly the histology of the central nervous system.
Schwann cells (named after physiologist Theodor Schwann) or neurolemmocytes are the principal glia of the peripheral nervous system (PNS).
A sense is a physiological capacity of organisms that provides data for perception.
Sensory neurons also known as afferent neurons are neurons that convert a specific type of stimulus, via their receptors, into action potentials or graded potentials.
Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter.
The serotonin transporter (SERT or 5-HTT) also known as the sodium-dependent serotonin transporter and solute carrier family 6 member 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC6A4 gene.
Sholl analysis is a method of quantitative analysis commonly used in neuronal studies to characterize the morphological characteristics of an imaged neuron, first used to describe the differences in the visual and motor cortices of cats.
Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.
Sodium channels are integral membrane proteins that form ion channels, conducting sodium ions (Na+) through a cell's plasma membrane.
The soma (pl. somata or somas), perikaryon (pl. perikarya), neurocyton, or cell body is the bulbous, non-process portion of a neuron or other brain cell type, containing the cell nucleus.
The somatic nervous system (SNS or voluntary nervous system) is the part of the peripheral nervous system associated with the voluntary control of body movements via skeletal muscles.
Somatostatin, also known as growth hormone-inhibiting hormone (GHIH) or by several other names, is a peptide hormone that regulates the endocrine system and affects neurotransmission and cell proliferation via interaction with G protein-coupled somatostatin receptors and inhibition of the release of numerous secondary hormones.
The spinal cord is a long, thin, tubular bundle of nervous tissue and support cells that extends from the medulla oblongata in the brainstem to the lumbar region of the vertebral column.
A spinal neuron is a neuron in the spinal cord.
Spindle neurons, also called von Economo neurons (VENs), are a specific class of neurons that are characterized by a large spindle-shaped soma (or body), gradually tapering into a single apical axon in one direction, with only a single dendrite facing opposite.
Sponges, the members of the phylum Porifera (meaning "pore bearer"), are a basal Metazoa clade as sister of the Diploblasts.
The squid giant axon is the very large (up to 1 mm in diameter; typically around 0.5 mm) axon that controls part of the water jet propulsion system in squid.
Stem cells are biological cells that can differentiate into other types of cells and can divide to produce more of the same type of stem cells.
In physiology, a stimulus (plural stimuli) is a detectable change in the internal or external environment.
The striatum, or corpus striatum (also called the neostriatum and the striate nucleus) is a nucleus (a cluster of neurons) in the subcortical basal ganglia of the forebrain.
The subgranular zone (SGZ) is a brain region in the hippocampus where adult neurogenesis occurs.
The substantia nigra (SN) is a basal ganglia structure located in the midbrain that plays an important role in reward and movement.
The subventricular zone (SVZ) is a term used to describe both embryonic and adult neural tissues in the vertebrate central nervous system (CNS).
The supraoptic nucleus (SON) is a nucleus of magnocellular neurosecretory cells in the hypothalamus of the mammalian brain.
In the nervous system, a synapse is a structure that permits a neuron (or nerve cell) to pass an electrical or chemical signal to another neuron or to the target efferent cell.
In a neuron, synaptic vesicles (or neurotransmitter vesicles) store various neurotransmitters that are released at the synapse.
A thymectomy is an operation to remove the thymus.
Tonic in physiology refers to a physiological response which is slow and may be graded.
Transdifferentiation, also known as lineage reprogramming, is a process in which one mature somatic cell transforms into another mature somatic cell without undergoing an intermediate pluripotent state or progenitor cell type.
A tremor is an involuntary, somewhat rhythmic, muscle contraction and relaxation involving oscillations or twitching movements of one or more body parts.
Tubulin in molecular biology can refer either to the tubulin protein superfamily of globular proteins, or one of the member proteins of that superfamily.
Tyrosine (symbol Tyr or Y) or 4-hydroxyphenylalanine is one of the 20 standard amino acids that are used by cells to synthesize proteins.
Ubiquitin is a small (8.5 kDa) regulatory protein found in most tissues of eukaryotic organisms, i.e. it occurs ''ubiquitously''.
Unipolar brush cells (UBCs) are a class of excitatory glutamatergic interneuron found in the granular layer of the cerebellar cortex and also in the granule cell domain of the cochlear nucleus.
A unipolar neuron is a type of neuron in which only one protoplasmic process (neurite) extends from the cell body.
Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).
The visual cortex of the brain is a part of the cerebral cortex that processes visual information.
Voltage, electric potential difference, electric pressure or electric tension (formally denoted or, but more often simply as V or U, for instance in the context of Ohm's or Kirchhoff's circuit laws) is the difference in electric potential between two points.
Voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs), also known as voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCCs), are a group of voltage-gated ion channels found in the membrane of excitable cells (e.g., muscle, glial cells, neurons, etc.) with a permeability to the calcium ion Ca2+.
Voltage-gated ion channels are a class of transmembrane proteins that form ion channels that are activated by changes in the electrical membrane potential near the channel.
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.
Brain cell, Brain cells, Human brain cell, Nerve cell, Nerve cells, Nerve sheath, Nerve-cell, Neural cell, Neurocyte, Neurocytes, Neuronal, Neuronal doctrine, Neuronal loss, Neurone, Neurones, Neurons, Nueron.