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Neuroplasticity, also known as brain plasticity and neural plasticity, is the ability of the brain to change throughout an individual's life, e.g., brain activity associated with a given function can be transferred to a different location, the proportion of grey matter can change, and synapses may strengthen or weaken over time. [1]

163 relations: Acquired brain injury, Action potential, Activity-dependent plasticity, Adult neurogenesis, Amblyopia, Amphetamine, Amphibian, Amputation, Amygdala, Anger, Anterior cingulate cortex, Anxiety, Aphorism, Aplysia, Attention, Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Auditory system, Autumn, Barrel cortex, Basal ganglia, Behavior, Binocular vision, Bird, Brain damage, Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, California sea hare, Carpal tunnel syndrome, Caudate nucleus, Cerebellum, Cholinergic, Classical conditioning, Clinical significance, Cochlear implant, Cognitive training, Cold Specks, Common starling, Complex regional pain syndrome, Constraint-induced movement therapy, Convergence insufficiency, Cortical homunculus, Cortical map, Cortical remapping, Critical period, Dalai Lama, David H. Hubel, Depression (mood), Digit (anatomy), Edema, Eleanor Maguire, Elsevier, ..., Emergence, Emory University, Environmental enrichment, Estrous cycle, Evolution, Executive functions, Fast ForWord, Fear, Forelimb, Functional electrical stimulation, Functional magnetic resonance imaging, Gastropoda, Gene expression, George M. Stratton, Gonadotropin-releasing hormone, Grey matter, Hebbian theory, Hibernation, Hippocampus, Hormone, Human, Human development (biology), Human echolocation, Immunoassay, Inflammation, Inhibitory postsynaptic potential, Insulin-like growth factor 1, Japanese common toad, Jerzy Konorski, Jon Kaas, Journal of Neurophysiology, Justo Gonzalo, Karl Lashley, Kavli Prize, Kinesiology, Learning disability, Lumosity, Magnetic resonance imaging, Marian Diamond, Methylphenidate, Michael Merzenich, Morphology (biology), Neural backpropagation, Neural circuit, Neural Darwinism, Neurogenesis, Neuron, Neuroplastic effects of pollution, Neurotransmitter, Neurotrophic factors, New Scientist, Night monkey, NMDA receptor, Nociception, Nonsynaptic plasticity, Norman Doidge, Noxious stimulus, Nucleus accumbens, Olfactory bulb, Operant conditioning, Paralysis, Parietal lobe, Paul Bach-y-Rita, Phantom limb, Pharmacotherapy, Physical fitness, Postcentral gyrus, Prefrontal cortex, Primate, Progesterone, Projection areas, Rehabilitation (neuropsychology), Reinforcement, Rhesus macaque, Richard Davidson, Rodent, Sense data, Sensitization, Sensory nervous system, Sheep, Shepherd Ivory Franz, Somatosensory system, Somatotopic arrangement, Songbird, Spasticity, Spatial memory, Species, Spring (season), Stereopsis, Stereopsis recovery, Stroke, Suprachiasmatic nucleus, Synapse, Synaptic plasticity, Synaptic pruning, Synaptogenesis, Thalamus, The Brain That Changes Itself, The New England Journal of Medicine, The Principles of Psychology, Torsten Wiesel, Trends in Cognitive Sciences, Ultrastructure, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Vanderbilt University, Vascular endothelial growth factor, Vasopressin, Virtual reality therapy, Visual impairment, VO2 max, Volume, Whiskers, William James. Expand index (113 more) »

Acquired brain injury

Acquired brain injury (ABI) is brain damage caused by events after birth, rather than as part of a genetic or congenital disorder such as fetal alcohol syndrome, perinatal illness or perinatal hypoxia.

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Action potential

In physiology, an action potential occurs when the membrane potential of a specific axon location rapidly rises and falls: this depolarisation then causes adjacent locations to similarly depolarise.

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Activity-dependent plasticity

Activity-dependent plasticity is a form of functional and structural neuroplasticity that arises from the use of cognitive functions and personal experience; hence, it is the biological basis for learning and the formation of new memories.

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Adult neurogenesis

Neurogenesis is the process by which neurons are generated from neural stem cells.

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Amblyopia, also called lazy eye, is a disorder of sight due to the eye and brain not working well together.

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Amphetamine (contracted from) is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy, and obesity.

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Amphibians are ectothermic, tetrapod vertebrates of the class Amphibia.

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Amputation is the removal of a limb by trauma, medical illness, or surgery.

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The amygdala (plural: amygdalae; also corpus amygdaloideum; Latin from Greek, ἀμυγδαλή, amygdalē, 'Almond', 'tonsil') is one of two almond-shaped groups of nuclei located deep and medially within the temporal lobes of the brain in complex vertebrates, including humans.

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Anger or wrath is an intense negative emotion.

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Anterior cingulate cortex

The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is the frontal part of the cingulate cortex that resembles a "collar" surrounding the frontal part of the corpus callosum.

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Anxiety is an emotion characterized by an unpleasant state of inner turmoil, often accompanied by nervous behaviour such as pacing back and forth, somatic complaints, and rumination.

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An aphorism (from Greek ἀφορισμός: aphorismos, denoting "delimitation", "distinction", and "definition") is a concise, terse, laconic, and/or memorable expression of a general truth or principle.

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Aplysia is a genus of medium-sized to extremely large sea slugs, specifically sea hares, which are one clade of large sea slugs, marine gastropod mollusks.

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Attention, also referred to as enthrallment, is the behavioral and cognitive process of selectively concentrating on a discrete aspect of information, whether deemed subjective or objective, while ignoring other perceivable information.

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Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a mental disorder of the neurodevelopmental type.

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Auditory system

The auditory system is the sensory system for the sense of hearing.

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Autumn, also known as fall in American and Canadian English, is one of the four temperate seasons.

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Barrel cortex

The barrel cortex refers to a region of somatosensory cortex that is identifiable in some species of rodents and species of at least two other orders and contains the barrel field.

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Basal ganglia

The basal ganglia (or basal nuclei) is a group of subcortical nuclei, of varied origin, in the brains of vertebrates including humans, which are situated at the base of the forebrain.

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Behavior (American English) or behaviour (Commonwealth English) is the range of actions and mannerisms made by individuals, organisms, systems, or artificial entities in conjunction with themselves or their environment, which includes the other systems or organisms around as well as the (inanimate) physical environment.

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Binocular vision

In biology, binocular vision is a type of vision in which an animal having two eyes is able to perceive a single three-dimensional image of its surroundings.

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Birds, also known as Aves, are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a strong yet lightweight skeleton.

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Brain damage

Brain damage or brain injury (BI) is the destruction or degeneration of brain cells.

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Brain-derived neurotrophic factor

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, also known as BDNF, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the BDNF gene.

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California sea hare

The California sea hare, scientific name Aplysia californica, is a species of sea slug in the sea hare family, Aplysiidae.

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Carpal tunnel syndrome

Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a medical condition due to compression of the median nerve as it travels through the wrist at the carpal tunnel.

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Caudate nucleus

The caudate nucleus is one of the structures that make up the dorsal striatum, which is a component of the basal ganglia.

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The cerebellum (Latin for "little brain") is a major feature of the hindbrain of all vertebrates.

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In general, the word choline refers to the various quaternary ammonium salts containing the ''N'',''N'',''N''-trimethylethanolammonium cation.

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Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.

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Christmas and holiday season

The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.

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Christmas Eve

Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.

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Christmas traditions

Christmas traditions vary from country to country.

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Classical conditioning

Classical conditioning (also known as Pavlovian or respondent conditioning) refers to a learning procedure in which a biologically potent stimulus (e.g. food) is paired with a previously neutral stimulus (e.g. a bell).

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Clinical significance

In medicine and psychology, clinical significance is the practical importance of a treatment effect—whether it has a real genuine, palpable, noticeable effect on daily life.

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Cochlear implant

A cochlear implant (CI) is a surgically implanted electronic device that provides a sense of sound to a person with severe to profound sensorineural hearing loss in both ears.

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Cognitive training

The term cognitive training (also called brain training or neurobics) reflects a hypothesis that cognitive abilities can be maintained or improved by exercising the brain, in an analogy to the way physical fitness is improved by exercising the body.

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Cold Specks

Cold Specks is the stage name of Canadian singer-songwriter Ladan Hussein, who was previously known as Al Spx.

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Common starling

The common starling (Sturnus vulgaris), also known as the European starling, or in the British Isles just the starling, is a medium-sized passerine bird in the starling family, Sturnidae.

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Complex regional pain syndrome

Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), also known as reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD) or algodystrophy, is a disorder of a portion of the body, usually the arms or legs, which manifests as pain, swelling, limited range of motion, and changes to the skin and bones.

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Constraint-induced movement therapy

Constraint-induced movement therapy (CI, CIT, or CIMT) is a form of rehabilitation therapy that improves upper extremity function in stroke and other central nervous system damage victims by increasing the use of their affected upper limb.

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Convergence insufficiency

Convergence insufficiency or convergence disorder is a sensory and neuromuscular anomaly of the binocular vision system, characterized by a reduced ability of the eyes to turn towards each other, or sustain convergence.

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Cortical homunculus

A cortical homunculus is a distorted representation of the human body, based on a neurological "map" of the areas and proportions of the human brain dedicated to processing motor functions, or sensory functions, for different parts of the body.

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Cortical map

Cortical maps are collections (areas) of minicolumns in the brain cortex that have been identified as performing a specific information processing function (texture maps, color maps, contour maps, etc.).

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Cortical remapping

Cortical remapping, also referred to as cortical reorganization, is when a cortical map is affected by a stimulus, is changed and then creates a 'new' cortical map.

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Critical period

In developmental psychology and developmental biology, a critical period is a maturational stage in the lifespan of an organism during which the nervous system is especially sensitive to certain environmental stimuli.

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Dalai Lama

Dalai Lama (Standard Tibetan: ཏཱ་ལའི་བླ་མ་, Tā la'i bla ma) is a title given to spiritual leaders of the Tibetan people.

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David H. Hubel

David Hunter Hubel (February 27, 1926 – September 22, 2013) was a Canadian neurophysiologist noted for his studies of the structure and function of the visual cortex.

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Depression (mood)

Depression is a state of low mood and aversion to activity that can affect a person's thoughts, behavior, tendencies, feelings, and sense of well-being.

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Digit (anatomy)

A digit is one of several most distal parts of a limb, such as fingers or toes, present in many vertebrates.

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Edema, also spelled oedema or œdema, is an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the interstitium, located beneath the skin and in the cavities of the body, which can cause severe pain.

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Eleanor Maguire

Eleanor Anne Maguire, (born 27 March 1970) is an Irish neuroscientist and academic.

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Elsevier is an information and analytics company and one of the world's major providers of scientific, technical, and medical information.

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In philosophy, systems theory, science, and art, emergence occurs when "the whole is greater than the sum of the parts," meaning the whole has properties its parts do not have.

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Emory University

Emory University is a private research university in the Druid Hills neighborhood of the city of Atlanta, Georgia, United States.

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Environmental enrichment

Environmental enrichment is the stimulation of the brain by its physical and social surroundings.

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Estrous cycle

The estrous cycle or oestrus cycle (derived from Latin oestrus 'frenzy', originally from Greek οἶστρος oîstros 'gadfly') is the recurring physiological changes that are induced by reproductive hormones in most mammalian therian females.

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Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.

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Executive functions

Executive functions (collectively referred to as executive function and cognitive control) are a set of cognitive processes that are necessary for the cognitive control of behavior: selecting and successfully monitoring behaviors that facilitate the attainment of chosen goals.

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Fast ForWord

Fast ForWord is a family of cognitive training software products marketed as a tool for strengthening the learning skills of children by Scientific Learning Corporation.

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Fear is a feeling induced by perceived danger or threat that occurs in certain types of organisms, which causes a change in metabolic and organ functions and ultimately a change in behavior, such as fleeing, hiding, or freezing from perceived traumatic events.

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A forelimb is an anterior limb (arm, leg, or similar appendage) on a terrestrial vertebrate's body.

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Functional electrical stimulation

Functional electrical stimulation (FES) is a technique that uses low energy electrical pulses to artificially generate body movements in individuals who have been paralyzed due to injury to the central nervous system.

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Functional magnetic resonance imaging

Functional magnetic resonance imaging or functional MRI (fMRI) measures brain activity by detecting changes associated with blood flow.

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The gastropods, more commonly known as snails and slugs, belong to a large taxonomic class of invertebrates within the phylum Mollusca, called Gastropoda.

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Gene expression

Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product.

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George M. Stratton

George Malcolm Stratton (September 26, 1865 – October 8, 1957) was a psychologist who pioneered the study of perception in vision by wearing special glasses which inverted images up and down and left and right.

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Gonadotropin-releasing hormone

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) also known as gonadoliberin, and by various other names in its endogenous form and as gonadorelin in its pharmaceutical form, is a releasing hormone responsible for the release of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) from the anterior pituitary.

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Grey matter

Grey matter (or gray matter) is a major component of the central nervous system, consisting of neuronal cell bodies, neuropil (dendrites and myelinated as well as unmyelinated axons), glial cells (astrocytes and oligodendrocytes), synapses, and capillaries.

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Hebbian theory

In neuroscience, Hebbian theory is a theory that proposes an explanation for the adaptation of neurons in the brain during the learning process.

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Hibernation is a state of inactivity and metabolic depression in endotherms.

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The hippocampus (named after its resemblance to the seahorse, from the Greek ἱππόκαμπος, "seahorse" from ἵππος hippos, "horse" and κάμπος kampos, "sea monster") is a major component of the brains of humans and other vertebrates.

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A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.

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Humans (taxonomically Homo sapiens) are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina.

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Human development (biology)

Human development is the process of growing to maturity.

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Human echolocation

Human echolocation is the ability of humans to detect objects in their environment by sensing echoes from those objects, by actively creating sounds – for example, by tapping their canes, lightly stomping their foot, snapping their fingers, or making clicking noises with their mouths – people trained to orient by echolocation can interpret the sound waves reflected by nearby objects, accurately identifying their location and size.

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An immunoassay is a biochemical test that measures the presence or concentration of a macromolecule or a small molecule in a solution through the use of an antibody (usually) or an antigen (sometimes).

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Inflammation (from inflammatio) is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants, and is a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators.

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Inhibitory postsynaptic potential

An inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP) is a kind of synaptic potential that makes a postsynaptic neuron less likely to generate an action potential.

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Insulin-like growth factor 1

Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), also called somatomedin C, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IGF1 gene.

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Japanese common toad

The Japanese common toad or Japanese toad (Bufo japonicus) is a species of toad in the family Bufonidae.

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Jerzy Konorski

Jerzy Konorski (1 December 1903 in Łódź, Congress Poland – 14 November 1973 in Warsaw, Poland) was a Polish neurophysiologist who further developed the work of Ivan Pavlov by discovering secondary conditioned reflexes and operant conditioning.

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Jon Kaas

Jon Kaas is a professor at Vanderbilt University and a member of the United States National Academy of Sciences.

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Journal of Neurophysiology

The Journal of Neurophysiology is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal established in 1938.

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Justo Gonzalo

Justo Gonzalo Rodríguez-Leal (March 2, 1910 – September 28, 1986) was a Spanish neuroscientist, who described and interpreted what he called "central syndrome of the cortex" which is a multisensory disorder with bilateral symmetry, due to a unilateral parieto-occipital cortical lesion.

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Karl Lashley

Karl Spencer Lashley (June 7, 1890 – August 7, 1958) was a psychologist and behaviorist remembered for his contributions to the study of learning and memory.

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Kavli Prize

The Kavli Prize was established in 2005 through a joint venture between the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters, the Norwegian Ministry of Education and Research, and The Kavli Foundation.

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Kinesiology is the scientific study of human or non-human body movement.

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Learning disability

Learning disability is a classification that includes several areas of functioning in which a person has difficulty learning in a typical manner, usually caused by an unknown factor or factors.

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Lumosity is an online program consisting of games claiming to improve memory, attention, flexibility, speed of processing, and problem solving.

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Magnetic resonance imaging

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to form pictures of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the body in both health and disease.

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Marian Diamond

Marian Diamond (née Cleeves; November 11, 1926 – July 25, 2017) was a pioneering scientist and educator who is considered one of the founders of modern neuroscience.

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Methylphenidate, sold under various trade names, Ritalin being one of the most commonly known, is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the phenethylamine and piperidine classes that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy.

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Michael Merzenich

Michael M. Merzenich (born 1942 in Lebanon, Oregon) is a professor emeritus neuroscientist at the University of California, San Francisco.

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Morphology (biology)

Morphology is a branch of biology dealing with the study of the form and structure of organisms and their specific structural features.

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Neural backpropagation

Neural backpropagation is the phenomenon in which the action potential of a neuron creates a voltage spike both at the end of the axon (normal propagation) and back through to the dendritic arbor or dendrites, from which much of the original input current originated.

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Neural circuit

A neural circuit, is a population of neurons interconnected by synapses to carry out a specific function when activated.

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Neural Darwinism

Neural Darwinism, a large scale theory of brain function by Gerald Edelman, was initially published in 1978, in a book called The Mindful Brain (MIT Press).

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Neurogenesis is the process by which nervous system cells, known as neurons, are produced by neural stem cells (NSC)s, and it occurs in all species of animals except the porifera (sponges) and placozoans.

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A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.

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Neuroplastic effects of pollution

Research indicates that living in areas of high pollution has serious long term health effects.

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Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.

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Neurotrophic factors

Neurotrophic factors (NTFs) are a family of biomolecules – nearly all of which are peptides or small proteins – that support the growth, survival, and differentiation of both developing and mature neurons.

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New Scientist

New Scientist, first published on 22 November 1956, is a weekly, English-language magazine that covers all aspects of science and technology.

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New Year

New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.

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New Year's Day

New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.

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New Year's Eve

In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.

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Night monkey

The night monkeys, also known as the owl monkeys or douroucoulis, are the members of the genus Aotus of New World monkeys (monotypic in family Aotidae).

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NMDA receptor

The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (also known as the NMDA receptor or NMDAR), is a glutamate receptor and ion channel protein found in nerve cells.

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Nociception (also nocioception or nociperception, from Latin nocere 'to harm or hurt') is the sensory nervous system's response to certain harmful or potentially harmful stimuli.

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Nonsynaptic plasticity

Nonsynaptic plasticity is a form of neuroplasticity that involves modification of ion channel function in the axon, dendrites, and cell body that results in specific changes in the integration of excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) and inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs).

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Norman Doidge

Norman Doidge, FRCP(C), is a Canadian-born psychiatrist, psychoanalyst, and author of The Brain That Changes Itself (2007) and The Brain's Way of Healing (2015).

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Noxious stimulus

A noxious stimulus is "an actually or potentially tissue damaging event." It is a prerequisite for nociception, which itself is a prerequisite for nociceptive pain.

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Nucleus accumbens

The nucleus accumbens (NAc or NAcc), also known as the accumbens nucleus, or formerly as the nucleus accumbens septi (Latin for nucleus adjacent to the septum) is a region in the basal forebrain rostral to the preoptic area of the hypothalamus.

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Olfactory bulb

The olfactory bulb (bulbus olfactorius) is a neural structure of the vertebrate forebrain involved in olfaction, the sense of smell.

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Operant conditioning

Operant conditioning (also called "instrumental conditioning") is a learning process through which the strength of a behavior is modified by reinforcement or punishment.

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Paralysis is a loss of muscle function for one or more muscles.

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Parietal lobe

The parietal lobe is one of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain of mammals. The parietal lobe is positioned above the temporal lobe and behind the frontal lobe and central sulcus. The parietal lobe integrates sensory information among various modalities, including spatial sense and navigation (proprioception), the main sensory receptive area for the sense of touch (mechanoreception) in the somatosensory cortex which is just posterior to the central sulcus in the postcentral gyrus, and the dorsal stream of the visual system. The major sensory inputs from the skin (touch, temperature, and pain receptors), relay through the thalamus to the parietal lobe. Several areas of the parietal lobe are important in language processing. The somatosensory cortex can be illustrated as a distorted figure – the homunculus (Latin: "little man"), in which the body parts are rendered according to how much of the somatosensory cortex is devoted to them.Schacter, D. L., Gilbert, D. L. & Wegner, D. M. (2009). Psychology. (2nd ed.). New York (NY): Worth Publishers. The superior parietal lobule and inferior parietal lobule are the primary areas of body or spacial awareness. A lesion commonly in the right superior or inferior parietal lobule leads to hemineglect. The name comes from the parietal bone, which is named from the Latin paries-, meaning "wall".

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Paul Bach-y-Rita

Paul Bach-y-Rita (April 4, 1934 – November 20, 2006) was an American neuroscientist whose most notable work was in the field of neuroplasticity.

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Phantom limb

A phantom limb is the sensation that an amputated or missing limb is still attached.

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Pharmacotherapy is therapy using pharmaceutical drugs, as distinguished from therapy using surgery (surgical therapy), radiation (radiation therapy), movement (physical therapy), or other modes.

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Physical fitness

Physical fitness is a state of health and well-being and, more specifically, the ability to perform aspects of sports, occupations and daily activities.

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Postcentral gyrus

The postcentral gyrus is a prominent gyrus in the lateral parietal lobe of the human brain.

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Prefrontal cortex

In mammalian brain anatomy, the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is the cerebral cortex which covers the front part of the frontal lobe.

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A primate is a mammal of the order Primates (Latin: "prime, first rank").

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Progesterone (P4) is an endogenous steroid and progestogen sex hormone involved in the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and embryogenesis of humans and other species.

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Projection areas

Projection areas are areas in the four lobes (frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital) of the brain where sensory processing occurs.

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Rehabilitation (neuropsychology)

Rehabilitation of sensory and cognitive function typically involves methods for retraining neural pathways or training new neural pathways to regain or improve neurocognitive functioning that has been diminished by disease or trauma.

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In behavioral psychology, reinforcement is a consequence that will strengthen an organism's future behavior whenever that behavior is preceded by a specific antecedent stimulus.

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Rhesus macaque

The rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) is one of the best-known species of Old World monkeys.

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Richard Davidson

Richard J. Davidson (born December 12, 1951) is professor of psychology and psychiatry at the University of Wisconsin–Madison as well as founder and chair of the Center for Healthy Minds.

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Rodents (from Latin rodere, "to gnaw") are mammals of the order Rodentia, which are characterized by a single pair of continuously growing incisors in each of the upper and lower jaws.

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Sense data

In the philosophy of perception, the theory of sense data was a popular view held in the early 20th century by philosophers such as Bertrand Russell, C. D. Broad, H. H. Price, A. J. Ayer, and G. E. Moore.

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Sensitization is a non-associative learning process in which repeated administration of a stimulus results in the progressive amplification of a response.

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Sensory nervous system

The sensory nervous system is a part of the nervous system responsible for processing sensory information.

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Domestic sheep (Ovis aries) are quadrupedal, ruminant mammal typically kept as livestock.

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Shepherd Ivory Franz

Shepherd Ivory Franz (May 27, 1874 – October 14, 1933) was an American psychologist.

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Somatosensory system

The somatosensory system is a part of the sensory nervous system.

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Somatotopic arrangement

Somatotopy is the point-for-point correspondence of an area of the body to a specific point on the central nervous system.

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A songbird is a bird belonging to the clade Passeri of the perching birds (Passeriformes).

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Spasticity is a feature of altered skeletal muscle performance with a combination of paralysis, increased tendon reflex activity, and hypertonia.

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Spatial memory

In cognitive psychology and neuroscience, spatial memory is that part of the memory responsible for the recording of information about one's environment and spatial orientation.

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In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.

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Spring (season)

Spring is one of the four conventional temperate seasons, following winter and preceding summer.

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Stereopsis (from the Greek στερεο- stereo- meaning "solid", and ὄψις opsis, "appearance, sight") is a term that is most often used to refer to the perception of depth and 3-dimensional structure obtained on the basis of visual information deriving from two eyes by individuals with normally developed binocular vision.

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Stereopsis recovery

Stereopsis recovery, also recovery from stereoblindness, is the phenomenon of a stereoblind person gaining partial or full ability of stereo vision (stereopsis).

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A stroke is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death.

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Suprachiasmatic nucleus

The suprachiasmatic nucleus or nuclei (SCN) is a tiny region of the brain in the hypothalamus, situated directly above the optic chiasm.

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In the nervous system, a synapse is a structure that permits a neuron (or nerve cell) to pass an electrical or chemical signal to another neuron or to the target efferent cell.

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Synaptic plasticity

In neuroscience, synaptic plasticity is the ability of synapses to strengthen or weaken over time, in response to increases or decreases in their activity.

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Synaptic pruning

Synaptic pruning, which includes both axon and dendrite pruning, is the process of synapse elimination that occurs between early childhood and the onset of puberty in many mammals, including humans.

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Synaptogenesis is the formation of synapses between neurons in the nervous system.

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The thalamus (from Greek θάλαμος, "chamber") is the large mass of gray matter in the dorsal part of the diencephalon of the brain with several functions such as relaying of sensory signals, including motor signals, to the cerebral cortex, and the regulation of consciousness, sleep, and alertness.

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The Brain That Changes Itself

The Brain That Changes Itself: Stories of Personal Triumph from the Frontiers of Brain Science is a book on neuroplasticity by psychiatrist and psychoanalyst Norman Doidge.

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The New England Journal of Medicine

The New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) is a weekly medical journal published by the Massachusetts Medical Society.

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The Principles of Psychology

The Principles of Psychology is an 1890 book about psychology by William James, an American philosopher and psychologist who trained to be a physician before going into psychology.

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Torsten Wiesel

Torsten Nils Wiesel (born 3 June 1924) is a Swedish neurophysiologist.

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Trends in Cognitive Sciences

Trends in Cognitive Sciences (TiCS) is a monthly peer-reviewed review journal published by Cell Press.

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Ultrastructure (or ultra-structure) is the architecture of cells that is visible at higher magnifications than found on a standard optical light microscope.

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University of Wisconsin–Madison

The University of Wisconsin–Madison (also known as University of Wisconsin, Wisconsin, UW, or regionally as UW–Madison, or simply Madison) is a public research university in Madison, Wisconsin, United States.

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Vanderbilt University

Vanderbilt University (informally Vandy) is a private research university in Nashville, Tennessee.

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Vascular endothelial growth factor

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), originally known as vascular permeability factor (VPF), is a signal protein produced by cells that stimulates the formation of blood vessels.

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Vasopressin, also named antidiuretic hormone (ADH), arginine vasopressin (AVP) or argipressin, is a hormone synthesized as a peptide prohormone in neurons in the hypothalamus, and is converted to AVP.

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Virtual reality therapy

Virtual reality therapy (VRT), also known as virtual reality immersion therapy (VRIT), simulation for therapy (SFT), virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET), and computerized CBT (CCBT), is the use of virtual reality technology for psychological or occupational therapy.

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Visual impairment

Visual impairment, also known as vision impairment or vision loss, is a decreased ability to see to a degree that causes problems not fixable by usual means, such as glasses.

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VO2 max

VO2 max (also maximal oxygen consumption, maximal oxygen uptake, peak oxygen uptake or maximal aerobic capacity) is the maximum rate of oxygen consumption measured during incremental exercise (exercise of increasing intensity).

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Volume is the quantity of three-dimensional space enclosed by a closed surface, for example, the space that a substance (solid, liquid, gas, or plasma) or shape occupies or contains.

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Whiskers or vibrissae (singular: vibrissa) are a type of mammalian hair that are typically characterised, anatomically, by their large length, large and well-innervated hair follicle, and by having an identifiable representation in the somatosensory cortex of the brain.

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William James

William James (January 11, 1842 – August 26, 1910) was an American philosopher and psychologist, and the first educator to offer a psychology course in the United States.

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2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.

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2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.

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Activity dependent plasticity, Activity-Dependent Plasticity, Brain plasticity, Cerebral plasticity, Cortical plasticity, Neural plasticity, Neuronal plasticity, Neuroplastic, Neuroplastic recovery, Plasticity (brain), Structural plasticity.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neuroplasticity

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