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Neuroscience

Index Neuroscience

Neuroscience (or neurobiology) is the scientific study of the nervous system. [1]

234 relations: Academic Press, Action potential, Addiction medicine, Affect (psychology), Affective neuroscience, Al-Zahrawi, Alan Lloyd Hodgkin, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Anatomy, Ancient Egypt, Ancient Greek medicine, Andreas Vesalius, Andrew Huxley, Anesthesiology, Aplysia, Aristotle, Averroes, Avicenna, Avon (publisher), Axon, Axoplasm, Basic Books, Basic research, Bat, Behavioral neuroscience, Behavioural sciences, Bernard Katz, Biological neuron model, Biology, Brain, Brain damage, BRAIN Initiative, Brain injury, British Neuroscience Association, Brodmann area, Cambridge, Massachusetts, Camillo Golgi, Carl Wernicke, Cell biology, Cell signaling, Cellular differentiation, Cellular neuroscience, Central nervous system, Cerebral cortex, Circadian rhythm, Clinical neurophysiology, Clinical neuroscience, Clinical psychology, Cognition, Cognitive neuroscience, ..., Cognitive psychology, Computational neurogenetic modeling, Computational neuroscience, Connectomics, Cultural neuroscience, Cytoarchitecture, Dana Foundation, David Rioch, Decision theory, Dendrite, Department of Neurobiology, Harvard Medical School, Design of experiments, Development of the nervous system, Developmental psychology, Domain specificity, Educational neuroscience, Efficient energy use, Egypt, Egyptians, Electroencephalography, Electrophysiology, Emil du Bois-Reymond, Emotion, Endocrinology, Epilepsy, Eric Kandel, Ethology, European Brain and Behaviour Society, Evolutionary neuroscience, Federation of European Neuroscience Societies, FitzHugh–Nagumo model, Francis O. Schmitt, Franz Joseph Gall, Functional magnetic resonance imaging, Functional specialization (brain), Galen, Genetics, Gladiator, Growth factor, Gut–brain axis, Harvard Medical School, Harvard University Press, Heart, Hermann von Helmholtz, Herodotus, Hippocrates, History of neuroimaging, Hodgkin–Huxley model, Human behavior, Human brain, Human genome, Human subject research, Ibn Zuhr, Immunology, Integrative neuroscience, Interdisciplinarity, International Brain Bee, International Brain Research Organization, International Society for Neurochemistry, James McGaugh, Jean Pierre Flourens, Johannes Peter Müller, John Hughlings Jackson, Learning, List of neuroscience databases, List of neuroscientists, List of regions in the human brain, Luigi Galvani, Macrocephaly, Maimonides, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, McMaster University, Medicine in ancient Rome, Memory, Mental disorder, Mental process, Microscope, Middle Kingdom of Egypt, MIT Press, Molecular biology, Molecular neuroscience, Morphology (biology), Morris–Lecar model, Motor coordination, Motor cortex, Multisensory integration, Mummy, National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation, Neolithic, Nervous system, Neural circuit, Neural engineering, Neuroanatomy, Neurochemical, Neurochemistry, Neurodegeneration, Neuroeconomics, Neuroendocrinology, Neuroethics, Neuroethology, Neurogastronomy, Neurogenetics, Neuroimaging, Neuroimmunology, Neuroinformatics, Neurolaw, Neurolinguistics, Neurology, Neuromarketing, Neuron, Neuron doctrine, Neuropathology, Neurophysics, Neurophysiology, Neuroplasticity, Neuropsychology, Neuroradiology, Neuroscientist, Neurosurgery, Neurotransmission, Neurotransmitter, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, Nu Rho Psi, Oliver Sacks, Ophthalmology, Organelle, Otorhinolaryngology, Outline of brain mapping, Outline of neuroscience, Outline of the human brain, Pain management, Paleoneurobiology, Paul Broca, Perception, Peripheral nervous system, Phantoms in the Brain, Plato, Positron emission tomography, Principles of Neural Science, Psychiatry, Psychologist, Psychology, Psychoneuroimmunology, Psychosurgery, Public awareness of science, Random House, Reflex, Regional differentiation, Renaissance, René Descartes, Richard Caton, Santiago Ramón y Cajal, Scholarpedia, Science, Scientific method, Silver chromate, Single-photon emission computed tomography, Skull, Sleep medicine, Social neuroscience, Social science, Society for Neuroscience, Soma (biology), Somatosensory system, Songbird, Spinal cord, Staining, Stem cell, Stephen Kuffler, Stimulus (physiology), Stroke, Subhash Kak, Synapse, Synaptogenesis, Systems neuroscience, The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat, Thomas Willis, Transportation theory (psychology), Trepanning, Ultrasound, Visual perception, W. W. Norton & Company, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research. Expand index (184 more) »

Academic Press

Academic Press is an academic book publisher.

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Action potential

In physiology, an action potential occurs when the membrane potential of a specific axon location rapidly rises and falls: this depolarisation then causes adjacent locations to similarly depolarise.

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Addiction medicine

Addiction medicine is a medical specialty that deals with the treatment of addiction.

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Affect (psychology)

Affect is a concept used in psychology to describe the experience of feeling or emotion.

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Affective neuroscience

Affective neuroscience is the study of the neural mechanisms of emotion.

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Al-Zahrawi

Abū al-Qāsim Khalaf ibn al-‘Abbās al-Zahrāwī al-Ansari (أبو القاسم خلف بن العباس الزهراوي;‎ 936–1013), popularly known as Al-Zahrawi (الزهراوي), Latinised as Abulcasis (from Arabic Abū al-Qāsim), was an Arab Muslim physician, surgeon and chemist who lived in Al-Andalus.

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Alan Lloyd Hodgkin

Sir Alan Lloyd Hodgkin (5 February 1914 – 20 December 1998) was an English physiologist and biophysicist, who shared the 1963 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Andrew Huxley and John Eccles.

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Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as motor neurone disease (MND), and Lou Gehrig's disease, is a specific disease which causes the death of neurons controlling voluntary muscles.

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Anatomy

Anatomy (Greek anatomē, “dissection”) is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organisms and their parts.

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Ancient Egypt

Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.

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Ancient Greek medicine

Ancient Greek medicine was a compilation of theories and practices that were constantly expanding through new ideologies and trials.

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Andreas Vesalius

Andreas Vesalius (31 December 1514 – 15 October 1564) was a 16th-century Flemish anatomist, physician, and author of one of the most influential books on human anatomy, De humani corporis fabrica (On the Fabric of the Human Body).

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Andrew Huxley

Sir Andrew Fielding Huxley (22 November 191730 May 2012) was a Nobel Prize-winning English physiologist and biophysicist.

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Anesthesiology

Anesthesiology (spelled anaesthesiology in UK English), called anaesthetics in UK English according to some sources but not according to others, is the medical speciality concerned with anesthesia (loss of sensation) and anesthetics (substances that cause this loss).

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Aplysia

Aplysia is a genus of medium-sized to extremely large sea slugs, specifically sea hares, which are one clade of large sea slugs, marine gastropod mollusks.

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Aristotle

Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.

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Averroes

Ibn Rushd (ابن رشد; full name; 1126 – 11 December 1198), often Latinized as Averroes, was an Andalusian philosopher and thinker who wrote about many subjects, including philosophy, theology, medicine, astronomy, physics, Islamic jurisprudence and law, and linguistics.

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Avicenna

Avicenna (also Ibn Sīnā or Abu Ali Sina; ابن سینا; – June 1037) was a Persian polymath who is regarded as one of the most significant physicians, astronomers, thinkers and writers of the Islamic Golden Age.

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Avon (publisher)

Avon Publications was an American paperback book and comic book publisher.

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Axon

An axon (from Greek ἄξων áxōn, axis) or nerve fiber, is a long, slender projection of a nerve cell, or neuron, that typically conducts electrical impulses known as action potentials, away from the nerve cell body.

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Axoplasm

Axoplasm is the cytoplasm within the axon of a neuron (nerve cell).

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Basic Books

Basic Books is a book publisher founded in 1952 and located in New York, now an imprint of Hachette Books.

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Basic research

Basic research, also called pure research or fundamental research, has the scientific research aim to improve scientific theories for improved understanding or prediction of natural or other phenomena.

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Bat

Bats are mammals of the order Chiroptera; with their forelimbs adapted as wings, they are the only mammals naturally capable of true and sustained flight.

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Behavioral neuroscience

Behavioral neuroscience, also known as biological psychology, biopsychology, or psychobiology, Merriam-Webster's Online Dictionary is the application of the principles of biology to the study of physiological, genetic, and developmental mechanisms of behavior in humans and other animals.

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Behavioural sciences

The term behavioral sciences encompasses the various disciplines that explores the cognitive processes within organisms and the behavioural interactions between organisms in the natural world.

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Bernard Katz

Sir Bernard Katz, FRS (26 March 1911 – 20 April 2003) was a German-born Australian physician and biophysicist, noted for his work on nerve physiology.

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Biological neuron model

A biological neuron model, also known as a spiking neuron model, is a mathematical description of the properties of certain cells in the nervous system that generate sharp electrical potentials across their cell membrane, roughly one millisecond in duration, as shown in Fig.

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Biology

Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.

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Brain

The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.

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Brain damage

Brain damage or brain injury (BI) is the destruction or degeneration of brain cells.

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BRAIN Initiative

The White House BRAIN Initiative (Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies), is a collaborative, public-private research initiative announced by the Obama administration on April 2, 2013, with the goal of supporting the development and application of innovative technologies that can create a dynamic understanding of brain function.

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Brain injury

A brain injury is an injury to the brain of a living organism, and can be categorized by many properties.

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British Neuroscience Association

The British Neuroscience Association (BNA) is a scientific society with around 2,000 members.

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Brodmann area

A Brodmann area is a region of the cerebral cortex, in the human or other primate brain, defined by its cytoarchitecture, or histological structure and organization of cells.

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Cambridge, Massachusetts

Cambridge is a city in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, and part of the Boston metropolitan area.

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Camillo Golgi

Camillo Golgi (7 July 1843 – 21 January 1926) was an Italian biologist and pathologist known for his works on the central nervous system.

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Carl Wernicke

Carl (or Karl) Wernicke (15 May 1848 – 15 June 1905) was a German physician, anatomist, psychiatrist and neuropathologist.

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Cell biology

Cell biology (also called cytology, from the Greek κυτος, kytos, "vessel") is a branch of biology that studies the structure and function of the cell, the basic unit of life.

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Cell signaling

Cell signaling (cell signalling in British English) is part of any communication process that governs basic activities of cells and coordinates all cell actions.

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Cellular differentiation

In developmental biology, cellular differentiation is the process where a cell changes from one cell type to another.

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Cellular neuroscience

Cellular neuroscience is the study of neurons at a cellular level.

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Central nervous system

The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.

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Cerebral cortex

The cerebral cortex is the largest region of the cerebrum in the mammalian brain and plays a key role in memory, attention, perception, cognition, awareness, thought, language, and consciousness.

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Circadian rhythm

A circadian rhythm is any biological process that displays an endogenous, entrainable oscillation of about 24 hours.

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Clinical neurophysiology

Clinical neurophysiology is a medical specialty that studies the central and peripheral nervous systems through the recording of bioelectrical activity, whether spontaneous or stimulated.

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Clinical neuroscience

Clinical neuroscience is a branch of neuroscience that focuses on the scientific study of fundamental mechanisms that underlie diseases and disorders of the brain and central nervous system.

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Clinical psychology

Clinical psychology is an integration of science, theory and clinical knowledge for the purpose of understanding, preventing, and relieving psychologically-based distress or dysfunction and to promote subjective well-being and personal development.

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Cognition

Cognition is "the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses".

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Cognitive neuroscience

The term cognitive neuroscience was coined by George Armitage Miller and Michael Gazzaniga in year 1976.

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Cognitive psychology

Cognitive psychology is the study of mental processes such as "attention, language use, memory, perception, problem solving, creativity, and thinking".

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Computational neurogenetic modeling

Computational neurogenetic modeling (CNGM) is concerned with the study and development of dynamic neuronal models for modeling brain functions with respect to genes and dynamic interactions between genes.

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Computational neuroscience

Computational neuroscience (also known as theoretical neuroscience or mathematical neuroscience) is a branch of neuroscience which employs mathematical models, theoretical analysis and abstractions of the brain to understand the principles that govern the development, structure, physiology and cognitive abilities of the nervous system.

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Connectomics

Connectomics is the production and study of connectomes: comprehensive maps of connections within an organism's nervous system, typically its brain or eye.

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Cultural neuroscience

Cultural neuroscience is an interdisciplinary field studying how cultural values, such as practices and beliefs, shape and are shaped by the mind, brain and genes across multiple timescales.

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Cytoarchitecture

Cytoarchitecture (Greek κύτος.

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Dana Foundation

The Dana Foundation (Charles A. Dana Foundation) is a private philanthropic organization based in New York committed to advancing brain research and to educating the public in a responsible manner about research’s potential.

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David Rioch

David McKenzie Rioch (July 6, 1900 – September 11, 1985) was a psychiatric research scientist and neuroanatomist, known as a pioneer in brain research and for leading the interdisciplinary neuropsychiatry division at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (1951–1970), a program that contributed to the formation of the then-nascent field of neuroscience.

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Decision theory

Decision theory (or the theory of choice) is the study of the reasoning underlying an agent's choices.

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Dendrite

Dendrites (from Greek δένδρον déndron, "tree"), also dendrons, are branched protoplasmic extensions of a nerve cell that propagate the electrochemical stimulation received from other neural cells to the cell body, or soma, of the neuron from which the dendrites project.

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Department of Neurobiology, Harvard Medical School

The Department of Neurobiology at Harvard Medical School is located in the Longwood Medical Area of Boston, MA.

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Design of experiments

The design of experiments (DOE, DOX, or experimental design) is the design of any task that aims to describe or explain the variation of information under conditions that are hypothesized to reflect the variation.

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Development of the nervous system

Development of the nervous system refers to the processes that generate, shape, and reshape the nervous system of animals, from the earliest stages of embryogenesis to adulthood.

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Developmental psychology

Developmental psychology is the scientific study of how and why human beings change over the course of their life.

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Domain specificity

Domain specificity is a theoretical position in cognitive science (especially modern cognitive development) that argues that many aspects of cognition are supported by specialized, presumably evolutionarily specified, learning devices.

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Educational neuroscience

Educational neuroscience (or neuroeducation, a component of Mind Brain and Education) is an emerging scientific field that brings together researchers in cognitive neuroscience, developmental cognitive neuroscience, educational psychology, educational technology, education theory and other related disciplines to explore the interactions between biological processes and education.

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Efficient energy use

Efficient energy use, sometimes simply called energy efficiency, is the goal to reduce the amount of energy required to provide products and services.

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Egypt

Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.

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Egyptians

Egyptians (مَصريين;; مِصريّون; Ni/rem/en/kīmi) are an ethnic group native to Egypt and the citizens of that country sharing a common culture and a common dialect known as Egyptian Arabic.

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Electroencephalography

Electroencephalography (EEG) is an electrophysiological monitoring method to record electrical activity of the brain.

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Electrophysiology

Electrophysiology (from Greek ἥλεκτρον, ēlektron, "amber"; φύσις, physis, "nature, origin"; and -λογία, -logia) is the study of the electrical properties of biological cells and tissues.

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Emil du Bois-Reymond

Prof.

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Emotion

Emotion is any conscious experience characterized by intense mental activity and a certain degree of pleasure or displeasure.

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Endocrinology

Endocrinology (from endocrine + -ology) is a branch of biology and medicine dealing with the endocrine system, its diseases, and its specific secretions known as hormones.

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Epilepsy

Epilepsy is a group of neurological disorders characterized by epileptic seizures.

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Eric Kandel

Eric Richard Kandel (born November 7, 1929) is an Austrian-American neuroscientist and a University Professor of biochemistry and biophysics at the College of Physicians and Surgeons at Columbia University.

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Ethology

Ethology is the scientific and objective study of animal behaviour, usually with a focus on behaviour under natural conditions, and viewing behaviour as an evolutionarily adaptive trait.

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European Brain and Behaviour Society

The European Brain and Behaviour Society (EBBS) is a scientific society founded in 1968 whose stated purpose is the exchange of information between European scientists interested in the relationships between brain mechanisms and behaviour.

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Evolutionary neuroscience

Evolutionary neuroscience is the scientific study of the evolution of nervous systems.

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Federation of European Neuroscience Societies

The Federation of European Neuroscience Societies (FENS) is a European federation of scientific societies for basic scientists and physicians whose research is focused on the brain and nervous system (i.e., neuroscience).

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FitzHugh–Nagumo model

The FitzHugh–Nagumo model (FHN), named after Richard FitzHugh (1922–2007) who suggested the system in 1961 and J. Nagumo et al.

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Francis O. Schmitt

Francis O. Schmitt (November 23, 1903 – October 3, 1995) was an American biologist and Institute Professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

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Franz Joseph Gall

Franz Josef Gall (9 March 175822 August 1828) was a neuroanatomist, physiologist, and pioneer in the study of the localization of mental functions in the brain.

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Functional magnetic resonance imaging

Functional magnetic resonance imaging or functional MRI (fMRI) measures brain activity by detecting changes associated with blood flow.

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Functional specialization (brain)

Functional specialization suggests that different areas in the brain are specialized for different functions.

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Galen

Aelius Galenus or Claudius Galenus (Κλαύδιος Γαληνός; September 129 AD – /), often Anglicized as Galen and better known as Galen of Pergamon, was a Greek physician, surgeon and philosopher in the Roman Empire.

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Genetics

Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.

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Gladiator

A gladiator (gladiator, "swordsman", from gladius, "sword") was an armed combatant who entertained audiences in the Roman Republic and Roman Empire in violent confrontations with other gladiators, wild animals, and condemned criminals.

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Growth factor

A growth factor is a naturally occurring substance capable of stimulating cellular growth, proliferation, healing, and cellular differentiation.

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Gut–brain axis

The gut–brain axis is the biochemical signaling that takes place between the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract) and the central nervous system (CNS).

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Harvard Medical School

Harvard Medical School (HMS) is the graduate medical school of Harvard University.

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Harvard University Press

Harvard University Press (HUP) is a publishing house established on January 13, 1913, as a division of Harvard University, and focused on academic publishing.

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Heart

The heart is a muscular organ in most animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system.

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Hermann von Helmholtz

Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz (August 31, 1821 – September 8, 1894) was a German physician and physicist who made significant contributions in several scientific fields.

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Herodotus

Herodotus (Ἡρόδοτος, Hêródotos) was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey) and lived in the fifth century BC (484– 425 BC), a contemporary of Thucydides, Socrates, and Euripides.

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Hippocrates

Hippocrates of Kos (Hippokrátēs ho Kṓos), also known as Hippocrates II, was a Greek physician of the Age of Pericles (Classical Greece), and is considered one of the most outstanding figures in the history of medicine.

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History of neuroimaging

The first neuroimaging technique ever is the so-called ‘human circulation balance’ invented by Angelo Mosso in the 1880s and able to non-invasively measure the redistribution of blood during emotional and intellectual activity.

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Hodgkin–Huxley model

The Hodgkin–Huxley model, or conductance-based model, is a mathematical model that describes how action potentials in neurons are initiated and propagated.

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Human behavior

Human behavior is the responses of individuals or groups of humans to internal and external stimuli.

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Human brain

The human brain is the central organ of the human nervous system, and with the spinal cord makes up the central nervous system.

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Human genome

The human genome is the complete set of nucleic acid sequences for humans, encoded as DNA within the 23 chromosome pairs in cell nuclei and in a small DNA molecule found within individual mitochondria.

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Human subject research

Human subject research is systematic, scientific investigation that can be either interventional (a "trial") or observational (no "test article") and involves human beings as research subjects.

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Ibn Zuhr

Ibn Zuhr (ابن زهر; 1094–1162), traditionally known by his Latinized name of Avenzoar, was an Arab physician, surgeon, and poet.

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Immunology

Immunology is a branch of biology that covers the study of immune systems in all organisms.

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Integrative neuroscience

Integrative neuroscience sculptures a theoretical neuroscience with a mathematical neuroscience that is different from computational neuroscience.

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Interdisciplinarity

Interdisciplinarity or interdisciplinary studies involves the combining of two or more academic disciplines into one activity (e.g., a research project).

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International Brain Bee

The International Brain Bee (IBB) is a neuroscience competition for teenagers.

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International Brain Research Organization

The International Brain Research Organization (IBRO) is a learned society that was founded in 1961 in response to the growing demand from neuroscientists in many countries for the creation of a central organization that would cut across world boundaries and improve communication and collaboration among brain researchers.

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International Society for Neurochemistry

The International Society for Neurochemistry (ISN) is a professional society for neurochemists and neuroscientists throughout the world.

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James McGaugh

James L. McGaugh (born December 17, 1931) is an American neurobiologist and author working in the field of learning and memory.

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Jean Pierre Flourens

Marie Jean Pierre Flourens (13 April 1794 – 6 December 1867), father of Gustave Flourens, was a French physiologist, the founder of experimental brain science and a pioneer in anesthesia.

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Johannes Peter Müller

Johannes Peter Müller (14 July 1801 – 28 April 1858) was a German physiologist, comparative anatomist, ichthyologist, and herpetologist, known not only for his discoveries but also for his ability to synthesize knowledge.

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John Hughlings Jackson

John Hughlings Jackson, FRS (4 April 1835 – 7 October 1911) was an English neurologist.

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Learning

Learning is the process of acquiring new or modifying existing knowledge, behaviors, skills, values, or preferences.

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List of neuroscience databases

A number of online neuroscience databases are available which provide information regarding gene expression, neurons, macroscopic brain structure, and neurological or psychiatric disorders.

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List of neuroscientists

Many famous neuroscientists are from the 20th and 21st century, as neuroscience is a fairly new science.

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List of regions in the human brain

The human brain anatomical regions are ordered following standard neuroanatomy hierarchies.

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Luigi Galvani

Luigi Aloisio Galvani (Aloysius Galvanus; 9 September 1737 – 4 December 1798) was an Italian physician, physicist, biologist and philosopher, who discovered animal electricity.

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Macrocephaly

Macrocephaly is a condition in which the head is abnormally large; this includes the scalp, the cranial bone, and the contents of the cranium.

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Maimonides

Moses ben Maimon (Mōšeh bēn-Maymūn; موسى بن ميمون Mūsā bin Maymūn), commonly known as Maimonides (Μαϊμωνίδης Maïmōnídēs; Moses Maimonides), and also referred to by the acronym Rambam (for Rabbeinu Mōšeh bēn Maimun, "Our Rabbi Moses son of Maimon"), was a medieval Sephardic Jewish philosopher who became one of the most prolific and influential Torah scholars of the Middle Ages.

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Massachusetts Institute of Technology

The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States.

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McMaster University

McMaster University (commonly referred to as McMaster or Mac) is a public research university in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

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Medicine in ancient Rome

Medicine in ancient Rome combined various techniques using different tools, methodology, and ingredients.

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Memory

Memory is the faculty of the mind by which information is encoded, stored, and retrieved.

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Mental disorder

A mental disorder, also called a mental illness or psychiatric disorder, is a behavioral or mental pattern that causes significant distress or impairment of personal functioning.

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Mental process

Mental process or mental function are all the things that individuals can do with their minds.

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Microscope

A microscope (from the μικρός, mikrós, "small" and σκοπεῖν, skopeîn, "to look" or "see") is an instrument used to see objects that are too small to be seen by the naked eye.

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Middle Kingdom of Egypt

The Middle Kingdom of Egypt (also known as The Period of Reunification) is the period in the history of ancient Egypt between circa 2050 BC and 1710 BC, stretching from the reunification of Egypt under the impulse of Mentuhotep II of the Eleventh Dynasty to the end of the Twelfth Dynasty.

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MIT Press

The MIT Press is a university press affiliated with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States).

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Molecular biology

Molecular biology is a branch of biology which concerns the molecular basis of biological activity between biomolecules in the various systems of a cell, including the interactions between DNA, RNA, proteins and their biosynthesis, as well as the regulation of these interactions.

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Molecular neuroscience

Molecular neuroscience is a branch of neuroscience that observes concepts in molecular biology applied to the nervous systems of animals.

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Morphology (biology)

Morphology is a branch of biology dealing with the study of the form and structure of organisms and their specific structural features.

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Morris–Lecar model

The Morris–Lecar model is a biological neuron model developed by Catherine Morris and Harold Lecar to reproduce the variety of oscillatory behavior in relation to Ca++ and K+ conductance in the muscle fiber of the giant barnacle.

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Motor coordination

Motor coordination is the combination of body movements created with the kinematic (such as spatial direction) and kinetic (force) parameters that result in intended actions.

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Motor cortex

The motor cortex is the region of the cerebral cortex involved in the planning, control, and execution of voluntary movements.

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Multisensory integration

Multisensory integration, also known as multimodal integration, is the study of how information from the different sensory modalities, such as sight, sound, touch, smell, self-motion and taste, may be integrated by the nervous system.

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Mummy

A mummy is a deceased human or an animal whose skin and organs have been preserved by either intentional or accidental exposure to chemicals, extreme cold, very low humidity, or lack of air, so that the recovered body does not decay further if kept in cool and dry conditions.

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National Institutes of Health

The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is the primary agency of the United States government responsible for biomedical and public health research, founded in the late 1870s.

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National Science Foundation

The National Science Foundation (NSF) is a United States government agency that supports fundamental research and education in all the non-medical fields of science and engineering.

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Neolithic

The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.

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Nervous system

The nervous system is the part of an animal that coordinates its actions by transmitting signals to and from different parts of its body.

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Neural circuit

A neural circuit, is a population of neurons interconnected by synapses to carry out a specific function when activated.

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Neural engineering

Neural engineering (also known as neuroengineering) is a discipline within biomedical engineering that uses engineering techniques to understand, repair, replace, enhance, or otherwise exploit the properties of neural systems.

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Neuroanatomy

Neuroanatomy is the study of the structure and organization of the nervous system.

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Neurochemical

A neurochemical is a small organic molecule or peptide that participates in neural activity.

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Neurochemistry

Neurochemistry is the study of neurochemicals, including neurotransmitters and other molecules such as psychopharmaceuticals and neuropeptides, that influence the function of neurons.

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Neurodegeneration

Neurodegeneration is the progressive loss of structure or function of neurons, including death of neurons.

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Neuroeconomics

Neuroeconomics and Economic Psychology is an interdisciplinary field that seeks to explain human decision making, the ability to process multiple alternatives and to follow a course of action.

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Neuroendocrinology

Neuroendocrinology is the branch of biology (specifically of physiology) which studies the interaction between the nervous system and the endocrine system, that is how the brain regulates the hormonal activity in the body.

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Neuroethics

Neuroethics refers to two related fields of study: what the philosopher Adina Roskies has called the ethics of neuroscience, and the neuroscience of ethics.

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Neuroethology

Neuroethology is the evolutionary and comparative approach to the study of animal behavior and its underlying mechanistic control by the nervous system.

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Neurogastronomy

Neurogastronomy is the study of flavor perception and the ways it affects cognition and memory.

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Neurogenetics

Neurogenetics studies the role of genetics in the development and function of the nervous system.

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Neuroimaging

Neuroimaging or brain imaging is the use of various techniques to either directly or indirectly image the structure, function/pharmacology of the nervous system.

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Neuroimmunology

Neuroimmunology is a field combining neuroscience, the study of the nervous system, and immunology, the study of the immune system.

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Neuroinformatics

Neuroinformatics is a research field concerned with the organization of neuroscience data by the application of computational models and analytical tools.

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Neurolaw

Neurolaw is an emerging field of interdisciplinary study that explores the effects of discoveries in neuroscience on legal rules and standards.

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Neurolinguistics

Neurolinguistics is the study of the neural mechanisms in the human brain that control the comprehension, production, and acquisition of language.

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Neurology

Neurology (from νεῦρον (neûron), "string, nerve" and the suffix -logia, "study of") is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system.

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Neuromarketing

Neuromarketing is a commercial marketing communication field that applies neuropsychology to marketing research, studying consumers' sensorimotor, cognitive, and affective response to marketing stimuli.

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Neuron

A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.

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Neuron doctrine

The neuron doctrine is the concept that the nervous system is made up of discrete individual cells, a discovery due to decisive neuro-anatomical work of Santiago Ramón y Cajal and later presented by, among others, H. Waldeyer-Hartz.

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Neuropathology

Neuropathology is the study of disease of nervous system tissue, usually in the form of either small surgical biopsies or whole-body autopsies.

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Neurophysics

Neurophysics (or neurobiophysics) is the branch of biophysics dealing with the development and use of physical techniques to gain information about the nervous system on a molecular level.

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Neurophysiology

Neurophysiology (from Greek νεῦρον, neuron, "nerve"; φύσις, physis, "nature, origin"; and -λογία, -logia, "knowledge") is a branch of physiology and neuroscience that is concerned with the study of the functioning of the nervous system.

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Neuroplasticity

Neuroplasticity, also known as brain plasticity and neural plasticity, is the ability of the brain to change throughout an individual's life, e.g., brain activity associated with a given function can be transferred to a different location, the proportion of grey matter can change, and synapses may strengthen or weaken over time.

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Neuropsychology

Neuropsychology is the study of the structure and function of the brain as they relate to specific psychological processes and behaviours.

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Neuroradiology

Neuroradiology is a subspecialty of radiology focusing on the diagnosis and characterization of abnormalities of the central and peripheral nervous system, spine, and head and neck using neuroimaging techniques.

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Neuroscientist

A neuroscientist (or neurobiologist) is a scientist who has specialised knowledge in the field of neuroscience, the branch of biology that deals with the physiology, biochemistry, anatomy and molecular biology of neurons and neural circuits and especially their association with behaviour and learning.

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Neurosurgery

Neurosurgery, or neurological surgery, is the medical specialty concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, surgical treatment, and rehabilitation of disorders which affect any portion of the nervous system including the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, and extra-cranial cerebrovascular system.

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Neurotransmission

Neurotransmission (Latin: transmissio "passage, crossing" from transmittere "send, let through"), also called synaptic transmission, is the process by which signaling molecules called neurotransmitters are released by the axon terminal of a neuron (the presynaptic neuron), and bind to and activate the receptors on the dendrites of another neuron (the postsynaptic neuron).

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Neurotransmitter

Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.

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Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (Nobelpriset i fysiologi eller medicin), administered by the Nobel Foundation, is awarded once a year for outstanding discoveries in the fields of life sciences and medicine.

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Nu Rho Psi

Nu Rho Psi (ΝΡΨ or NRP) is the National Honor Society in Neuroscience, founded in 2006 by the Faculty for Undergraduate Neuroscience and now an independent honor society.

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Oliver Sacks

Oliver Wolf Sacks, (9 July 1933 – 30 August 2015) was a British neurologist, naturalist, historian of science, and author.

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Ophthalmology

Ophthalmology is a branch of medicine and surgery (both methods are used) that deals with the anatomy, physiology and diseases of the eyeball and orbit.

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Organelle

In cell biology, an organelle is a specialized subunit within a cell that has a specific function, in which their function is vital for the cell to live.

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Otorhinolaryngology

Otorhinolaryngology (also called otolaryngology and otolaryngology–head and neck surgery) is a surgical subspecialty within medicine that deals with conditions of the ear, nose, and throat (ENT) and related structures of the head and neck.

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Outline of brain mapping

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to brain mapping: Brain mapping – set of neuroscience techniques predicated on the mapping of (biological) quantities or properties onto spatial representations of the (human or non-human) brain resulting in maps.

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Outline of neuroscience

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to neuroscience: Neuroscience is the scientific study of the nervous system.

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Outline of the human brain

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to the human brain: Human brain – central organ of the nervous system located in the head of a human being, protected by the skull.

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Pain management

Pain management, pain medicine, pain control or algiatry, is a branch of medicine employing an interdisciplinary approach for easing the suffering and improving the quality of life of those living with chronic pain The typical pain management team includes medical practitioners, pharmacists, clinical psychologists, physiotherapists, occupational therapists, physician assistants, nurses.

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Paleoneurobiology

Paleoneurobiology is the study of brain evolution by analysis of brain endocasts to determine endocranial traits and volumes.

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Paul Broca

Pierre Paul Broca (28 June 1824 – 9 July 1880) was a French physician, anatomist and anthropologist.

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Perception

Perception (from the Latin perceptio) is the organization, identification, and interpretation of sensory information in order to represent and understand the presented information, or the environment.

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Peripheral nervous system

The peripheral nervous system (PNS) is one of the two components of the nervous system, the other part is the central nervous system (CNS).

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Phantoms in the Brain

Phantoms in the Brain: Probing the Mysteries of the Human Mind (also published as Phantoms in the Brain: Human Nature and the Architecture of the Mind) is a 1998 popular science book by neuroscientist V.S. Ramachandran and New York Times science writer Sandra Blakeslee, discussing neurophysiology and neuropsychology as revealed by case studies of neurological disorders.

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Plato

Plato (Πλάτων Plátōn, in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.

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Positron emission tomography

Positron-emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine functional imaging technique that is used to observe metabolic processes in the body as an aid to the diagnosis of disease.

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Principles of Neural Science

First published in 1981 by Elsevier, Principles of Neural Science is an influential neuroscience textbook edited by Eric R. Kandel, James H. Schwartz, and Thomas M. Jessell.

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Psychiatry

Psychiatry is the medical specialty devoted to the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of mental disorders.

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Psychologist

A psychologist studies normal and abnormal mental states from cognitive, emotional, and social processes and behavior by observing, interpreting, and recording how individuals relate to one another and to their environments.

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Psychology

Psychology is the science of behavior and mind, including conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought.

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Psychoneuroimmunology

Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI), also referred to as psychoendoneuroimmunology (PENI) or psychoneuroendocrinoimmunology (PNEI), is the study of the interaction between psychological processes and the nervous and immune systems of the human body.

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Psychosurgery

Psychosurgery, also called neurosurgery for mental disorder (NMD), is the neurosurgical treatment of mental disorder.

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Public awareness of science

Public awareness of science (PAwS), public understanding of science (PUS), or more recently, Public Engagement with Science and Technology (PEST) are terms relating to the attitudes, behaviours, opinions, and activities that comprise the relations between the general public or lay society as a whole to scientific knowledge and organisation.

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Random House

Random House is an American book publisher and the largest general-interest paperback publisher in the world.

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Reflex

A reflex, or reflex action, is an involuntary and nearly instantaneous movement in response to a stimulus.

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Regional differentiation

In the field of developmental biology, regional differentiation is the process by which different areas are identified in the development of the early embryo.

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Renaissance

The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.

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René Descartes

René Descartes (Latinized: Renatus Cartesius; adjectival form: "Cartesian"; 31 March 1596 – 11 February 1650) was a French philosopher, mathematician, and scientist.

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Richard Caton

Richard Caton (1842, Bradford – 1926), of Liverpool, England, was a British physician, physiologist and Lord Mayor of Liverpool who was crucial in discovering the electrical nature of the brain and laid the groundwork for Hans Berger to discover Alpha wave activity in the human brain.

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Santiago Ramón y Cajal

Santiago Ramón y Cajal (1 May 1852 – 17 October 1934) was a Spanish neuroscientist and pathologist, specializing in neuroanatomy, particularly the histology of the central nervous system.

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Scholarpedia

Scholarpedia is an English-language online wiki-based encyclopedia with features commonly associated with open-access online academic journals, which aims to have quality content.

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Science

R. P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol.1, Chaps.1,2,&3.

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Scientific method

Scientific method is an empirical method of knowledge acquisition, which has characterized the development of natural science since at least the 17th century, involving careful observation, which includes rigorous skepticism about what one observes, given that cognitive assumptions about how the world works influence how one interprets a percept; formulating hypotheses, via induction, based on such observations; experimental testing and measurement of deductions drawn from the hypotheses; and refinement (or elimination) of the hypotheses based on the experimental findings.

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Silver chromate

Silver chromate (Ag2CrO4) is a brown-red monoclinic crystal and is a chemical precursor to modern photography.

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Single-photon emission computed tomography

Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT, or less commonly, SPET) is a nuclear medicine tomographic imaging technique using gamma rays.

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Skull

The skull is a bony structure that forms the head in vertebrates.

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Sleep medicine

Sleep medicine is a medical specialty or subspecialty devoted to the diagnosis and therapy of sleep disturbances and disorders.

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Social neuroscience

Social neuroscience is an interdisciplinary field devoted to understanding how biological systems implement social processes and behavior, and to using biological concepts and methods to inform and refine theories of social processes and behavior.

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Social science

Social science is a major category of academic disciplines, concerned with society and the relationships among individuals within a society.

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Society for Neuroscience

The Society for Neuroscience (SfN) is a professional society, headquartered in Washington, DC, for basic scientists and physicians around the world whose research is focused on the study of the brain and nervous system.

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Soma (biology)

The soma (pl. somata or somas), perikaryon (pl. perikarya), neurocyton, or cell body is the bulbous, non-process portion of a neuron or other brain cell type, containing the cell nucleus.

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Somatosensory system

The somatosensory system is a part of the sensory nervous system.

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Songbird

A songbird is a bird belonging to the clade Passeri of the perching birds (Passeriformes).

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Spinal cord

The spinal cord is a long, thin, tubular bundle of nervous tissue and support cells that extends from the medulla oblongata in the brainstem to the lumbar region of the vertebral column.

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Staining

Staining is an auxiliary technique used in microscopy to enhance contrast in the microscopic image.

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Stem cell

Stem cells are biological cells that can differentiate into other types of cells and can divide to produce more of the same type of stem cells.

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Stephen Kuffler

Stephen William Kuffler (August 24 Tap, Hungary, 1913 – October 11, 1980) was a pre-eminent Hungarian-American neurophysiologist.

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Stimulus (physiology)

In physiology, a stimulus (plural stimuli) is a detectable change in the internal or external environment.

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Stroke

A stroke is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death.

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Subhash Kak

Subhash Kak (born 26 March 1947 in Srinagar) is an Indian American computer scientist.

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Synapse

In the nervous system, a synapse is a structure that permits a neuron (or nerve cell) to pass an electrical or chemical signal to another neuron or to the target efferent cell.

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Synaptogenesis

Synaptogenesis is the formation of synapses between neurons in the nervous system.

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Systems neuroscience

Systems neuroscience is a subdiscipline of neuroscience and systems biology that studies the function of neural circuits and systems.

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The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat

The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat and Other Clinical Tales is a 1985 book by neurologist Oliver Sacks describing the case histories of some of his patients.

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Thomas Willis

Thomas Willis (27 January 1621 – 11 November 1675) was an English doctor who played an important part in the history of anatomy, neurology and psychiatry.

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Transportation theory (psychology)

Narrative transportation theory proposes that when people lose themselves in a story, their attitudes and intentions change to reflect that story.

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Trepanning

Trepanning, also known as trepanation, trephination, trephining or making a burr hole (the verb trepan derives from Old French from Medieval Latin trepanum from Greek trypanon, literally "borer, auger") is a surgical intervention in which a hole is drilled or scraped into the human skull, exposing the dura mater to treat health problems related to intracranial diseases or release pressured blood buildup from an injury.

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Ultrasound

Ultrasound is sound waves with frequencies higher than the upper audible limit of human hearing.

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Visual perception

Visual perception is the ability to interpret the surrounding environment using light in the visible spectrum reflected by the objects in the environment.

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W. W. Norton & Company

W.

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Walter Reed Army Institute of Research

The Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (WRAIR) is the largest biomedical research facility administered by the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD).

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Behavioral physiology, Brain Science, Brain science, Interface of neuroscience with all liberal arts disciplines, Neural science, Neurobiological, Neurobiology, Neuroscience Studies, Neuroscience and popular culture, Neuroscience and society, Neuroscience and the media, Neuroscience education: undergraduate models, best practices, Neuroscience studies, Neurosciences, Neuroscientific, Neuroscince.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neuroscience

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