242 relations: Acetylcholine, Acetylcholinesterase, Action potential, Adenosine triphosphate, Adult, Algal bloom, Alkaloid, Alpha-7 nicotinic receptor, Aluminium, Alzheimer's disease, Amine, Amino acid, Ammonia, AMPA receptor, Anatoxin-a, Anesthesiologist, Antagonist, Antioxidant, Antitoxin, Apoptosis, Arrow, Arsenic, Arsenite, Asphyxia, Astrocyte, ATPase, Atropine, Axon, Banded krait, Biochemical Pharmacology (journal), Blood, Blood–brain barrier, Botulinum toxin, Brain, Bungarotoxin, Calcium, Cangitoxin, Capillary, Capsaicin, Carambola, Caramboxin, Carnitine, Caspase, Catalase, Cell (biology), Cell membrane, Cellular respiration, Central nervous system, Cerebellum, Cerebral edema, ..., Cerebrospinal fluid, CGMP-dependent protein kinase, Chemical synapse, Child, Chili pepper, Chloride channel, Chlorotoxin, Cholesterol, Cholinergic, Cholinesterase, Choroid plexus, Circulatory system, Cirrhosis, Clostridium botulinum, Clostridium tetani, Coninae, Conotoxin, Craniofacial, Curare, Cyanobacteria, Cyanotoxin, Cyclic guanosine monophosphate, Cytoskeleton, Cytotoxicity, Dart (missile), DDT, Death, Dementia, Depolarization, Development of the nervous system, Developmental biology, Diet (nutrition), Diethylmercury, Dimethylmercury, Dopamine, Dystonia, Electron transport chain, Endocytosis, Endogeny (biology), Ependyma, Epilepsy, Ethanol, Excitotoxicity, Exogeny, Fasciculation, Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder, Fetus, Gastrointestinal tract, Glioma, Glutamic acid, Glutaminase, Glutamine, Gonad, Grey matter, Heavy metals, Hepatic encephalopathy, Hexane, Hippocampus, Hodgkin–Huxley model, Homeostasis, Human, Human skeleton, Huntington's disease, Hydrophile, Hydrophobe, In vitro, In vivo, Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Infant, Inflammation, Ingestion, Inositol trisphosphate, Insult (medical), Intellectual disability, Intracellular, Intraperitoneal injection, Ion, Ion channel, Ischemia, Isotopic labeling, Japan, JWH-018, Kidney failure, Lead, Limb (anatomy), Lipid, Lipid bilayer, Lithium, Liver, Liver failure, Long-term potentiation, Manganese, Medical ventilator, Memory, Mercury (element), Mesolimbic pathway, Metabolism, Metabolite, Metal, Methylmercury, Mining, Mitochondrion, Molidae, Morphogenesis, Motor coordination, Motor neuron, Mouth, MPP+, MPTP, Muscle, Muscle atrophy, Muscle contraction, Muscular system, Myopathy, NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (H+-translocating), Nausea, Neostigmine, Nervous system, Nervous tissue, Neural tube, Neurite, Neurofilament, Neurogenesis, Neuroglia, Neurology, Neuromuscular junction, Neuron, Neuroscience, Neuroscientist, Neurotoxicity, Neurotransmitter, Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, Nitric oxide, NMDA receptor, Nociceptor, Organophosphate, Ovary, Oxidative phosphorylation, Oxidative stress, Paralysis, Paresthesia, Parkinson's disease, Parkinsonism, Pathology, Patient, Peripheral nervous system, Peripheral neuropathy, Peroxidase, Physician, Plumbing, Porcupinefish, Potassium channel, Prognosis, Protein kinase C, Reactive oxygen species, Receptor (biochemistry), Respiratory failure, Roman Empire, Sarin, Saturated fat, Scientist, Scorpion, Seafood, Skin, Smelting, SNARE (protein), Sodium channel, Spasticity, Spinal cord, Stroke, Substantia nigra, Surface runoff, Sympathetic nervous system, Symptom, Synapse, Tetanospasmin, Tetanus, Tetraethylammonium, Tetraodontidae, Tetrodotoxin, Toxicology in Vitro, Toxicology Letters, Toxin, TRPV1, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Venom, Ventricular system, Vesicle (biology and chemistry), Vitamin E, Voltage-gated potassium channel, Vomiting, 25I-NBOMe. Expand index (192 more) » « Shrink index
Acetylcholine (ACh) is an organic chemical that functions in the brain and body of many types of animals, including humans, as a neurotransmitter—a chemical message released by nerve cells to send signals to other cells.
Acetylcholinesterase, encoded by HGNC gene ACHE; EC 220.127.116.11) is the primary cholinesterase in the body. It is an enzyme that catalyzes the breakdown of acetylcholine and of some other choline esters that function as neurotransmitters. AChE is found at mainly neuromuscular junctions and in chemical synapses of the cholinergic type, where its activity serves to terminate synaptic transmission. It belongs to carboxylesterase family of enzymes. It is the primary target of inhibition by organophosphorus compounds such as nerve agents and pesticides.
In physiology, an action potential occurs when the membrane potential of a specific axon location rapidly rises and falls: this depolarisation then causes adjacent locations to similarly depolarise.
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that participates in many processes.
Biologically, an adult is a human or other organism that has reached sexual maturity.
An algal bloom is a rapid increase or accumulation in the population of algae in freshwater or marine water systems, and is recognized by the discoloration in the water from their pigments.
Alkaloids are a class of naturally occurring chemical compounds that mostly contain basic nitrogen atoms.
The alpha-7 nicotinic receptor, also known as the α7 receptor, is a type of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor implicated in long term memory, consisting entirely of α7 subunits.
Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.
Alzheimer's disease (AD), also referred to simply as Alzheimer's, is a chronic neurodegenerative disease that usually starts slowly and worsens over time.
In organic chemistry, amines are compounds and functional groups that contain a basic nitrogen atom with a lone pair.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.
The α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (also known as AMPA receptor, AMPAR, or quisqualate receptor) is an ionotropic transmembrane receptor for glutamate that mediates fast synaptic transmission in the central nervous system (CNS).
Anatoxin-a, also known as Very Fast Death Factor (VFDF), is a secondary, bicyclic amine alkaloid and cyanotoxin with acute neurotoxicity.
An anesthesiologist is a physician trained in anesthesia and perioperative medicine.
An antagonist is a character, group of characters, institution or concept that stands in or represents opposition against which the protagonist(s) must contend.
Antioxidants are molecules that inhibit the oxidation of other molecules.
An antitoxin is an antibody with the ability to neutralize a specific toxin.
Apoptosis (from Ancient Greek ἀπόπτωσις "falling off") is a process of programmed cell death that occurs in multicellular organisms.
An arrow is a fin-stabilized projectile that is launched via a bow, and usually consists of a long straight stiff shaft with stabilizers called fletchings, as well as a weighty (and usually sharp and pointed) arrowhead attached to the front end, and a slot at the rear end called nock for engaging bowstring.
Arsenic is a chemical element with symbol As and atomic number 33.
In chemistry, an arsenite is a chemical compound containing an arsenic oxoanion where arsenic has oxidation state +3.
Asphyxia or asphyxiation is a condition of severely deficient supply of oxygen to the body that arises from abnormal breathing.
Astrocytes (Astro from Greek astron.
ATPases (adenylpyrophosphatase, ATP monophosphatase, triphosphatase, SV40 T-antigen, adenosine 5'-triphosphatase, ATP hydrolase, complex V (mitochondrial electron transport), (Ca2+ + Mg2+)-ATPase, HCO3−-ATPase, adenosine triphosphatase) are a class of enzymes that catalyze the decomposition of ATP into ADP and a free phosphate ion.
Atropine is a medication to treat certain types of nerve agent and pesticide poisonings as well as some types of slow heart rate and to decrease saliva production during surgery.
An axon (from Greek ἄξων áxōn, axis) or nerve fiber, is a long, slender projection of a nerve cell, or neuron, that typically conducts electrical impulses known as action potentials, away from the nerve cell body.
The banded krait (Bungarus fasciatus) is a species of elapid snake found on the Indian Subcontinent and in Southeast Asia.
Biochemical Pharmacology is a peer-reviewed medical journal published by Elsevier.
Blood is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.
The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a highly selective semipermeable membrane barrier that separates the circulating blood from the brain and extracellular fluid in the central nervous system (CNS).
Botulinum toxin (BTX) or Botox is a neurotoxic protein produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum and related species.
The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.
Bungarotoxins are a group of closely related neurotoxic proteins of the three-finger toxin superfamily found in the venom of kraits including Bungarus multicinctus.
Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.
Cangitoxin, also known as CGTX or CGX, is a toxin purified from the venom of the sea anemone Bunodosoma cangicum, which most likely acts by prolonging the inactivation of voltage-gated sodium channels (NaV channels).
A capillary is a small blood vessel from 5 to 10 micrometres (µm) in diameter, and having a wall one endothelial cell thick.
Capsaicin ((INN); 8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide) is an active component of chili peppers, which are plants belonging to the genus Capsicum.
Carambola, or starfruit, is the fruit of Averrhoa carambola, a species of tree native to Indonesia, the Philippines, Malaysia, Vietnam, Nepal, India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Mauritius, and Seychelles.
Caramboxin (CBX) is a toxin found in star fruit (Averrhoa carambola)). Individuals with some types of kidney disease are susceptible to adverse neurological effects including intoxication, seizures and even death after eating star fruit. Caramboxin has been identified as the neurotoxin responsible for these effects. Caramboxin is a non-proteinogenic amino acid that stimulates the glutamate receptors in neurons. Its chemical structure is similar to the amino acid phenylalanine. Caramboxin is an agonist of both NMDA and AMPA glutamatergic ionotropic receptors with potent excitatory, convulsant, and neurodegenerative properties.
Carnitine (β-hydroxy-γ-N-trimethylaminobutyric acid, 3-hydroxy-4-N,N,N- trimethylaminobutyrate) is a quaternary ammonium compound involved in metabolism in most mammals, plants and some bacteria. Carnitine may exist in two isomers, labeled D-carnitine and L-carnitine, as they are optically active. At room temperature, pure carnitine is a white powder, and a water-soluble zwitterion with low toxicity. Carnitine only exists in animals as the L-enantiomer, and D-carnitine is toxic because it inhibits the activity of L-carnitine. Carnitine, derived from an amino acid, is found in nearly all organisms and animal tissue. Carnitine is the generic expression for a number of compounds that include L-carnitine, acetyl-L-carnitine, and propionyl-L-carnitine. It is most accumulated in cardiac and skeletal muscles as it accounts for 0.1% of its dry matter. It was first derived from meat extracts in 1905, therefore the name carnitine is derived from Latin "carnus" or flesh. The body synthesizes enough carnitine from lysine side chains to keep up with the needs of energy production in the body as carnitine acts as a transporter of long-chain fatty acids into the mitochondria to be oxidized and produce energy. Some individuals with genetic or medical disorders (like preterm infants) cannot make enough, so this makes carnitine a conditionally essential nutrient for them.
Caspases (cysteine-aspartic proteases, cysteine aspartases or cysteine-dependent aspartate-directed proteases) are a family of protease enzymes playing essential roles in programmed cell death (including apoptosis, pyroptosis and necroptosis) and inflammation.
Catalase is a common enzyme found in nearly all living organisms exposed to oxygen (such as bacteria, plants, and animals).
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment (the extracellular space).
Cellular respiration is a set of metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and then release waste products.
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
The cerebellum (Latin for "little brain") is a major feature of the hindbrain of all vertebrates.
Cerebral edema is excess accumulation of fluid in the intracellular or extracellular spaces of the brain.
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a clear, colorless body fluid found in the brain and spinal cord.
cGMP-dependent protein kinase or Protein Kinase G (PKG) is a serine/threonine-specific protein kinase that is activated by cGMP.
Chemical synapses are biological junctions through which neurons' signals can be exchanged to each other and to non-neuronal cells such as those in muscles or glands.
Biologically, a child (plural: children) is a human being between the stages of birth and puberty.
The chili pepper (also chile pepper, chilli pepper, or simply chilli) from Nahuatl chīlli) is the fruit of plants from the genus Capsicum, members of the nightshade family, Solanaceae. They are widely used in many cuisines to add spiciness to dishes. The substances that give chili peppers their intensity when ingested or applied topically are capsaicin and related compounds known as capsaicinoids. Chili peppers originated in Mexico. After the Columbian Exchange, many cultivars of chili pepper spread across the world, used for both food and traditional medicine. Worldwide in 2014, 32.3 million tonnes of green chili peppers and 3.8 million tonnes of dried chili peppers were produced. China is the world's largest producer of green chillies, providing half of the global total.
Chloride channels are a superfamily of poorly understood ion channels specific for chloride.
Chlorotoxin is a 36-amino acid peptide found in the venom of the deathstalker scorpion (Leiurus quinquestriatus) which blocks small-conductance chloride channels.
Cholesterol (from the Ancient Greek chole- (bile) and stereos (solid), followed by the chemical suffix -ol for an alcohol) is an organic molecule.
In general, the word choline refers to the various quaternary ammonium salts containing the ''N'',''N'',''N''-trimethylethanolammonium cation.
In biochemistry, a cholinesterase or choline esterase is an esterase that lyses choline-based esters, several of which serve as neurotransmitters.
The choroid plexus is a plexus of cells that produces the cerebrospinal fluid in the ventricles of the brain.
The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.
Cirrhosis is a condition in which the liver does not function properly due to long-term damage.
Clostridium botulinum is a Gram-positive, rod-shaped, anaerobic, spore-forming, motile bacterium with the ability to produce the neurotoxin botulinum.
Clostridium tetani is a rod-shaped, anaerobic species of pathogenic bacteria, of the genus Clostridium.
Coninae, or as it is more recently (February 2015) represented as a family, Conidae, common names the cone snails, cone shells or cones, is a taxonomic group of small to large predatory sea snails with cone-shaped shells, marine gastropod mollusks in the superfamily Conoidea.
A conotoxin is one of a group of neurotoxic peptides isolated from the venom of the marine cone snail, genus Conus.
Craniofacial (cranio- combining form meaning head or skull + -facial combining form referring to the facial structures grossly) is an adjective referring to the parts of the head enclosing the brain and the face.
Curare or is a common name for various plant extract alkaloid arrow poisons originating from Central and South America.
Cyanobacteria, also known as Cyanophyta, are a phylum of bacteria that obtain their energy through photosynthesis, and are the only photosynthetic prokaryotes able to produce oxygen.
Cyanotoxins are toxins produced by bacteria called cyanobacteria (also known as blue-green algae).
Cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) is a cyclic nucleotide derived from guanosine triphosphate (GTP).
A cytoskeleton is present in all cells of all domains of life (archaea, bacteria, eukaryotes).
Cytotoxicity is the quality of being toxic to cells.
Darts are missile weapons, designed to fly such that a sharp, often weighted point will strike first.
Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, commonly known as DDT, is a colorless, tasteless, and almost odorless crystalline chemical compound, an organochlorine, originally developed as an insecticide, and ultimately becoming infamous for its environmental impacts.
Death is the cessation of all biological functions that sustain a living organism.
Dementia is a broad category of brain diseases that cause a long-term and often gradual decrease in the ability to think and remember that is great enough to affect a person's daily functioning.
In biology, depolarization is a change within a cell, during which the cell undergoes a shift in electric charge distribution, resulting in less negative charge inside the cell.
Development of the nervous system refers to the processes that generate, shape, and reshape the nervous system of animals, from the earliest stages of embryogenesis to adulthood.
Developmental biology is the study of the process by which animals and plants grow and develop.
In nutrition, diet is the sum of food consumed by a person or other organism.
Diethylmercury is a flammable, colorless liquid, and one of the strongest known neurotoxins.
Dimethylmercury ((CH3)2Hg) is an organomercury compound.
Dopamine (DA, a contraction of 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays several important roles in the brain and body.
Dystonia is a neurological movement disorder syndrome in which sustained or repetitive muscle contractions result in twisting and repetitive movements or abnormal fixed postures.
An electron transport chain (ETC) is a series of complexes that transfer electrons from electron donors to electron acceptors via redox (both reduction and oxidation occurring simultaneously) reactions, and couples this electron transfer with the transfer of protons (H+ ions) across a membrane.
Endocytosis is a form of bulk transport in which a cell transports molecules (such as proteins) into the cell (endo- + cytosis) by engulfing them in an energy-using process.
Endogenous substances and processes are those that originate from within an organism, tissue, or cell.
Ependyma is the thin neuroepithelial lining of the ventricular system of the brain and the central canal of the spinal cord, made up of ependymal cells.
Epilepsy is a group of neurological disorders characterized by epileptic seizures.
Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.
Excitotoxicity is the pathological process by which nerve cells are damaged or killed by excessive stimulation by neurotransmitters such as glutamate and similar substances.
In a variety of contexts, exogeny or exogeneity is the fact of an action or object originating externally.
A fasciculation, or muscle twitch, is a small, local, involuntary muscle contraction and relaxation which may be visible under the skin.
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) are a group of conditions that can occur in a person whose mother drank alcohol during pregnancy.
A fetus is a stage in the prenatal development of viviparous organisms.
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.
A glioma is a type of tumor that starts in the glial cells of the brain or the spine.
Glutamic acid (symbol Glu or E) is an α-amino acid with formula.
Glutaminase (glutaminase I, L-glutaminase, glutamine aminohydrolase) is an amidohydrolase enzyme that generates glutamate from glutamine.
Glutamine (symbol Gln or Q) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
A gonad or sex gland or reproductive gland is a mixed gland that produces the gametes (sex cells) and sex hormones of an organism.
Grey matter (or gray matter) is a major component of the central nervous system, consisting of neuronal cell bodies, neuropil (dendrites and myelinated as well as unmyelinated axons), glial cells (astrocytes and oligodendrocytes), synapses, and capillaries.
Heavy metals are generally defined as metals with relatively high densities, atomic weights, or atomic numbers.
Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is an altered level of consciousness as a result of liver failure.
Hexane is an alkane of six carbon atoms, with the chemical formula C6H14.
The hippocampus (named after its resemblance to the seahorse, from the Greek ἱππόκαμπος, "seahorse" from ἵππος hippos, "horse" and κάμπος kampos, "sea monster") is a major component of the brains of humans and other vertebrates.
The Hodgkin–Huxley model, or conductance-based model, is a mathematical model that describes how action potentials in neurons are initiated and propagated.
Homeostasis is the tendency of organisms to auto-regulate and maintain their internal environment in a stable state.
Humans (taxonomically Homo sapiens) are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina.
The human skeleton is the internal framework of the body.
Huntington's disease (HD), also known as Huntington's chorea, is an inherited disorder that results in death of brain cells.
A hydrophile is a molecule or other molecular entity that is attracted to water molecules and tends to be dissolved by water.
In chemistry, hydrophobicity is the physical property of a molecule (known as a hydrophobe) that is seemingly repelled from a mass of water.
In vitro (meaning: in the glass) studies are performed with microorganisms, cells, or biological molecules outside their normal biological context.
Studies that are in vivo (Latin for "within the living"; often not italicized in English) are those in which the effects of various biological entities are tested on whole, living organisms or cells, usually animals, including humans, and plants, as opposed to a tissue extract or dead organism.
The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian peoples of the Americas and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming, hunting and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, chiefdoms, states and empires. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples; some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Bolivia, Canada, Chile, Ecuador, Greenland, Guatemala, Guyana, Mexico, Panama and Peru. At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Aymara, Guaraní, Mayan languages and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many also maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects but also cater to modern needs. Some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture, and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples.
An infant (from the Latin word infans, meaning "unable to speak" or "speechless") is the more formal or specialised synonym for "baby", the very young offspring of a human.
Inflammation (from inflammatio) is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants, and is a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators.
Ingestion is the consumption of a substance by an organism.
Inositol trisphosphate or inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (also commonly known as triphosphoinositol; abbreviated InsP3 or Ins3P or IP3), together with diacylglycerol (DAG), is a secondary messenger molecule used in signal transduction and lipid signaling in biological cells.
In medical terms, an insult is the cause of some kind of physical or mental injury.
Intellectual disability (ID), also known as general learning disability, and mental retardation (MR), is a generalized neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by significantly impaired intellectual and adaptive functioning.
In cell biology, molecular biology and related fields, the word intracellular means "inside the cell".
Intraperitoneal injection or IP injection is the injection of a substance into the peritoneum (body cavity).
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
Ion channels are pore-forming membrane proteins that allow ions to pass through the channel pore.
Ischemia or ischaemia is a restriction in blood supply to tissues, causing a shortage of oxygen that is needed for cellular metabolism (to keep tissue alive).
Isotopic labeling (or isotopic labelling) is a technique used to track the passage of an isotope (an atom with a detectable variation) through a reaction, metabolic pathway, or cell.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
JWH-018 (1-pentyl-3-(1-naphthoyl)indole) or AM-678 is an analgesic chemical from the naphthoylindole family that acts as a full agonist at both the CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors, with some selectivity for CB2.
Kidney failure, also known as end-stage kidney disease, is a medical condition in which the kidneys no longer work.
Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.
A limb (from the Old English lim), or extremity, is a jointed, or prehensile (as octopus arms or new world monkey tails), appendage of the human or other animal body.
In biology and biochemistry, a lipid is a biomolecule that is soluble in nonpolar solvents.
The lipid bilayer (or phospholipid bilayer) is a thin polar membrane made of two layers of lipid molecules.
Lithium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol Li and atomic number 3.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
Liver failure or hepatic insufficiency is the inability of the liver to perform its normal synthetic and metabolic function as part of normal physiology.
In neuroscience, long-term potentiation (LTP) is a persistent strengthening of synapses based on recent patterns of activity.
Manganese is a chemical element with symbol Mn and atomic number 25.
A medical ventilator (or simply ventilator in context) is a mechanical ventilator, a machine designed to move breathable air into and out of the lungs, to provide breathing for a patient who is physically unable to breathe, or breathing insufficiently.
Memory is the faculty of the mind by which information is encoded, stored, and retrieved.
Mercury is a chemical element with symbol Hg and atomic number 80.
The mesolimbic pathway, sometimes referred to as the reward pathway, is a dopaminergic pathway in the brain.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
A metabolite is the intermediate end product of metabolism.
A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is a material (an element, compound, or alloy) that is typically hard when in solid state, opaque, shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity.
Methylmercury (sometimes methyl mercury) is an organometallic cation with the formula.
Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth, usually from an orebody, lode, vein, seam, reef or placer deposit.
The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double-membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms.
The Molidae comprise the family of the molas or ocean sunfishes, unusual fish whose bodies come to an end just behind the dorsal and anal fins, giving them a "half-fish" appearance.
Morphogenesis (from the Greek morphê shape and genesis creation, literally, "beginning of the shape") is the biological process that causes an organism to develop its shape.
Motor coordination is the combination of body movements created with the kinematic (such as spatial direction) and kinetic (force) parameters that result in intended actions.
A motor neuron (or motoneuron) is a neuron whose cell body is located in the motor cortex, brainstem or the spinal cord, and whose axon (fiber) projects to the spinal cord or outside of the spinal cord to directly or indirectly control effector organs, mainly muscles and glands.
In animal anatomy, the mouth, also known as the oral cavity, buccal cavity, or in Latin cavum oris, is the opening through which many animals take in food and issue vocal sounds.
MPP+ (1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium) is a positively charged organic molecule with the chemical formula C12H12N+.
MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine) is a prodrug to the neurotoxin MPP+, which causes permanent symptoms of Parkinson's disease by destroying dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra of the brain.
Muscle is a soft tissue found in most animals.
Muscle atrophy is defined as a decrease in the mass of the muscle; it can be a partial or complete wasting away of muscle, and is most commonly experienced when persons suffer temporary disabling circumstances such as being restricted in movement and/or confined to bed as when hospitalized.
Muscle contraction is the activation of tension-generating sites within muscle fibers.
The muscular system is an organ system consisting of skeletal, smooth and cardiac muscles.
Myopathy is a disease of the muscle in which the muscle fibers do not function properly.
NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (also referred to as Type I NADH dehydrogenase and mitochondrial Complex I especially in humans) is an enzyme of the respiratory chains of myriad organisms from bacteria to humans.
Nausea or queasiness is an unpleasant sense of unease, discomfort, and revulsion towards food.
Neostigmine, sold under the brand name Prostigmin among others, is a medication used to treat myasthenia gravis, Ogilvie syndrome, and urinary retention without the presence of a blockage.
The nervous system is the part of an animal that coordinates its actions by transmitting signals to and from different parts of its body.
Nervous tissue or nerve tissue is the main tissue component of the two parts of the nervous system; the brain and spinal cord of the central nervous system (CNS), and the branching peripheral nerves of the peripheral nervous system (PNS), which regulates and controls bodily functions and activity.
In the developing chordate (including vertebrates), the neural tube is the embryonic precursor to the central nervous system, which is made up of the brain and spinal cord.
A neurite or neuronal process refers to any projection from the cell body of a neuron.
Neurofilaments (NF) are intermediate filaments found in the cytoplasm of neurons.
Neurogenesis is the process by which nervous system cells, known as neurons, are produced by neural stem cells (NSC)s, and it occurs in all species of animals except the porifera (sponges) and placozoans.
Neuroglia, also called glial cells or simply glia, are non-neuronal cells in the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) and the peripheral nervous system.
Neurology (from νεῦρον (neûron), "string, nerve" and the suffix -logia, "study of") is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system.
A neuromuscular junction (or myoneural junction) is a chemical synapse formed by the contact between a motor neuron and a muscle fiber.
A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.
Neuroscience (or neurobiology) is the scientific study of the nervous system.
A neuroscientist (or neurobiologist) is a scientist who has specialised knowledge in the field of neuroscience, the branch of biology that deals with the physiology, biochemistry, anatomy and molecular biology of neurons and neural circuits and especially their association with behaviour and learning.
Neurotoxicity is a form of toxicity in which a biological, chemical, or physical agent produces an adverse effect on the structure or function of the central and/or peripheral nervous system.
Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, or nAChRs, are receptor proteins that respond to the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.
Nitric oxide (nitrogen oxide or nitrogen monoxide) is a colorless gas with the formula NO.
The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (also known as the NMDA receptor or NMDAR), is a glutamate receptor and ion channel protein found in nerve cells.
A nociceptor is a sensory neuron that responds to damaging or potentially damaging stimuli by sending “possible threat” signals to the spinal cord and the brain.
Organophosphates (also known as phosphate esters) are a class of organophosphorus compounds with the general structure O.
The ovary is an organ found in the female reproductive system that produces an ovum.
Oxidative phosphorylation (or OXPHOS in short) (UK, US) is the metabolic pathway in which cells use enzymes to oxidize nutrients, thereby releasing energy which is used to produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
Oxidative stress reflects an imbalance between the systemic manifestation of reactive oxygen species and a biological system's ability to readily detoxify the reactive intermediates or to repair the resulting damage.
Paralysis is a loss of muscle function for one or more muscles.
Paresthesia is an abnormal sensation such as tingling, tickling, pricking, numbness or burning of a person's skin with no apparent physical cause.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a long-term degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects the motor system.
Parkinsonism is a clinical syndrome characterized by tremor, bradykinesia, rigidity, and postural instability.
Pathology (from the Ancient Greek roots of pathos (πάθος), meaning "experience" or "suffering" and -logia (-λογία), "study of") is a significant field in modern medical diagnosis and medical research, concerned mainly with the causal study of disease, whether caused by pathogens or non-infectious physiological disorder.
A patient is any recipient of health care services.
The peripheral nervous system (PNS) is one of the two components of the nervous system, the other part is the central nervous system (CNS).
Peripheral neuropathy (PN) is damage to or disease affecting nerves, which may impair sensation, movement, gland or organ function, or other aspects of health, depending on the type of nerve affected.
Peroxidases (EC number) are a large family of enzymes that typically catalyze a reaction of the form: For many of these enzymes the optimal substrate is hydrogen peroxide, but others are more active with organic hydroperoxides such as lipid peroxides.
A physician, medical practitioner, medical doctor, or simply doctor is a professional who practises medicine, which is concerned with promoting, maintaining, or restoring health through the study, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, injury, and other physical and mental impairments.
Plumbing is any system that conveys fluids for a wide range of applications.
Porcupinefish are fish belonging to the family Diodontidae (order Tetraodontiformes), also commonly called blowfish and, sometimes, balloonfish and globefish.
Potassium channels are the most widely distributed type of ion channel and are found in virtually all living organisms.
Prognosis (Greek: πρόγνωσις "fore-knowing, foreseeing") is a medical term for predicting the likely or expected development of a disease, including whether the signs and symptoms will improve or worsen (and how quickly) or remain stable over time; expectations of quality of life, such as the ability to carry out daily activities; the potential for complications and associated health issues; and the likelihood of survival (including life expectancy).
Protein kinase C, commonly abbreviated to PKC (EC 18.104.22.168), is a family of protein kinase enzymes that are involved in controlling the function of other proteins through the phosphorylation of hydroxyl groups of serine and threonine amino acid residues on these proteins, or a member of this family.
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are chemically reactive chemical species containing oxygen.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a receptor is a protein molecule that receives chemical signals from outside a cell.
Respiratory failure results from inadequate gas exchange by the respiratory system, meaning that the arterial oxygen, carbon dioxide or both cannot be kept at normal levels.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Sarin, or NATO designation GB (G-series, 'B'), is a highly toxic synthetic organophosphorus compound.
A saturated fat is a type of fat in which the fatty acid chains have all or predominantly single bonds.
A scientist is a person engaging in a systematic activity to acquire knowledge that describes and predicts the natural world.
Scorpions are predatory arachnids of the order Scorpiones.
Seafood is any form of sea life regarded as food by humans.
Skin is the soft outer tissue covering vertebrates.
Smelting is a process of applying heat to ore in order to melt out a base metal.
SNARE proteins (an acronym derived from "SNAP (Soluble NSF(N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor) Attachment Protein) REceptor)" are a large protein complex consisting of at least 24 members in yeasts and more than 60 members in mammalian cells.
Sodium channels are integral membrane proteins that form ion channels, conducting sodium ions (Na+) through a cell's plasma membrane.
Spasticity is a feature of altered skeletal muscle performance with a combination of paralysis, increased tendon reflex activity, and hypertonia.
The spinal cord is a long, thin, tubular bundle of nervous tissue and support cells that extends from the medulla oblongata in the brainstem to the lumbar region of the vertebral column.
A stroke is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death.
The substantia nigra (SN) is a basal ganglia structure located in the midbrain that plays an important role in reward and movement.
Surface runoff (also known as overland flow) is the flow of water that occurs when excess stormwater, meltwater, or other sources flows over the Earth's surface.
The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is one of the two main divisions of the autonomic nervous system, the other being the parasympathetic nervous system.
A symptom (from Greek σύμπτωμα, "accident, misfortune, that which befalls", from συμπίπτω, "I befall", from συν- "together, with" and πίπτω, "I fall") is a departure from normal function or feeling which is noticed by a patient, reflecting the presence of an unusual state, or of a disease.
In the nervous system, a synapse is a structure that permits a neuron (or nerve cell) to pass an electrical or chemical signal to another neuron or to the target efferent cell.
Tetanus toxin is an extremely potent neurotoxin produced by the vegetative cell of Clostridium tetani in anaerobic conditions, causing tetanus.
Tetanus, also known as lockjaw, is an infection characterized by muscle spasms.
Tetraethylammonium (TEA), (NEt4+) or (Et4N+) is a quaternary ammonium cation consisting of four ethyl groups attached to a central nitrogen atom, and is positively charged.
The Tetraodontidae are a family of primarily marine and estuarine fish of the order Tetraodontiformes.
Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a potent neurotoxin.
Toxicology in Vitro is a bimonthly peer-reviewed scientific journal covering in vitro toxicology.
Toxicology Letters is a peer-reviewed scientific journal for the rapid publication of short reports on all aspects of toxicology, especially mechanisms of toxicity.
A toxin (from toxikon) is a poisonous substance produced within living cells or organisms; synthetic toxicants created by artificial processes are thus excluded.
The transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TrpV1), also known as the capsaicin receptor and the vanilloid receptor 1, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the TRPV1 gene.
The Environmental Protection Agency is an independent agency of the United States federal government for environmental protection.
Venomous Animals Venom is a form of toxin secreted by an animal for the purpose of causing harm to another.
The ventricular system is a set of four interconnected cavities (ventricles) in the brain, where the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is produced.
In cell biology, a vesicle is a small structure within a cell, or extracellular, consisting of fluid enclosed by a lipid bilayer.
Vitamin E is a group of eight compounds that include four tocopherols and four tocotrienols.
Voltage-gated potassium channels (VGKCs) are transmembrane channels specific for potassium and sensitive to voltage changes in the cell's membrane potential.
Vomiting, also known as emesis, puking, barfing, throwing up, among other terms, is the involuntary, forceful expulsion of the contents of one's stomach through the mouth and sometimes the nose.
25I-NBOMe (2C-I-NBOMe, Cimbi-5, also shortened to "25I") is a psychedelic hallucinogen that is used in biochemistry research for mapping the brains usage of the type 2A serotonin receptor and later also has been used for recreational purpose.