375 relations: Acetylcholine, ACTH receptor, Action potential, Adenosine, Adenosine receptor, Adenosine triphosphate, Adrenaline, Adrenergic receptor, Adrenocorticotropic hormone, Agonist, Agouti-related peptide, Alcohol (drug), Alpha-2 adrenergic receptor, Alzheimer's disease, Amino acid, AMPA, AMPA receptor, Amphetamine, AMPT, Amygdala, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Analgesic, Anandamide, AP5, Apomorphine, Arcuate nucleus, Arginine, Arousal, Asparagine, Aspartic acid, Atropine, Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Autism, Autoreceptor, Axon hillock, Axon terminal, Barbiturate, Benzodiazepine, Bicuculline, Biosynthesis, Blood–brain barrier, Bombesin, Botulinum toxin, Bradykinin, Bradykinin receptor B1, Bradykinin receptor B2, Brainstem, Buspirone, Caffeine, Cannabinoid receptor, ..., Cannabinoid receptor type 1, Cannabis, Carbon monoxide, Caudate nucleus, Cell membrane, Central nervous system, Cerebellum, Cerebral cortex, Cerebrospinal fluid, Chemical synapse, Chemistry, Chlorpromazine, Cholecystokinin, Cholecystokinin B receptor, Cholecystokinin receptor, Choline, Cholinergic, Cholinergic neuron, Cingulate cortex, Circadian rhythm, Circulatory system, Cocaine, Cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript, Codeine, Corticotropin-releasing factor family, Corticotropin-releasing hormone, Corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1, Curare, Diagonal band of Broca, Diffusion, Dopamine, Dopamine receptor, Dopamine receptor D2, Dopaminergic pathways, Dorsal raphe nucleus, Downregulation and upregulation, Dynorphin, Electrical synapse, Endocannabinoid system, Endocrine system, Endogeny (biology), Endomorphin, Endorphins, Energy homeostasis, Enkephalin, Entorhinal cortex, Enzyme, Epilepsy, Euphoria, Excitatory postsynaptic potential, Excitatory synapse, Excitotoxicity, Executive functions, Exocytosis, Fenfluramine, Fight-or-flight response, Fluoxetine, G protein–coupled receptor, GABA receptor, GABAA receptor, GABAA-rho receptor, GABAB receptor, Galanin, Galanin receptor 1, Galanin receptor 2, Galanin receptor 3, Galanin-like peptide, Gamma-Aminobutyric acid, Gap junction, Gaseous signaling molecules, Gastrin, Gastrin-releasing peptide, Gi alpha subunit, Gland, Glucagon, Glucagon receptor, Glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor, Glucagon-like peptide 2 receptor, Glucagon-like peptide-1, Glucagon-like peptide-2, Glutamic acid, Glycine, Glycine receptor, Gonadotropin-releasing hormone, Gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor, Growth hormone–releasing hormone, Growth-hormone-releasing hormone receptor, Guanylate cyclase, Habenula, Heme, Heroin, Hippocampus, Histamine, Histamine receptor, Histidine, Histology, Huntington's disease, Hydrocodone, Hydrogen sulfide, Hyoscine, Hypothalamus, Idazoxan, Imidazoline receptor, Indirect agonist, Inhibitory postsynaptic potential, Inverse agonist, Ion, Δ-opioid receptor, Κ-opioid receptor, Μ-opioid receptor, Kainate receptor, Ketamine, Kiss-and-run fusion, KiSS1-derived peptide receptor, Kisspeptin, L-DOPA, Laterodorsal tegmental nucleus, Ligand-gated ion channel, Locus coeruleus, Lysergic acid diethylamide, Major depressive disorder, Mast cell, MDMA, Medial septal nucleus, Median eminence, Median raphe nucleus, Melanocortin, Melanocortin 4 receptor, Melanocortin receptor, Melanocyte-stimulating hormone, Membrane potential, Membrane transport protein, Mesocortical pathway, Mesolimbic pathway, Metabotropic glutamate receptor, Metabotropic glutamate receptor 3, Metabotropic receptor, Methadone, Methamphetamine, Methylphenidate, Moclobemide, Monoamine neurotransmitter, Monoamine oxidase, Monoamine releasing agent, Mood (psychology), Morphine, Motilin, Motilin receptor, Motivational salience, Motor system, MPTP, Muscarine, Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor, Muscimol, Myocyte, N-Acetylaspartylglutamic acid, N-Arachidonoyl dopamine, N-Methyl-D-aspartic acid, N-Methylphenethylamine, N-Methyltryptamine, Naloxone, National Institutes of Health, Natural neuroactive substance, Neocortex, Nervous system, Neuroanatomy, Neuroendocrine cell, Neuroendocrinology, Neuroglia, Neurokinin A, Neurokinin B, Neuromedin U, Neuromedin U receptor 1, Neuromedin U receptor 2, Neuromodulation, Neuromuscular junction, Neuron, Neuropeptide, Neuropeptide B, Neuropeptide FF, Neuropeptide K, Neuropeptide S, Neuropeptide S receptor, Neuropeptide Y, Neuropeptide Y receptor, Neuropeptides B/W receptor 1, Neuropeptides B/W receptor 2, Neurophysin I, Neurophysin II, Neuropsychopharmacology, Neuroscience, Neurotransmission, Neurotransmitter receptor, Nicotine, Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, Nigrostriatal pathway, Nitric oxide, NMDA receptor, Nociception, Norepinephrine, Nucleus accumbens, Nucleus basalis, Nucleus raphe magnus, Nucleus raphe obscurus, Nucleus raphe pallidus, Obsessive–compulsive disorder, Octopamine (neurotransmitter), Olfactory bulb, Opiate, Opioid, Opioid peptide, Opioid receptor, Opium, Orexin, Orexin receptor, Orexin-A, Orgasm, Otto Loewi, Oxycodone, Oxytocin, Oxytocin receptor, P2X purinoreceptor, P2Y receptor, Pancreatic polypeptide, Parkinson's disease, Pars compacta, Partial agonist, Pedunculopontine nucleus, Peptide, Peptide YY, Phencyclidine, Phenethylamine, Phenylalanine, Picrotoxin, Pontine raphe nucleus, Posterior pituitary, Potassium channel, Precursor (chemistry), Prefrontal cortex, Prolactin-releasing peptide, Prolactin-releasing peptide receptor, Proopiomelanocortin, Purine, Purinergic signalling, Putamen, Pyroglutamylated RFamide peptide receptor, QRFP, Raphe nuclei, Receptor (biochemistry), Receptor antagonist, Recreational drug use, Refractory period (sex), Reinforcement, Reserpine, Respiratory center, Retrograde signaling, Reuptake, Reuptake inhibitor, Reward system, RFamide peptide family, S-Adenosyl methionine, Santiago Ramón y Cajal, Schizophrenia, Secretin, Secretin family, Secretin receptor, Sedative, Selegiline, Sensory cortex, Septum, Serine, Serotonin, Serotonin pathway, Sexual arousal, Somatostatin, Somatostatin receptor, Spinal cord, Striatum, Stroke, Strychnine, Substance P, Substantia nigra, Superior colliculus, Synapse, Synaptic plasticity, Synaptic vesicle, Synephrine, TAAR1, TAAR2, Tachykinin peptides, Tectum, Tegmentum, Tetrahydrocannabinol, Thalamus, Thermoregulation, Tiagabine, Tobacco, Trace amine, Trace amine-associated receptor, TRPV1, Tryptamine, Tryptophan, Tuberoinfundibular pathway, Tuberomammillary nucleus, Tyramine, Tyrosine, Urocortin, Vasoactive intestinal peptide, Vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor, Vasopressin, Vasopressin receptor, Ventral tegmental area, Vesicular monoamine transporter 2, Virodhamine, Vitamin B6, Vitamin C, Working memory, Zinc, 2-Arachidonoylglycerol, 2-Arachidonyl glyceryl ether, 3-Iodothyronamine, 5-HT receptor, 5-HT1A receptor, 5-HT3 receptor, 5-Hydroxytryptophan. 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Acetylcholine (ACh) is an organic chemical that functions in the brain and body of many types of animals, including humans, as a neurotransmitter—a chemical message released by nerve cells to send signals to other cells.
The adrenocorticotropic hormone receptor or ACTH receptor also known as the melanocortin receptor 2 or MC2 receptor is a type of melanocortin receptor (type 2) which is specific for ACTH.
In physiology, an action potential occurs when the membrane potential of a specific axon location rapidly rises and falls: this depolarisation then causes adjacent locations to similarly depolarise.
Adenosine is both a chemical found in many living systems and a medication.
The adenosine receptors (or P1 receptors) are a class of purinergic G protein-coupled receptors with adenosine as endogenous ligand.
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that participates in many processes.
Adrenaline, also known as adrenalin or epinephrine, is a hormone, neurotransmitter, and medication.
The adrenergic receptors (or adrenoceptors) are a class of G protein-coupled receptors that are targets of the catecholamines, especially norepinephrine (noradrenaline) and epinephrine (adrenaline).
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, also adrenocorticotropin, corticotropin) is a polypeptide tropic hormone produced by and secreted by the anterior pituitary gland.
An agonist is a chemical that binds to a receptor and activates the receptor to produce a biological response.
Agouti-related protein (AgRP), also called agouti-related peptide, is a neuropeptide produced in the brain by the AgRP/NPY neuron.
Alcohol, also known by its chemical name ethanol, is a psychoactive substance or drug that is the active ingredient in alcoholic beverages such as beer, wine, and distilled spirits (hard liquor).
The alpha-2 (α2) adrenergic receptor (or adrenoceptor) is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) associated with the Gi heterotrimeric G-protein.
Alzheimer's disease (AD), also referred to simply as Alzheimer's, is a chronic neurodegenerative disease that usually starts slowly and worsens over time.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
AMPA (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid) is a compound that is a specific agonist for the AMPA receptor, where it mimics the effects of the neurotransmitter glutamate.
The α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (also known as AMPA receptor, AMPAR, or quisqualate receptor) is an ionotropic transmembrane receptor for glutamate that mediates fast synaptic transmission in the central nervous system (CNS).
Amphetamine (contracted from) is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy, and obesity.
Alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine (AMPT) is a tyrosine hydroxylase enzyme inhibitor.
The amygdala (plural: amygdalae; also corpus amygdaloideum; Latin from Greek, ἀμυγδαλή, amygdalē, 'Almond', 'tonsil') is one of two almond-shaped groups of nuclei located deep and medially within the temporal lobes of the brain in complex vertebrates, including humans.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as motor neurone disease (MND), and Lou Gehrig's disease, is a specific disease which causes the death of neurons controlling voluntary muscles.
An analgesic or painkiller is any member of the group of drugs used to achieve analgesia, relief from pain.
Anandamide, also known as N-arachidonoylethanolamine or AEA, is a fatty acid neurotransmitter derived from the non-oxidative metabolism of eicosatetraenoic acid (arachidonic acid) an essential ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid.
AP5 or APV ((2R)-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid; (2R)-amino-5-phosphonopentanoate) is a selective NMDA receptor antagonist that competitively inhibits the ligand (glutamate) binding site of NMDA receptors.
Apomorphine (brand names Apokyn, Ixense, Spontane, Uprima) is a type of aporphine having activity as a non-selective dopamine agonist which activates both D2-like and, to a much lesser extent, D1-like receptors.
The arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (also known as ARH, ARC, or infundibular nucleus) is an aggregation of neurons in the mediobasal hypothalamus, adjacent to the third ventricle and the median eminence.
Arginine (symbol Arg or R) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Arousal is the physiological and psychological state of being awoken or of sense organs stimulated to a point of perception.
Asparagine (symbol Asn or N), is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Aspartic acid (symbol Asp or D; salts known as aspartates), is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Atropine is a medication to treat certain types of nerve agent and pesticide poisonings as well as some types of slow heart rate and to decrease saliva production during surgery.
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a mental disorder of the neurodevelopmental type.
Autism is a developmental disorder characterized by troubles with social interaction and communication and by restricted and repetitive behavior.
An autoreceptor is a type of receptor located in the membranes of presynaptic nerve cells.
The axon hillock is a specialized part of the cell body (or soma) of a neuron that connects to the axon.
Axon terminals (also called synaptic boutons or terminal boutons) are distal terminations of the telodendria (branches) of an axon.
A barbiturate is a drug that acts as a central nervous system depressant, and can therefore produce a wide spectrum of effects, from mild sedation to death.
Benzodiazepines (BZD, BZs), sometimes called "benzos", are a class of psychoactive drugs whose core chemical structure is the fusion of a benzene ring and a diazepine ring.
Bicuculline is a phthalide-isoquinoline compound that is a light-sensitive competitive antagonist of GABAA receptors.
Biosynthesis (also called anabolism) is a multi-step, enzyme-catalyzed process where substrates are converted into more complex products in living organisms.
The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a highly selective semipermeable membrane barrier that separates the circulating blood from the brain and extracellular fluid in the central nervous system (CNS).
Bombesin is a 14-amino acid peptide originally isolated from the skin of the European fire-bellied toad (Bombina bombina).
Botulinum toxin (BTX) or Botox is a neurotoxic protein produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum and related species.
Bradykinin is an inflammatory mediator.
Bradykinin receptor B1 (B1) is a G-protein coupled receptor encoded by the BDKRB1 gene in humans.
Bradykinin receptor B2 is a G-protein coupled receptor for bradykinin, encoded by the BDKRB2 gene in humans.
The brainstem (or brain stem) is the posterior part of the brain, adjoining and structurally continuous with the spinal cord.
Buspirone, sold under the brand name Buspar, is an anxiolytic drug that is primarily used to treat generalized anxiety disorder (GAD).
Caffeine is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the methylxanthine class.
Cannabinoid receptors, located throughout the body, are part of the endocannabinoid system, which is involved in a variety of physiological processes including appetite, pain-sensation, mood, and memory.
The cannabinoid type 1 receptor, often abbreviated as CB1, is a G protein-coupled cannabinoid receptor located in the central and peripheral nervous system.
Cannabis is a genus of flowering plants in the family Cannabaceae.
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air.
The caudate nucleus is one of the structures that make up the dorsal striatum, which is a component of the basal ganglia.
The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment (the extracellular space).
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
The cerebellum (Latin for "little brain") is a major feature of the hindbrain of all vertebrates.
The cerebral cortex is the largest region of the cerebrum in the mammalian brain and plays a key role in memory, attention, perception, cognition, awareness, thought, language, and consciousness.
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a clear, colorless body fluid found in the brain and spinal cord.
Chemical synapses are biological junctions through which neurons' signals can be exchanged to each other and to non-neuronal cells such as those in muscles or glands.
Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds.
Chlorpromazine (CPZ), marketed under the trade names Thorazine and Largactil among others, is an antipsychotic medication.
Cholecystokinin (CCK or CCK-PZ; from Greek chole, "bile"; cysto, "sac"; kinin, "move"; hence, move the bile-sac (gallbladder)) is a peptide hormone of the gastrointestinal system responsible for stimulating the digestion of fat and protein.
The cholecystokinin B receptor also known as CCKBR or CCK2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCKBR gene.
Cholecystokinin receptors or CCK receptors are a group of G-protein coupled receptors which bind the peptide hormones cholecystokinin (CCK) and gastrin.
Choline is a water-soluble vitamin-like essential nutrient.
In general, the word choline refers to the various quaternary ammonium salts containing the ''N'',''N'',''N''-trimethylethanolammonium cation.
A cholinergic neuron is a nerve cell which mainly uses the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) to send its messages.
The cingulate cortex is a part of the brain situated in the medial aspect of the cerebral cortex.
A circadian rhythm is any biological process that displays an endogenous, entrainable oscillation of about 24 hours.
The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.
Cocaine, also known as coke, is a strong stimulant mostly used as a recreational drug.
Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript, also known as CART, is a neuropeptide protein that in humans is encoded by the CARTPT gene.
Codeine is an opiate used to treat pain, as a cough medicine, and for diarrhea. It is typically used to treat mild to moderate degrees of pain. Greater benefit may occur when combined with paracetamol (acetaminophen) or a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) such as aspirin or ibuprofen. Evidence does not support its use for acute cough suppression in children or adults. In Europe it is not recommended as a cough medicine in those under twelve years of age. It is generally taken by mouth. It typically starts working after half an hour with maximum effect at two hours. The total duration of its effects last for about four to six hours. Common side effects include vomiting, constipation, itchiness, lightheadedness, and drowsiness. Serious side effects may include breathing difficulties and addiction. It is unclear if its use in pregnancy is safe. Care should be used during breastfeeding as it may result in opiate toxicity in the baby. Its use as of 2016 is not recommended in children. Codeine works following being broken down by the liver into morphine. How quickly this occurs depends on a person's genetics. Codeine was discovered in 1832 by Pierre Jean Robiquet. In 2013 about 361,000 kilograms of codeine were produced while 249,000 kilograms were used. This makes it the most commonly taken opiate. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. The wholesale cost in the developing world is between 0.04 and 0.29 USD per dose as of 2014. In the United States it costs about one dollar a dose. Codeine occurs naturally and makes up about 2% of opium.
Corticotropin-releasing factor, CRF is a family of related neuropeptides in vertebrates.
Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) (also known as corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) or corticoliberin; corticotropin may also be spelled corticotrophin) is a peptide hormone involved in the stress response.
Corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRHR1) is a protein, also known as CRF1, with the latter (CRF1) now being the IUPHAR-recommended name.
Curare or is a common name for various plant extract alkaloid arrow poisons originating from Central and South America.
The diagonal band of Broca is one of the basal forebrain structures that are derived from the ventral telencephalon during development.
Diffusion is the net movement of molecules or atoms from a region of high concentration (or high chemical potential) to a region of low concentration (or low chemical potential) as a result of random motion of the molecules or atoms.
Dopamine (DA, a contraction of 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays several important roles in the brain and body.
Dopamine receptors are a class of G protein-coupled receptors that are prominent in the vertebrate central nervous system (CNS).
Dopamine receptor D2, also known as D2R, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the DRD2 gene.
Dopaminergic pathways, sometimes called dopaminergic projections, are the sets of projection neurons in the brain that synthesize and release the neurotransmitter dopamine.
The dorsal raphe nucleus is located on the midline of the brainstem and is part of the raphe nucleus, consisting of the rostral and caudal subdivisions.
In the biological context of organisms' production of gene products, downregulation is the process by which a cell decreases the quantity of a cellular component, such as RNA or protein, in response to an external stimulus.
Dynorphins (Dyn) are a class of opioid peptides that arise from the precursor protein prodynorphin.
An electrical synapse is a mechanical and electrically conductive link between two neighboring neurons that is formed at a narrow gap between the pre- and postsynaptic neurons known as a gap junction.
The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a biological system composed of endocannabinoids, which are endogenous lipid-based retrograde neurotransmitters that bind to cannabinoid receptors, and cannabinoid receptor proteins that are expressed throughout the mammalian central nervous system (including the brain) and peripheral nervous system.
The endocrine system is a chemical messenger system consisting of hormones, the group of glands of an organism that carry those hormones directly into the circulatory system to be carried towards distant target organs, and the feedback loops of homeostasis that the hormones drive.
Endogenous substances and processes are those that originate from within an organism, tissue, or cell.
Endomorphins are natural opioid neurotransmitters central to pain relief.
Endorphins (contracted from "endogenous morphine") are endogenous opioid neuropeptides and peptide hormones in humans and other animals.
In biology, energy homeostasis, or the homeostatic control of energy balance, is a biological process that involves the coordinated homeostatic regulation of food intake (energy inflow) and energy expenditure (energy outflow).
An enkephalin (occasionally spelled encephalin) is a pentapeptide involved in regulating nociception in the body.
The entorhinal cortex (EC) (ento.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Epilepsy is a group of neurological disorders characterized by epileptic seizures.
Euphoria is an affective state in which a person experiences pleasure or excitement and intense feelings of well-being and happiness.
In neuroscience, an excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) is a postsynaptic potential that makes the postsynaptic neuron more likely to fire an action potential.
An excitatory synapse is a synapse in which an action potential in a presynaptic neuron increases the probability of an action potential occurring in a postsynaptic cell.
Excitotoxicity is the pathological process by which nerve cells are damaged or killed by excessive stimulation by neurotransmitters such as glutamate and similar substances.
Executive functions (collectively referred to as executive function and cognitive control) are a set of cognitive processes that are necessary for the cognitive control of behavior: selecting and successfully monitoring behaviors that facilitate the attainment of chosen goals.
Exocytosis is a form of active transport in which a cell transports molecules (e.g., neurotransmitters and proteins) out of the cell (exo- + cytosis) by expelling them through an energy-dependent process.
Fenfluramine, formerly sold under the brand name Pondimin among others, is an appetite suppressant which was used to treat obesity and is now no longer marketed.
The fight-or-flight response (also called hyperarousal, or the acute stress response) is a physiological reaction that occurs in response to a perceived harmful event, attack, or threat to survival.
Fluoxetine, also known by trade names Prozac and Sarafem, among others, is an antidepressant of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class.
G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs), also known as seven-(pass)-transmembrane domain receptors, 7TM receptors, heptahelical receptors, serpentine receptor, and G protein–linked receptors (GPLR), constitute a large protein family of receptors that detect molecules outside the cell and activate internal signal transduction pathways and, ultimately, cellular responses.
The GABA receptors are a class of receptors that respond to the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the chief inhibitory compound in the mature vertebrate central nervous system.
The GABAA receptor (GABAAR) is an ionotropic receptor and ligand-gated ion channel.
The GABAA-rho receptor (previously known as the GABAC receptor) is a subclass of GABAA receptors composed entirely of rho (ρ) subunits.
GABAB receptors (GABABR) are metabotropic transmembrane receptors for gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) that are linked via G-proteins to potassium channels.
Galanin is a neuropeptide encoded by the GAL gene, that is widely expressed in the brain, spinal cord, and gut of humans as well as other mammals.
Galanin receptor 1 (GAL1) is a G-protein coupled receptor encoded by the GALR1 gene.
Galanin receptor 2, (GAL2) is a G-protein coupled receptor encoded by the GALR2 gene.
Galanin receptor 3 (GAL3) is a G-protein coupled receptor encoded by the GALR3 gene.
Galanin-like peptide (GALP) is a neuropeptide present in humans and other mammals.
gamma-Aminobutyric acid, or γ-aminobutyric acid, or GABA, is the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system.
A gap junction may also be called a nexus or macula communicans.
Gaseous signaling molecules are gaseous molecules that are either synthesised internally (endogenously) in the organism, tissue or cell or are received by the organism, tissue or cell from outside (say, from the atmosphere or hydrosphere, as in the case of oxygen) and that are used to transmit chemical signals which induce certain physiological or biochemical changes in the organism, tissue or cell.
Gastrin is a peptide hormone that stimulates secretion of gastric acid (HCl) by the parietal cells of the stomach and aids in gastric motility.
Gastrin-releasing peptide, also known as GRP, is a neuropeptide, a regulatory molecule that has been implicated in a number of physiological and pathophysiological processes.
Gi alpha subunit (Gαi, or Gi/G0 or Gi protein) is a heterotrimeric G protein subunit that inhibits the production of cAMP from ATP.
A gland is a group of cells in an animal's body that synthesizes substances (such as hormones) for release into the bloodstream (endocrine gland) or into cavities inside the body or its outer surface (exocrine gland).
Glucagon is a peptide hormone, produced by alpha cells of the pancreas.
The glucagon receptor is a 62 kDa protein that is activated by glucagon and is a member of the class B G-protein coupled family of receptors, coupled to G alpha i, Gs and to a lesser extent G alpha q. Stimulation of the receptor results in activation of adenylate cyclase and increased levels of intracellular cAMP.
The glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP1R) is a receptor protein found on beta cells of the pancreas.
Glucagon-like peptide 2 receptor (GLP-2R) is a protein that in human is encoded by the GLP2R gene located on chromosome 17.
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a 30 amino acid long peptide hormone deriving from the tissue-specific posttranslational processing of the proglucagon peptide.
Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) is a 33 amino acid peptide with the sequence HADGSFSDEMNTILDNLAARDFINWLIQTKITD (see Proteinogenic amino acid) in humans.
Glutamic acid (symbol Glu or E) is an α-amino acid with formula.
Glycine (symbol Gly or G) is the amino acid that has a single hydrogen atom as its side chain.
The glycine receptor (abbreviated as GlyR or GLR) is the receptor of the amino acid neurotransmitter glycine.
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) also known as gonadoliberin, and by various other names in its endogenous form and as gonadorelin in its pharmaceutical form, is a releasing hormone responsible for the release of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) from the anterior pituitary.
The gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRHR), also known as the luteinizing hormone releasing hormone receptor (LHRHR), is a member of the seven-transmembrane, G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) family.
Growth hormone–releasing hormone (GHRH), also known as somatocrinin or by several other names in its endogenous forms and as somatorelin (INN) in its pharmaceutical form, is a releasing hormone of growth hormone (GH).
The growth-hormone-releasing hormone receptor (GHRHR) is a G-protein-coupled receptor that binds growth hormone-releasing hormone.
Guanylate cyclase (also known as guanyl cyclase, guanylyl cyclase, or GC) is a lyase enzyme.
In neuroanatomy, habenula (diminutive of Latin habena meaning rein) originally denoted the stalk of the pineal gland (pineal habenula; pedunculus of pineal body), but gradually came to refer to a neighboring group of nerve cells with which the pineal gland was believed to be associated, the habenular nucleus.
Heme or haem is a coordination complex "consisting of an iron ion coordinated to a porphyrin acting as a tetradentate ligand, and to one or two axial ligands." The definition is loose, and many depictions omit the axial ligands.
Heroin, also known as diamorphine among other names, is an opioid most commonly used as a recreational drug for its euphoric effects.
The hippocampus (named after its resemblance to the seahorse, from the Greek ἱππόκαμπος, "seahorse" from ἵππος hippos, "horse" and κάμπος kampos, "sea monster") is a major component of the brains of humans and other vertebrates.
Histamine is an organic nitrogenous compound involved in local immune responses, as well as regulating physiological function in the gut and acting as a neurotransmitter for the brain, spinal cord, and uterus.
The histamine receptors are a class of G protein–coupled receptors which bind histamine as their primary endogenous ligand.
Histidine (symbol His or H) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Histology, also microanatomy, is the study of the anatomy of cells and tissues of plants and animals using microscopy.
Huntington's disease (HD), also known as Huntington's chorea, is an inherited disorder that results in death of brain cells.
Hydrocodone, sold under brand names such as Vicodin and Norco among many others, is a semisynthetic opioid derived from codeine, one of the opioid alkaloids found in the opium poppy.
Hydrogen sulfide is the chemical compound with the chemical formula H2S.
Hyoscine, also known as scopolamine, is a medication used to treat motion sickness and postoperative nausea and vomiting.
The hypothalamus(from Greek ὑπό, "under" and θάλαμος, thalamus) is a portion of the brain that contains a number of small nuclei with a variety of functions.
Idazoxan (INN) is a drug which is used in scientific research.
Imidazoline receptors are the primary receptors on which clonidine and other imidazolines act.
In pharmacology, an indirect agonist or indirect-acting agonist is a substance that enhances the release or action of an endogenous neurotransmitter but has no specific agonist activity at the neurotransmitter receptor itself.
An inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP) is a kind of synaptic potential that makes a postsynaptic neuron less likely to generate an action potential.
In the field of pharmacology, an inverse agonist is an agent that binds to the same receptor as an agonist but induces a pharmacological response opposite to that agonist.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
The δ-opioid receptor, also known as delta opioid receptor or simply delta receptor, abbreviated DOR, is an inhibitory 7-transmembrane G-protein coupled receptor coupled to the G protein Gi/G0 and has enkephalins as its endogenous ligands.
The κ-opioid receptor (KOR) is a G protein-coupled receptor that in humans is encoded by the OPRK1 gene.
The μ-opioid receptors (MOR) are a class of opioid receptors with a high affinity for enkephalins and beta-endorphin, but a low affinity for dynorphins.
Kainate receptors, or kainic acid receptors (KARs), are ionotropic receptors that respond to the neurotransmitter glutamate.
Ketamine, sold under the brand name Ketalar among others, is a medication mainly used for starting and maintaining anesthesia.
Kiss-and-run fusion is a type of synaptic vesicle release where the vesicle opens and closes transiently.
The KiSS1-derived peptide receptor (also known as GPR54 or the Kisspeptin receptor) is a G protein-coupled receptor which binds the peptide hormone kisspeptin (metastin).
Kisspeptin (formerly known as metastin) is a protein that is encoded by the KISS1 gene in humans.
L-DOPA, also known as levodopa or L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine is an amino acid that is made and used as part of the normal biology of humans, as well as some animals and plants.
The laterodorsal tegmental nucleus (or lateroposterior tegmental nucleus) is a nucleus situated in the brainstem, spanning the midbrain tegmentum and the pontine tegmentum.
Ligand-gated ion channels (LICs, LGIC), also commonly referred as ionotropic receptors, are a group of transmembrane ion-channel proteins which open to allow ions such as Na+, K+, Ca2+, and/or Cl− to pass through the membrane in response to the binding of a chemical messenger (i.e. a ligand), such as a neurotransmitter.
The locus coeruleus (\-si-ˈrü-lē-əs\, also spelled locus caeruleus or locus ceruleus) is a nucleus in the pons of the brainstem involved with physiological responses to stress and panic.
Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), also known as acid, is a psychedelic drug known for its psychological effects, which may include altered awareness of one's surroundings, perceptions, and feelings as well as sensations and images that seem real though they are not.
Major depressive disorder (MDD), also known simply as depression, is a mental disorder characterized by at least two weeks of low mood that is present across most situations.
A mast cell (also known as a mastocyte or a labrocyte) is a type of white blood cell.
3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), commonly known as ecstasy (E), is a psychoactive drug used primarily as a recreational drug.
The medial septal nucleus is one of the septal nuclei.
The median eminence, part of the inferior boundary of the hypothalamus in the brain, is attached to the infundibulum.
The median raphe nucleus (MRN or MnR) (also known as the nucleus raphes medianus (NRM)Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology (FCAT) (1998). Terminologia Anatomica. Stuttgart: Thieme or superior central nucleus) is composed of polygonal, fusiform and piriform neurons and exists rostral to the nucleus raphes pontis.
The melanocortins are a group of peptide hormones which include adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and the different forms of melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH), and are derived from proopiomelanocortin (POMC) in the pituitary gland.
Melanocortin 4 receptor is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MC4R gene.
Melanocortin receptors are members of the rhodopsin family of 7-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors.
The melanocyte-stimulating hormones, known collectively as MSH, also known as melanotropins or intermedins, are a family of peptide hormones and neuropeptides consisting of α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH), β-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (β-MSH), and γ-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (γ-MSH) that are produced by cells in the pars intermedia of the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland.
The term "membrane potential" may refer to one of three kinds of membrane potential.
A membrane transport protein (or simply transporter) is a membrane protein involved in the movement of ions, small molecules, or macromolecules, such as another protein, across a biological membrane.
The mesocortical pathway is a dopaminergic pathway that connects the ventral tegmentum to the prefrontal cortex.
The mesolimbic pathway, sometimes referred to as the reward pathway, is a dopaminergic pathway in the brain.
The metabotropic glutamate receptors, or mGluRs, are a type of glutamate receptor that are active through an indirect metabotropic process.
Metabotropic glutamate receptor 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GRM3 gene.
A metabotropic receptor is a type of membrane receptor of eukaryotic cells that acts through a second messenger.
Methadone, sold under the brand name Dolophine among others, is an opioid used to treat pain and as maintenance therapy or to help with tapering in people with opioid dependence.
Methamphetamine (contracted from) is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is mainly used as a recreational drug and less commonly as a second-line treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and obesity.
Methylphenidate, sold under various trade names, Ritalin being one of the most commonly known, is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the phenethylamine and piperidine classes that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy.
Moclobemide (sold as Amira, Aurorix, Clobemix, Depnil and Manerix) is a reversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase A (RIMA) drug primarily used to treat depression and social anxiety. It is not approved for use in the United States, but is approved in other Western countries such as the UK and Australia (TGA approved in December 2000). It is produced by affiliates of the Hoffmann–La Roche pharmaceutical company. Initially, Aurorix was also marketed by Roche in South Africa, but was withdrawn after its patent rights expired and Cipla Medpro's Depnil and Pharma Dynamic's Clorix became available at half the cost. No significant rise in blood pressure occurs when moclobemide is combined with amines such as tyramine-containing foods or pressor amine drugs, unlike with the older nonselective and irreversible monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), which cause a severe rise in blood pressure with such combination. Due to the lack of anticholinergic, cardiovascular, cognitive and psychomotor impairments moclobemide is advantageous in the elderly as well as those with cardiovascular disease.
Monoamine neurotransmitters are neurotransmitters and neuromodulators that contain one amino group that is connected to an aromatic ring by a two-carbon chain (such as -CH2-CH2-). All monoamines are derived from aromatic amino acids like phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan, and the thyroid hormones by the action of aromatic amino acid decarboxylase enzymes.
L-Monoamine oxidases (MAO) are a family of enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of monoamines.
A monoamine releasing agent (MRA), or simply monoamine releaser, is a drug that induces the release of a monoamine neurotransmitter from the presynaptic neuron into the synapse, leading to an increase in the extracellular concentrations of the neurotransmitter.
In psychology, a mood is an emotional state.
Morphine is a pain medication of the opiate variety which is found naturally in a number of plants and animals.
Motilin is a 22-amino acid polypeptide hormone in the motilin family that, in humans, is encoded by the MLN gene.
Motilin receptor is a G protein-coupled receptor that binds motilin.
Motivational salience is a cognitive process and a form of attention that motivates, or propels, an individual's behavior towards or away from a particular object, perceived event, or outcome.
The motor system is the part of the central nervous system that is involved with movement.
MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine) is a prodrug to the neurotoxin MPP+, which causes permanent symptoms of Parkinson's disease by destroying dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra of the brain.
Muscarine, L-(+)-muscarine, or muscarin is a natural product found in certain mushrooms, particularly in Inocybe and Clitocybe species, such as the deadly C. dealbata.
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, or mAChRs, are acetylcholine receptors that form G protein-coupled receptor complexes in the cell membranes of certain neurons and other cells.
Muscimol (also known as agarin or pantherine) is one of the principal psychoactive constituents of Amanita muscaria and related species of mushroom.
A myocyte (also known as a muscle cell) is the type of cell found in muscle tissue.
N-Acetylaspartylglutamic acid (N-acetylaspartylglutamate or NAAG) is a peptide neurotransmitter and the third-most-prevalent neurotransmitter in the mammalian nervous system.
N-Arachidonoyl dopamine (NADA) is an endocannabinoid that acts as an agonist of the CB1 receptor and the transient receptor potential V1 (TRPV1) ion channel.
N-Methyl-D-aspartic acid or N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) is an amino acid derivative that acts as a specific agonist at the NMDA receptor mimicking the action of glutamate, the neurotransmitter which normally acts at that receptor.
N-Methylphenethylamine (NMPEA) is a naturally occurring trace amine neuromodulator in humans that is derived from the trace amine, phenethylamine (PEA).
N-Methyltryptamine (NMT) is a member of the substituted tryptamine chemical class and a natural product which is biosynthesized in the human body from tryptamine by certain N-methyltransferase enzymes, such as indolethylamine ''N''-methyltransferase.
Naloxone, sold under the brandname Narcan among others, is a medication used to block the effects of opioids, especially in overdose.
The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is the primary agency of the United States government responsible for biomedical and public health research, founded in the late 1870s.
A natural neuroactive substance (NAS) is a chemical synthesized by neurons that affects the actions of other neurons or muscle cells.
The neocortex, also called the neopallium and isocortex, is the part of the mammalian brain involved in higher-order brain functions such as sensory perception, cognition, generation of motor commands, spatial reasoning and language.
The nervous system is the part of an animal that coordinates its actions by transmitting signals to and from different parts of its body.
Neuroanatomy is the study of the structure and organization of the nervous system.
Neuroendocrine cells are cells that receive neuronal input (neurotransmitters released by nerve cells or neurosecretory cells) and, as a consequence of this input, release message molecules (hormones) to the blood.
Neuroendocrinology is the branch of biology (specifically of physiology) which studies the interaction between the nervous system and the endocrine system, that is how the brain regulates the hormonal activity in the body.
Neuroglia, also called glial cells or simply glia, are non-neuronal cells in the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) and the peripheral nervous system.
Neurokinin A, formerly known as Substance K, is a neurologically active peptide translated from the pre-protachykinin gene.
Neurokinin B (NKB) belongs in the family of tachykinin peptides.
Neuromedin U (or NmU) is a neuropeptide found in the brain of humans and other mammals, which has a number of diverse functions including contraction of smooth muscle, regulation of blood pressure, pain perception, appetite, bone growth, and hormone release.
Neuromedin-U receptor 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NMUR1 gene.
Neuromedin-U receptor 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NMUR2 gene.
Neuromodulation is the physiological process by which a given neuron uses one or more chemicals to regulate diverse populations of neurons.
A neuromuscular junction (or myoneural junction) is a chemical synapse formed by the contact between a motor neuron and a muscle fiber.
A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.
Neuropeptides are small protein-like molecules (peptides) used by neurons to communicate with each other.
Neuropeptide B is a short biologically active peptide whose precursor in humans is encoded by the NBP gene.
NPFF Neuropeptide FF (FLFQPQRFa) is a mammalian amidated neuropeptide originally isolated from bovine brain and characterized as a pain-modulating peptide, with anti-opioid activity on morphine-induced analgesia.
Neuropeptide K (also known as neurokinin K), is a protein encoded by the TAC1 gene.
Neuropeptide S (NPS) is a neuropeptide found in human and mammalian brain, mainly produced by neurons in the amygdala and between Barrington's nucleus and the locus coeruleus, although NPS-responsive neurons extend projections into many other brain areas.
The neuropeptide S receptor (NPSR) is a member of the G-protein coupled receptor superfamily of integral membrane proteins which binds neuropeptide S (NPS).
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a 36 amino-acid neuropeptide that is involved in various physiological and homeostatic processes in both the central and peripheral nervous systems.
Neuropeptide Y receptors are a family of receptors belonging to class A G-protein coupled receptors and they are activated by the closely related peptide hormones neuropeptide Y, peptide YY and pancreatic polypeptide.
Neuropeptides B/W receptor 1, also known as NPBW1 and GPR7, is a human protein encoded by the NPBWR1 gene.
Neuropeptides B/W receptor 2, also known as NPBW2, is a human protein encoded by the NPBWR2 gene.
Neurophysin I is a carrier protein with a size of 10 KDa and contains 90 to 97 aminoacids.
Neurophysin II is a carrier protein with a size of 19,687.3 Da and is made up of a dimer of two virtually identical chains of amino acids.
Neuropsychopharmacology, an interdisciplinary science related to psychopharmacology (how drugs affect the mind) and fundamental neuroscience, is the study of the neural mechanisms that drugs act upon to influence behavior.
Neuroscience (or neurobiology) is the scientific study of the nervous system.
Neurotransmission (Latin: transmissio "passage, crossing" from transmittere "send, let through"), also called synaptic transmission, is the process by which signaling molecules called neurotransmitters are released by the axon terminal of a neuron (the presynaptic neuron), and bind to and activate the receptors on the dendrites of another neuron (the postsynaptic neuron).
A neurotransmitter receptor (also known as a neuroreceptor) is a membrane receptor protein that is activated by a neurotransmitter.
Nicotine is a potent parasympathomimetic stimulant and an alkaloid found in the nightshade family of plants.
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, or nAChRs, are receptor proteins that respond to the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.
The nigrostriatal pathway or the nigrostriatal bundle (NSB), is a dopaminergic pathway that connects the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) with the dorsal striatum (i.e., the caudate nucleus and putamen).
Nitric oxide (nitrogen oxide or nitrogen monoxide) is a colorless gas with the formula NO.
The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (also known as the NMDA receptor or NMDAR), is a glutamate receptor and ion channel protein found in nerve cells.
Nociception (also nocioception or nociperception, from Latin nocere 'to harm or hurt') is the sensory nervous system's response to certain harmful or potentially harmful stimuli.
Norepinephrine (NE), also called noradrenaline (NA) or noradrenalin, is an organic chemical in the catecholamine family that functions in the brain and body as a hormone and neurotransmitter.
The nucleus accumbens (NAc or NAcc), also known as the accumbens nucleus, or formerly as the nucleus accumbens septi (Latin for nucleus adjacent to the septum) is a region in the basal forebrain rostral to the preoptic area of the hypothalamus.
The nucleus basalis, also nucleus basalis of Meynert is a group of neurons in the substantia innominata of the basal forebrain which has wide projections to the neocortex and is rich in acetylcholine and choline acetyltransferase.
The nucleus raphe magnus (called the nucleus raphes magnus by Terminologia AnatomicaFederative Committee on Anatomical Terminology (FCAT) (1998). Terminologia Anatomica. Stuttgart: Thieme and some scientific publicationsAnderson, D.M. (2000). Dorland’s illustrated medical dictionary (29th edition). Philadelphia/London/Toronto/Montreal/Sydney/Tokyo: W.B. Saunders Company.), is located directly rostral to the nucleus raphe obscurus, and receives input from the spinal cord and cerebellum.
The nucleus raphe obscurus, despite the implications of its name, has some very specific functions and connections of afferent and efferent nature.
The nucleus raphe pallidus receives afferent connections from the periaqueductal gray, the Paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus, central nucleus of the amygdala, lateral hypothalamic area, and parvocellular reticular nucleus.
Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is a mental disorder where people feel the need to check things repeatedly, perform certain routines repeatedly (called "rituals"), or have certain thoughts repeatedly (called "obsessions").
Octopamine is an organic chemical closely related to norepinephrine, and synthesized biologically by a homologous pathway.
The olfactory bulb (bulbus olfactorius) is a neural structure of the vertebrate forebrain involved in olfaction, the sense of smell.
Opiate is a term classically used in pharmacology to mean a drug derived from opium.
Opioids are substances that act on opioid receptors to produce morphine-like effects.
Opioid peptides are peptides that bind to opioid receptors in the brain; opiates and opioids mimic the effect of these peptides.
Opioid receptors are a group of inhibitory G protein-coupled receptors with opioids as ligands.
Opium (poppy tears, with the scientific name: Lachryma papaveris) is the dried latex obtained from the opium poppy (scientific name: Papaver somniferum).
Orexin, also known as hypocretin, is a neuropeptide that regulates arousal, wakefulness, and appetite.
The orexin receptor (also referred to as the hypocretin receptor) is a G-protein-coupled receptor that binds the neuropeptide orexin.
Orexin-A, also known as hypocretin-1, is a naturally occurring neuropeptide and orexin isoform.
Orgasm (from Greek ὀργασμός orgasmos "excitement, swelling"; also sexual climax) is the sudden discharge of accumulated sexual excitement during the sexual response cycle, resulting in rhythmic muscular contractions in the pelvic region characterized by sexual pleasure.
Otto Loewi (3 June 1873 – 25 December 1961) was a German-born pharmacologist and psychobiologist who discovered the role of acetylcholine as an endogenous neurotransmitter. For his discovery he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1936, which he shared with Sir Henry Dale, who was a lifelong friend who helped to inspire the neurotransmitter experiment. Loewi met Dale in 1902 when spending some months in Ernest Starling's laboratory at University College, London.
Oxycodone, sold under brand names such as Percocet and OxyContin among many others, is an opioid medication which is used for the relief of moderate to severe pain.
Oxytocin (Oxt) is a peptide hormone and neuropeptide.
The oxytocin receptor, also known as OXTR, is a protein which functions as receptor for the hormone and neurotransmitter oxytocin.
The ATP-gated P2X receptor cation channel family, or simply P2X receptor family, consists of cation-permeable ligand-gated ion channels that open in response to the binding of extracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP).
P2Y receptors are a family of purinergic G protein-coupled receptors, stimulated by nucleotides such as ATP, ADP, UTP, UDP and UDP-glucose.
Pancreatic polypeptide (PP) is a polypeptide secreted by PP cells in the endocrine pancreas predominantly in the head of the pancreas.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a long-term degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects the motor system.
The pars compacta is a portion of the substantia nigra, located in the midbrain.
In pharmacology, partial agonists are drugs that bind to and activate a given receptor, but have only partial efficacy at the receptor relative to a full agonist.
The pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) (or pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus, PPTN or PPTg) is a collection of neurons located in the upper pons in the brainstem.
Peptides (from Gr.: πεπτός, peptós "digested"; derived from πέσσειν, péssein "to digest") are short chains of amino acid monomers linked by peptide (amide) bonds.
Peptide YY (PYY) also known as peptide tyrosine tyrosine is a peptide that in humans is encoded by the PYY gene.
Phencyclidine (PCP), also known as angel dust among other names, is a drug used for its mind altering effects.
Phenethylamine (PEA) is an organic compound, natural monoamine alkaloid, and trace amine which acts as a central nervous system stimulant in humans.
Phenylalanine (symbol Phe or F) is an α-amino acid with the formula.
Picrotoxin, also known as cocculin, is a poisonous crystalline plant compound.
The Pontine raphe nucleus is one of the raphe nuclei.
The posterior pituitary (or neurohypophysis) is the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland which is part of the endocrine system.
Potassium channels are the most widely distributed type of ion channel and are found in virtually all living organisms.
In chemistry, a precursor is a compound that participates in a chemical reaction that produces another compound.
In mammalian brain anatomy, the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is the cerebral cortex which covers the front part of the frontal lobe.
Prolactin-releasing peptide (PrRP) is a peptide hormone that in humans is encoded by the PRLH gene.
The prolactin-releasing peptide receptor (PrRPR) also known as G-protein coupled receptor 10 (GPR10) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PRLHR gene.
Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) is a precursor polypeptide with 241 amino acid residues.
A purine is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound that consists of a pyrimidine ring fused to an imidazole ring.
Purinergic signalling (or signaling: see American and British English differences) is a form of extracellular signalling mediated by purine nucleotides and nucleosides such as adenosine and ATP.
The putamen is a round structure located at the base of the forebrain (telencephalon).
Pyroglutamylated RFamide peptide receptor also known as orexigenic neuropeptide QRFP receptor or G-protein coupled receptor 103 (GPR103) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the QRFPR gene.
RF(Arg-Phe)amide family 26 amino acid peptide, also known as P518, is a human protein.
The raphe nuclei (ῥαφή "seam"Liddell, H.G. & Scott, R. (1940). A Greek-English Lexicon. revised and augmented throughout by Sir Henry Stuart Jones. with the assistance of. Roderick McKenzie. Oxford: Clarendon Press.) are a moderate-size cluster of nuclei found in the brain stem.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a receptor is a protein molecule that receives chemical signals from outside a cell.
A receptor antagonist is a type of receptor ligand or drug that blocks or dampens a biological response by binding to and blocking a receptor rather than activating it like an agonist.
Recreational drug use is the use of a psychoactive drug to induce an altered state of consciousness for pleasure, by modifying the perceptions, feelings, and emotions of the user.
In human sexuality, the refractory period is usually the recovery phase after orgasm during which it is physiologically impossible for a man to have additional orgasms.
In behavioral psychology, reinforcement is a consequence that will strengthen an organism's future behavior whenever that behavior is preceded by a specific antecedent stimulus.
Reserpine (also known by trade names Raudixin, Serpalan, Serpasil) is an indole alkaloid, Major Types Of Chemical Compounds In Plants & Animals Part II: Phenolic Compounds, Glycosides & Alkaloids. Wayne's Word: An On-Line Textbook of Natural History.
The respiratory center is located in the medulla oblongata and pons, in the brainstem.
Retrograde signaling in biology is a process whereby function of one part of a cell is controlled by feedback from another part of the cell, or where one cell sends reciprocal messages back to another cell that regulates it.
Reuptake is the reabsorption of a neurotransmitter by a neurotransmitter transporter located along the plasma membrane of an axon terminal (i.e., the pre-synaptic neuron at a synapse) or glial cell after it has performed its function of transmitting a neural impulse.
A reuptake inhibitor (RI) is a type of drug known as a reuptake modulator that inhibits the plasmalemmal transporter-mediated reuptake of a neurotransmitter from the synapse into the pre-synaptic neuron.
The reward system is a group of neural structures responsible for incentive salience (i.e., motivation and "wanting", desire, or craving for a reward), associative learning (primarily positive reinforcement and classical conditioning), and positive emotions, particularly ones which involve pleasure as a core component (e.g., joy, euphoria and ecstasy).
The RFamide peptide family, or the RFamide-related peptides (RFRPs), are a family of neuropeptides.
S-Adenosyl methionineSAM-e, SAMe, SAM, S-Adenosyl-L-methionine, AdoMet, ademetionine is a common cosubstrate involved in methyl group transfers, transsulfuration, and aminopropylation.
Santiago Ramón y Cajal (1 May 1852 – 17 October 1934) was a Spanish neuroscientist and pathologist, specializing in neuroanatomy, particularly the histology of the central nervous system.
Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by abnormal social behavior and failure to understand reality.
Secretin is a hormone that regulates water homeostasis throughout the body and influences the environment of the duodenum by regulating secretions in the stomach, pancreas, and liver.
Glucagon/GIP/secretin/VIP hormones are a family of evolutionarily related peptide hormones that regulate activity of G-protein coupled receptors from secretin receptor family.
Human secretin receptor (gene name SCTR) is a G protein-coupled receptor which binds secretin and is the leading member (i.e., first cloned) of the class B GPCR subfamily.
A sedative or tranquilliser is a substance that induces sedation by reducing irritability or excitement.
Selegiline, also known as L-deprenyl, is a substituted phenethylamine.
The sensory cortex can refer informally to the primary somatosensory cortex, or it can be used as a term for the primary and secondary cortices of the different senses (two cortices each, on left and right hemisphere): the visual cortex on the occipital lobes, the auditory cortex on the temporal lobes, the primary olfactory cortex on the uncus of the piriform region of the temporal lobes, the gustatory cortex on the insular lobe (also referred to as the insular cortex), and the primary somatosensory cortex on the anterior parietal lobes.
In biology, a septum (Latin for something that encloses; plural septa) is a wall, dividing a cavity or structure into smaller ones.
Serine (symbol Ser or S) is an ɑ-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter.
Serotonin pathways are the projections from neurons that synthesize and communicate with the monoamine neurotransmitter serotonin The study of these systems are relevant in many psychiatric and neurological disorders, as serotonergic pathways innervate many areas of the brain involved in regulating the circadian rhythm, pain, arousal, eating, the endocrine system, cognition, emotional processing, sickness behavior, mood and regulating other neurotransmitter systems among the many things.
Sexual arousal (also sexual excitement) is the arousal of sexual desire, during or in anticipation of sexual activity.
Somatostatin, also known as growth hormone-inhibiting hormone (GHIH) or by several other names, is a peptide hormone that regulates the endocrine system and affects neurotransmission and cell proliferation via interaction with G protein-coupled somatostatin receptors and inhibition of the release of numerous secondary hormones.
There are five known somatostatin receptors.
The spinal cord is a long, thin, tubular bundle of nervous tissue and support cells that extends from the medulla oblongata in the brainstem to the lumbar region of the vertebral column.
The striatum, or corpus striatum (also called the neostriatum and the striate nucleus) is a nucleus (a cluster of neurons) in the subcortical basal ganglia of the forebrain.
A stroke is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death.
Strychnine (also or) is a highly toxic, colorless, bitter, crystalline alkaloid used as a pesticide, particularly for killing small vertebrates such as birds and rodents.
Substance P (SP) is an undecapeptide (a peptide composed of a chain of 11 amino acid residues) member of the tachykinin neuropeptide family. It is a neuropeptide, acting as a neurotransmitter and as a neuromodulator. Substance P and its closely related neurokinin A (NKA) are produced from a polyprotein precursor after differential splicing of the preprotachykinin A gene. The deduced amino acid sequence of substance P is as follows.
The substantia nigra (SN) is a basal ganglia structure located in the midbrain that plays an important role in reward and movement.
The superior colliculus (Latin, upper hill) is a paired structure of the mammalian midbrain.
In the nervous system, a synapse is a structure that permits a neuron (or nerve cell) to pass an electrical or chemical signal to another neuron or to the target efferent cell.
In neuroscience, synaptic plasticity is the ability of synapses to strengthen or weaken over time, in response to increases or decreases in their activity.
In a neuron, synaptic vesicles (or neurotransmitter vesicles) store various neurotransmitters that are released at the synapse.
Synephrine, or, more specifically, p-synephrine, is an alkaloid, occurring naturally in some plants and animals, and also in approved drugs products as its m-substituted analog known as neo-synephrine.
Trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1) is a trace amine-associated receptor (TAAR) protein that in humans is encoded by the TAAR1 gene.
Trace amine-associated receptor 2 (TAAR2), formerly known as G protein-coupled receptor 58 (GPR58), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TAAR2 gene.
Tachykinin peptides are one of the largest families of neuropeptides, found from amphibians to mammals.
The tectum (Latin: roof) is a region of the brain, specifically the dorsal (top) part of the midbrain (mesencephalon).
The tegmentum (from Latin for "covering") is a general area within the brainstem.
Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is one of at least 113 cannabinoids identified in cannabis.
The thalamus (from Greek θάλαμος, "chamber") is the large mass of gray matter in the dorsal part of the diencephalon of the brain with several functions such as relaying of sensory signals, including motor signals, to the cerebral cortex, and the regulation of consciousness, sleep, and alertness.
Thermoregulation is the ability of an organism to keep its body temperature within certain boundaries, even when the surrounding temperature is very different.
Tiagabine (trade name Gabitril) is an anticonvulsant medication used in the treatment of epilepsy that is produced by Cephalon.
Tobacco is a product prepared from the leaves of the tobacco plant by curing them.
Trace amines are an endogenous group of trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1) agonists – and hence, monoaminergic neuromodulators – that are structurally and metabolically related to classical monoamine neurotransmitters.
Trace amine-associated receptors (TAARs), sometimes referred to as trace amine receptors (TAs or TARs), are a class of G protein-coupled receptors that were discovered in 2001.
The transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TrpV1), also known as the capsaicin receptor and the vanilloid receptor 1, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the TRPV1 gene.
Tryptamine is a monoamine alkaloid.
Tryptophan (symbol Trp or W) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
The tuberoinfundibular pathway refers to a population of dopamine neurons that project from the arcuate nucleus (the "infundibular nucleus") in the tuberal region of the hypothalamus to the median eminence.
The tuberomammillary nucleus is a histaminergic nucleus located within the posterior third of the hypothalamus.
Tyramine (also spelled tyramin), also known by several other names is a naturally occurring trace amine derived from the amino acid tyrosine.
Tyrosine (symbol Tyr or Y) or 4-hydroxyphenylalanine is one of the 20 standard amino acids that are used by cells to synthesize proteins.
Urocortin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the UCN gene.
Vasoactive intestinal peptide, also known as vasoactive intestinal polypeptide or VIP, is a peptide hormone that is vasoactive in the intestine.
There are two known receptors for the vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) termed VPAC1 and VPAC2.
Vasopressin, also named antidiuretic hormone (ADH), arginine vasopressin (AVP) or argipressin, is a hormone synthesized as a peptide prohormone in neurons in the hypothalamus, and is converted to AVP.
The actions of vasopressin are mediated by stimulation of tissue-specific G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) called vasopressin receptors that are classified into the V1 (V1A), V2, and V3 (V1B) receptor subtypes.
The ventral tegmental area (VTA) (tegmentum is Latin for covering), also known as the ventral tegmental area of Tsai, or simply ventral tegmentum, is a group of neurons located close to the midline on the floor of the midbrain.
The vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) also known as solute carrier family 18 member 2 (SLC18A2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC18A2 gene.
Virodhamine (O-arachidonoyl ethanolamine; O-AEA) is an endocannabinoid and a nonclassic eicosanoid, derived from arachidonic acid.
Vitamin B6 refers to a group of chemically similar compounds which can be interconverted in biological systems.
Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid and L-ascorbic acid, is a vitamin found in food and used as a dietary supplement.
Working memory is a cognitive system with a limited capacity that is responsible for temporarily holding information available for processing.
Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.
2-Arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) is an endocannabinoid, an endogenous agonist of the CB1 receptor and the primary endogenous ligand for the CB2 receptor.
2-Arachidonyl glyceryl ether (2-AGE, Noladin ether) is a putative endocannabinoid discovered by Lumír Hanuš and colleagues at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel.
3-Iodothyronamine (T1AM) is an endogenous thyronamine.
5-hydroxytryptamine receptors or 5-HT receptors, or serotonin receptors, are a group of G protein-coupled receptor and ligand-gated ion channels found in the central and peripheral nervous systems.
The serotonin 1A receptor (or 5-HT1A receptor) is a subtype of serotonin receptor (5-HT receptor) that binds the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT).
The 5-HT3 receptor belongs to the Cys-loop superfamily of ligand-gated ion channels (LGICs) and therefore differs structurally and functionally from all other 5-HT receptors (5-hydroxytryptamine, or serotonin) receptors which are G protein-coupled receptors.
5-Hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), also known as oxitriptan, is a naturally occurring amino acid and chemical precursor as well as a metabolic intermediate in the biosynthesis of the neurotransmitter serotonin.
Dopamine system, Excitatory amino acids, Excitatory neurotransmitter, Inhibitory neurotransmitter, Neuro transmitter, Neurotransmitter agents, Neurotransmitter system, Neurotransmitter systems, Neurotransmitters, Neurotransmittor, Neurotrasmitter, Noradrenaline system, Norepinephrine system, Nuerotransmitter, Receptors, neurotransmitter, Serotonin system.