84 relations: Adrenalectomy, Artemin, Arthritis, Asthma, Axon guidance, Axotomy, Biomolecule, Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, Cellular differentiation, Central nervous system, Ciliary neurotrophic factor, Corticosterone, CX3CL1, Dopaminergic cell groups, Dorsal root ganglion, Ephrin, Ephrin A1, Ephrin A2, Ephrin A3, Ephrin A4, Ephrin A5, Ephrin B1, Ephrin B2, Ephrin B3, Ephrin receptor, Epidermal growth factor, Fibroblast growth factor, GDNF family of ligands, GFRα, Glia maturation factor, Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, Glioma, Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, Growth hormone, Hippocampus, Hyperalgesia, In vivo, Inflammation, Insulin, Insulin-like growth factor 1, Interferon, Interleukin 2, Interleukin 3, Interleukin 5, Interleukin 6, Interleukin 8, Interleukin-1 family, Intestinal epithelium, Leptin, Leukemia inhibitory factor, ..., Macrophage colony-stimulating factor, Major depressive disorder, Motor neuron, Motor neuron disease, Myelin, Nerve growth factor, Neuregulin, Neurotrophin, Neurotrophin-3, Neurotrophin-4, Neurturin, Oncostatin M, Peptide, Peripheral nervous system, Persephin, Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide, Platelet-derived growth factor, Primary immunodeficiency, Prolactin, Protein, Receptor tyrosine kinase, Route of administration, Serine/threonine-specific protein kinase, Signal transduction, Spleen, TGF alpha, Thymus, Transforming growth factor beta, Tropomyosin receptor kinase A, Tropomyosin receptor kinase B, Tropomyosin receptor kinase C, Tyrosine kinase, Vascular endothelial growth factor, Visual cortex. Expand index (34 more) » « Shrink index
Adrenalectomy (sometimes written as ADX for the procedure or resulting state) is the surgical removal of one or both (bilateral adrenalectomy) adrenal glands.
Artemin, also known as enovin or neublastin, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ARTN gene.
Arthritis is a term often used to mean any disorder that affects joints.
Asthma is a common long-term inflammatory disease of the airways of the lungs.
Axon guidance (also called axon pathfinding) is a subfield of neural development concerning the process by which neurons send out axons to reach the correct targets.
An axotomy is the cutting or otherwise severing of an axon.
A biomolecule or biological molecule is a loosely used term for molecules and ions that are present in organisms, essential to some typically biological process such as cell division, morphogenesis, or development.
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, also known as BDNF, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the BDNF gene.
In developmental biology, cellular differentiation is the process where a cell changes from one cell type to another.
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
Ciliary neurotrophic factor is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CNTF gene.
Corticosterone, also known as 17-deoxycortisol and 11β,21-dihydroxyprogesterone, is a 21-carbon steroid hormone of the corticosteroid type produced in the cortex of the adrenal glands.
Fractalkine also known as chemokine (C-X3-C motif) ligand 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CX3CL1 gene.
Dopaminergic cell groups are collections of neurons in the central nervous system that synthesize the neurotransmitter dopamine.
A dorsal root ganglion (or spinal ganglion) (also known as a posterior root ganglion), is a cluster of neurons (a ganglion) in a dorsal root of a spinal nerve.
Ephrins (also known as ephrin ligands or Eph family receptor interacting proteins) are a family of proteins that serve as the ligands of the eph receptor.
Ephrin A1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EFNA1 gene.
Ephrin-A2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EFNA2 gene.
Ephrin A3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EFNA3 gene.
Ephrin A4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EFNA4 gene.
Ephrin A5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EFNA5 gene.
Ephrin-B1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EFNB1 gene.
Ephrin-B2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EFNB2 gene.
Ephrin-B3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EFNB3 gene.
Eph receptors (Ephs, after erythropoietin-producing human hepatocellular receptors) are a group of receptors that are activated in response to binding with Eph receptor-interacting proteins (Ephrins).
Epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulates cell growth and differentiation by binding to its receptor, EGFR.
The fibroblast growth factors are a family of cell signalling proteins that are involved in a wide variety of processes, most notably as crucial elements for normal development.
The GDNF family of ligands (GFL) consists of four neurotrophic factors: glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), neurturin (NRTN), artemin (ARTN), and persephin (PSPN).
The GDNF family receptor-α (GFRα) proteins are a group of co-receptors which form complexes with GDNF-family ligands (GFLs) to activate RET, the receptor of the GFLs.
Glia maturation factor is a neurotrophic factor implicated in nervous system development, angiogenesis and immune function.
Glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the GDNF gene.
A glioma is a type of tumor that starts in the glial cells of the brain or the spine.
Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), also known as colony-stimulating factor 2 (CSF2), is a monomeric glycoprotein secreted by macrophages, T cells, mast cells, natural killer cells, endothelial cells and fibroblasts that functions as a cytokine.
Growth hormone (GH), also known as somatotropin (or as human growth hormone in its human form), is a peptide hormone that stimulates growth, cell reproduction, and cell regeneration in humans and other animals.
The hippocampus (named after its resemblance to the seahorse, from the Greek ἱππόκαμπος, "seahorse" from ἵππος hippos, "horse" and κάμπος kampos, "sea monster") is a major component of the brains of humans and other vertebrates.
Hyperalgesia (or; 'hyper' from Greek ὑπέρ (huper, “over”), '-algesia' from Greek algos, ἄλγος (pain)) is an increased sensitivity to pain, which may be caused by damage to nociceptors or peripheral nerves and can cause hypersensitivity to stimulus, stimuli which would normally not be cause for a pain reaction (ex/ eyes or brain having a painful reaction to daylight).
Studies that are in vivo (Latin for "within the living"; often not italicized in English) are those in which the effects of various biological entities are tested on whole, living organisms or cells, usually animals, including humans, and plants, as opposed to a tissue extract or dead organism.
Inflammation (from inflammatio) is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants, and is a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators.
Insulin (from Latin insula, island) is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets; it is considered to be the main anabolic hormone of the body.
Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), also called somatomedin C, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IGF1 gene.
Interferons (IFNs) are a group of signaling proteins made and released by host cells in response to the presence of several pathogens, such as viruses, bacteria, parasites, and also tumor cells.
Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is an interleukin, a type of cytokine signaling molecule in the immune system.
Interleukin 3 (IL-3) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL3 gene.
Interleukin 5 (IL5) is an interleukin produced by type-2 T helper cells and mast cells.
Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is an interleukin that acts as both a pro-inflammatory cytokine and an anti-inflammatory myokine.
Interleukin 8 (IL8 or chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 8, CXCL8) is a chemokine produced by macrophages and other cell types such as epithelial cells, airway smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells.
The Interleukin-1 family (IL-1 family) is a group of 11 cytokines that plays a central role in the regulation of immune and inflammatory responses to infections or sterile insults.
The intestinal epithelium is the layer of cells that forms the luminal surface or lining of both the small and large intestine (colon) of the gastrointestinal tract.
Leptin (from Greek λεπτός leptos, "thin"), "the hormone of energy expenditure", is a hormone predominantly made by adipose cells that helps to regulate energy balance by inhibiting hunger.
Leukemia inhibitory factor, or LIF, is an interleukin 6 class cytokine that affects cell growth by inhibiting differentiation.
The colony stimulating factor 1 (CSF1), also known as macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), is a secreted cytokine which influences hematopoietic stem cells to differentiate into macrophages or other related cell types.
Major depressive disorder (MDD), also known simply as depression, is a mental disorder characterized by at least two weeks of low mood that is present across most situations.
A motor neuron (or motoneuron) is a neuron whose cell body is located in the motor cortex, brainstem or the spinal cord, and whose axon (fiber) projects to the spinal cord or outside of the spinal cord to directly or indirectly control effector organs, mainly muscles and glands.
A motor neuron disease (MND) is any of several neurodegenerative disorders that selectively affect motor neurons, the cells that control voluntary muscles of the body.
Myelin is a lipid-rich substance that surrounds the axon of some nerve cells, forming an electrically insulating layer.
Nerve growth factor (NGF) is a neurotrophic factor and neuropeptide primarily involved in the regulation of growth, maintenance, proliferation, and survival of certain target neurons.
Neuregulins or neuroregulins are a family of four structurally related proteins that are part of the EGF family of proteins.
Neurotrophins are a family of proteins that induce the survival, development, and function of neurons.
Neurotrophin-3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NTF3 gene.
Neurotrophin-4 (NT-4), also known as neurotrophin-5 (NT-5), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NTF4 gene.
Neurturin (NRTN) is a protein.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
Oncostatin M, also known as OSM, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the OSM gene.
Peptides (from Gr.: πεπτός, peptós "digested"; derived from πέσσειν, péssein "to digest") are short chains of amino acid monomers linked by peptide (amide) bonds.
The peripheral nervous system (PNS) is one of the two components of the nervous system, the other part is the central nervous system (CNS).
Persephin is a neurotrophic factor in the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) family.
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide also known as PACAP is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ADCYAP1 gene.
Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is one of numerous growth factors that regulate cell growth and division.
Primary immunodeficiencies are disorders in which part of the body's immune system is missing or does not function normally.
Prolactin (PRL), also known as luteotropic hormone or luteotropin, is a protein that is best known for its role in enabling mammals, usually females, to produce milk.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are the high-affinity cell surface receptors for many polypeptide growth factors, cytokines, and hormones.
A route of administration in pharmacology and toxicology is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison, or other substance is taken into the body.
A serine/threonine protein kinase is a kinase enzyme that phosphorylates the OH group of serine or threonine (which have similar sidechains).
Signal transduction is the process by which a chemical or physical signal is transmitted through a cell as a series of molecular events, most commonly protein phosphorylation catalyzed by protein kinases, which ultimately results in a cellular response.
The spleen is an organ found in virtually all vertebrates.
Transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-α) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TGFA gene.
The thymus is a specialized primary lymphoid organ of the immune system.
Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) is a multifunctional cytokine belonging to the transforming growth factor superfamily that includes four different isoforms (TGF-β 1 to 4, HGNC symbols TGFB1, TGFB2, TGFB3, TGFB4) and many other signaling proteins produced by all white blood cell lineages.
Tropomyosin receptor kinase A (TrkA), also known as high affinity nerve growth factor receptor, neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor type 1, or TRK1-transforming tyrosine kinase protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NTRK1 gene.
Tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB), also known as tyrosine receptor kinase B, or BDNF/NT-3 growth factors receptor or neurotrophic tyrosine kinase, receptor, type 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NTRK2 gene.
Tropomyosin receptor kinase C (TrkC), also known as NT-3 growth factor receptor, neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor type 3, or TrkC tyrosine kinase is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NTRK3 gene.
A tyrosine kinase is an enzyme that can transfer a phosphate group from ATP to a protein in a cell.
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), originally known as vascular permeability factor (VPF), is a signal protein produced by cells that stimulates the formation of blood vessels.
The visual cortex of the brain is a part of the cerebral cortex that processes visual information.
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.