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Index Neutrino

A neutrino (denoted by the Greek letter ν) is a fermion (an elementary particle with half-integer spin) that interacts only via the weak subatomic force and gravity. [1]

275 relations: Abdus Salam Centre for Physics, Alexei Yuryevich Smirnov, American Journal of Physics, Angular momentum, Annihilation, Antarctic ice sheet, Antarctic Impulse Transient Antenna, Antarctic Muon And Neutrino Detector Array, ANTARES (telescope), Antiparticle, Argon, Argonne National Laboratory, Arthur B. McDonald, Atmosphere of Earth, Atomic nucleus, Attenuation, Avalanche photodiode, Background radiation, Baikal Deep Underwater Neutrino Telescope, Baksan Neutrino Observatory, Barn (unit), Beta decay, Beta particle, Big Bang, Borexino, Brady Haran, Bruno Pontecorvo, Bubble chamber, Cabibbo–Kobayashi–Maskawa matrix, Cadmium chloride, Cambridge University Press, Cherenkov radiation, Chirality, Chirality (physics), Chlorine, Clyde Cowan, Confidence interval, Conservation of energy, Cosmic microwave background, Cosmic neutrino background, Cosmic ray, Cosmology, Cowan–Reines neutrino experiment, CP violation, Cross section (physics), Dark matter, Darmstadt, Degenerate matter, Density, Deuterium, ..., Diffuse supernova neutrino background, Dirac fermion, DONUT, Double beta decay, Doublet state, Durham University, Edoardo Amaldi, Eigenvalues and eigenvectors, Electric charge, Electron, Electron capture, Electron neutrino, Electroweak interaction, Elementary charge, Elementary particle, Elsevier, Enrico Fermi, Ettore Majorana, European Physical Society, Faster-than-light neutrino anomaly, Fermi–Dirac statistics, Fermilab, Fermion, Flavour (particle physics), Frame of reference, Frederick Reines, Fritz Zwicky, Galaxy, Galaxy formation and evolution, Galaxy groups and clusters, Gallium, Gamma ray, Germanium, Germanium Detector Array, Germany, Grand unification energy, Gravitational lens, Gravity, Greisen–Zatsepin–Kuzmin limit, GSI anomaly, GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research, Hadron, Half-life, Heavy water, Helicity (particle physics), Helium, Higgs boson, High Energy Stereoscopic System, Highly charged ion, Homestake experiment, Hot dark matter, ICARUS experiment, IceCube Neutrino Observatory, Institut Laue–Langevin, International Journal of Modern Physics, Invariant mass, Inverse beta decay, Ion, Ionizing radiation, IOP Publishing, Irvine–Michigan–Brookhaven (detector), Isotopes of boron, Italian language, Jack Steinberger, James Chadwick, John Wiley & Sons, Journal of Applied Physics, Kamioka Liquid Scintillator Antineutrino Detector, Kamioka Observatory, Kaon, KATRIN, Kelvin, Kolar Gold Fields, Large Electron–Positron Collider, Large Volume Detector, Leon M. Lederman, Leptogenesis (physics), Lepton, Lepton number, Lincoln Wolfenstein, Liquid Scintillator Neutrino Detector, List of neutrino experiments, Lorentz covariance, Lorentz transformation, Lorentz-violating neutrino oscillations, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Lyman-alpha forest, MAGIC (telescope), Magnetic moment, Majorana equation, Majorana fermion, Masatoshi Koshiba, Mass, Melvin Schwartz, Mikheyev–Smirnov–Wolfenstein effect, Milky Way, Milli-, MiniBooNE, MINOS, Modulation, Momentum, Muon, Muon neutrino, Names of large numbers, National Physical Laboratory (United Kingdom), Nature (journal), NESTOR Project, Neutrino astronomy, Neutrino detector, Neutrino Factory, Neutrino oscillation, Neutron, Neutron star, New Journal of Physics, Niels Bohr, Nobel Foundation, Nobel Prize in Physics, NOvA, Nu (letter), Nuclear fission, Nuclear fusion, Nuclear proliferation, Nuclear reaction, Nuclear reactor, Nuclear weapon, Oneworld Publications, OPERA experiment, Osaka City University, Oscillation, Oxford University Press, Parsec, Particle accelerator, Particle Data Group, Particle physics, Paul Dirac, Photomultiplier, Photon, Physical cosmology, Physical Review, Pierre Auger Observatory, Pion, Planck (spacecraft), Pontecorvo–Maki–Nakagawa–Sakata matrix, Positron, Proton, Quanta Magazine, Quantum gravity, Quantum superposition, Quark, Radioactive decay, Raymond Davis Jr., Redshift survey, Reports on Progress in Physics, Reviews of Modern Physics, Science (journal), Science Daily, Science News, Scientific American, Scintillator, Seesaw mechanism, Simons Foundation, Sine wave, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, SN 1987A, Solar core, Solar neutrino, Solar neutrino problem, Solvay Conference, South Pole, Special relativity, Speed of light, Spin (physics), Spin-½, Springer Science+Business Media, Standard Model, Standard solar model, Standard-Model Extension, Stanislav Mikheyev, Star, Sterile neutrino, Storage ring, Strong interaction, Subatomic scale, Sudbury Neutrino Observatory, Sun, Super-Kamiokande, Supernova, Supernova Early Warning System, Supernova remnant, T2K experiment, Takaaki Kajita, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Tau (particle), Tau neutrino, The Astrophysical Journal, The New York Times, Thermal power station, Tomography, Type Ib and Ic supernovae, Type II supernova, Ultra-high-energy gamma ray, Uncertainty principle, Universe, University of California, Irvine, University of Chicago Press, University of Nottingham, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Velocity, VERITAS, Vitaly Ginzburg, W and Z bosons, W. H. Freeman and Company, Walter Baade, Wang Ganchang, Warm dark matter, Waste heat, Wave packet, Weak interaction, Werner Heisenberg, Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe, Wolfgang Pauli, Yukawa interaction, Zeitschrift für Physik, 1,000,000,000, 1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene. Expand index (225 more) »

Abdus Salam Centre for Physics

The Professor Abdus Salam Centre for Physics (عبداسلام ادارہ برائے طبیعیات), previously known as the National Centre for Physics is an academic national research institute for physics and mathematical sciences located in Islamabad, Pakistan.

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Alexei Yuryevich Smirnov

Alexei Yuryevich Smirnov (Алексе́й Ю́рьевич Cмирно́в; born October 16, 1951) is a neutrino physics researcher and one of the discoverers of the MSW Effect.

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American Journal of Physics

The American Journal of Physics is a monthly, peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the American Association of Physics Teachers and the American Institute of Physics.

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Angular momentum

In physics, angular momentum (rarely, moment of momentum or rotational momentum) is the rotational equivalent of linear momentum.

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In particle physics, annihilation is the process that occurs when a subatomic particle collides with its respective antiparticle to produce other particles, such as an electron colliding with a positron to produce two photons.

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Antarctic ice sheet

The Antarctic ice sheet is one of the two polar ice caps of the Earth.

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Antarctic Impulse Transient Antenna

The Antarctic Impulsive Transient Antenna (ANITA) experiment has been designed to study ultra-high-energy (UHE) cosmic neutrinos by detecting the radio pulses emitted by their interactions with the Antarctic ice sheet.

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Antarctic Muon And Neutrino Detector Array

The Antarctic Muon And Neutrino Detector Array (AMANDA) is a neutrino telescope located beneath the Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station.

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ANTARES (telescope)

ANTARES is the name of a neutrino detector residing 2.5 km under the Mediterranean Sea off the coast of Toulon, France.

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In particle physics, every type of particle has an associated antiparticle with the same mass but with opposite physical charges (such as electric charge).

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Argon is a chemical element with symbol Ar and atomic number 18.

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Argonne National Laboratory

Argonne National Laboratory is a science and engineering research national laboratory operated by the University of Chicago Argonne LLC for the United States Department of Energy located near Lemont, Illinois, outside Chicago.

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Arthur B. McDonald

Arthur Bruce McDonald, P.Eng, (born August 29, 1943) is a Canadian astrophysicist.

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Atmosphere of Earth

The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity.

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Atomic nucleus

The atomic nucleus is the small, dense region consisting of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom, discovered in 1911 by Ernest Rutherford based on the 1909 Geiger–Marsden gold foil experiment.

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In physics, attenuation or, in some contexts, extinction is the gradual loss of flux intensity through a medium.

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Avalanche photodiode

An avalanche photodiode (APD) is a highly sensitive semiconductor electronic device that exploits the photoelectric effect to convert light to electricity.

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Background radiation

Background radiation is a measure of the ionizing radiation present in the environment at a particular location which is not due to deliberate introduction of radiation sources.

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Baikal Deep Underwater Neutrino Telescope

The Baikal Deep Underwater Neutrino Telescope (BDUNT) (Байкальский подводный нейтринный телескоп) is a neutrino detector conducting research below the surface of Lake Baikal (Russia) since 2003.

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Baksan Neutrino Observatory

The Baksan Neutrino Observatory (BNO) is a scientific laboratory of INR RAS located in the Baksan River gorge in the Caucasus mountains in Russia.

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Barn (unit)

A barn (symbol: b) is a unit of area equal to 10−28 m2 (100 fm2).

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Beta decay

In nuclear physics, beta decay (β-decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta ray (fast energetic electron or positron) and a neutrino are emitted from an atomic nucleus.

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Beta particle

A beta particle, also called beta ray or beta radiation, (symbol β) is a high-energy, high-speed electron or positron emitted by the radioactive decay of an atomic nucleus during the process of beta decay.

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Big Bang

The Big Bang theory is the prevailing cosmological model for the universe from the earliest known periods through its subsequent large-scale evolution.

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Borexino is a particle physics experiment to study low energy (sub-MeV) solar neutrinos.

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Brady Haran

Brady John Haran (born 18 June 1976) is an Australian-born British independent filmmaker and video journalist who is known for his educational videos and documentary films produced for BBC News and his YouTube channels, the most notable being Periodic Videos and Numberphile.

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Bruno Pontecorvo

Bruno Pontecorvo (Бру́но Макси́мович Понтеко́рво, Bruno Maksimovich Pontecorvo; 22 August 1913 – 24 September 1993) was an Italian nuclear physicist, an early assistant of Enrico Fermi and the author of numerous studies in high energy physics, especially on neutrinos.

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Bubble chamber

A bubble chamber is a vessel filled with a superheated transparent liquid (most often liquid hydrogen) used to detect electrically charged particles moving through it.

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Cabibbo–Kobayashi–Maskawa matrix

In the Standard Model of particle physics, the Cabibbo–Kobayashi–Maskawa matrix, CKM matrix, quark mixing matrix, or KM matrix is a unitary matrix which contains information on the strength of flavour-changing weak decays.

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Cadmium chloride

Cadmium chloride is a white crystalline compound of cadmium and chlorine, with the formula CdCl2.

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Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

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Cherenkov radiation

Cherenkov radiation (sometimes spelled "Cerenkov") is electromagnetic radiation emitted when a charged particle (such as an electron) passes through a dielectric medium at a speed greater than the phase velocity of light in that medium.

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Chirality is a property of asymmetry important in several branches of science.

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Chirality (physics)

A chiral phenomenon is one that is not identical to its mirror image (see the article on mathematical chirality).

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Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17.

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Clyde Cowan

Clyde Lorrain Cowan Jr (December 6, 1919 in Detroit, Michigan – May 24, 1974 in Bethesda, Maryland) was an American physicist, the co-discoverer of the neutrino along with Frederick Reines.

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Confidence interval

In statistics, a confidence interval (CI) is a type of interval estimate, computed from the statistics of the observed data, that might contain the true value of an unknown population parameter.

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Conservation of energy

In physics, the law of conservation of energy states that the total energy of an isolated system remains constant, it is said to be ''conserved'' over time.

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Cosmic microwave background

The cosmic microwave background (CMB, CMBR) is electromagnetic radiation as a remnant from an early stage of the universe in Big Bang cosmology.

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Cosmic neutrino background

The cosmic neutrino background (CNB, CνB) is the universe's background particle radiation composed of neutrinos.

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Cosmic ray

Cosmic rays are high-energy radiation, mainly originating outside the Solar System and even from distant galaxies.

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Cosmology (from the Greek κόσμος, kosmos "world" and -λογία, -logia "study of") is the study of the origin, evolution, and eventual fate of the universe.

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Cowan–Reines neutrino experiment

The Cowan–Reines neutrino experiment was performed by Clyde L. Cowan and Frederick Reines in 1956.

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CP violation

In particle physics, CP violation is a violation of CP-symmetry (or charge conjugation parity symmetry): the combination of C-symmetry (charge conjugation symmetry) and P-symmetry (parity symmetry).

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Cross section (physics)

When two particles interact, their mutual cross section is the area transverse to their relative motion within which they must meet in order to scatter from each other.

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Dark matter

Dark matter is a theorized form of matter that is thought to account for approximately 80% of the matter in the universe, and about a quarter of its total energy density.

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Darmstadt is a city in the state of Hesse in Germany, located in the southern part of the Rhine-Main-Area (Frankfurt Metropolitan Region).

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Degenerate matter

Degenerate matter is a highly dense state of matter in which particles must occupy high states of kinetic energy in order to satisfy the Pauli exclusion principle.

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The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density, of a substance is its mass per unit volume.

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Deuterium (or hydrogen-2, symbol or, also known as heavy hydrogen) is one of two stable isotopes of hydrogen (the other being protium, or hydrogen-1).

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Diffuse supernova neutrino background

The Diffuse Supernova Neutrino Background (DSNB) is a theoretical population of neutrinos (and anti-neutrinos) originating from all of the supernovae events which have occurred throughout the Universe.

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Dirac fermion

In physics, a Dirac fermion is a fermion which is not its own antiparticle.

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DONUT (Direct observation of the nu tau, E872) was an experiment at Fermilab dedicated to the search for tau neutrino interactions.

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Double beta decay

In nuclear physics, double beta decay is a type of radioactive decay in which two protons are simultaneously transformed into two neutrons, or vice versa, inside an atomic nucleus.

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Doublet state

In quantum mechanics, a doublet is a mixed quantum state of a system with a spin of 1/2, such that there are two allowed values of the spin component, −1/2 and +1/2.

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Durham University

Durham University (legally the University of Durham) is a collegiate public research university in Durham, North East England, with a second campus in Stockton-on-Tees.

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Edoardo Amaldi

Edoardo Amaldi (5 September 1908 – 5 December 1989) was an Italian physicist.

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Eigenvalues and eigenvectors

In linear algebra, an eigenvector or characteristic vector of a linear transformation is a non-zero vector that changes by only a scalar factor when that linear transformation is applied to it.

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Electric charge

Electric charge is the physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when placed in an electromagnetic field.

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The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.

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Electron capture

Electron capture (K-electron capture, also K-capture, or L-electron capture, L-capture) is a process in which the proton-rich nucleus of an electrically neutral atom absorbs an inner atomic electron, usually from the K or L electron shell.

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Electron neutrino

The electron neutrino is a subatomic lepton elementary particle which has no net electric charge.

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Electroweak interaction

In particle physics, the electroweak interaction is the unified description of two of the four known fundamental interactions of nature: electromagnetism and the weak interaction.

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Elementary charge

The elementary charge, usually denoted as or sometimes, is the electric charge carried by a single proton, or equivalently, the magnitude of the electric charge carried by a single electron, which has charge.

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Elementary particle

In particle physics, an elementary particle or fundamental particle is a particle with no substructure, thus not composed of other particles.

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Elsevier is an information and analytics company and one of the world's major providers of scientific, technical, and medical information.

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Enrico Fermi

Enrico Fermi (29 September 1901 – 28 November 1954) was an Italian-American physicist and the creator of the world's first nuclear reactor, the Chicago Pile-1.

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Ettore Majorana

Ettore Majorana (born on 5 August 1906 – probably died after 1959) was an Italian theoretical physicist who worked on neutrino masses.

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European Physical Society

The European Physical Society (EPS) is a non-profit organization whose purpose is to promote physics and physicists in Europe through methods such as physics outreach.

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Faster-than-light neutrino anomaly

In 2011, the OPERA experiment mistakenly observed neutrinos appearing to travel faster than light.

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Fermi–Dirac statistics

In quantum statistics, a branch of physics, Fermi–Dirac statistics describe a distribution of particles over energy states in systems consisting of many identical particles that obey the Pauli exclusion principle.

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Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a United States Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics.

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In particle physics, a fermion is a particle that follows Fermi–Dirac statistics.

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Flavour (particle physics)

In particle physics, flavour or flavor refers to the species of an elementary particle.

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Frame of reference

In physics, a frame of reference (or reference frame) consists of an abstract coordinate system and the set of physical reference points that uniquely fix (locate and orient) the coordinate system and standardize measurements.

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Frederick Reines

Frederick Reines (March 16, 1918 – August 26, 1998) was an American physicist.

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Fritz Zwicky

Fritz Zwicky (February 14, 1898 – February 8, 1974) was a Swiss astronomer.

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A galaxy is a gravitationally bound system of stars, stellar remnants, interstellar gas, dust, and dark matter.

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Galaxy formation and evolution

The study of galaxy formation and evolution is concerned with the processes that formed a heterogeneous universe from a homogeneous beginning, the formation of the first galaxies, the way galaxies change over time, and the processes that have generated the variety of structures observed in nearby galaxies.

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Galaxy groups and clusters

Galaxy groups and clusters are the largest known gravitationally bound objects to have arisen thus far in the process of cosmic structure formation.

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Gallium is a chemical element with symbol Ga and atomic number 31.

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Gamma ray

A gamma ray or gamma radiation (symbol γ or \gamma), is penetrating electromagnetic radiation arising from the radioactive decay of atomic nuclei.

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Germanium is a chemical element with symbol Ge and atomic number 32.

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Germanium Detector Array

The Germanium Detector Array (or GERDA) experiment is searching for neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ) in Ge-76 at the underground Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS).

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Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.

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Grand unification energy

The grand unification energy \Lambda_, or the GUT scale, is the energy level above which, it is believed, the electromagnetic force, weak force, and strong force become equal in strength and unify to one force governed by a simple Lie group.

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Gravitational lens

A gravitational lens is a distribution of matter (such as a cluster of galaxies) between a distant light source and an observer, that is capable of bending the light from the source as the light travels towards the observer.

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Gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass or energy—including planets, stars, galaxies, and even light—are brought toward (or gravitate toward) one another.

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Greisen–Zatsepin–Kuzmin limit

The Greisen–Zatsepin–Kuzmin limit (GZK limit) is a theoretical upper limit on the energy of cosmic ray protons traveling from other galaxies through the intergalactic medium to our galaxy.

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GSI anomaly

One of the experimental facilities at the German laboratory GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research in Darmstadt is an ''E''xperimental ''S''torage ''R''ing (ESR) with electron cooling in which large numbers of highly charged radioactive ions can be stored for extended periods of time.

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GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research

The GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research (GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung) is a federally and state co-funded heavy ion research center in the Wixhausen suburb of Darmstadt, Germany.

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In particle physics, a hadron (ἁδρός, hadrós, "stout, thick") is a composite particle made of quarks held together by the strong force in a similar way as molecules are held together by the electromagnetic force.

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Half-life (symbol t1⁄2) is the time required for a quantity to reduce to half its initial value.

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Heavy water

Heavy water (deuterium oxide) is a form of water that contains a larger than normal amount of the hydrogen isotope deuterium (or D, also known as heavy hydrogen), rather than the common hydrogen-1 isotope (or H, also called protium) that makes up most of the hydrogen in normal water.

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Helicity (particle physics)

In particle physics, helicity is the projection of the spin onto the direction of momentum.

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Helium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol He and atomic number 2.

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Higgs boson

The Higgs boson is an elementary particle in the Standard Model of particle physics.

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High Energy Stereoscopic System

High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) is a system of Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACT) for the investigation of cosmic gamma rays in the photon energy range of 0.03 to 100 TeV.

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Highly charged ion

Highly charged ions (HCI) are ions in very high charge states due to the loss of many or most of their bound electrons by energetic collisions or high-energy photon absorption.

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Homestake experiment

The Homestake experiment (sometimes referred to as the Davis experiment) was an experiment headed by astrophysicists Raymond Davis, Jr. and John N. Bahcall in the late 1960s.

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Hot dark matter

Hot dark matter (HDM) is a theoretical form of dark matter which consists of particles that travel with ultrarelativistic velocities.

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ICARUS experiment

ICARUS (Imaging Cosmic And Rare Underground Signals) is a physics experiment aimed at studying neutrinos.

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IceCube Neutrino Observatory

The IceCube Neutrino Observatory (or simply IceCube) is a neutrino observatory constructed at the Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station in Antarctica.

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Institut Laue–Langevin

The Institut Laue–Langevin (ILL) is an internationally financed scientific facility, situated on the Polygone Scientifique in Grenoble, France.

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International Journal of Modern Physics

The International Journal of Modern Physics is a series of Physics journals published by World Scientific.

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Invariant mass

The invariant mass, rest mass, intrinsic mass, proper mass, or in the case of bound systems simply mass, is the portion of the total mass of an object or system of objects that is independent of the overall motion of the system.

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Inverse beta decay

Inverse beta decay, commonly abbreviated to IBD, is a nuclear reaction involving electron antineutrino scattering off a proton, creating a positron and a neutron.

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An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).

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Ionizing radiation

Ionizing radiation (ionising radiation) is radiation that carries enough energy to liberate electrons from atoms or molecules, thereby ionizing them.

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IOP Publishing

IOP Publishing (previously named Institute of Physics Publishing) is the publishing company of the Institute of Physics.

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Irvine–Michigan–Brookhaven (detector)

IMB, the Irvine-Michigan-Brookhaven detector, was a nucleon decay experiment and neutrino observatory located in a Morton Salt company's Fairport mine on the shore of Lake Erie in the United States.

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Isotopes of boron

Boron (5B) naturally occurs as isotopes 10B and 11B, the latter of which makes up about 80% of natural boron.

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Italian language

Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.

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Jack Steinberger

Hans Jakob "Jack" Steinberger (born May 25, 1921) is an American physicist who, along with Leon Lederman and Melvin Schwartz, received the 1988 Nobel Prize in Physics for the discovery of the muon neutrino.

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James Chadwick

Sir James Chadwick, (20 October 1891 – 24 July 1974) was an English physicist who was awarded the 1935 Nobel Prize in Physics for his discovery of the neutron in 1932.

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John Wiley & Sons

John Wiley & Sons, Inc., also referred to as Wiley, is a global publishing company that specializes in academic publishing.

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Journal of Applied Physics

The Journal of Applied Physics is a peer-reviewed scientific journal with a focus on the physics of modern technology.

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Kamioka Liquid Scintillator Antineutrino Detector

The Kamioka Liquid Scintillator Antineutrino Detector (KamLAND) is an electron antineutrino detector at the Kamioka Observatory, an underground neutrino detection facility near Toyama, Japan.

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Kamioka Observatory

The is a neutrino and gravitational waves laboratory located underground in the Mozumi Mine of the Kamioka Mining and Smelting Co. near the Kamioka section of the city of Hida in Gifu Prefecture, Japan.

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In particle physics, a kaon, also called a K meson and denoted,The positively charged kaon used to be called τ+ and θ+, as it was supposed to be two different particles until the 1960s.

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KATRIN is a German acronym (Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino Experiment) for an undertaking to measure the mass of the electron antineutrino with sub-eV precision by examining the spectrum of electrons emitted from the beta decay of tritium.

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The Kelvin scale is an absolute thermodynamic temperature scale using as its null point absolute zero, the temperature at which all thermal motion ceases in the classical description of thermodynamics.

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Kolar Gold Fields

KGF or Kolar Gold Fields is a mining region and taluk, in the Kolar District of Karnataka state, India.

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Large Electron–Positron Collider

The Large Electron–Positron Collider (LEP) was one of the largest particle accelerators ever constructed.

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Large Volume Detector

The Large Volume Detector (LVD) is a particle physics experiment situated in the Gran Sasso laboratory in Italy and is operated by the Italian Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN).

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Leon M. Lederman

Leon Max Lederman (born July 15, 1922) is an American experimental physicist who received the Wolf Prize in Physics in 1982, along with Martin Lewis Perl, for their research on quarks and leptons, and the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1988, along with Melvin Schwartz and Jack Steinberger, for their research on neutrinos.

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Leptogenesis (physics)

In physical cosmology, leptogenesis is the generic term for hypothetical physical processes that produced an asymmetry between leptons and antileptons in the very early universe, resulting in the present-day dominance of leptons over antileptons.

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In particle physics, a lepton is an elementary particle of half-integer spin (spin) that does not undergo strong interactions.

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Lepton number

In particle physics, lepton number (historically also called lepton charge) is a conserved quantum number representing the difference between the number of leptons and the number of antileptons in an elementary particle reaction.

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Lincoln Wolfenstein

Lincoln Wolfenstein (February 10, 1923, Cleveland, Ohio – March 27, 2015, Oakland, California) was an American particle physicist who studied the weak interaction.

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Liquid Scintillator Neutrino Detector

The Liquid Scintillator Neutrino Detector (LSND) was a scintillation counter at Los Alamos National Laboratory that measured the number of neutrinos being produced by an accelerator neutrino source.

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List of neutrino experiments

This is a non-exhaustive list of neutrino experiments, neutrino detectors, and neutrino telescopes.

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Lorentz covariance

In relativistic physics, Lorentz symmetry, named for Hendrik Lorentz, is an equivalence of observation or observational symmetry due to special relativity implying that the laws of physics stay the same for all observers that are moving with respect to one another within an inertial frame.

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Lorentz transformation

In physics, the Lorentz transformations (or transformation) are coordinate transformations between two coordinate frames that move at constant velocity relative to each other.

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Lorentz-violating neutrino oscillations

Lorentz-violating neutrino oscillation refers to the quantum phenomenon of neutrino oscillations described in a framework that allows the breakdown of Lorentz invariance.

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Los Alamos National Laboratory

Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos or LANL for short) is a United States Department of Energy national laboratory initially organized during World War II for the design of nuclear weapons as part of the Manhattan Project.

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Lyman-alpha forest

In astronomical spectroscopy, the Lyman-alpha forest is a series of absorption lines in the spectra of distant galaxies and quasars arising from the Lyman-alpha electron transition of the neutral hydrogen atom.

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MAGIC (telescope)

MAGIC (Major Atmospheric Gamma Imaging Cherenkov Telescopes) is a system of two Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes situated at the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory on La Palma, one of the Canary Islands, at about 2200 m above sea level.

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Magnetic moment

The magnetic moment is a quantity that represents the magnetic strength and orientation of a magnet or other object that produces a magnetic field.

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Majorana equation

The Majorana equation is a relativistic wave equation.

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Majorana fermion

A Majorana fermion (uploaded 19 April 2013, retrieved 5 October 2014; and also based on the physicist's name's pronunciation.), also referred to as a Majorana particle, is a fermion that is its own antiparticle.

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Masatoshi Koshiba

is a Japanese physicist, known as one of the founders of Neutrino astronomy and jointly won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2002.

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Mass is both a property of a physical body and a measure of its resistance to acceleration (a change in its state of motion) when a net force is applied.

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Melvin Schwartz

Melvin Schwartz (November 2, 1932 – August 28, 2006) was an American physicist.

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Mikheyev–Smirnov–Wolfenstein effect

The Mikheyev–Smirnov–Wolfenstein effect (often referred to as matter effect) is a particle physics process which can act to modify neutrino oscillations in matter.

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Milky Way

The Milky Way is the galaxy that contains our Solar System.

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Milli- (symbol m) is a unit prefix in the metric system denoting a factor of one thousandth (10−3).

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MiniBooNE is an experiment at Fermilab designed to observe neutrino oscillations (BooNE is an acronym for the Booster Neutrino Experiment).

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Main injector neutrino oscillation search (MINOS) was a particle physics experiment designed to study the phenomena of neutrino oscillations, first discovered by a Super-Kamiokande (Super-K) experiment in 1998.

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In electronics and telecommunications, modulation is the process of varying one or more properties of a periodic waveform, called the carrier signal, with a modulating signal that typically contains information to be transmitted.

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In Newtonian mechanics, linear momentum, translational momentum, or simply momentum (pl. momenta) is the product of the mass and velocity of an object.

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The muon (from the Greek letter mu (μ) used to represent it) is an elementary particle similar to the electron, with an electric charge of −1 e and a spin of 1/2, but with a much greater mass.

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Muon neutrino

The muon neutrino is a lepton, an elementary subatomic particle which has the symbol and no net electric charge.

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Names of large numbers

This article lists and discusses the usage and derivation of names of large numbers, together with their possible extensions.

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National Physical Laboratory (United Kingdom)

The National Physical Laboratory (NPL) is the national measurement standards laboratory for the United Kingdom, based at Bushy Park in Teddington, London, England.

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Nature (journal)

Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.

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NESTOR Project

The NESTOR Project (Neutrino Extended Submarine Telescope with Oceanographic Research Project) is an international scientific collaboration whose target is the deployment of a neutrino telescope on the sea floor off Pylos, Greece.

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Neutrino astronomy

Neutrino astronomy is the branch of astronomy that observes astronomical objects with neutrino detectors in special observatories.

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Neutrino detector

A neutrino detector is a physics apparatus which is designed to study neutrinos.

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Neutrino Factory

The Neutrino Factory is a proposed particle accelerator complex intended to measure in detail the properties of neutrinos, which are extremely weakly interacting fundamental particles that can travel in straight lines through normal matter for thousands of kilometres.

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Neutrino oscillation

Neutrino oscillation is a quantum mechanical phenomenon whereby a neutrino created with a specific lepton flavor (electron, muon, or tau) can later be measured to have a different flavor.

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| magnetic_moment.

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Neutron star

A neutron star is the collapsed core of a large star which before collapse had a total of between 10 and 29 solar masses.

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New Journal of Physics

New Journal of Physics is an online-only, open-access, peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research in all aspects of physics, as well as interdisciplinary topics where physics forms the central theme.

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Niels Bohr

Niels Henrik David Bohr (7 October 1885 – 18 November 1962) was a Danish physicist who made foundational contributions to understanding atomic structure and quantum theory, for which he received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1922.

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Nobel Foundation

The Nobel Foundation (Nobelstiftelsen) is a private institution founded on 29 June 1900 to manage the finances and administration of the Nobel Prizes.

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Nobel Prize in Physics

The Nobel Prize in Physics (Nobelpriset i fysik) is a yearly award given by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences for those who conferred the most outstanding contributions for mankind in the field of physics.

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The NOνA (NuMI Off-Axis νe Appearance) experiment is a particle physics experiment designed to detect neutrinos in Fermilab's NuMI (Neutrinos at the Main Injector) beam.

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Nu (letter)

Nu (uppercase Ν lowercase ν; νι ni) or ny is the 13th letter of the Greek alphabet.

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Nuclear fission

In nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, nuclear fission is either a nuclear reaction or a radioactive decay process in which the nucleus of an atom splits into smaller parts (lighter nuclei).

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Nuclear fusion

In nuclear physics, nuclear fusion is a reaction in which two or more atomic nuclei come close enough to form one or more different atomic nuclei and subatomic particles (neutrons or protons).

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Nuclear proliferation

Nuclear proliferation is the spread of nuclear weapons, fissionable material, and weapons-applicable nuclear technology and information to nations not recognized as "Nuclear Weapon States" by the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, commonly known as the Non-Proliferation Treaty or NPT.

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Nuclear reaction

In nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, a nuclear reaction is semantically considered to be the process in which two nuclei, or else a nucleus of an atom and a subatomic particle (such as a proton, neutron, or high energy electron) from outside the atom, collide to produce one or more nuclides that are different from the nuclide(s) that began the process.

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Nuclear reactor

A nuclear reactor, formerly known as an atomic pile, is a device used to initiate and control a self-sustained nuclear chain reaction.

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Nuclear weapon

A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions (thermonuclear bomb).

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Oneworld Publications

Oneworld Publications is a British independent publishing firm founded in 1986 by Novin Doostdar and Juliet Mabey originally to publish accessible non-fiction by experts and academics for the general market.

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OPERA experiment

The Oscillation Project with Emulsion-tRacking Apparatus (OPERA) was an instrument used in a scientific experiment for detecting tau neutrinos from muon neutrino oscillations.

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Osaka City University

, abbreviated to, is a public university in Japan.

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Oscillation is the repetitive variation, typically in time, of some measure about a central value (often a point of equilibrium) or between two or more different states.

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Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.

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The parsec (symbol: pc) is a unit of length used to measure large distances to astronomical objects outside the Solar System.

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Particle accelerator

A particle accelerator is a machine that uses electromagnetic fields to propel charged particles to nearly light speed and to contain them in well-defined beams.

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Particle Data Group

The Particle Data Group (or PDG) is an international collaboration of particle physicists that compiles and reanalyzes published results related to the properties of particles and fundamental interactions.

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Particle physics

Particle physics (also high energy physics) is the branch of physics that studies the nature of the particles that constitute matter and radiation.

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Paul Dirac

Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac (8 August 1902 – 20 October 1984) was an English theoretical physicist who is regarded as one of the most significant physicists of the 20th century.

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Photomultiplier tubes (photomultipliers or PMTs for short), members of the class of vacuum tubes, and more specifically vacuum phototubes, are extremely sensitive detectors of light in the ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared ranges of the electromagnetic spectrum.

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The photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles).

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Physical cosmology

Physical cosmology is the study of the largest-scale structures and dynamics of the Universe and is concerned with fundamental questions about its origin, structure, evolution, and ultimate fate.

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Physical Review

Physical Review is an American peer-reviewed scientific journal established in 1893 by Edward Nichols.

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Pierre Auger Observatory

The Pierre Auger Observatory is an international cosmic ray observatory in Argentina designed to detect ultra-high-energy cosmic rays: sub-atomic particles traveling nearly at the speed of light and each with energies beyond 1018 eV.

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In particle physics, a pion (or a pi meson, denoted with the Greek letter pi) is any of three subatomic particles:,, and.

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Planck (spacecraft)

Planck was a space observatory operated by the European Space Agency (ESA) from 2009 to 2013, which mapped the anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) at microwave and infra-red frequencies, with high sensitivity and small angular resolution.

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Pontecorvo–Maki–Nakagawa–Sakata matrix

In particle physics, the Pontecorvo–Maki–Nakagawa–Sakata matrix (PMNS matrix), Maki–Nakagawa–Sakata matrix (MNS matrix), lepton mixing matrix, or neutrino mixing matrix is a unitaryThe PMNS matrix is not unitary in the seesaw model.

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The positron or antielectron is the antiparticle or the antimatter counterpart of the electron.

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| magnetic_moment.

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Quanta Magazine

Quanta Magazine is an editorially independent online publication of the Simons Foundation covering developments in mathematics, theoretical physics, theoretical computer science and the basic life sciences.

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Quantum gravity

Quantum gravity (QG) is a field of theoretical physics that seeks to describe gravity according to the principles of quantum mechanics, and where quantum effects cannot be ignored, such as near compact astrophysical objects where the effects of gravity are strong.

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Quantum superposition

Quantum superposition is a fundamental principle of quantum mechanics.

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A quark is a type of elementary particle and a fundamental constituent of matter.

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Radioactive decay

Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.

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Raymond Davis Jr.

Raymond "Ray" Davis Jr. (October 14, 1914 – May 31, 2006) was an American chemist and physicist.

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Redshift survey

In astronomy, a redshift survey is a survey of a section of the sky to measure the redshift of astronomical objects: usually galaxies, but sometimes other objects such as galaxy clusters or quasars.

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Reports on Progress in Physics

Reports on Progress in Physics is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by IOP Publishing.

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Reviews of Modern Physics

Reviews of Modern Physics is a quarterly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the American Physical Society.

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Science (journal)

Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.

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Science Daily

Science Daily is an American website that aggregates press releases and publishes lightly edited press releases (a practice called churnalism) about science, similar to Phys.org and EurekAlert!.

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Science News

Science News is an American bi-weekly magazine devoted to short articles about new scientific and technical developments, typically gleaned from recent scientific and technical journals.

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Scientific American

Scientific American (informally abbreviated SciAm) is an American popular science magazine.

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A scintillator is a material that exhibits scintillation—the property of luminescence, when excited by ionizing radiation.

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Seesaw mechanism

In the theory of grand unification of particle physics, and, in particular, in theories of neutrino masses and neutrino oscillation, the seesaw mechanism is a generic model used to understand the relative sizes of observed neutrino masses, of the order of eV, compared to those of quarks and charged leptons, which are millions of times heavier.

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Simons Foundation

The Simons Foundation is a private foundation established in 1994 by Marilyn and James Harris Simons with offices in New York City.

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Sine wave

A sine wave or sinusoid is a mathematical curve that describes a smooth periodic oscillation.

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SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory

SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, originally named Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, is a United States Department of Energy National Laboratory operated by Stanford University under the programmatic direction of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science and located in Menlo Park, California.

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SN 1987A

SN 1987A was a peculiar type II supernova in the Large Magellanic Cloud, a dwarf galaxy satellite of the Milky Way.

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Solar core

The core of the Sun is considered to extend from the center to about 0.2 to 0.25 of solar radius.

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Solar neutrino

Electron neutrinos are produced in the Sun as a product of nuclear fusion.

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Solar neutrino problem

The solar neutrino problem concerned a large discrepancy between the flux of solar neutrinos as predicted from the Sun's luminosity and measured directly.

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Solvay Conference

The International Solvay Institutes for Physics and Chemistry, located in Brussels, were founded by the Belgian industrialist Ernest Solvay in 1912, following the historic invitation-only 1911 Conseil Solvay, considered a turning point in the world of physics.

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South Pole

The South Pole, also known as the Geographic South Pole or Terrestrial South Pole, is one of the two points where the Earth's axis of rotation intersects its surface.

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Special relativity

In physics, special relativity (SR, also known as the special theory of relativity or STR) is the generally accepted and experimentally well-confirmed physical theory regarding the relationship between space and time.

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Speed of light

The speed of light in vacuum, commonly denoted, is a universal physical constant important in many areas of physics.

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Spin (physics)

In quantum mechanics and particle physics, spin is an intrinsic form of angular momentum carried by elementary particles, composite particles (hadrons), and atomic nuclei.

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In quantum mechanics, spin is an intrinsic property of all elementary particles.

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Springer Science+Business Media

Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.

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Standard Model

The Standard Model of particle physics is the theory describing three of the four known fundamental forces (the electromagnetic, weak, and strong interactions, and not including the gravitational force) in the universe, as well as classifying all known elementary particles.

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Standard solar model

The standard solar model (SSM) is a mathematical treatment of the Sun as a spherical ball of gas (in varying states of ionisation, with the hydrogen in the deep interior being a completely ionised plasma).

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Standard-Model Extension

Standard-Model Extension (SME) is an effective field theory that contains the Standard Model, general relativity, and all possible operators that break Lorentz symmetry.

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Stanislav Mikheyev

Stanislav Pavlovich Mikheyev (Станисла́в Па́влович Михе́ев; 1940 – 23 April 2011) was a Russian physicist known for the discovery of the MSW effect.

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A star is type of astronomical object consisting of a luminous spheroid of plasma held together by its own gravity.

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Sterile neutrino

Sterile neutrinos (or inert neutrinos) are a hypothetical particle (neutral leptons – neutrinos) that interact only via gravity and do not interact via any of the fundamental interactions of the Standard Model.

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Storage ring

A storage ring is a type of circular particle accelerator in which a continuous or pulsed particle beam may be kept circulating typically for many hours.

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Strong interaction

In particle physics, the strong interaction is the mechanism responsible for the strong nuclear force (also called the strong force or nuclear strong force), and is one of the four known fundamental interactions, with the others being electromagnetism, the weak interaction, and gravitation.

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Subatomic scale

The subatomic scale is the domain of physical size that encompasses objects smaller than an atom.

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Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) was a neutrino observatory located 2100 m underground in Vale's Creighton Mine in Sudbury, Ontario, Canada.

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The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System.

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Super-Kamiokande (semi-abbreviation of full name: Super-Kamioka Neutrino Detection Experiment, also abbreviated to Super-K or SK; スーパーカミオカンデ) is a neutrino observatory located under Mount Ikeno near the city of Hida, Gifu Prefecture, Japan.

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A supernova (plural: supernovae or supernovas, abbreviations: SN and SNe) is a transient astronomical event that occurs during the last stellar evolutionary stages of a star's life, either a massive star or a white dwarf, whose destruction is marked by one final, titanic explosion.

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Supernova Early Warning System

The SuperNova Early Warning System (SNEWS) is a network of neutrino detectors designed to give early warning to astronomers in the event of a supernova in the Milky Way, our home galaxy, or in a nearby galaxy such as the Large Magellanic Cloud or the Canis Major Dwarf Galaxy.

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Supernova remnant

A supernova remnant (SNR) is the structure resulting from the explosion of a star in a supernova.

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T2K experiment

T2K (Tokai to Kamioka, Japan) is a particle physics experiment that is a collaboration between several countries, including Japan, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, South Korea, Poland, Russia, Spain, Switzerland, the United States, and the United Kingdom.

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Takaaki Kajita

is a Japanese physicist, known for neutrino experiments at the Kamiokande and its successor, Super-Kamiokande.

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Tata Institute of Fundamental Research

Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR) is a public research institution located in Mumbai, India that is dedicated to basic research in mathematics and the sciences.

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Tau (particle)

The tau (τ), also called the tau lepton, tau particle, or tauon, is an elementary particle similar to the electron, with negative electric charge and a 2.

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Tau neutrino

The tau neutrino or tauon neutrino is a subatomic elementary particle which has the symbol and no net electric charge.

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The Astrophysical Journal

The Astrophysical Journal, often abbreviated ApJ (pronounced "ap jay") in references and speech, is a peer-reviewed scientific journal of astrophysics and astronomy, established in 1895 by American astronomers George Ellery Hale and James Edward Keeler.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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Thermal power station

A thermal power station is a power station in which heat energy is converted to electric power.

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Tomography is imaging by sections or sectioning, through the use of any kind of penetrating wave.

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Type Ib and Ic supernovae

Type Ib and Type Ic supernovae are categories of supernovae that are caused by the core collapse of massive stars.

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Type II supernova

A Type II supernova (plural: supernovae or supernovas) results from the rapid collapse and violent explosion of a massive star.

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Ultra-high-energy gamma ray

Ultra-high-energy gamma rays are gamma rays with photon energies higher than 100 TeV (0.1 PeV).

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Uncertainty principle

In quantum mechanics, the uncertainty principle (also known as Heisenberg's uncertainty principle) is any of a variety of mathematical inequalities asserting a fundamental limit to the precision with which certain pairs of physical properties of a particle, known as complementary variables, such as position x and momentum p, can be known.

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The Universe is all of space and time and their contents, including planets, stars, galaxies, and all other forms of matter and energy.

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University of California, Irvine

The University of California, Irvine (UCI, UC Irvine, or Irvine), is a public research university located in Irvine, Orange County, California, United States, and one of the 10 campuses in the University of California (UC) system.

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University of Chicago Press

The University of Chicago Press is the largest and one of the oldest university presses in the United States.

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University of Nottingham

The University of Nottingham is a public research university in Nottingham, United Kingdom.

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University of Wisconsin–Madison

The University of Wisconsin–Madison (also known as University of Wisconsin, Wisconsin, UW, or regionally as UW–Madison, or simply Madison) is a public research university in Madison, Wisconsin, United States.

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The velocity of an object is the rate of change of its position with respect to a frame of reference, and is a function of time.

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VERITAS (Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System) is a major ground-based gamma-ray observatory with an array of four 12 meter optical reflectors for gamma-ray astronomy in the GeV – TeV photon energy range.

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Vitaly Ginzburg

Vitaly Lazarevich Ginzburg, ForMemRS (Вита́лий Ла́заревич Ги́нзбург; 4 October 1916 – 8 November 2009) was a Soviet and Russian theoretical physicist, astrophysicist, Nobel laureate, a member of the Soviet and Russian Academies of Sciences and one of the fathers of the Soviet hydrogen bomb.

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W and Z bosons

The W and Z bosons are together known as the weak or more generally as the intermediate vector bosons. These elementary particles mediate the weak interaction; the respective symbols are,, and.

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W. H. Freeman and Company


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Walter Baade

Wilhelm Heinrich Walter Baade (March 24, 1893 – June 25, 1960) was a German astronomer who worked in the United States from 1931 to 1959.

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Wang Ganchang

Wang Ganchang (May 28, 1907 – December 10, 1998) was a Chinese nuclear physicist.

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Warm dark matter

Warm dark matter (WDM) is a hypothesized form of dark matter that has properties intermediate between those of hot dark matter and cold dark matter, causing structure formation to occur bottom-up from above their free-streaming scale, and top-down below their free streaming scale.

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Waste heat

Waste heat is heat that is produced by a machine, or other process that uses energy, as a byproduct of doing work.

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Wave packet

In physics, a wave packet (or wave train) is a short "burst" or "envelope" of localized wave action that travels as a unit.

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Weak interaction

In particle physics, the weak interaction (the weak force or weak nuclear force) is the mechanism of interaction between sub-atomic particles that causes radioactive decay and thus plays an essential role in nuclear fission.

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Werner Heisenberg

Werner Karl Heisenberg (5 December 1901 – 1 February 1976) was a German theoretical physicist and one of the key pioneers of quantum mechanics.

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Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe

The Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP), originally known as the Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP), was a spacecraft operating from 2001 to 2010 which measured temperature differences across the sky in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) – the radiant heat remaining from the Big Bang.

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Wolfgang Pauli

Wolfgang Ernst Pauli (25 April 1900 – 15 December 1958) was an Austrian-born Swiss and American theoretical physicist and one of the pioneers of quantum physics.

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Yukawa interaction

In particle physics, Yukawa's interaction or Yukawa coupling, named after Hideki Yukawa, is an interaction between a scalar field ϕ and a Dirac field ψ of the type The Yukawa interaction can be used to describe the nuclear force between nucleons (which are fermions), mediated by pions (which are pseudoscalar mesons).

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Zeitschrift für Physik

Zeitschrift für Physik (English: Journal for physics) is a defunct series of German peer-reviewed German scientific journal of physics established in 1920 by Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

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1,000,000,000 (one billion, short scale; one thousand million or milliard, yard, long scale) is the natural number following 999,999,999 and preceding 1,000,000,001.

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1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene, also known as pseudocumene, is an organic compound with the chemical formula C6H3(CH3)3.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neutrino

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