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New Amsterdam

Index New Amsterdam

New Amsterdam (Nieuw Amsterdam, or) was a 17th-century Dutch settlement established at the southern tip of Manhattan Island that served as the seat of the colonial government in New Netherland. [1]

135 relations: Adriaen Block, Albany, New York, Alexander Hamilton U.S. Custom House, Alternate history, American Dream, Anthony Colve, Architrave, Ashkenazi Jews, Asser Levy, Austrian National Library, Banda Islands, Beverwijck, Bowling Green (New York City), British Library, Broad Street (Manhattan), Broadway (Manhattan), Burlington Island, Cape Cod, Castello Plan, Castoreum, Charles II of England, City map, Communipaw Ferry, Connecticut River, Cornelius Jacobsen May, Counts and Dukes of Angoulême, Delaware River, Detective fiction, Duke of York, Dutch Americans, Dutch Colonial Revival architecture, Dutch East India Company, Dutch Empire, Dutch guilder, Dutch Republic, Dutch West India Company, Dutch–Portuguese War, East Indies, Elizabeth Bear, Factory (trading post), Felt, Financial District, Manhattan, Fort Amsterdam, Fort Nassau (North River), Fort Wilhelmus, Francis I of France, Fur, Fur trade, Giovanni da Verrazzano, Governor of New York, ..., Governors Island, Great Fire of New York, Great Fire of New York (1776), Halve Maen, Harlem, Hendrick Christiaensen, Hendrik Willem van Loon, Henry Hudson, Historian, Historic preservation, History of the Netherlands, Hudson River, If It Had Happened Otherwise, Infant, International Institute of Social History, J. C. Squire, Jacobus van de Water, James II of England, Johannes de Decker, Journalist, Juan (Jan) Rodriguez, Lenape, List of ethnic groups of Africa, Long Island, Mahican, Manhattan, Manhattan Municipal Building, Maurice, Prince of Orange, Mayflower, Mohawk people, Napoleonic Wars, National Park Service, Native Americans in the United States, New Amsterdam Theatre, New Angoulême, New Netherland, New Netherland Institute, New York Bay, New York City, New York Conspiracy of 1741, North American beaver, North Maluku, Northwest Passage, Nutmeg, Old Saybrook, Connecticut, Peach Tree War, People of the Dominican Republic, Peter Minuit, Peter Stuyvesant, Pilgrims (Plymouth Colony), Plymouth Colony, Portuguese people, Random House, Recife, Run (island), Russell Shorto, Santo Domingo, Sawmill, Seal of New York City, Seat of local government, Second Anglo-Dutch War, Second Avenue (Manhattan), Simon & Schuster, Spanish dollar, Stadtholder, States General of the Netherlands, Suriname, The Battery (Manhattan), The English Historical Review, Third Anglo-Dutch War, Treaty of Breda (1667), Treaty of Westminster (1674), Vienna, Vintage Books, Wall Street, Wampum, Wappinger, Whitehall Street, Willem Kieft, Willem Verhulst, William Bradford (Plymouth Colony governor), Wyckoff House, 38th parallel north, 45th parallel north, 74th Street (Manhattan). Expand index (85 more) »

Adriaen Block

Adriaen (Aerjan) Block (c. 1567 – buried April 27, 1627) was a Dutch private trader, privateer, and ship’s captain who is best known for exploring the coastal and river valley areas between present-day New Jersey and Massachusetts during four voyages from 1611 to 1614, following the 1609 expedition by Henry Hudson.

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Albany, New York

Albany is the capital of the U.S. state of New York and the seat of Albany County.

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Alexander Hamilton U.S. Custom House

The Alexander Hamilton U.S. Custom House is a building in New York City built in 1902–07 by the federal government to house the duty collection operations for the Port of New York.

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Alternate history

Alternate history or alternative history (Commonwealth English), sometimes abbreviated as AH, is a genre of fiction consisting of stories in which one or more historical events occur differently.

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American Dream

The American Dream is a national ethos of the United States, the set of ideals (democracy, rights, liberty, opportunity and equality) in which freedom includes the opportunity for prosperity and success, as well as an upward social mobility for the family and children, achieved through hard work in a society with few barriers.

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Anthony Colve

Anthony or Anthonij Colve (fl.1667-1695) was a Dutch naval captain and the Director-General of New Netherland during a brief restoration of Dutch rule in New Netherland (roughly present-day New York and New Jersey).

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An architrave (from architrave "chief beam", also called an epistyle; from Greek ἐπίστυλον epistylon "door frame") is the lintel or beam that rests on the capitals of the columns.

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Ashkenazi Jews

Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or simply Ashkenazim (אַשְׁכְּנַזִּים, Ashkenazi Hebrew pronunciation:, singular:, Modern Hebrew:; also), are a Jewish diaspora population who coalesced in the Holy Roman Empire around the end of the first millennium.

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Asser Levy

Asser Levy (died 1680), also known as Asher Levy, was one of the first Jewish settlers of the Dutch colony of New Amsterdam on Manhattan Island.

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Austrian National Library

The Austrian National Library (Österreichische Nationalbibliothek) is the largest library in Austria, with more than 12 million items in its various collections.

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Banda Islands

The Banda Islands (Kepulauan Banda) are a volcanic group of ten small volcanic islands in the Banda Sea, about south of Seram Island and about east of Java, and constitute an administrative district (kecamatan) within the Central Maluku Regency in the Indonesian province of Maluku.

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Beverwijck, often written using the pre-reform orthography Beverwyck, was a fur-trading community north of Fort Orange on the Hudson River in New Netherland that was renamed and developed as Albany, New York, after the English took control of the colony in 1664.

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Bowling Green (New York City)

Bowling Green is a small public park in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York City, at the southern end of Broadway, next to the site of the original Dutch fort of New Amsterdam.

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British Library

The British Library is the national library of the United Kingdom and the largest national library in the world by number of items catalogued.

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Broad Street (Manhattan)

Broad Street is a narrow street located in the Financial District in the New York City borough of Manhattan.

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Broadway (Manhattan)

Broadway is a road in the U.S. state of New York.

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Burlington Island

Burlington Island is a island located in the Delaware River between Pennsylvania and New Jersey in the United States.

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Cape Cod

Cape Cod is a geographic cape extending into the Atlantic Ocean from the southeastern corner of mainland Massachusetts, in the northeastern United States.

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Castello Plan

The Castello Plan — officially entitled Afbeeldinge van de Stadt Amsterdam in Nieuw Neederlandt (Dutch, "Picture of the City of Amsterdam in New Netherland") — is an early city map of Lower Manhattan from an original of 1660.

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Castoreum is the exudate from the castor sacs of the mature North American beaver (Castor canadensis) and the European beaver (Castor fiber).

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Charles II of England

Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was king of England, Scotland and Ireland.

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City map

A city map is a large-scale thematic map of a city (or part of a city) created to enable the fastest possible orientation in an urban space.

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Communipaw Ferry

The Communipaw Ferry was a major ferry service that operated between the village of Communipaw (in what would become Jersey City, New Jersey) and lower Manhattan, New York.

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Connecticut River

The Connecticut River is the longest river in the New England region of the United States, flowing roughly southward for through four states.

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Cornelius Jacobsen May

Cornelis Jacobsen Mey (in English often rendered as Cornelius Jacobsen May) was a Dutch explorer, captain and fur trader.

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Counts and Dukes of Angoulême

Angoulême (L'Angoumois) in western France was part of the Carolingian Empire as the kingdom of Aquitaine.

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Delaware River

The Delaware River is a major river on the Atlantic coast of the United States.

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Detective fiction

Detective fiction is a subgenre of crime fiction and mystery fiction in which an investigator or a detective—either professional, amateur or retired—investigates a crime, often murder.

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Duke of York

The Duke of York is a title of nobility in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.

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Dutch Americans

Dutch Americans are Americans of Dutch descent whose ancestors came from the Netherlands in the recent or distant past.

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Dutch Colonial Revival architecture

Dutch Colonial is a style of domestic architecture, primarily characterized by gambrel roofs having curved eaves along the length of the house.

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Dutch East India Company

The United East India Company, sometimes known as the United East Indies Company (Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie; or Verenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie in modern spelling; abbreviated to VOC), better known to the English-speaking world as the Dutch East India Company or sometimes as the Dutch East Indies Company, was a multinational corporation that was founded in 1602 from a government-backed consolidation of several rival Dutch trading companies.

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Dutch Empire

The Dutch Empire (Het Nederlandse Koloniale Rijk) comprised the overseas colonies, enclaves, and outposts controlled and administered by Dutch chartered companies, mainly the Dutch West India and the Dutch East India Company, and subsequently by the Dutch Republic (1581–1795), and the modern Kingdom of the Netherlands since 1815.

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Dutch guilder

The Dutch guilder (gulden) or fl. was the currency of the Netherlands from the 17th century until 2002, when it was replaced by the euro.

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Dutch Republic

The Dutch Republic was a republic that existed from the formal creation of a confederacy in 1581 by several Dutch provinces (which earlier seceded from the Spanish rule) until the Batavian Revolution in 1795.

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Dutch West India Company

Dutch West India Company (Geoctroyeerde Westindische Compagnie, or GWIC; Chartered West India Company) was a chartered company (known as the "WIC") of Dutch merchants as well as foreign investors.

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Dutch–Portuguese War

The Dutch–Portuguese War was an armed conflict involving Dutch forces, in the form of the Dutch East India Company and the Dutch West India Company, against the Portuguese Empire.

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East Indies

The East Indies or the Indies are the lands of South and Southeast Asia.

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Elizabeth Bear

Sarah Bear Elizabeth Wishnevsky (born September 22, 1971) is an American author who works primarily in speculative fiction genres, writing under the name Elizabeth Bear.

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Factory (trading post)

"Factory" (from Latin facere, meaning "to do"; feitoria, factorij, factorerie, comptoir) was the common name during the medieval and early modern eras for an entrepôt – which was essentially an early form of free-trade zone or transshipment point.

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Felt is a textile material that is produced by matting, condensing and pressing fibers together.

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Financial District, Manhattan

The Financial District of Lower Manhattan, also known as FiDi, is a neighborhood located on the southern tip of Manhattan Island, where the City of New York itself originated in 1624.

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Fort Amsterdam

Fort Amsterdam (subsequently named Fort James, Fort Willem Hendrick, Fort James (again), Fort William Henry, Fort Anne and Fort George) was a fort on the southern tip of Manhattan that was the administrative headquarters for the Dutch and then English/British rule of New York from 1625 or 1626 until being torn down in 1790 after the American Revolution.

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Fort Nassau (North River)

Fort Nassau (a.k.a. Fort van Nassouwen) was the first Dutch settlement in North America, located beside the "North River" (the modern Hudson) within present-day Albany, New York, in the United States.

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Fort Wilhelmus

Fort Wilhelmus was a factorij in the 17th-century colonial province of New Netherland, located on what had been named Hooghe Eyland (High Island) (also called Verhulsten Island) on the Zuyd Rivier, now Burlington Island in the Delaware River in New Jersey.

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Francis I of France

Francis I (François Ier) (12 September 1494 – 31 March 1547) was the first King of France from the Angoulême branch of the House of Valois, reigning from 1515 until his death.

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Fur is the hair covering of non-human mammals, particularly those mammals with extensive body hair that is soft and thick.

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Fur trade

The fur trade is a worldwide industry dealing in the acquisition and sale of animal fur.

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Giovanni da Verrazzano

Giovanni da Verrazzano (sometimes also incorrectly spelled Verrazano) (1485–1528) was an Italian explorer of North America, in the service of King Francis I of France.

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Governor of New York

The Governor of the State of New York is the chief executive of the U.S. state of New York.

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Governors Island

Governors Island is a island in New York Harbor, approximately from the southern tip of Manhattan Island and separated from Brooklyn by Buttermilk Channel, approximately.

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Great Fire of New York

The 1835 Great Fire of New York was one of three fires that rendered extensive damage to New York City in the 18th and 19th centuries.

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Great Fire of New York (1776)

The Great Fire of New York was a devastating fire that burned through the night of September 20, 1776, and into the morning of September 21, on the West Side of what then constituted New York City at the southern end of the island of Manhattan.

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Halve Maen

Halve Maen (Half Moon) was a Dutch East India Company vlieboot (similar to a carrack) which sailed into what is now New York Harbor in September 1609.

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Harlem is a large neighborhood in the northern section of the New York City borough of Manhattan.

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Hendrick Christiaensen

Hendrick Christiaensen (died 1619) was a Dutch explorer who was involved in the earlier exploration of what became the colony of New Netherland.

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Hendrik Willem van Loon

Hendrik Willem van Loon (January 14, 1882 – March 11, 1944) was a Dutch-American historian, journalist, and award-winning children's book author.

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Henry Hudson

Henry Hudson (1565–1611) was an English sea explorer and navigator during the early 17th century, best known for his explorations of present-day Canada and parts of the northeastern United States.

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A historian is a person who studies and writes about the past, and is regarded as an authority on it.

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Historic preservation

Historic preservation (US), heritage preservation or heritage conservation (UK), is an endeavour that seeks to preserve, conserve and protect buildings, objects, landscapes or other artifacts of historical significance.

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History of the Netherlands

The history of the Netherlands is the history of seafaring people thriving on a lowland river delta on the North Sea in northwestern Europe.

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Hudson River

The Hudson River is a river that flows from north to south primarily through eastern New York in the United States.

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If It Had Happened Otherwise

If It Had Happened Otherwise is a 1931 collection of essays edited by J. C. Squire and published by Longmans, Green.

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An infant (from the Latin word infans, meaning "unable to speak" or "speechless") is the more formal or specialised synonym for "baby", the very young offspring of a human.

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International Institute of Social History

The International Institute of Social History (IISG) is one of the largest archives for labour, left and social history in the world.

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J. C. Squire

Sir John Collings Squire (2 April 1884 – 20 December 1958) was a British writer, most notable as editor of the London Mercury, a major literary magazine between the world wars.

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Jacobus van de Water

Jacobus Benjamin van de Water was mayor and "auditeur" of the city of New Amsterdam ca.

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James II of England

James II and VII (14 October 1633O.S. – 16 September 1701An assertion found in many sources that James II died 6 September 1701 (17 September 1701 New Style) may result from a miscalculation done by an author of anonymous "An Exact Account of the Sickness and Death of the Late King James II, as also of the Proceedings at St. Germains thereupon, 1701, in a letter from an English gentleman in France to his friend in London" (Somers Tracts, ed. 1809–1815, XI, pp. 339–342). The account reads: "And on Friday the 17th instant, about three in the afternoon, the king died, the day he always fasted in memory of our blessed Saviour's passion, the day he ever desired to die on, and the ninth hour, according to the Jewish account, when our Saviour was crucified." As 17 September 1701 New Style falls on a Saturday and the author insists that James died on Friday, "the day he ever desired to die on", an inevitable conclusion is that the author miscalculated the date, which later made it to various reference works. See "English Historical Documents 1660–1714", ed. by Andrew Browning (London and New York: Routledge, 2001), 136–138.) was King of England and Ireland as James II and King of Scotland as James VII, from 6 February 1685 until he was deposed in the Glorious Revolution of 1688.

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Johannes de Decker

Johannes De Decker (born 1626 in Dordrecht, Holland) was one of the six signers of the articles of capitulation of New Amsterdam to the British September 6, 1664.

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A journalist is a person who collects, writes, or distributes news or other current information to the public.

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Juan (Jan) Rodriguez

Juan Rodriguez (Dutch: Jan Rodrigues, Portuguese: João Rodrigues) was the first documented non-Native American to live on Manhattan Island.

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The Lenape, also called the Leni Lenape, Lenni Lenape and Delaware people, are an indigenous people of the Northeastern Woodlands, who live in Canada and the United States.

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List of ethnic groups of Africa

The ethnic groups of Africa number in the thousands, with each population generally having its own language (or dialect of a language) and culture.

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Long Island

Long Island is a densely populated island off the East Coast of the United States, beginning at New York Harbor just 0.35 miles (0.56 km) from Manhattan Island and extending eastward into the Atlantic Ocean.

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The Mahicans (or Mohicans) are an Eastern Algonquian Native American tribe related to the abutting Delaware people, originally settled in the upper Hudson River Valley (around Albany, New York) and western New England centered on Pittsfield, Massachusetts and lower present-day Vermont.

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Manhattan is the most densely populated borough of New York City, its economic and administrative center, and its historical birthplace.

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Manhattan Municipal Building

The David N. Dinkins Municipal Building, originally the Municipal Building and then the Manhattan Municipal Building, at 1 Centre Street in Manhattan, New York City, is a 40-story building built to accommodate increased governmental space demands after the 1898 consolidation of the city's five boroughs.

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Maurice, Prince of Orange

Maurice of Orange (Dutch: Maurits van Oranje) (14 November 1567 – 23 April 1625) was stadtholder of all the provinces of the Dutch Republic except for Friesland from 1585 at earliest until his death in 1625.

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The Mayflower was an English ship that famously transported the first English Puritans, known today as the Pilgrims, from Plymouth, England to the New World in 1620.

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Mohawk people

The Mohawk people (who identify as Kanien'kehá:ka) are the most easterly tribe of the Haudenosaunee, or Iroquois Confederacy.

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Napoleonic Wars

The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom.

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National Park Service

The National Park Service (NPS) is an agency of the United States federal government that manages all national parks, many national monuments, and other conservation and historical properties with various title designations.

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Native Americans in the United States

Native Americans, also known as American Indians, Indians, Indigenous Americans and other terms, are the indigenous peoples of the United States.

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New Amsterdam Theatre

The New Amsterdam Theatre is a Broadway theatre located at 214 West 42nd Street between Seventh and Eighth Avenues in the Theater District of Manhattan, New York City, off of Times Square.

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New Angoulême

New Angoulême was the name given in April 1524 by the Florentine explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano (or Jean de Varrazane; 1481-1528) to the site he discovered on board of his sailing vessel La Dauphine.

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New Netherland

New Netherland (Dutch: Nieuw Nederland; Latin: Nova Belgica or Novum Belgium) was a 17th-century colony of the Dutch Republic that was located on the east coast of North America.

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New Netherland Institute

The New Netherland Institute (formerly Friends of the New Netherland Project) is a non-profit organization created to support the translation and publication of 17th-century Dutch documents from the period of the Dutch colonization of New Netherland.

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New York Bay

New York Bay is the collective term for the marine areas surrounding the river mouth of the Hudson River into the Atlantic Ocean, in New Jersey and New York City.

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New York City

The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.

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New York Conspiracy of 1741

The Conspiracy of 1741, also known as the Negro Plot of 1741 or the Slave Insurrection of 1741, was a purported plot by slaves and poor whites in the British colony of New York in 1741 to revolt and level New York City with a series of fires.

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North American beaver

The North American beaver (Castor canadensis) is one of two extant beaver species.

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North Maluku

North Maluku (Maluku Utara) is a province of Indonesia.

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Northwest Passage

The Northwest Passage (abbreviated as NWP) is, from the European and northern Atlantic point of view, the sea route to the Pacific Ocean through the Arctic Ocean, along the northern coast of North America via waterways through the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.

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Nutmeg is the seed or ground spice of several species of the genus Myristica.

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Old Saybrook, Connecticut

Old Saybrook is a town in Middlesex County, Connecticut, United States.

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Peach Tree War

The Peach Tree War, also known as the Peach War, was a large-scale attack by the Susquehannock Nation and allied Native Americans on several New Netherland settlements along the Hudson River (then called the North River), centered on New Amsterdam and Pavonia on September 15, 1655.

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People of the Dominican Republic

Dominicans (Dominicanos) are people who are ethnically associated with the Dominican Republic.

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Peter Minuit

Peter Minuit, Pieter Minuit, Pierre Minuit, or Peter Minnewit (between 1580 and 1585 – August 5, 1638) was a Walloon from Wesel, in present-day North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, then part of the Duchy of Cleves.

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Peter Stuyvesant

Peter Stuyvesant (English pronunciation /ˈstaɪv.ə.sənt/; in Dutch also Pieter and Petrus Stuyvesant; (1610Mooney, James E. "Stuyvesant, Peter" in p.1256–1672) served as the last Dutch director-general of the colony of New Netherland from 1647 until it was ceded provisionally to the English in 1664, after which it was renamed New York. He was a major figure in the early history of New York City and his name has been given to various landmarks and points of interest throughout the city (e.g. Stuyvesant High School, Stuyvesant Town–Peter Cooper Village, Stuyvesant Plaza, Bedford–Stuyvesant neighborhood, etc.). Stuyvesant's accomplishments as director-general included a great expansion for the settlement of New Amsterdam beyond the southern tip of Manhattan. Among the projects built by Stuyvesant's administration were the protective wall on Wall Street, the canal that became Broad Street, and Broadway. Stuyvesant, himself a member of the Dutch Reformed Church, opposed religious pluralism and came into conflict with Lutherans, Jews, Roman Catholics and Quakers as they attempted to build places of worship in the city and practice their faiths.

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Pilgrims (Plymouth Colony)

The Pilgrims or Pilgrim Fathers were early European settlers of the Plymouth Colony in present-day Plymouth, Massachusetts, United States.

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Plymouth Colony

Plymouth Colony (sometimes New Plymouth) was an English colonial venture in North America from 1620 to 1691.

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Portuguese people

Portuguese people are an ethnic group indigenous to Portugal that share a common Portuguese culture and speak Portuguese.

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Random House

Random House is an American book publisher and the largest general-interest paperback publisher in the world.

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Recife is the fourth-largest urban agglomeration in Brazil with 3,995,949 inhabitants, the largest urban agglomeration of the North/Northeast Regions, and the capital and largest city of the state of Pernambuco in the northeast corner of South America.

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Run (island)

Run (also known as Pulau Run, Pulo Run, Puloroon, or Rhun) is one of the smallest islands of the Banda Islands, which are a part of Moluccas, Indonesia.

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Russell Shorto

Russell Shorto (born February 8, 1959) is an American author, historian and journalist, best known for his book on the Dutch origins of New York City, The Island at the Center of the World.

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Santo Domingo

Santo Domingo (meaning "Saint Dominic"), officially Santo Domingo de Guzmán, is the capital and largest city in the Dominican Republic and the largest metropolitan area in the Caribbean by population.

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A sawmill or lumber mill is a facility where logs are cut into lumber.

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Seal of New York City

The seal of New York City, designed in 1915 and adapted from an earlier form dating back in 1686, bears the legend which means simply "The Seal of the City of New York": Eboracum was the Roman name for York in Latin, the titular seat of James II as Duke of York.

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Seat of local government

In local government, a city hall, town hall, civic centre, (in the UK or Australia) a guildhall, a Rathaus (German), or (more rarely) a municipal building, is the chief administrative building of a city, town, or other municipality.

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Second Anglo-Dutch War

The Second Anglo-Dutch War (4 March 1665 – 31 July 1667), or the Second Dutch War (Tweede Engelse Oorlog "Second English War") was a conflict fought between England and the Dutch Republic for control over the seas and trade routes, where England tried to end the Dutch domination of world trade during a period of intense European commercial rivalry.

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Second Avenue (Manhattan)

Second Avenue is an avenue on the East Side of the New York City borough of Manhattan extending from Houston Street at its south end to the Harlem River Drive at 128th Street at its north end.

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Simon & Schuster

Simon & Schuster, Inc., a subsidiary of CBS Corporation, is an American publishing company founded in New York City in 1924 by Richard Simon and Max Schuster.

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Spanish dollar

The Spanish dollar, also known as the piece of eight (peso de ocho or real de a ocho), is a silver coin, of approximately 38 mm diameter, worth eight Spanish reales, that was minted in the Spanish Empire after 1598.

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In the Low Countries, stadtholder (stadhouder) was an office of steward, designated a medieval official and then a national leader.

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States General of the Netherlands

The States General of the Netherlands (Staten-Generaal) is the bicameral legislature of the Netherlands consisting of the Senate (Eerste Kamer) and the House of Representatives (Tweede Kamer).

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Suriname (also spelled Surinam), officially known as the Republic of Suriname (Republiek Suriname), is a sovereign state on the northeastern Atlantic coast of South America.

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The Battery (Manhattan)

The Battery (also commonly known as Battery Park) is a public park located at the southern tip of Manhattan Island in New York City facing New York Harbor.

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The English Historical Review

The English Historical Review is a peer-reviewed academic journal that was established in 1886 and published by Oxford University Press (formerly Longman).

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Third Anglo-Dutch War

The Third Anglo-Dutch War or the Third Dutch War (Derde Engelse Oorlog "Third English War", or Derde Engelse Zeeoorlog "Third English Sea War") was a military conflict between the Kingdom of England and the Dutch Republic, that lasted between April 1672 and early 1674.

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Treaty of Breda (1667)

The Treaty of Breda was signed at the Dutch city of Breda, 31 July (Gregorian calendar), 1667, by England, the United Provinces (Netherlands), France, and Denmark–Norway.

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Treaty of Westminster (1674)

The Treaty of Westminster of 1674 was the peace treaty that ended the Third Anglo-Dutch War.

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Vienna (Wien) is the federal capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria.

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Vintage Books

Vintage Books is a publishing imprint established in 1954 by Alfred A. Knopf.

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Wall Street

Wall Street is an eight-block-long street running roughly northwest to southeast from Broadway to South Street, at the East River, in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan in New York City.

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Wampum is a traditional shell bead of the Eastern Woodlands tribes of American Indians.

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The Wappinger were an Eastern Algonquian-speaking tribe from New York and Connecticut.

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Whitehall Street

Whitehall Street is a street in the New York City borough of Manhattan, about four blocks long.

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Willem Kieft

Willem Kieft (September 1597, Amsterdam – September 27, 1647) was a Dutch merchant and the Director of New Netherland (of which New Amsterdam was the capital) from 1638 to 1647.

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Willem Verhulst

Willem Verhulst or Willem van Hulst was an employee of the Dutch West India Company and the second (provisional) director of the New Netherland colony in 1625–26.

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William Bradford (Plymouth Colony governor)

William Bradford (19 March 1590May 9, 1657) was an English Separatist originally from the West Riding of Yorkshire.

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Wyckoff House

The Wyckoff House, or Pieter Claesen Wyckoff House is located at 5816 Clarendon Road in the Canarsie area of Brooklyn.

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38th parallel north

The 38th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 38 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.

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45th parallel north

The 45th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 45 degrees north of Earth's equator.

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74th Street (Manhattan)

74th Street is an east-west street carrying pedestrian traffic and eastbound automotive/bicycle traffic in the New York City borough of Manhattan.

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Fort Amsterdam (New Amsterdam), New Orange, Nieuv Amsterdam.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Amsterdam

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