280 relations: A few acres of snow, Acadia, Acadians, Adam Dollard des Ormeaux, Agriculture, Alcohol in New France, Algonquian peoples, Algonquin people, Allegheny River, American Revolutionary War, Angoulême, Annapolis Royal, Arquebus, Articles of Capitulation of Montreal, Articles of Capitulation of Quebec, Atlantic Ocean, Augustin de Saffray de Mésy, Autonomy, Étienne Brûlé, Île d'Orléans, Louisiana, Île-Royale (New France), Bailiff, Battle of Fort Beauséjour, Battle of Long Sault, Battle of the Plains of Abraham, Bay of Fundy, Bécancour, Quebec, Beaver Wars, Braddock Expedition, Canada, Canada (New France), Canadian Confederation, Canadian Martyrs, Canadian Prairies, Canso, Nova Scotia, Cape Breton Island, Cape Jellison, Caravel, Cardinal Richelieu, Carignan-Salières Regiment, Cathay, Catholic Church, Chéticamp, Nova Scotia, Chemin du Roy, Christian, Civil law notary, Claude-Pierre Pécaudy de Contrecœur, Clément Gosselin, Codex canadensis, Colony, ..., Commodity, Compagnies Franches de la Marine, Company of One Hundred Associates, Constitution Act, 1867, Coureur des bois, Criminal Ordinance of 1670, Custom of Paris in New France, Dieppe, Duc d'Anville expedition, Dummer's War, Early modern France, Economy, Edict of Fontainebleau, Edward Braddock, English overseas possessions, Europe, Expulsion of the Acadians, Father Le Loutre's War, Feudalism, Fief, Fort Beauséjour, Fort Caroline, Fort de la Corne, Fort Duquesne, Fort Pownall, Fortification, Fortress of Louisbourg, France, Francis I of France, French and Indian War, French colonial empire, French colonization of Texas, French colonization of the Americas, French language, French language in Canada, French language in the United States, French Louisiana, French people, Fur, Fur trade, Gaspé Peninsula, George Washington, Giovanni da Verrazzano, Governor of New France, Great Lakes, Gulf of Mexico, Gulf of Saint Lawrence, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Harvard University Press, Henry Hudson, Henry IV of France, 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year of foundation, List of place names of French origin in the United States, Louis de Buade de Frontenac, Louis de la Corne, Chevalier de la Corne, Louis Jolliet, Louis XIII of France, Louis XIV of France, Louis XV of France, Louis-Joseph de Montcalm, Louis-Philippe de Vaudreuil, Louisiana, Louisiana (New France), Louisiana (New Spain), Louisiana Purchase, Louisiana Territory, Lower Canada, Maine, Marche Henri IV, Massachusetts, Médard des Groseilliers, Meductic Indian Village / Fort Meductic, Mercantilism, Mi'kmaq, Militia, Mississippi Company, Mississippi embayment, Mississippi River, Monongahela River, Montjoie Saint Denis!, Montreal, Napoleon, Native American religion, Netherlands, New Angoulême, New Brunswick, New England, New France Intellectual Life, New Orleans, New Spain, New York Bay, Newfoundland (island), Newfoundland and Labrador, Norridgewock, North America, North American beaver, North American fur trade, Nova Scotia, Official bilingualism in Canada, Ohio Country, Ohio River, Ontario, Ottawa River, Overseas collectivity, Paul de Chomedey, Sieur de Maisonneuve, Peace of Paris (1783), Pedro Menéndez de Avilés, Penobscot Indian Island Reservation, Penobscot River, Pierre de Rigaud, Marquis de Vaudreuil-Cavagnial, Pierre Dugua, Sieur de Mons, Pierre-Esprit Radisson, Pittsburgh, Placentia, Newfoundland and Labrador, Port-Royal National Historic Site, Prince Edward Island, Protestantism, Province of Canada, Province of Quebec (1763–1791), Provost (civil), Quebec City, Queen Anne's War, Recollects, René Goulaine de Laudonnière, René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, Republic of Florence, Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Quebec, Royal Proclamation of 2003, Rupert's Land, Sable Island, Saint Croix Island, Maine, Saint John River (Bay of Fundy), Saint Lawrence River, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Saint-François-du-Lac, Quebec, Sainte Marie among the Iroquois, Samuel de Champlain, Saskatchewan, Saskatchewan River Forks, Sébastien Rale, Seigneurial system of New France, Seven Years' War, Siege of Louisbourg (1758), Siege of Port Royal (1710), Siege of Yorktown, Simon Le Moyne, Slavery in Canada (New France), Société Notre-Dame de Montréal, Society of Jesus, Society of the Priests of Saint Sulpice, Sovereign Council of New France, Spain, St. Augustine, Florida, Staples thesis, Stockton Springs, Maine, Tadoussac, Texas, The Canadian Encyclopedia, The Carolinas, The Huron Feast of the Dead, The Narrows, Third Treaty of San Ildefonso, Thirteen Colonies, Thomas Pownall, Timeline of New France history, Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle (1748), Treaty of Paris (1763), Treaty of Utrecht, Trois-Rivières, Troupes de la marine, United Kingdom, United States, Upper Canada, Utopia, Ville-Marie, Montreal, Ville-Marie, Quebec, Voyageurs, Wabanaki Confederacy, War of the Austrian Succession, William Shirley, World Digital Library, Wyandot people, York Factory, 1666 census of New France. 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"A few acres of snow" (in the original French, "quelques arpents de neige",, with "vers le Canada") is one of several quotations from Voltaire, the 18th-century writer, which are representative of his sneering evaluation of Canada as lacking economic value and strategic importance to 18th-century France.
Acadia (Acadie) was a colony of New France in northeastern North America that included parts of eastern Quebec, the Maritime provinces, and modern-day Maine to the Kennebec River.
The Acadians (Acadiens) are the descendants of French colonists who settled in Acadia during the 17th and 18th centuries, some of whom are also descended from the Indigenous peoples of the region.
Adam Dollard des Ormeaux (July 23, 1635 – May 21, 1660) is an iconic figure in the history of New France.
Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
The history of New France as a colonial space is inextricably linked to the trade and commerce of alcohol.
The Algonquian are one of the most populous and widespread North American native language groups.
The Algonquins are indigenous inhabitants of North America who speak the Algonquin language, a divergent dialect of the Ojibwe language, which is part of the Algonquian language family.
The Allegheny River is a principal tributary of the Ohio River; it is located in the Eastern United States.
The American Revolutionary War (17751783), also known as the American War of Independence, was a global war that began as a conflict between Great Britain and its Thirteen Colonies which declared independence as the United States of America. After 1765, growing philosophical and political differences strained the relationship between Great Britain and its colonies. Patriot protests against taxation without representation followed the Stamp Act and escalated into boycotts, which culminated in 1773 with the Sons of Liberty destroying a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor. Britain responded by closing Boston Harbor and passing a series of punitive measures against Massachusetts Bay Colony. Massachusetts colonists responded with the Suffolk Resolves, and they established a shadow government which wrested control of the countryside from the Crown. Twelve colonies formed a Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance, establishing committees and conventions that effectively seized power. British attempts to disarm the Massachusetts militia at Concord, Massachusetts in April 1775 led to open combat. Militia forces then besieged Boston, forcing a British evacuation in March 1776, and Congress appointed George Washington to command the Continental Army. Concurrently, an American attempt to invade Quebec and raise rebellion against the British failed decisively. On July 2, 1776, the Continental Congress voted for independence, issuing its declaration on July 4. Sir William Howe launched a British counter-offensive, capturing New York City and leaving American morale at a low ebb. However, victories at Trenton and Princeton restored American confidence. In 1777, the British launched an invasion from Quebec under John Burgoyne, intending to isolate the New England Colonies. Instead of assisting this effort, Howe took his army on a separate campaign against Philadelphia, and Burgoyne was decisively defeated at Saratoga in October 1777. Burgoyne's defeat had drastic consequences. France formally allied with the Americans and entered the war in 1778, and Spain joined the war the following year as an ally of France but not as an ally of the United States. In 1780, the Kingdom of Mysore attacked the British in India, and tensions between Great Britain and the Netherlands erupted into open war. In North America, the British mounted a "Southern strategy" led by Charles Cornwallis which hinged upon a Loyalist uprising, but too few came forward. Cornwallis suffered reversals at King's Mountain and Cowpens. He retreated to Yorktown, Virginia, intending an evacuation, but a decisive French naval victory deprived him of an escape. A Franco-American army led by the Comte de Rochambeau and Washington then besieged Cornwallis' army and, with no sign of relief, he surrendered in October 1781. Whigs in Britain had long opposed the pro-war Tories in Parliament, and the surrender gave them the upper hand. In early 1782, Parliament voted to end all offensive operations in North America, but the war continued in Europe and India. Britain remained under siege in Gibraltar but scored a major victory over the French navy. On September 3, 1783, the belligerent parties signed the Treaty of Paris in which Great Britain agreed to recognize the sovereignty of the United States and formally end the war. French involvement had proven decisive,Brooks, Richard (editor). Atlas of World Military History. HarperCollins, 2000, p. 101 "Washington's success in keeping the army together deprived the British of victory, but French intervention won the war." but France made few gains and incurred crippling debts. Spain made some minor territorial gains but failed in its primary aim of recovering Gibraltar. The Dutch were defeated on all counts and were compelled to cede territory to Great Britain. In India, the war against Mysore and its allies concluded in 1784 without any territorial changes.
Angoulême (Poitevin-Saintongeais: Engoulaeme; Engoleime) is a commune, the capital of the Charente department, in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of southwestern France.
Annapolis Royal, formerly known as Port Royal, is a town located in the western part of Annapolis County, Nova Scotia, Canada.
The arquebus, derived from the German Hakenbüchse, was a form of long gun that appeared in Europe during the 15th century.
The Articles of Capitulation of Montreal were agreed upon between the Governor General of New France, Pierre François de Rigaud, Marquis de Vaudreuil-Cavagnal, and Major-General Jeffery Amherst on behalf of the French and British crowns.
The Articles of Capitulation of Quebec were agreed upon between Jean-Baptiste Nicolas Roch de Ramezay, King's Lieutenant, Admiral Sir Charles Saunders, and General George Townshend on behalf the French and British crowns during the Seven Years' War.
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about.
Augustin de Saffray de Mésy (1598–1665) was the first Governor General of New France in 1663 after Louis XIV took over the administration of New France from the Compagnie des Cent-Associés.
In development or moral, political, and bioethical philosophy, autonomy is the capacity to make an informed, un-coerced decision.
Étienne Brûlé (c. 1592 – c. June 1633) was the first European explorer to journey beyond the St. Lawrence River in what is today Canada.
Île d'Orléans (French for "Isle of Orleans") was the historic name for the New Orleans area, in present-day Louisiana, U.S.A..
Île-Royale was a French colony in North America that existed from 1713 to 1763, consisting of two islands, Île Royale and Île Saint-Jean.
A bailiff (from Middle English baillif, Old French baillis, bail "custody, charge, office"; cf. bail, based on the adjectival form, baiulivus, of Latin bajulus, carrier, manager) is a manager, overseer or custodian; a legal officer to whom some degree of authority or jurisdiction is given.
The Battle of Fort Beauséjour was fought on the Isthmus of Chignecto and marked the end of Father Le Loutre's War and the opening of a British offensive in the Acadia/ Nova Scotia theatre of the Seven Years' War, which would eventually lead to the end of the French Empire in North America.
The Battle of Long Sault occurred over a five-day period in early May 1660 during the Beaver Wars.
The Battle of the Plains of Abraham, also known as the Battle of Quebec (Bataille des Plaines d'Abraham, or Première bataille de Québec in French), was a pivotal battle in the Seven Years' War (referred to as the French and Indian War in the United States).
The Bay of Fundy (or Fundy Bay; Baie de Fundy) is a bay between the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, with a small portion touching the US state of Maine.
Bécancour is a city in the Centre-du-Québec region of Québec, Canada; it is the seat of the Bécancour Regional County Municipality.
The Beaver Wars, also known as the Iroquois Wars or the French and Iroquois Wars, encompass a series of conflicts fought intermittently during the 17th and 18th centuries in eastern North America.
The Braddock expedition, also called Braddock's campaign or, more commonly, Braddock's Defeat, was a failed British military expedition which attempted to capture the French Fort Duquesne (modern-day downtown Pittsburgh) in the summer of 1755 during the French and Indian War.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
Canada was a French colony within New France first claimed in the name of the King of France in 1535 during the second voyage of Jacques Cartier.
Canadian Confederation (Confédération canadienne) was the process by which the British colonies of Canada, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick were united into one Dominion of Canada on July 1, 1867.
The Canadian Martyrs, also known as the North American Martyrs, were eight Jesuit missionaries from Sainte-Marie among the Hurons.
The Canadian Prairies is a region in Western Canada, which may correspond to several different definitions, natural or political.
For the headland, see Cape Canso. Canso is a community in Guysborough County, on the north-eastern tip of mainland Nova Scotia, Canada, next to Chedabucto Bay.
Cape Breton Island (île du Cap-Breton—formerly Île Royale; Ceap Breatainn or Eilean Cheap Breatainn; Unama'kik; or simply Cape Breton, Cape is Latin for "headland" and Breton is Latin for "British") is an island on the Atlantic coast of North America and part of the province of Nova Scotia, Canada.
Cape Jellison is a peninsula that juts into Penobscot Bay on the coast of Maine.
A caravel (Portuguese: caravela) is a small, highly maneuverable sailing ship developed in the 15th century by the Portuguese to explore along the West African coast and into the Atlantic Ocean.
Cardinal Armand Jean du Plessis, 1st Duke of Richelieu and Fronsac (9 September 15854 December 1642), commonly referred to as Cardinal Richelieu (Cardinal de Richelieu), was a French clergyman, nobleman, and statesman.
The Carignan-Salières Regiment was a Piedmont French military unit formed by merging two other regiments in 1659.
Cathay is the Anglicized rendering of "Catai" and an alternative name for China in English.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Chéticamp is a fishing village on the Cabot Trail on the west coast of Cape Breton Island in Nova Scotia, Canada.
The Chemin du Roy (French for "King's Highway" or "King's Road") is a historic road along the north shore of the St. Lawrence River in Quebec.
A Christian is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.
Civil-law notaries, or Latin notaries, are agents of noncontentious private civil law who draft, take, and record instruments for private parties and are vested as public officers with the authentication power of the State.
Claude-Pierre Pécaudy de Contrecœur was an officer in the colonial regular troops (troupes de la marine), seigneur, and member of the Legislative Council of New France.
Clément Gosselin (June 12, 1747 – March 9, 1816) was a French Canadian soldier who served in Moses Hazen's 2nd Canadian Regiment of the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War.
Codex canadensis is a handwritten and hand-drawn document from circa 1700 that depicts the wildlife and native peoples of Canada.
In history, a colony is a territory under the immediate complete political control of a state, distinct from the home territory of the sovereign.
In economics, a commodity is an economic good or service that has full or substantial fungibility: that is, the market treats instances of the good as equivalent or nearly so with no regard to who produced them.
The Compagnies Franches de la Marine (previously known as Troupes de la marine, and later being renamed and reorganized as the Troupes de Marine) were an ensemble of autonomous infantry units attached to the French Royal Navy (marine royale) bound to serve both on land and sea.
The Company of One Hundred Associates (French: formally the Compagnie de la Nouvelle France, or colloquially the Compagnie des Cent-Associés or Compagnie du Canada or Company of New France) was a French trading and colonization company chartered in 1627 to capitalize on the North American fur trade and to expand French colonies there.
The Constitution Act, 1867, 30 & 31 Victoria, c. 3 (U.K.), R.S.C. 1985, App.
A coureur des bois or coureur de bois ("runner of the woods"; plural: coureurs de bois) was an independent entrepreneurial French-Canadian trader who traveled in New France and the interior of North America.
The Criminal Ordinance of 1670 (Ordonnance criminelle de 1670, a.k.a. Ordonnance criminelle de Colbert) was a Great Ordinance dealing with criminal procedure which was enacted in France under the reign of King Louis XIV.
The Custom of Paris (Coutume de Paris) was one of France's regional custumals of civil law.
Dieppe is a coastal community in the Arrondissement of Dieppe in the Seine-Maritime department in the Normandy region of northern France.
The Duc d'Anville expedition (June – October 1746) was sent from France to recapture Louisbourg and take peninsular Acadia (present-day mainland Nova Scotia).
The Dummer's War (1722–1725, also known as Father Rale's War, Lovewell's War, Greylock's War, the Three Years War, the 4th Anglo-Abenaki War, or the Wabanaki-New England War of 1722–1725) was a series of battles between New England and the Wabanaki Confederacy (specifically the Mi'kmaq, Maliseet, and Abenaki) who were allied with New France.
The Kingdom of France in the early modern period, from the Renaissance (circa 1500–1550) to the Revolution (1789–1804), was a monarchy ruled by the House of Bourbon (a Capetian cadet branch).
An economy (from Greek οίκος – "household" and νέμoμαι – "manage") is an area of the production, distribution, or trade, and consumption of goods and services by different agents.
The Edict of Fontainebleau (22 October 1685) was an edict issued by Louis XIV of France, also known as the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes.
Major General Edward Braddock (January 1695 – 13 July 1755) was a British officer and commander-in-chief for the 13 colonies during the actions at the start of the French and Indian War (1754–1763) which is also known in Europe and Canada as the Seven Years' War (1756–1763).
The English overseas possessions, also known as the English colonial empire, comprised a variety of overseas territories that were colonised, conquered, or otherwise acquired by the former Kingdom of England during the centuries before the Acts of Union of 1707 between the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland created the Kingdom of Great Britain.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
The Expulsion of the Acadians, also known as the Great Upheaval, the Great Expulsion, the Great Deportation and Le Grand Dérangement, was the forced removal by the British of the Acadian people from the present day Canadian Maritime provinces of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island— parts of an area also known as Acadia. The Expulsion (1755–1764) occurred during the French and Indian War (the North American theatre of the Seven Years' War) and was part of the British military campaign against New France. The British first deported Acadians to the Thirteen Colonies, and after 1758 transported additional Acadians to Britain and France. In all, of the 14,100 Acadians in the region, approximately 11,500 Acadians were deported (a census of 1764 indicates that 2,600 Acadians remained in the colony, presumably having eluded capture). During the War of the Spanish Succession, the British captured Port Royal, the capital of the colony, in a siege. The 1713 Treaty of Utrecht, which concluded the conflict, ceded the colony to Great Britain while allowing the Acadians to keep their lands. Over the next forty-five years, however, the Acadians refused to sign an unconditional oath of allegiance to Britain. During the same period, some also participated in various military operations against the British, and maintained supply lines to the French fortresses of Louisbourg and Fort Beauséjour. As a result, the British sought to eliminate any future military threat posed by the Acadians and to permanently cut the supply lines they provided to Louisbourg by removing them from the area. Without making distinctions between the Acadians who had been neutral and those who had resisted the occupation of Acadia, the British governor Charles Lawrence and the Nova Scotia Council ordered them to be expelled. In the first wave of the expulsion, Acadians were deported to other British colonies. During the second wave, they were deported to Britain and France, from where they migrated to Louisiana. Acadians fled initially to Francophone colonies such as Canada, the uncolonized northern part of Acadia, Isle Saint-Jean (present-day Prince Edward Island) and Isle Royale (present-day Cape Breton Island). During the second wave of the expulsion, these Acadians were either imprisoned or deported. Throughout the expulsion, Acadians and the Wabanaki Confederacy continued a guerrilla war against the British in response to British aggression which had been continuous since 1744 (see King George's War and Father Le Loutre's War). Along with the British achieving their military goals of defeating Louisbourg and weakening the Mi'kmaq and Acadian militias, the result of the Expulsion was the devastation of both a primarily civilian population and the economy of the region. Thousands of Acadians died in the expulsions, mainly from diseases and drowning when ships were lost. On July 11, 1764, the British government passed an order-in-council to permit Acadians to legally return to British territories, provided that they take an unqualified oath of allegiance. The American poet Henry Wadsworth Longfellow memorialized the historic event in his poem about the plight of the fictional character Evangeline, which was popular and made the expulsion well known. According to Acadian historian Maurice Basque, the story of Evangeline continues to influence historic accounts of the deportation, emphasising neutral Acadians and de-emphasising those who resisted the British Empire.
Father Le Loutre's War (1749–1755), also known as the Indian War, the Micmac War and the Anglo-Micmac War, took place between King George's War and the French and Indian War in Acadia and Nova Scotia.
Feudalism was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries.
A fief (feudum) was the central element of feudalism and consisted of heritable property or rights granted by an overlord to a vassal who held it in fealty (or "in fee") in return for a form of feudal allegiance and service, usually given by the personal ceremonies of homage and fealty.
Fort Beauséjour is a large five-bastioned star fort on the Isthmus of Chignecto, a neck of land connecting present-day New Brunswick with Nova Scotia, Canada.
Fort Caroline was an attempted French colonial settlement in Florida, located on the banks of the St. Johns River in present-day Duval County.
Fort de la Corne was one of the two French forts established on the Saskatchewan River in the 20 years between the end of La Vérendrye's push west from Lake Superior in 1731-1743 and the fall of New France in 1763.
Fort Duquesne (originally called Fort Du Quesne) was a fort established by the French in 1754, at the confluence of the Allegheny and Monongahela rivers.
Fort Pownall was a British fortification built during the French and Indian War, whose remains are located at Fort Point State Park in Stockton Springs, Maine.
A fortification is a military construction or building designed for the defense of territories in warfare; and is also used to solidify rule in a region during peacetime.
The Fortress of Louisbourg (Forteresse de Louisbourg) is a National Historic Site of Canada and the location of a one-quarter partial reconstruction of an 18th-century French fortress at Louisbourg on Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Francis I (François Ier) (12 September 1494 – 31 March 1547) was the first King of France from the Angoulême branch of the House of Valois, reigning from 1515 until his death.
The French and Indian War (1754–63) comprised the North American theater of the worldwide Seven Years' War of 1756–63.
The French colonial empire constituted the overseas colonies, protectorates and mandate territories that came under French rule from the 16th century onward.
The French colonization of Texas began with the establishment of a fort in present-day southeastern Texas.
The French colonization of the Americas began in the 16th century, and continued on into the following centuries as France established a colonial empire in the Western Hemisphere.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
French is the mother tongue of about 7.2 million Canadians (20.6% of the Canadian population, second to English at 56%) according to Census Canada 2016.
The French language is spoken as a minority language in the United States.
The term French Louisiana refers to two distinct regions.
The French (Français) are a Latin European ethnic group and nation who are identified with the country of France.
Fur is the hair covering of non-human mammals, particularly those mammals with extensive body hair that is soft and thick.
The fur trade is a worldwide industry dealing in the acquisition and sale of animal fur.
The Gaspésie (official name), or Gaspé Peninsula, the Gaspé or Gaspesia, is a peninsula along the south shore of the Saint Lawrence River to the east of the Matapédia Valley in Quebec, Canada, that extends into the Gulf of Saint Lawrence.
George Washington (February 22, 1732 –, 1799), known as the "Father of His Country," was an American soldier and statesman who served from 1789 to 1797 as the first President of the United States.
Giovanni da Verrazzano (sometimes also incorrectly spelled Verrazano) (1485–1528) was an Italian explorer of North America, in the service of King Francis I of France.
The Governor of New France was the viceroy of the King of France in North America.
The Great Lakes (les Grands-Lacs), also called the Laurentian Great Lakes and the Great Lakes of North America, are a series of interconnected freshwater lakes located primarily in the upper mid-east region of North America, on the Canada–United States border, which connect to the Atlantic Ocean through the Saint Lawrence River.
The Gulf of Mexico (Golfo de México) is an ocean basin and a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean, largely surrounded by the North American continent.
The Gulf of Saint Lawrence (French: Golfe du Saint-Laurent) is the outlet of the North American Great Lakes via the Saint Lawrence River into the Atlantic Ocean.
Halifax, officially known as the Halifax Regional Municipality (HRM), is the capital of the Canadian province of Nova Scotia.
Harvard University Press (HUP) is a publishing house established on January 13, 1913, as a division of Harvard University, and focused on academic publishing.
Henry Hudson (1565–1611) was an English sea explorer and navigator during the early 17th century, best known for his explorations of present-day Canada and parts of the northeastern United States.
Henry IV (Henri IV, read as Henri-Quatre; 13 December 1553 – 14 May 1610), also known by the epithet Good King Henry, was King of Navarre (as Henry III) from 1572 to 1610 and King of France from 1589 to 1610.
Historica Canada is the country's largest organization dedicated to enhancing awareness of Canadian history and citizenship.
Quebec City, capital of the province of Quebec, Canada, is one of the oldest European settlements in North America.
Home rule is government of a colony, dependent country, or region by its own citizens.
Hudson Bay (Inuktitut: Kangiqsualuk ilua, baie d'Hudson) (sometimes called Hudson's Bay, usually historically) is a large body of saltwater in northeastern Canada with a surface area of.
The Hudson River is a river that flows from north to south primarily through eastern New York in the United States.
The Hudson's Bay Company (HBC; Compagnie de la Baie d'Hudson) is a Canadian retail business group.
Huguenots (Les huguenots) are an ethnoreligious group of French Protestants who follow the Reformed tradition.
The Illinois Confederation, sometimes referred to as the Illiniwek or Illini, was a group of 12–13 Native American tribes in the upper Mississippi River valley of North America.
The Illinois Country (Pays des Illinois, lit. "land of the Illinois (plural)", i.e. the Illinois people) — sometimes referred to as Upper Louisiana (la Haute-Louisiane; Alta Luisiana) — was a vast region of New France in what is now the Midwestern United States.
An indentured servant or indentured laborer is an employee (indenturee) within a system of unfree labor who is bound by a signed or forced contract (indenture) to work for a particular employer for a fixed time.
Indigenous peoples, also known as first peoples, aboriginal peoples or native peoples, are ethnic groups who are the pre-colonial original inhabitants of a given region, in contrast to groups that have settled, occupied or colonized the area more recently.
Indigenous peoples in Canada, also known as Native Canadians or Aboriginal Canadians, are the indigenous peoples within the boundaries of present-day Canada.
The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian peoples of the Americas and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming, hunting and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, chiefdoms, states and empires. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples; some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Bolivia, Canada, Chile, Ecuador, Greenland, Guatemala, Guyana, Mexico, Panama and Peru. At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Aymara, Guaraní, Mayan languages and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many also maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects but also cater to modern needs. Some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture, and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples.
The Innu (or Montagnais) are the Indigenous inhabitants of an area in Canada they refer to as Nitassinan (“Our Land”), which comprises most of the northeastern portion of the present-day province of Quebec and some eastern portions of Labrador.
The Intendant of New France was an administrative position in the French colony of New France.
The Iroquoian languages are a language family of indigenous peoples of North America.
The Iroquois or Haudenosaunee (People of the Longhouse) are a historically powerful northeast Native American confederacy.
The Island of Montreal (Kanien’kéha: Tiohtià:ke), in southwestern Quebec, Canada, is at the confluence of the Saint Lawrence and Ottawa rivers.
Jacksonville is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Florida and the largest city by area in the contiguous United States.
Jacques Cartier (Jakez Karter; December 31, 1491September 1, 1557) was a Breton explorer who claimed what is now Canada for France.
Father Jacques Marquette S.J. (June 1, 1637 – May 18, 1675), sometimes known as Père Marquette or James Marquette, was a French Jesuit missionary who founded Michigan's first European settlement, Sault Ste. Marie, and later founded St. Ignace, Michigan.
James Wolfe (2 January 1727 – 13 September 1759) was a British Army officer, known for his training reforms and remembered chiefly for his victory in 1759 over the French at the Battle of the Plains of Abraham in Quebec as a major general.
Jane Brierley is a Canadian translator, translating from French to English.
Saint Jean de Brébeuf (March 25, 1593 – March 16, 1649) was a French Jesuit missionary who travelled to New France (Canada) in 1625.
Jean de Lauzon or de Lauson (1584 – 16 February 1666) was the Governor of New France from 1651 to 1657, one of the most challenging times for the new colony.
Jean Ribault (also spelled Ribaut) (1520 – October 12, 1565) was a French naval officer, navigator, and a colonizer of what would become the southeastern United States.
Jean Talon, Count d'Orsainville (January 8, 1626 – November 23, 1694) was the first Intendant of New France.
Jean-Baptiste Colbert (29 August 1619 – 6 September 1683) was a French politician who served as the Minister of Finances of France from 1665 to 1683 under the rule of King Louis XIV.
Field Marshal Jeffery Amherst, 1st Baron Amherst, (29 January 1717 – 3 August 1797) served as an officer in the British Army and as Commander-in-Chief of the Forces.
Jesuit missions in North America began early in the 17th century, faltered at the beginning of the 18th, disappeared during the suppression of the Society of Jesus around 1763, and returned around 1830 after the restoration of the Society.
The Kaskaskia were one of the indigenous peoples of the Northeastern Woodlands.
The Kennebec River is a U.S. Geological Survey.
King, or King Regnant is the title given to a male monarch in a variety of contexts.
King George's War (1744–1748) is the name given to the military operations in North America that formed part of the War of the Austrian Succession (1740–1748).
King William's War (1688–97, also known as the Second Indian War, Father Baudoin's War,Alan F. Williams, Father Baudoin's War: D'Iberville's Campaigns in Acadia and Newfoundland 1696, 1697, Memorial University of Newfoundland, 1987. Castin's War,Herbert Milton Sylvester. Indian Wars of New England: The land of the Abenake. The French occupation. King Philip's war. St. Castin's war. 1910. or the First Intercolonial War in French) was the North American theater of the Nine Years' War (1688–97, also known as the War of the Grand Alliance or the War of the League of Augsburg).
The King's Daughters (filles du roi; filles du roy) is a term used to refer to the approximately 800 young French women who immigrated to New France between 1663 and 1673 as part of a program sponsored by Louis XIV.
The Kingdom of France (Royaume de France) was a medieval and early modern monarchy in Western Europe.
The Kingdom of Great Britain, officially called simply Great Britain,Parliament of the Kingdom of England.
Lake Champlain (French: Lac Champlain) (Abenaki: Pitawbagok) (Mohawk: Kaniatarakwà:ronte) is a natural freshwater lake in North America mainly within the borders of the United States (in the states of Vermont and New York) but partially situated across the Canada–U.S. border, in the Canadian province of Quebec.
Latin liturgical rites are Christian liturgical rites of Latin tradition, used mainly by the Catholic Church as liturgical rites within the Latin Church, that originated in the area where the Latin language once dominated.
The Library of Congress (LOC) is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States.
The Anglo-French conflicts on Hudson Bay were a series of conflicts in the 17th and 18th century between England and France for control over the area around the Hudson Bay.
This is a list of all forts in New France built by the French government or French Chartered companies in what later became Canada, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, and the United States.
The monarchs of the Kingdom of France and its predecessors (and successor monarchies) ruled from the establishment of the Kingdom of the Franks in 486 until the fall of the Second French Empire in 1870, with several interruptions.
During the 19th and 20th centuries, the French colonial empire was the second largest colonial empire behind the British Empire; it extended over of land at its height in the 1920s and 1930s.
The governance of the French colony of Acadia has a long and tangled history.
This is a list of settlements in North America by founding year and present-day country.
Several thousand place names in the United States have names of French origin, some a legacy of past French exploration and rule over much of the land and some in honor of French help during the American Revolution and the founding of the country (see also: New France and French in the United States).
Louis de Buade, Comte de Frontenac et de Palluau (May 22, 1622November 28, 1698) was a French soldier, courtier, and Governor General of New France from 1672 to 1682 and from 1689 to his death in 1698.
Louis de la Corne or Louis Chapt, Chevalier de la Corne (June 6, 1703 – November 15, 1761) was born at Fort Frontenac in what is now Kingston, Ontario, Canada, and began his career in the colonial regular troops as a second ensign in 1722 and was made full ensign five years later.
Louis Jolliet (September 21, 1645last seen May 1700) was a French Canadian explorer known for his discoveries in North America.
Louis XIII (27 September 1601 – 14 May 1643) was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France from 1610 to 1643 and King of Navarre (as Louis II) from 1610 to 1620, when the crown of Navarre was merged with the French crown.
Louis XIV (Louis Dieudonné; 5 September 16381 September 1715), known as Louis the Great (Louis le Grand) or the Sun King (Roi Soleil), was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who reigned as King of France from 1643 until his death in 1715.
Louis XV (15 February 1710 – 10 May 1774), known as Louis the Beloved, was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France from 1 September 1715 until his death in 1774.
Louis-Joseph de Montcalm-Gozon, Marquis de Saint-Veran (28 February 1712 – 14 September 1759) was a French soldier best known as the commander of the forces in North America during the Seven Years' War (whose North American theatre is called the French and Indian War in the United States).
Louis-Philippe de Rigaud, Marquis de Vaudreuil (28 October 1724 – 14 December 1802) was second in command of the French Navy during the American Revolutionary War.
Louisiana is a state in the southeastern region of the United States.
Louisiana (La Louisiane; La Louisiane française) or French Louisiana was an administrative district of New France.
Louisiana (Luisiana, sometimes called Luciana In some Spanish texts of the time the name of Luciana appears instead of Louisiana, as is the case in the Plan of the Internal Provinces of New Spain made in 1817 by the Spanish militar José Caballero.) was the name of an administrative Spanish Governorate belonging to the Captaincy General of Cuba, part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain from 1762 to 1802 that consisted of territory west of the Mississippi River basin, plus New Orleans.
The Louisiana Purchase (Vente de la Louisiane "Sale of Louisiana") was the acquisition of the Louisiana territory (828,000 square miles or 2.14 million km²) by the United States from France in 1803.
The Territory of Louisiana or Louisiana Territory was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from July 4, 1805, until June 4, 1812, when it was renamed the Missouri Territory.
The Province of Lower Canada (province du Bas-Canada) was a British colony on the lower Saint Lawrence River and the shores of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence (1791–1841).
Maine is a U.S. state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.
"Marche Henri IV", alternatively "Vive Henri IV" or "Vive le roi Henri", is a popular French song celebrating King Henry IV of France (also known as Le Bon Roi Henri, "Good King Henry").
Massachusetts, officially known as the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.
Médard Chouart des Groseilliers (1618–1696) was a French explorer and fur trader in Canada.
Meductic Indian Village / Fort Meductic (also known as Medoctec, Mehtawtik meaning "the end of the path") was a Maliseet settlement until the mid-eighteenth century.
Mercantilism is a national economic policy designed to maximize the trade of a nation and, historically, to maximize the accumulation of gold and silver (as well as crops).
The Mi'kmaq or Mi'gmaq (also Micmac, L'nu, Mi'kmaw or Mi'gmaw) are a First Nations people indigenous to Canada's Atlantic Provinces and the Gaspé Peninsula of Quebec as well as the northeastern region of Maine.
A militia is generally an army or some other fighting organization of non-professional soldiers, citizens of a nation, or subjects of a state, who can be called upon for military service during a time of need, as opposed to a professional force of regular, full-time military personnel, or historically, members of a warrior nobility class (e.g., knights or samurai).
The Mississippi Company (Compagnie du Mississippi; founded 1684, named the Company of the West from 1717, and the Company of the Indies from 1719) was a corporation holding a business monopoly in French colonies in North America and the West Indies.
The Mississippi Embayment is a physiographic feature in the south-central United States, part of the Mississippi Alluvial Plain.
The Mississippi River is the chief river of the second-largest drainage system on the North American continent, second only to the Hudson Bay drainage system.
The Monongahela River — often referred to locally as the Mon — is a U.S. Geological Survey.
Montjoie Saint Denis! was the battle cry and motto of the Kingdom of France.
Montreal (officially Montréal) is the most populous municipality in the Canadian province of Quebec and the second-most populous municipality in Canada.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
Native American religions are the spiritual practices of the indigenous peoples of the Americas.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
New Angoulême was the name given in April 1524 by the Florentine explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano (or Jean de Varrazane; 1481-1528) to the site he discovered on board of his sailing vessel La Dauphine.
New Brunswick (Nouveau-Brunswick; Canadian French pronunciation) is one of three Maritime provinces on the east coast of Canada.
New England is a geographical region comprising six states of the northeastern United States: Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island and Connecticut.
The intellectual life in New France can be characterized as having been dominated by the interests and pursuits of Catholic clergy, military officers and aristocrats who dominated the political scene.
New Orleans (. Merriam-Webster.; La Nouvelle-Orléans) is a major United States port and the largest city and metropolitan area in the state of Louisiana.
The Viceroyalty of New Spain (Virreinato de la Nueva España) was an integral territorial entity of the Spanish Empire, established by Habsburg Spain during the Spanish colonization of the Americas.
New York Bay is the collective term for the marine areas surrounding the river mouth of the Hudson River into the Atlantic Ocean, in New Jersey and New York City.
Newfoundland (Terre-Neuve) is a large Canadian island off the east coast of the North American mainland, and the most populous part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador.
Newfoundland and Labrador (Terre-Neuve-et-Labrador; Akamassiss; Newfoundland Irish: Talamh an Éisc agus Labradar) is the most easterly province of Canada.
Norridgewock was the name of both an Indian village and a band of the Abenaki ("People of the Dawn") Native Americans/First Nations, an Eastern Algonquian tribe of the United States and Canada.
North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.
The North American beaver (Castor canadensis) is one of two extant beaver species.
The North American fur trade was the industry and activities related to the acquisition, trade, exchange, and sale of animal furs in North America.
Nova Scotia (Latin for "New Scotland"; Nouvelle-Écosse; Scottish Gaelic: Alba Nuadh) is one of Canada's three maritime provinces, and one of the four provinces that form Atlantic Canada.
The official languages of Canada are English and French, which "have equality of status and equal rights and privileges as to their use in all institutions of the Parliament and Government of Canada," according to Canada's constitution.
The Ohio Country (sometimes called the Ohio Territory or Ohio Valley by the French) was a name used in the 18th century for the regions of North America west of the Appalachian Mountains and in the region of the upper Ohio River south of Lake Erie.
The Ohio River, which streams westward from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, to Cairo, Illinois, is the largest tributary, by volume, of the Mississippi River in the United States.
Ontario is one of the 13 provinces and territories of Canada and is located in east-central Canada.
The Ottawa River (Rivière des Outaouais, Algonquin: Kitchissippi) is a river in the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Quebec.
The French overseas collectivities (collectivité d'outre-mer or COM), like the French regions, are first-order administrative divisions of France.
Paul de Chomedey, sieur de Maisonneuve (February 15, 1612 – September 9, 1676) was a French military officer and the founder of Montreal in New France.
The Peace of Paris of 1783 was the set of treaties which ended the American Revolutionary War.
Pedro Menéndez de Avilés (15 February 1519 – 17 September 1574) was a Spanish admiral and explorer from the region of Asturias, Spain, who is remembered for planning the first regular trans-oceanic convoys and for founding St. Augustine, Florida, in 1565.
Penobscot Indian Island Reservation is an Indian reservation for the Penobscot Tribe of Maine, a federally recognized tribe of the Penobscot National Congress of American Indians. Retrieved 30 Aug 2012.
The Penobscot River is a U.S. Geological Survey.
Pierre de Rigaud de Vaudreuil de Cavagnial, Marquis de Vaudreuil (22 November 1698 – 4 August 1778) was a Canadian-born colonial governor of Canada (New France) in North America.
Pierre Dugua de Mons (or Du Gua de Monts; c. 1558 – 1628) was a French merchant, explorer and colonizer.
Pierre-Esprit Radisson (1636/1640–1710) was a French fur trader and explorer.
Pittsburgh is a city in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in the United States, and is the county seat of Allegheny County.
Placentia is a town located in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador Canada, It consists of the "Argentia Industrial Park" and amalgamated communities of Townside, Freshwater, Dunville, and Jerseyside.
Port-Royal National Historic Site is a National Historic Site located on the north bank of the Annapolis Basin in the community of Port Royal, Nova Scotia.
Prince Edward Island (PEI or P.E.I.; Île-du-Prince-Édouard) is a province of Canada consisting of the island of the same name, and several much smaller islands.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
The Province of Canada (or the United Province of Canada or the United Canadas) was a British colony in North America from 1841 to 1867.
The Province of Quebec was a colony in North America created by Great Britain after the Seven Years' War.
A provost (introduced into Scots from French) is the ceremonial head of many Scottish local authorities, and under the name prévôt was a governmental position of varying importance in Ancien Régime France.
Quebec City (pronounced or; Québec); Ville de Québec), officially Québec, is the capital city of the Canadian province of Quebec. The city had a population estimate of 531,902 in July 2016, (an increase of 3.0% from 2011) and the metropolitan area had a population of 800,296 in July 2016, (an increase of 4.3% from 2011) making it the second largest city in Quebec, after Montreal, and the seventh-largest metropolitan area in Canada. It is situated north-east of Montreal. The narrowing of the Saint Lawrence River proximate to the city's promontory, Cap-Diamant (Cape Diamond), and Lévis, on the opposite bank, provided the name given to the city, Kébec, an Algonquin word meaning "where the river narrows". Founded in 1608 by Samuel de Champlain, Quebec City is one of the oldest cities in North America. The ramparts surrounding Old Quebec (Vieux-Québec) are the only fortified city walls remaining in the Americas north of Mexico, and were declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1985 as the 'Historic District of Old Québec'. The city's landmarks include the Château Frontenac, a hotel which dominates the skyline, and the Citadelle of Quebec, an intact fortress that forms the centrepiece of the ramparts surrounding the old city and includes a secondary royal residence. The National Assembly of Quebec (provincial legislature), the Musée national des beaux-arts du Québec (National Museum of Fine Arts of Quebec), and the Musée de la civilisation (Museum of Civilization) are found within or near Vieux-Québec.
Queen Anne's War (1702–1713) was the North American theater of the War of the Spanish Succession, as known in the British colonies, and the second in a series of French and Indian Wars fought between France and England in North America for control of the continent.
The Recollects (Récollets) were a French reform branch of the Order of Friars Minor, commonly known today as the Franciscans (Ordo fratrum minorum recollectorum).
Rene Goulaine de Laudonnière (c. 1529–1574) was a French Huguenot explorer and the founder of the French colony of Fort Caroline in what is now Jacksonville, Florida.
René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, or Robert de La Salle (November 22, 1643 – March 19, 1687) was a French explorer.
The Republic of Florence, also known as the Florentine Republic (Repubblica Fiorentina), was a medieval and early modern state that was centered on the Italian city of Florence in Tuscany.
The Archdiocese of Québec (Archidioecesis Quebecensis; Archidiocèse de Québec) is a Catholic archdiocese in Quebec, Canada.
The Royal Proclamation of 2003, formally known as Proclamation Designating 28 July of Every Year as "A Day of Commemoration of the Great Upheaval", Commencing on 28 July 2005, is a document issued in the name of Queen Elizabeth II acknowledging the Great Upheaval (or Great Expulsion or Grand Dérangement), Britain's expulsion of French-speaking Acadians from Nova Scotia, beginning in 1755.
Rupert's Land, or Prince Rupert's Land, was a territory in British North America comprising the Hudson Bay drainage basin, a territory in which a commercial monopoly was operated by the Hudson's Bay Company for 200 years from 1670 to 1870.
Sable Island (île de Sable) is a small island situated southeast of Halifax, Nova Scotia, and about southeast of the closest point of mainland Nova Scotia in the Atlantic Ocean.
Saint Croix Island (Île Sainte-Croix), long known to locals as Dochet Island, is a small uninhabited island in Maine near the mouth of the Saint Croix River that forms part of the Canada–United States border separating Maine from New Brunswick.
The Saint John River (Fleuve Saint-Jean; Maliseet: Wolastoq) is a river, approximately long, located principally in the Canadian province of New Brunswick, but also in and arising from the province of Quebec and the U.S. state of Maine.
The Saint Lawrence River (Fleuve Saint-Laurent; Tuscarora: Kahnawáʼkye; Mohawk: Kaniatarowanenneh, meaning "big waterway") is a large river in the middle latitudes of North America.
Saint Pierre and Miquelon, officially the Overseas Collectivity of Saint Pierre and Miquelon (Collectivité d'Outre-mer de Saint-Pierre-et-Miquelon), is a self-governing territorial overseas collectivity of France, situated in the northwestern Atlantic Ocean near the Newfoundland and Labrador province of Canada.
Saint-François-du-Lac is a community in the Nicolet-Yamaska Regional County Municipality of Quebec, Canada.
Sainte Marie among the Iroquois (originally known as Sainte Marie de Gannentaha or St. Mary's of Ganantaa) was a 17th-century French Jesuit mission located in the middle of the Onondaga nation of the Haudenosaunee/Iroquois.
Samuel de Champlain (born Samuel Champlain; on or before August 13, 1574Fichier OrigineFor a detailed analysis of his baptismal record, see RitchThe baptism act does not contain information about the age of Samuel, neither his birth date or his place of birth. – December 25, 1635), known as "The Father of New France", was a French navigator, cartographer, draftsman, soldier, explorer, geographer, ethnologist, diplomat, and chronicler.
Saskatchewan is a prairie and boreal province in western Canada, the only province without natural borders.
Saskatchewan River Forks refers to the area in Canada where the North Saskatchewan and South Saskatchewan rivers merge to create the Saskatchewan River.
Sébastien Racle (anglicized as Sebastian Rale or Râle, Rasle, Rasles (January 20, 1657 – August 23, 1724)) was a Jesuit missionary and lexicographer who worked among the eastern Abenaki people.
The manorial system of New France was the semi-feudal system of land tenure used in the North American French colonial empire.
The Seven Years' War was a global conflict fought between 1756 and 1763.
The Siege of Louisbourg was a pivotal operation of the Seven Years' War (known in the United States as the French and Indian War) in 1758 that ended the French colonial era in Atlantic Canada and led directly to the loss of Quebec in 1759 and the remainder of French North America the following year.
The Siege of Port Royal (5 – 13 October 1710), also known as the Conquest of Acadia, was a military siege conducted by British regular and provincial forces under the command of Francis Nicholson against a French Acadian garrison and the Wabanaki Confederacy under the command of Daniel d'Auger de Subercase, at the Acadian capital, Port Royal.
The Siege of Yorktown, also known as the Battle of Yorktown, the Surrender at Yorktown, German Battle or the Siege of Little York, ending on October 19, 1781, at Yorktown, Virginia, was a decisive victory by a combined force of American Continental Army troops led by General George Washington and French Army troops led by the Comte de Rochambeau over a British Army commanded by British peer and Lieutenant General Charles Cornwallis.
Father Simon Le Moyne, S.J. (22 October 1604 – 24 November 1665) was a Jesuit priest who became involved with the mission to the Hurons in the New World.
Despite slavery’s widespread existence in New France, the practice of enslavement in Canada has long been glossed-over by the Canadian historical consciousness.
The Société Notre-Dame de Montréal was a religious organisation responsible for founding Ville-Marie, the original name for the settlement that would later become Montreal.
The Society of Jesus (SJ – from Societas Iesu) is a scholarly religious congregation of the Catholic Church which originated in sixteenth-century Spain.
The Society of the Priests of Saint-Sulpice ("Society of Saint-Sulpice", Compagnie des Prêtres de Saint-Sulpice; Societas Presbyterorum a Santo Sulpitio) is a society of apostolic life of the Catholic Church named for the Church of Saint-Sulpice, Paris, in turn named for Sulpitius the Pious, where they were founded.
The Sovereign Council (French: Conseil Souverain) was a governing body in New France.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
In economic development, the staples thesis is a theory of export-led growth based on Canadian experience.
Stockton Springs is a town in Waldo County, Maine, United States.
Tadoussac is a village in Quebec, Canada, at the confluence of the Saguenay and Saint Lawrence rivers.
Texas (Texas or Tejas) is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population.
The Canadian Encyclopedia (abbreviated as TCE) is a source of information on Canada published by Historica Canada of Toronto.
The Carolinas are the U.S. states of North Carolina and South Carolina, considered collectively.
The Huron Feast of the Dead was a mortuary custom of the Wyandot people of what is today central Ontario, Canada, which involved the disinterment of deceased relatives from their initial individual graves followed by their reburial in a final communal grave.
The Narrows is the tidal strait separating the boroughs of Staten Island and Brooklyn in New York City.
The Third Treaty of San Ildefonso was a treaty between France and Spain in which Spain returned the colonial territory of Louisiana to France in exchange for Tuscany.
The Thirteen Colonies were a group of British colonies on the east coast of North America founded in the 17th and 18th centuries that declared independence in 1776 and formed the United States of America.
Thomas Pownall (bapt. 4 September 1722 (New Style) – 25 February 1805) was a British colonial official and politician.
This is a list of the timelines for the history of northern New France beginning with the first exploration of North America by France through being part of the French colonial empire.
The Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle of 1748, sometimes called the Treaty of Aachen, ended the War of the Austrian Succession following a congress assembled on 24 April 1748 at the Free Imperial City of Aachen, called Aix-la-Chapelle in French and then also in English, in the west of the Holy Roman Empire.
The Treaty of Paris, also known as the Treaty of 1763, was signed on 10 February 1763 by the kingdoms of Great Britain, France and Spain, with Portugal in agreement, after Great Britain's victory over France and Spain during the Seven Years' War.
The Treaty of Utrecht, which established the Peace of Utrecht, is a series of individual peace treaties, rather than a single document, signed by the belligerents in the War of the Spanish Succession, in the Dutch city of Utrecht in March and April 1713.
Trois-Rivières is a city in the Mauricie administrative region of Quebec, Canada, at the confluence of the Saint-Maurice and Saint Lawrence rivers, on the north shore of the Saint Lawrence River across from the city of Bécancour.
The Troupes de la Marine The troupes of La Marine (later reshaped as the Troupes de Marine), a body founded by Cardinal Richelieu in 1622 under the denomination of Compagnies Ordinaires de la Mer, were originally intended to form the garrisons of the ships of the King.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The Province of Upper Canada (province du Haut-Canada) was a part of British Canada established in 1791 by the Kingdom of Great Britain, to govern the central third of the lands in British North America and to accommodate Loyalist refugees of the United States after the American Revolution.
A utopia is an imagined community or society that possesses highly desirable or nearly perfect qualities for its citizens.
Ville-Marie is a town on Lake Temiscaming in western Quebec, Canada.
The voyageurs (travelers) were French Canadians who engaged in the transporting of furs by canoe during the fur trade years.
The Wabanaki Confederacy (Wabenaki, Wobanaki, translated roughly as "People of the First Light" or "People of the Dawnland") are a First Nations and Native American confederation of five principal nations: the Mi'kmaq, Maliseet, Passamaquoddy, Abenaki, and Penobscot.
The War of the Austrian Succession (1740–1748) involved most of the powers of Europe over the question of Maria Theresa's succession to the Habsburg Monarchy.
William Shirley (2 December 1694 – 24 March 1771) was a British colonial administrator who was the longest-serving governor of the Province of Massachusetts Bay (1741–1749 and 1753–1756) and then Governor of the Bahamas (1760–1768).
The World Digital Library (WDL) is an international digital library operated by UNESCO and the United States Library of Congress.
The Wyandot people or Wendat, also called the Huron Nation and Huron people, in most historic references are believed to have been the most populous confederacy of Iroquoian cultured indigenous peoples of North America.
York Factory was a settlement and Hudson's Bay Company (HBC) factory (trading post) located on the southwestern shore of Hudson Bay in northeastern Manitoba, Canada at the mouth of the Hayes River, approximately south-southeast of Churchill.
The 1666 census of New France was the first census conducted in Canada (and also North America).
Amirauté (New France), Etienne Trudeau, Fall of New France, French North America, French Quebec, French colonies in North America, French regime in Canada, History of New France, Nouvelle France, Nouvelle-France, Officialité (New France), Royal Takeover, The Royal Takeover, Transportation in New France, Viceroyalty of New France, Étienne Trudeau.