286 relations: Accelerometer, Acta Astronautica, Air & Space/Smithsonian, Airglow, Alan Stern, Alice Bowman, Alliant Techsystems, Amalthea (moon), American Association for the Advancement of Science, Andrews Air Force Base, Aperture, Applied Physics Laboratory, Apsis, Associated Press, Asteroid, Asteroid belt, Astronomical unit, Astronomy (magazine), Atacama Large Millimeter Array, Atlas V, Atmosphere of Jupiter, Atmosphere of Pluto, Attitude control, Ball Aerospace & Technologies, BBC, Bit rate, Boeing C-17 Globemaster III, Bolometer, Bond albedo, Borescope, Boulder, Colorado, Callirrhoe (moon), Callisto (moon), Canada–France–Hawaii Telescope, Cape Canaveral, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Space Launch Complex 41, Cargo aircraft, Cassegrain reflector, Cassini–Huygens, Centaur (rocket stage), Central processing unit, Charge-coupled device, Charon (moon), Circular polarization, Citizen science, Classical Kuiper belt object, Clyde Tombaugh, CollectSPACE, Computer, ..., CONTOUR, Coordinated Universal Time, Cosmic dust, Cryovolcano, Crystal oscillator, Crystal oven, Daniel Sarokon, Decagon, Decibel, Delta-v, Delta-v budget, Directional antenna, Discover (magazine), Doppler effect, Downrange, Drag (physics), Dual modular redundancy, Dwarf planet, Dynamic range, Earth Observing-1, Edward J. Weiler, Effective radiated power, Elastomer, Electron, Electrostatic analyzer, Eris (dwarf planet), Escape velocity, Europa (moon), European Space Agency, Excite, Exploration of Pluto, Flag of the United States, Flash memory, Florida, Forbes, Free-space path loss, Galilean moons, Ganymede (moon), Goddard Space Flight Center, GPHS-RTG, Gravity assist, Gravity drag, Gyroscope, Heavens-Above, Helios (spacecraft), Heliosphere, Herschel Space Observatory, Hertz, Hexagon, Howard County, Maryland, Hubble Space Telescope, Hurricane Wilma, Hydra (moon), Hydrazine, Hydrocarbon, Hydrogen, Hydrogen cyanide, Hyperbolic trajectory, IAU definition of planet, Idaho National Laboratory, Infrared, International Astronomical Union, International Launch Services, Interplanetary spaceflight, Io (moon), Io9, Ion, Ionosphere, Iridium, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Johns Hopkins University, JPEG, JPL Horizons On-Line Ephemeris System, Julian day, Juno (spacecraft), Jupiter, Kalmbach Publishing, Kennedy Space Center Launch Complex 39, Kerberos (moon), Kerosene, KinetX, Kuiper belt, Lagrangian point, Larry W. Esposito, Latency (engineering), Leo Laporte, Lisa Hardaway, List of artificial objects leaving the Solar System, List of missions to the outer planets, Lockheed Martin, Louver, Lowell Observatory, Lunar and Planetary Institute, Magellan Telescopes, Magnetometer, Magnetosphere, Magnetosphere of Jupiter, Magnitude (astronomy), Mariner Mark II, Mariner program, Mars, Miniature inertial measurement unit, Minor Planet Center, Minute and second of arc, Mongoose-V, Monopropellant rocket, Moons of Jupiter, Moons of Pluto, NASA, NASA Deep Space Network, NASA TV, NASASpaceFlight.com, National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, National Space Science Data Center, Natural satellite, NBC News, Neptune, Neptune trojan, New Frontiers program, New Horizons 2, NGC 3532, Nitrile, Nix (moon), Nucleus RTOS, Occultation, Orbital eccentricity, Orbital inclination, Orbital resonance, Orbital speed, Pale Blue Dot, Parabolic antenna, Phase curve (astronomy), Piano, Pioneer 10, Pioneer 11, Pioneer anomaly, Pixel, Planet, Planetary flyby, Planetary Science Decadal Survey, Plasma (physics), Pluto, Pluto (mythology), Pluto Kuiper Express, Plutonium-238, Polyvinylidene fluoride, Presidency of George W. Bush, Principal investigator, Provisional designation in astronomy, R3000, Radian, Radiation hardening, Radio occultation, Radioisotope thermoelectric generator, Reaction control system, Redundancy (engineering), Resistor, Reuters, Ring system, Rings of Jupiter, Ritchey–Chrétien telescope, Rocket, Safe mode (spacecraft), Sagittarius (constellation), Saturn, Scaled Composites, Science (journal), Sean O'Keefe, Shunt (electrical), Silicon carbide, Single event upset, Sky & Telescope, Slate (magazine), Solar wind, Solid rocket booster, Southwest Research Institute, Space probe, Space Shuttle, Space Telescope Science Institute, Space.com, Spacecraft Event Time, SpaceShipOne, Specific orbital energy, Spectrometer, Spin-stabilisation, Springer Publishing, Stanford University, Star (rocket stage), Stereoscopy, Styx (moon), Subaru Telescope, Sun, Telecommunications link, Telemetry, Terminator (solar), The Guardian, The Honeymooners, The New York Times, The Planetary Society, The Verge, The Washington Post, Thermal radiation, Time-of-flight mass spectrometry, TIMED, Timeline of Solar System exploration, Titanium, Trajectory, Traveling-wave tube, Tvashtar Paterae, TWiT.tv, Ultraviolet, Ulysses (spacecraft), United States Department of Energy, United States Naval Observatory Flagstaff Station, Universities Space Research Association, University of California, University of Colorado Boulder, Uranus, Venetia Burney, Vox (website), Voyager 1, Voyager 2, Voyager program, Wired (magazine), X band, Zooniverse, (486958) 2014 MU69, 132524 APL, 15810 Arawn, 2006 in spaceflight, 2011 KW48, 433 Eros, 50 State Quarters, 50000 Quaoar, 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko, 7075 aluminium alloy. 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An accelerometer is a device that measures proper acceleration.
Acta Astronautica is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal covering all fields of physical, engineering, life, and social sciences related to the peaceful scientific exploration of space.
Air & Space/Smithsonian magazine is a bimonthly magazine put out by the National Air and Space Museum.
Airglow (also called nightglow) is a faint emission of light by a planetary atmosphere.
Sol Alan Stern (born November 22, 1957) is an American engineer and planetary scientist.
Alice Bowman is the Mission Operations Manager for the New Horizons mission to Pluto.
Alliant Techsystems Inc. (ATK) was an American aerospace, defense, and sporting goods company with its headquarters in Arlington County, Virginia, in the United States.
Amalthea (Ἀμάλθεια) is the third moon of Jupiter in order of distance from the planet.
The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) is an American international non-profit organization with the stated goals of promoting cooperation among scientists, defending scientific freedom, encouraging scientific responsibility, and supporting scientific education and science outreach for the betterment of all humanity.
Andrews Air Force Base is the airfield portion of Joint Base Andrews which is under the jurisdiction of the United States Air Force.
In optics, an aperture is a hole or an opening through which light travels.
The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, commonly known as simply the Applied Physics Laboratory, or APL, located in Howard County, Maryland, near Laurel and Columbia, is a not-for-profit, university-affiliated research center (or UARC) employing 6,000 people.
An apsis (ἁψίς; plural apsides, Greek: ἁψῖδες) is an extreme point in the orbit of an object.
The Associated Press (AP) is a U.S.-based not-for-profit news agency headquartered in New York City.
Asteroids are minor planets, especially those of the inner Solar System.
The asteroid belt is the circumstellar disc in the Solar System located roughly between the orbits of the planets Mars and Jupiter.
The astronomical unit (symbol: au, ua, or AU) is a unit of length, roughly the distance from Earth to the Sun.
Astronomy is a monthly American magazine about astronomy.
The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is an astronomical interferometer of radio telescopes in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile.
Atlas V ("V" is pronounced "Five") is an expendable launch system in the Atlas rocket family.
The atmosphere of Jupiter is the largest planetary atmosphere in the Solar System.
The atmosphere of Pluto is the tenuous layer of gases surrounding Pluto.
Attitude control is controlling the orientation of an object with respect to an inertial frame of reference or another entity like the celestial sphere, certain fields, and nearby objects, etc.
Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp. (commonly Ball Aerospace) is an American manufacturer of spacecraft, components, and instruments for national defense, civil space and commercial space applications.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
In telecommunications and computing, bit rate (bitrate or as a variable R) is the number of bits that are conveyed or processed per unit of time.
The Boeing C-17 Globemaster III is a large military transport aircraft.
A bolometer is a device for measuring the power of incident electromagnetic radiation via the heating of a material with a temperature-dependent electrical resistance.
The Bond albedo, named after the American astronomer George Phillips Bond (1825–1865), who originally proposed it, is the fraction of power in the total electromagnetic radiation incident on an astronomical body that is scattered back out into space.
A borescope (occasionally called a boroscope, though this spelling is nonstandard) is an optical device consisting of a rigid or flexible tube with an eyepiece on one end, an objective lens on the other linked together by a relay optical system in between.
Boulder is the home rule municipality that is the county seat and the most populous municipality of Boulder County, and the 11th most populous municipality in the U.S. state of Colorado.
Callirrhoe (Greek: Καλλιρρόη), also known as (17), is one of Jupiter's outermost named natural satellites.
Callisto (Jupiter IV) is the second-largest moon of Jupiter, after Ganymede.
The Canada–France–Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) is located near the summit of Mauna Kea mountain on Hawaii's Big Island at an altitude of 4,204 meters (13,793 feet), and is one of the observatories that comprise the Mauna Kea Observatories.
Cape Canaveral, from the Spanish Cabo Cañaveral, is a cape in Brevard County, Florida, United States, near the center of the state's Atlantic coast.
Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) (known as Cape Kennedy Air Force Station from 1963 to 1973) is an installation of the United States Air Force Space Command's 45th Space Wing.
Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Space Launch Complex 41 (SLC-41), previously Launch Complex 41 (LC-41), is an active launch site at the north end of Cape Canaveral, Florida at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station.
A cargo aircraft (also known as freight aircraft, freighter, airlifter or cargo jet) is a fixed-wing aircraft that is designed or converted for the carriage of cargo rather than passengers.
The Cassegrain reflector is a combination of a primary concave mirror and a secondary convex mirror, often used in optical telescopes and radio antennas.
The Cassini–Huygens mission, commonly called Cassini, was a collaboration between NASA, the European Space Agency (ESA), and the Italian Space Agency (ASI) to send a probe to study the planet Saturn and its system, including its rings and natural satellites.
Centaur has been designed to be the upper stage of space launch vehicles and is used on the Atlas V. Centaur was the world's first high-energy upper stage, burning liquid hydrogen (LH2) and liquid oxygen (LOX).
A central processing unit (CPU) is the electronic circuitry within a computer that carries out the instructions of a computer program by performing the basic arithmetic, logical, control and input/output (I/O) operations specified by the instructions.
A charge-coupled device (CCD) is a device for the movement of electrical charge, usually from within the device to an area where the charge can be manipulated, for example conversion into a digital value.
Charon, also known as (134340) Pluto I, is the largest of the five known natural satellites of the dwarf planet Pluto.
In electrodynamics, circular polarization of an electromagnetic wave is a polarization state in which, at each point, the electric field of the wave has a constant magnitude but its direction rotates with time at a steady rate in a plane perpendicular to the direction of the wave.
Citizen science (CS; also known as community science, crowd science, crowd-sourced science, civic science, volunteer monitoring, or networked science) is scientific research conducted, in whole or in part, by amateur (or nonprofessional) scientists.
A classical Kuiper belt object, also called a cubewano ("QB1-o"), is a low-eccentricity Kuiper belt object (KBO) that orbits beyond Neptune and is not controlled by an orbital resonance with Neptune.
Clyde William Tombaugh (February 4, 1906January 17, 1997) was an American astronomer.
collectSPACE is an online publication and community for space history enthusiasts featuring articles and photos about space artifacts and memorabilia, information on past, current, and upcoming space events, space history collecting resources, and links to other space-related websites.
A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically via computer programming.
The COmet Nucleus TOUR (CONTOUR) was a NASA Discovery-class space probe that failed shortly after its July 2002 launch.
Cosmic dust, also called extraterrestrial dust or space dust, is dust which exists in outer space, as well as all over planet Earth.
A cryovolcano (sometimes informally called an ice volcano) is a type of volcano that erupts volatiles such as water, ammonia or methane, instead of molten rock.
A crystal oscillator is an electronic oscillator circuit that uses the mechanical resonance of a vibrating crystal of piezoelectric material to create an electrical signal with a precise frequency.
A crystal oven is a temperature-controlled chamber used to maintain the quartz crystal in electronic crystal oscillators at a constant temperature, in order to prevent changes in the frequency due to variations in ambient temperature.
Daniel Sarokon (1928 - January 1, 2006) was a NASA Launch Conductor, described as 'one of the most influential people in the history of space travel.
In geometry, a decagon is a ten-sided polygon or 10-gon.
The decibel (symbol: dB) is a unit of measurement used to express the ratio of one value of a physical property to another on a logarithmic scale.
Delta-v (literally "change in velocity"), symbolised as ∆v and pronounced delta-vee, as used in spacecraft flight dynamics, is a measure of the impulse that is needed to perform a maneuver such as launch from, or landing on a planet or moon, or in-space orbital maneuver.
In astrodynamics and aerospace, a delta-v budget is an estimate of the total delta-''v'' required for a space mission.
A directional antenna or beam antenna is an antenna which radiates or receives greater power in specific directions allowing increased performance and reduced interference from unwanted sources.
Discover is an American general audience science magazine launched in October 1980 by Time Inc.
The Doppler effect (or the Doppler shift) is the change in frequency or wavelength of a wave in relation to observer who is moving relative to the wave source.
Downrange is the horizontal distance traveled by a spacecraft, or the spacecraft's horizontal distance from the launch site.
In fluid dynamics, drag (sometimes called air resistance, a type of friction, or fluid resistance, another type of friction or fluid friction) is a force acting opposite to the relative motion of any object moving with respect to a surrounding fluid.
In reliability engineering, dual modular redundancy (DMR) is when components of a system are duplicated, providing redundancy in case one should fail.
A dwarf planet is a planetary-mass object that is neither a planet nor a natural satellite.
Dynamic range, abbreviated DR, DNR, or DYR is the ratio between the largest and smallest values that a certain quantity can assume.
Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) is a decommissioned NASA Earth observation satellite created to develop and validate a number of instrument and spacecraft bus breakthrough technologies.
Edward J. Weiler was the Associate Administrator for the Science Mission Directorate of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration until his retirement on September 30, 2011.
Effective radiated power (ERP), synonymous with equivalent radiated power, is an IEEE standardized definition of directional radio frequency (RF) power, such as that emitted by a radio transmitter.
An elastomer is a polymer with viscoelasticity (i. e., both viscosity and elasticity) and very weak intermolecular forces, and generally low Young's modulus and high failure strain compared with other materials.
The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.
An electrostatic analyzer or ESA is an instrument used in ion optics that employs an electric field to allow the passage of only those ions or electrons that have a given specific energy.
Eris (minor-planet designation 136199 Eris) is the most massive and second-largest (by volume) dwarf planet in the known Solar System.
In physics, escape velocity is the minimum speed needed for an object to escape from the gravitational influence of a massive body.
Europa or as Ευρώπη (Jupiter II) is the smallest of the four Galilean moons orbiting Jupiter, and the sixth-closest to the planet.
The European Space Agency (ESA; Agence spatiale européenne, ASE; Europäische Weltraumorganisation) is an intergovernmental organisation of 22 member states dedicated to the exploration of space.
Excite (stylized as excite) is an internet portal launched in December 1995 that provides a variety of content including news and weather, a metasearch engine, a web-based email, instant messaging, stock quotes, and a customizable user homepage.
The exploration of Pluto began with the arrival of the New Horizons probe in July 2015, though proposals for such a mission had been studied for many decades.
The flag of the United States of America, often referred to as the American flag, is the national flag of the United States.
Flash memory is an electronic (solid-state) non-volatile computer storage medium that can be electrically erased and reprogrammed.
Florida (Spanish for "land of flowers") is the southernmost contiguous state in the United States.
Forbes is an American business magazine.
In telecommunication, free-space path loss (FSPL) is the attenuation of radio energy between the feedpoints of two antennas that results from the combination of the receiving antenna's capture area plus the obstacle free, line-of-sight path through free space (usually air).
The Galilean moons are the four largest moons of Jupiter—Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto.
Ganymede (Jupiter III) is the largest and most massive moon of Jupiter and in the Solar System.
The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is a major NASA space research laboratory located approximately northeast of Washington, D.C. in Greenbelt, Maryland, United States.
GPHS-RTG or General Purpose Heat Source — Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator, is a specific design of the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) used on US space missions.
In orbital mechanics and aerospace engineering, a gravitational slingshot, gravity assist maneuver, or swing-by is the use of the relative movement (e.g. orbit around the Sun) and gravity of a planet or other astronomical object to alter the path and speed of a spacecraft, typically to save propellant and reduce expense.
In astrodynamics and rocketry, gravity drag (or gravity losses) is a measure of the loss in the net performance of a rocket while it is thrusting in a gravitational field.
A gyroscope (from Ancient Greek γῦρος gûros, "circle" and σκοπέω skopéō, "to look") is a device used for measuring or maintaining orientation and angular velocity.
Heavens-Above is a non-profit website developed and maintained by Chris Peat as Heavens-Above GmbH.
Helios-A and Helios-B (also known as and), are a pair of probes launched into heliocentric orbit for the purpose of studying solar processes.
The heliosphere is the bubble-like region of space dominated by the Sun, which extends far beyond the orbit of Pluto.
The Herschel Space Observatory was a space observatory built and operated by the European Space Agency (ESA).
The hertz (symbol: Hz) is the derived unit of frequency in the International System of Units (SI) and is defined as one cycle per second.
In geometry, a hexagon (from Greek ἕξ hex, "six" and γωνία, gonía, "corner, angle") is a six-sided polygon or 6-gon.
Howard County is a county in the central part of the U.S. state of Maryland.
The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a space telescope that was launched into low Earth orbit in 1990 and remains in operation.
Hurricane Wilma was the most intense tropical cyclone ever recorded in the Atlantic basin, and the second-most intense tropical cyclone recorded in the Western Hemisphere, after Hurricane Patricia in 2015.
Hydra is the outermost known moon of Pluto.
Hydrazine is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula (also written), called diamidogen, archaically.
In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
Hydrogen cyanide (HCN), sometimes called prussic acid, is a chemical compound with the chemical formula HCN.
In astrodynamics or celestial mechanics, a hyperbolic trajectory is the trajectory of any object around a central body with more than enough speed to escape the central object's gravitational pull.
The International Astronomical Union (IAU) defined in August 2006 that, in the Solar System, a planet is a celestial body which.
Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is one of the national laboratories of the United States Department of Energy and is managed by the Battelle Energy Alliance.
Infrared radiation (IR) is electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, and is therefore generally invisible to the human eye (although IR at wavelengths up to 1050 nm from specially pulsed lasers can be seen by humans under certain conditions). It is sometimes called infrared light.
The International Astronomical Union (IAU; Union astronomique internationale, UAI) is an international association of professional astronomers, at the PhD level and beyond, active in professional research and education in astronomy.
Interplanetary spaceflight or interplanetary travel is travel between planets, usually within a single planetary system.
Io (Jupiter I) is the innermost of the four Galilean moons of the planet Jupiter.
io9 is a blog launched in 2008 by Gawker Media, which focuses on the subjects of science fiction, fantasy, futurism, science, technology and related areas.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
The ionosphere is the ionized part of Earth's upper atmosphere, from about to altitude, a region that includes the thermosphere and parts of the mesosphere and exosphere.
Iridium is a chemical element with symbol Ir and atomic number 77.
The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is a federally funded research and development center and NASA field center in Pasadena, California, United States, with large portions of the campus in La Cañada Flintridge, California.
Johns Hopkins University is an American private research university in Baltimore, Maryland.
JPEG is a commonly used method of lossy compression for digital images, particularly for those images produced by digital photography.
JPL Horizons On-Line Ephemeris System provides easy access to key Solar System data and flexible production of highly accurate ephemerides for Solar System objects.
Julian day is the continuous count of days since the beginning of the Julian Period and is used primarily by astronomers.
Juno is a NASA space probe orbiting the planet Jupiter.
Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest in the Solar System.
Kalmbach Publishing Co. is an American publisher of books and magazines, many of them railroad-related, located in Waukesha, Wisconsin.
Launch Complex 39 (LC-39) is a rocket launch site at the John F. Kennedy Space Center on Merritt Island in Florida, United States.
Kerberos is a small natural satellite of Pluto, about in its longest dimension.
Kerosene, also known as paraffin, lamp oil, and coal oil (an obsolete term), is a combustible hydrocarbon liquid which is derived from petroleum.
The Kuiper belt, occasionally called the Edgeworth–Kuiper belt, is a circumstellar disc in the outer Solar System, extending from the orbit of Neptune (at 30 AU) to approximately 50 AU from the Sun.
In celestial mechanics, the Lagrangian points (also Lagrange points, L-points, or libration points) are positions in an orbital configuration of two large bodies, wherein a small object, affected only by the gravitational forces from the two larger objects, will maintain its position relative to them.
Larry W. Esposito (born April 15, 1951) is an American planetary astronomer and a professor at the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado Boulder.
Latency is a time interval between the stimulation and response, or, from a more general point of view, a time delay between the cause and the effect of some physical change in the system being observed.
Leo Gordon Laporte (born November 29, 1956) is the host of The Tech Guy weekly radio show and a host on TWiT.tv, an Internet podcast network focusing on technology.
Lisa Hardaway (1967–2017) was an American aerospace engineer.
Below is a list of artificial objects leaving the Solar System.
A total of nine spacecraft have been launched on missions that involve visits to the outer planets; all nine missions involve encounters with Jupiter, with four spacecraft also visiting Saturn.
Lockheed Martin is an American global aerospace, defense, security and advanced technologies company with worldwide interests.
A louver (American English) or louvre (British English) is a window blind or shutter with horizontal slats that are angled to admit light and air, but to keep out rain and direct sunshine.
Lowell Observatory is an astronomical observatory in Flagstaff, Arizona, United States.
The Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI) is a scientific research institute dedicated to study of the solar system, its formation, evolution, and current state.
The Magellan Telescopes are a pair of optical telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory in Chile.
A magnetometer is an instrument that measures magnetism—either the magnetization of a magnetic material like a ferromagnet, or the direction, strength, or relative change of a magnetic field at a particular location.
A magnetosphere is the region of space surrounding an astronomical object in which charged particles are manipulated or affected by that object's magnetic field.
The magnetosphere of Jupiter is the cavity created in the solar wind by the planet's magnetic field.
In astronomy, magnitude is a logarithmic measure of the brightness of an object in a defined passband, often in the visible or infrared spectrum, but sometimes across all wavelengths.
Mariner Mark II was NASA's planned family of unmanned spacecraft for the exploration of the outer Solar System that were to be developed and operated by JPL between 1990 through the year 2010.
The Mariner program was a 10-mission program conducted by the American space agency NASA in conjunction with Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL).
Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System after Mercury.
Miniature inertial measurement unit (MIMU) is an inertial measurement unit (IMU) developed and built by Honeywell International to control and stabilize spacecraft during mission operations.
The Minor Planet Center (MPC) is the official worldwide organization in charge of collecting observational data for minor planets (such as asteroids and comets), calculating their orbits and publishing this information via the Minor Planet Circulars.
A minute of arc, arcminute (arcmin), arc minute, or minute arc is a unit of angular measurement equal to of one degree.
The Mongoose-V 32-bit microprocessor for spacecraft onboard computer applications is a radiation-hardened and expanded 10–15 MHz version of the MIPS R3000 CPU.
A monopropellant rocket (or "monoprop rocket") is a rocket that uses a single chemical as its propellant.
There are 69 known moons of Jupiter.
The dwarf planet Pluto has five moons down to a detection limit of about 1 km in diameter.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
The NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) is a worldwide network of US spacecraft communication facilities, located in the United States (California), Spain (Madrid), and Australia (Canberra), that supports NASA's interplanetary spacecraft missions.
NASA TV (originally NASA Select) is the television service of the United States government agency NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration).
NASASpaceFlight.com is a website that is devoted to manned and unmanned spaceflight news.
The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (also known as "NASEM" or "the National Academies") is the collective scientific national academy of the United States.
The National Space Science Data Center serves as the permanent archive for NASA space science mission data.
A natural satellite or moon is, in the most common usage, an astronomical body that orbits a planet or minor planet (or sometimes another small Solar System body).
NBC News is the news division of the American broadcast television network NBC, formerly known as the National Broadcasting Company when it was founded on radio.
Neptune is the eighth and farthest known planet from the Sun in the Solar System.
Neptune trojans are bodies that orbit the Sun near one of the stable Lagrangian points of Neptune, similar to the trojans of other planets.
The New Frontiers program is a series of space exploration missions being conducted by NASA with the purpose of researching several of the Solar System bodies, including the dwarf planet Pluto.
New Horizons 2 (also New Horizons II, NHII, or NH2) was a proposed mission to the trans-Neptunian objects by NASA.
NGC 3532, also commonly known as the Football ClusterAmateur Astronomer Association of New York, or the Wishing Well Cluster, is an open cluster some 405 parsecs from Earth in the constellation Carina.
A nitrile is any organic compound that has a −C≡N functional group.
Nix is a natural satellite of Pluto.
Nucleus RTOS is a real-time operating system (RTOS) offered by the Embedded Software Division of Mentor Graphics, a Siemens Business, supporting 32 and 64 bit embedded platforms.
An occultation is an event that occurs when one object is hidden by another object that passes between it and the observer.
The orbital eccentricity of an astronomical object is a parameter that determines the amount by which its orbit around another body deviates from a perfect circle.
Orbital inclination measures the tilt of an object's orbit around a celestial body.
In celestial mechanics, an orbital resonance occurs when orbiting bodies exert a regular, periodic gravitational influence on each other, usually because their orbital periods are related by a ratio of small integers.
In gravitationally bound systems, the orbital speed of an astronomical body or object (e.g. planet, moon, artificial satellite, spacecraft, or star) is the speed at which it orbits around either the barycenter or, if the object is much less massive than the largest body in the system, its speed relative to that largest body.
Pale Blue Dot is a photograph of planet Earth taken on February 14, 1990, by the Voyager 1 space probe from a record distance of about kilometers (miles, 40.5 AU), as part of that day's ''Family Portrait'' series of images of the Solar System.
A parabolic antenna is an antenna that uses a parabolic reflector, a curved surface with the cross-sectional shape of a parabola, to direct the radio waves.
In astronomy a phase curve describes the brightness of a reflecting body as a function of its phase angle.
The piano is an acoustic, stringed musical instrument invented in Italy by Bartolomeo Cristofori around the year 1700 (the exact year is uncertain), in which the strings are struck by hammers.
Pioneer 10 (originally designated Pioneer F) is an American space probe, launched in 1972 and weighing, that completed the first mission to the planet Jupiter.
Pioneer 11 (also known as Pioneer G) is a robotic space probe launched by NASA on April 6, 1973 to study the asteroid belt, the environment around Jupiter and Saturn, solar wind and cosmic rays.
The Pioneer anomaly or Pioneer effect was the observed deviation from predicted accelerations of the Pioneer 10 and Pioneer 11 spacecraft after they passed about on their trajectories out of the Solar System.
In digital imaging, a pixel, pel, dots, or picture element is a physical point in a raster image, or the smallest addressable element in an all points addressable display device; so it is the smallest controllable element of a picture represented on the screen.
A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star or stellar remnant that is massive enough to be rounded by its own gravity, is not massive enough to cause thermonuclear fusion, and has cleared its neighbouring region of planetesimals.
A planetary flyby is the act of sending a space probe past a planet or a dwarf planet close enough to record scientific data.
The Planetary Science Decadal Survey is a publication of the United States National Research Council produced for NASA and other United States Government Agencies such as the National Science Foundation.
Plasma (Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek English Lexicon, on Perseus) is one of the four fundamental states of matter, and was first described by chemist Irving Langmuir in the 1920s.
Pluto (minor planet designation: 134340 Pluto) is a dwarf planet in the Kuiper belt, a ring of bodies beyond Neptune.
Pluto (Latin: Plūtō; Πλούτων) was the ruler of the underworld in classical mythology.
Pluto Kuiper Express was an interplanetary space probe that was proposed by Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) scientists and engineers and under development by NASA.
Plutonium-238 (also known as Pu-238 or 238Pu) is a radioactive isotope of plutonium that has a half-life of 87.7 years.
Polyvinylidene fluoride or polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) is a highly non-reactive thermoplastic fluoropolymer produced by the polymerization of vinylidene difluoride.
The presidency of George W. Bush began at noon EST on January 20, 2001, when George W. Bush was inaugurated as 43rd President of the United States, and ended on January 20, 2009.
A principal investigator (PI) is the holder of an independent grant administered by a university and the lead researcher for the grant project, usually in the sciences, such as a laboratory study or a clinical trial.
Provisional designation in astronomy is the naming convention applied to astronomical objects immediately following their discovery.
The R3000 is a full 32 bit RISC microprocessor chipset developed by MIPS Computer Systems that implemented the MIPS I instruction set architecture (ISA).
The radian (SI symbol rad) is the SI unit for measuring angles, and is the standard unit of angular measure used in many areas of mathematics.
Radiation hardening is the act of making electronic components and systems resistant to damage or malfunctions caused by ionizing radiation (particle radiation and high-energy electromagnetic radiation), such as those encountered in outer space and high-altitude flight, around nuclear reactors and particle accelerators, or during nuclear accidents or nuclear warfare.
Radio occultation (RO) is a remote sensing technique used for measuring the physical properties of a planetary atmosphere or ring system.
A Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG, RITEG) is an electrical generator that uses an array of thermocouples to convert the heat released by the decay of a suitable radioactive material into electricity by the Seebeck effect.
A reaction control system (RCS) is a spacecraft system that uses thrusters to provide attitude control, and sometimes translation.
In engineering, redundancy is the duplication of critical components or functions of a system with the intention of increasing reliability of the system, usually in the form of a backup or fail-safe, or to improve actual system performance, such as in the case of GNSS receivers, or multi-threaded computer processing.
A resistor is a passive two-terminal electrical component that implements electrical resistance as a circuit element.
Reuters is an international news agency headquartered in London, United Kingdom.
A ring system is a disc or ring orbiting an astronomical object that is composed of solid material such as dust and moonlets, and is a common component of satellite systems around giant planets.
The planet Jupiter has a system of rings known as the rings of Jupiter or the Jovian ring system.
A Ritchey–Chrétien telescope (RCT or simply RC) is a specialized variant of the Cassegrain telescope that has a hyperbolic primary mirror and a hyperbolic secondary mirror designed to eliminate off-axis optical errors (coma).
A rocket (from Italian rocchetto "bobbin") is a missile, spacecraft, aircraft or other vehicle that obtains thrust from a rocket engine.
Safe mode is an operating mode of a modern spacecraft during which all non-essential systems are shut down and only essential functions such as thermal management, radio reception and attitude control are active.
Sagittarius is one of the constellations of the zodiac.
Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun and the second-largest in the Solar System, after Jupiter.
Scaled Composites (often called simply Scaled) is an American aerospace company founded by Burt Rutan and currently owned by Northrop Grumman that is located at the Mojave Air and Space Port, Mojave, California, United States.
Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.
Sean Charles O'Keefe (born January 27, 1956) is the university professor at Syracuse University Maxwell School, former chairman of Airbus Group, Inc.,, politico.com, October 22, 2009; accessed September 18, 2014.
In electronics, a shunt is a device which allows electric current to pass around another point in the circuit by creating a low resistance path.
Silicon carbide (SiC), also known as carborundum, is a semiconductor containing silicon and carbon.
A single event upset (SEU) is a change of state caused by one single ionizing particle (ions, electrons, photons...) striking a sensitive node in a micro-electronic device, such as in a microprocessor, semiconductor memory, or power transistors.
Sky & Telescope (S&T) is a monthly American magazine covering all aspects of amateur astronomy, including the following.
Slate is an online magazine that covers current affairs, politics, and culture in the United States from a liberal perspective.
The solar wind is a stream of charged particles released from the upper atmosphere of the Sun, called the corona.
Solid-fuel rocket boosters (SRBs) are large solid propellant motors used to provide thrust in spacecraft launches from initial launch through the first ascent stage.
Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), headquartered in San Antonio, Texas, is one of the oldest and largest independent, nonprofit, applied research and development (R&D) organizations in the United States.
A space probe is a robotic spacecraft that does not orbit the Earth, but, instead, explores further into outer space.
The Space Shuttle was a partially reusable low Earth orbital spacecraft system operated by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), as part of the Space Shuttle program.
The Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) is the science operations center for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST; in orbit since 1990) and for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST; scheduled to be launched in March 2021).
Space.com is a space and astronomy news website.
Spacecraft Event Time (SCET) is the spacecraft-local time for events that happen at the spacecraft.
SpaceShipOne is an experimental air-launched rocket-powered aircraft with sub-orbital spaceflight capability at speeds of up to 900 m/s (3,000 ft/s), using a hybrid rocket motor.
In the gravitational two-body problem, the specific orbital energy \epsilon\,\! (or vis-viva energy) of two orbiting bodies is the constant sum of their mutual potential energy (\epsilon_p\,\!) and their total kinetic energy (\epsilon_k\,\!), divided by the reduced mass.
A spectrometer is a scientific instrument used to separate and measure spectral components of a physical phenomenon.
Spin-stabilisation is the method of stabilizing a satellite or launch vehicle by means of spin.
Springer Publishing is an American publishing company of academic journals and books, focusing on the fields of nursing, gerontology, psychology, social work, counseling, public health, and rehabilitation (neuropsychology).
Stanford University (officially Leland Stanford Junior University, colloquially the Farm) is a private research university in Stanford, California.
The Star is a family of American solid-fuel rocket motor used by many space propulsion and launch vehicle stages.
Stereoscopy (also called stereoscopics, or stereo imaging) is a technique for creating or enhancing the illusion of depth in an image by means of stereopsis for binocular vision.
Styx is a small natural satellite of Pluto whose discovery was announced on 11 July 2012.
is the flagship telescope of the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, located at the Mauna Kea Observatory on Hawaii.
The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System.
In telecommunications a link is a communication channel that connects two or more devices.
Telemetry is an automated communications process by which measurements and other data are collected at remote or inaccessible points and transmitted to receiving equipment for monitoring.
A terminator or twilight zone is a moving line that divides the daylit side and the dark night side of a planetary body.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The Honeymooners is an American television sitcom created by and starring Jackie Gleason, based on a recurring comedy sketch of the same name that had been part of his variety show.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Planetary Society is an American internationally active, non-governmental, nonprofit foundation.
The Verge is an American technology news and media network operated by Vox Media.
The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.
Thermal radiation is electromagnetic radiation generated by the thermal motion of charged particles in matter.
Time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS) is a method of mass spectrometry in which an ion's mass-to-charge ratio is determined via a time of flight measurement.
The TIMED (Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics) is an orbiter mission dedicated to study the dynamics of the Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere (MLT) portion of the Earth's atmosphere.
This is a timeline of Solar System exploration ordered by date of spacecraft launch.
Titanium is a chemical element with symbol Ti and atomic number 22.
A trajectory or flight path is the path that a massive object in motion follows through space as a function of time.
A traveling-wave tube (TWT, pronounced "twit") or traveling-wave tube amplifier (TWTA, pronounced "tweeta") is a specialized vacuum tube that is used in electronics to amplify radio frequency (RF) signals in the microwave range.
Tvashtar Paterae compose an active volcanic region of Jupiter's moon Io located near its north pole.
TWiT.tv, which is the operating trade name of TWiT LLC, is a podcast network (although TWiT uses the term "netcast") founded by technology broadcaster and author Leo Laporte and run by his wife and company CEO Lisa Laporte.
Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
Ulysses is a decommissioned robotic space probe whose primary mission was to orbit the Sun and study it at all latitudes.
The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is a cabinet-level department of the United States Government concerned with the United States' policies regarding energy and safety in handling nuclear material.
The United States Naval Observatory Flagstaff Station (NOFS), is an astronomical observatory near Flagstaff, Arizona, USA.
The Universities Space Research Association (USRA) was incorporated on March 12, 1969 in Washington, D.C. as a private, nonprofit corporation under the auspices of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS).
The University of California (UC) is a public university system in the US state of California.
The University of Colorado Boulder (commonly referred to as CU or Colorado) is a public research university located in Boulder, Colorado, United States.
Uranus is the seventh planet from the Sun.
Venetia Katharine Douglas Phair, née Burney (11 July 1918 – 30 April 2009) was an English woman who as a girl was credited by Clyde Tombaugh with first suggesting the name Pluto for the planet he discovered in 1930.
Vox is an American news and opinion website owned by Vox Media.
Voyager 1 is a space probe launched by NASA on September 5, 1977.
Voyager 2 is a space probe launched by NASA on August 20, 1977, to study the outer planets.
The Voyager program is an American scientific program that employs two robotic probes, Voyager 1 and Voyager 2, to study the outer Solar System.
Wired is a monthly American magazine, published in print and online editions, that focuses on how emerging technologies affect culture, the economy, and politics.
The X band is the designation for a band of frequencies in the microwave radio region of the electromagnetic spectrum.
Zooniverse is a citizen science web portal owned and operated by the Citizen Science Alliance.
, previously designated and, and nicknamed Ultima Thule by the New Horizons team, is a trans-Neptunian object from the Kuiper belt located in the outermost regions of the Solar System.
132524 APL, provisional designation, is a stony background asteroid in the intermediate asteroid belt, approximately 2.3 kilometers across.
15810 Arawn, provisional designation, is a trans-Neptunian object (TNO) from the inner regions of the Kuiper belt, approximately in diameter.
This article outlines notable events occurring in 2006 in spaceflight, including major launches and EVAs.
, temporarily designated VNH0004, is a trans-Neptunian object from the inner classical part of the Kuiper belt, located in the outermost region of the Solar System.
433 Eros, provisional designation, is a stony and elongated asteroid of the Amor group and the first discovered and second-largest near-Earth object with a mean-diameter of approximately 16.8 kilometers.
The 50 State Quarters Program was the release of a series of circulating commemorative coins by the United States Mint.
50000 Quaoar, provisional designation, is a non-resonant trans-Neptunian object (cubewano) and possibly a dwarf planet in the Kuiper belt, located in the outermost region of the Solar System.
67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko (abbreviated as 67P or 67P/C-G) is a Jupiter-family comet, originally from the Kuiper belt, with a current orbital period of 6.45 years, a rotation period of approximately 12.4 hours and a maximum velocity of.
7075 aluminium alloy is an aluminium alloy, with zinc as the primary alloying element.
2006-001A, Destination pluto, LORRI, New Frontiers 1, New Horizons (spacecraft), New Horizons 1, New Horizons KBO Search, New Horizons Probe, New Horizons Spacecraft, New Horizons mission, New horizons, PEPSSI, Pluto mission, Pluto probe, Ralph (telescope).