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New Latin

Index New Latin

New Latin (also called Neo-Latin or Modern Latin) was a revival in the use of Latin in original, scholarly, and scientific works between c. 1375 and c. 1900. [1]

183 relations: Affricate consonant, Anatomy, Ancient Greece, Arithmetices principia, nova methodo exposita, Ars Magna (Gerolamo Cardano), Arthur Rimbaud, Astronomia nova, Athanasius Kircher, Baltic states, Baruch Spinoza, Binomial nomenclature, Biopharmaceutical, Botanical Latin, Byzantium, Carl Friedrich Gauss, Carl Friedrich Philipp von Martius, Carl Gustav Jacob Jacobi, Carl Linnaeus, Catholic Church, Central Europe, Christiaan Huygens, Christian Wolff (philosopher), Classical compound, Classical Latin, Classics, Clitic, Conrad Gessner, Contemporary Latin, Croatia, Daniel Bernoulli, De Christiana expeditione apud Sinas, De jure belli ac pacis, De Magnete, De revolutionibus orbium coelestium, Disquisitiones Arithmeticae, E caudata, Ecclesiastical Latin, Education, Elizabeth Jane Weston, English language, Erasmus, Ethics (Spinoza), Europe, Exercitatio Anatomica de Motu Cordis et Sanguinis in Animalibus, Finland, Flora Brasiliensis, Flora Sinensis, Francis Bacon, Francisco Sánchez de las Brozas, Francisco Suárez, ..., Frederick William I of Prussia, French language, Fricative consonant, Fundamenta nova theoriae functionum ellipticarum, Galileo Galilei, George Buchanan, George I of Great Britain, George Washington, Gerolamo Cardano, Girolamo Fracastoro, Giuseppe Peano, Greek language, Guillaume Budé, Hendrik van Rheede, Hortus Malabaricus, Hugo Grotius, Humanities, Hungary, I, In Praise of Folly, Intermezzo, International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, International scientific vocabulary, Isaac Newton, Italic languages, J, Jacob Bidermann, Jacques Auguste de Thou, Jan van der Hoeven, Jean Jaurès, Johann Joseph Fux, Johannes Kepler, John Amos Comenius, John Barclay (poet), John Colet, John Dewey, John Milton, José de Acosta, Juan de Mariana, Juan Ginés de Sepúlveda, Juan Luis Vives, Juan Maldonado, Kiev, Latin, Latin alphabet, Latin liturgical rites, Latin Mass, Latino-Faliscan languages, Laurence Sterne, Law, Leonhard Euler, Lingua franca, Linguistics, List of revived languages, Long s, Louis XIV of France, Ludvig Holberg, Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Neo-Latin Studies, Luigi Galvani, Luisa Sigea de Velasco, Martino Martini, Matteo Ricci, Max Beerbohm, Medieval Latin, Meditations on First Philosophy, Mediterranean Sea, Michał Boym, Michael Servetus, Motu proprio, Neologism, Nicolas Trigault, Nicolaus Copernicus, Nomenclature, Novum Organum, Oedipus Aegyptiacus, Old Church Slavonic, Opticks, Orbis Pictus, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Martyr d'Anghiera, Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica, Philosophy of education, Planetary nomenclature, Poetry, Poland, Pope Benedict XVI, Primary education, Printing, Prodromus Florae Novae Hollandiae et Insulae Van Diemen, Prose, Psychopathia Sexualis (book), Pulmonary circulation, Pulse, Reformation, Renaissance, Renaissance Latin, René Descartes, Richard von Krafft-Ebing, Robert Brown (botanist, born 1773), Robert Walpole, Roman Empire, Roman Republic, Romance languages, Russia, Scandinavia, Scientist, Sebastián Fox Morcillo, Second Vatican Council, Selenography, Sibilant, Sidereus Nuncius, Slovakia, Somnium (novel), Species Plantarum, Summorum Pontificum, Systema Naturae, Taxonomy (biology), The I Tatti Renaissance Library, The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy, Gentleman, Thomas Hobbes, Thomas More, Tractatus Theologico-Politicus, Traditionalist Catholicism, Treaty of Vienna (1738), Trinity, U, University, Utopia (book), V, War of the Austrian Succession, William Gilbert (astronomer), William Harvey, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. Expand index (133 more) »

Affricate consonant

An affricate is a consonant that begins as a stop and releases as a fricative, generally with the same place of articulation (most often coronal).

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Anatomy

Anatomy (Greek anatomē, “dissection”) is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organisms and their parts.

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Ancient Greece

Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).

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Arithmetices principia, nova methodo exposita

The 1889 treatise Arithmetices principia, nova methodo exposita (The principles of arithmetic, presented by a new method; 1889) by Giuseppe Peano is a seminal document in mathematical logic and set theory, introducing what is now the standard axiomatization of the natural numbers, and known as the Peano axioms, as well as some pervasive notations, such as the symbols for the basic set operations ∈, ⊂, ∩, ∪, and ''A''−''B''.

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Ars Magna (Gerolamo Cardano)

The Ars Magna ("The Great Art") is an important Latin-language book on algebra written by Girolamo Cardano.

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Arthur Rimbaud

Jean Nicolas Arthur Rimbaud (20 October 1854 – 10 November 1891) was a French poet who is known for his influence on modern literature and arts, which prefigured surrealism.

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Astronomia nova

Astronomia nova (English: New Astronomy, full title in original Latin: Astronomia Nova ΑΙΤΙΟΛΟΓΗΤΟΣ seu physica coelestis, tradita commentariis de motibus stellae Martis ex observationibus G.V. Tychonis Brahe) is a book, published in 1609, that contains the results of the astronomer Johannes Kepler's ten-year-long investigation of the motion of Mars.

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Athanasius Kircher

Athanasius Kircher, S.J. (sometimes erroneously spelled Kirchner; Athanasius Kircherus, 2 May 1602 – 28 November 1680) was a German Jesuit scholar and polymath who published around 40 major works, most notably in the fields of comparative religion, geology, and medicine.

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Baltic states

The Baltic states, also known as the Baltic countries, Baltic republics, Baltic nations or simply the Baltics (Balti riigid, Baltimaad, Baltijas valstis, Baltijos valstybės), is a geopolitical term used for grouping the three sovereign countries in Northern Europe on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania.

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Baruch Spinoza

Baruch Spinoza (born Benedito de Espinosa,; 24 November 1632 – 21 February 1677, later Benedict de Spinoza) was a Dutch philosopher of Sephardi/Portuguese origin.

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Binomial nomenclature

Binomial nomenclature ("two-term naming system") also called nomenclature ("two-name naming system") or binary nomenclature, is a formal system of naming species of living things by giving each a name composed of two parts, both of which use Latin grammatical forms, although they can be based on words from other languages.

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Biopharmaceutical

A biopharmaceutical, also known as a biologic(al) medical product, biological, or biologic, is any pharmaceutical drug product manufactured in, extracted from, or semisynthesized from biological sources.

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Botanical Latin

Botanical Latin is a technical language based on New Latin, used for descriptions of botanical taxa.

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Byzantium

Byzantium or Byzantion (Ancient Greek: Βυζάντιον, Byzántion) was an ancient Greek colony in early antiquity that later became Constantinople, and later Istanbul.

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Carl Friedrich Gauss

Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss (Gauß; Carolus Fridericus Gauss; 30 April 177723 February 1855) was a German mathematician and physicist who made significant contributions to many fields, including algebra, analysis, astronomy, differential geometry, electrostatics, geodesy, geophysics, magnetic fields, matrix theory, mechanics, number theory, optics and statistics.

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Carl Friedrich Philipp von Martius

Carl Friedrich Philipp (Karl Friedrich Philipp) von Martius (April 17th, 1794 – December 13th, 1868) was a German botanist and explorer.

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Carl Gustav Jacob Jacobi

Carl Gustav Jacob Jacobi (10 December 1804 – 18 February 1851) was a German mathematician, who made fundamental contributions to elliptic functions, dynamics, differential equations, and number theory.

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Carl Linnaeus

Carl Linnaeus (23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his ennoblement as Carl von LinnéBlunt (2004), p. 171.

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Catholic Church

The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.

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Central Europe

Central Europe is the region comprising the central part of Europe.

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Christiaan Huygens

Christiaan Huygens (Hugenius; 14 April 1629 – 8 July 1695) was a Dutch physicist, mathematician, astronomer and inventor, who is widely regarded as one of the greatest scientists of all time and a major figure in the scientific revolution.

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Christian Wolff (philosopher)

Christian Wolff (less correctly Wolf,; also known as Wolfius; ennobled as Christian Freiherr von Wolff; 24 January 1679 – 9 April 1754) was a German philosopher.

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Classical compound

Classical compounds and neoclassical compounds are compound words composed from combining forms (which act as affixes or stems) derived from classical Latin or ancient Greek roots.

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Classical Latin

Classical Latin is the modern term used to describe the form of the Latin language recognized as standard by writers of the late Roman Republic and the Roman Empire.

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Classics

Classics or classical studies is the study of classical antiquity.

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Clitic

A clitic (from Greek κλιτικός klitikos, "inflexional") is a morpheme in morphology and syntax that has syntactic characteristics of a word, but depends phonologically on another word or phrase.

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Conrad Gessner

Conrad Gessner (Conradus Gesnerus; Conrad Geßner or Cůnrat Geßner; 26 March 1516 – 13 December 1565) was a Swiss physician, naturalist, bibliographer, and philologist.

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Contemporary Latin

Contemporary Latin is the form of the Latin language used from the end of the 19th century through the present.

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Croatia

Croatia (Hrvatska), officially the Republic of Croatia (Republika Hrvatska), is a country at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, on the Adriatic Sea.

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Daniel Bernoulli

Daniel Bernoulli FRS (8 February 1700 – 17 March 1782) was a Swiss mathematician and physicist and was one of the many prominent mathematicians in the Bernoulli family.

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De Christiana expeditione apud Sinas

De Christiana expeditione apud Sinas suscepta ab Societate Jesu... (Latin for "On the Christian Mission among the Chinese by the Society of Jesus...") is a book based on an Italian manuscript written by the most important founding figure of the Jesuit China mission, Matteo Ricci (1552–1610), expanded and translated into Latin by his colleague Nicolas Trigault (1577–1628).

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De jure belli ac pacis

De iure belli ac pacis (On the Law of War and Peace) is a 1625 book in Latin, written by Hugo Grotius and published in Paris, on the legal status of war.

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De Magnete

De Magnete, Magneticisque Corporibus, et de Magno Magnete Tellure (On the Magnet and Magnetic Bodies, and on That Great Magnet the Earth) is a scientific work published in 1600 by the English physician and scientist William Gilbert and his partner Aaron Dowling.

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De revolutionibus orbium coelestium

De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres) is the seminal work on the heliocentric theory of the Renaissance astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus (1473–1543).

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Disquisitiones Arithmeticae

The Disquisitiones Arithmeticae (Latin for "Arithmetical Investigations") is a textbook of number theory written in Latin by Carl Friedrich Gauss in 1798 when Gauss was 21 and first published in 1801 when he was 24.

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E caudata

Part of a Latin book published in Rome in 1632. ''E caudata'' is used in the words '''Sacrę''', '''propagandę''', '''prædictę''', and '''grammaticę'''. Note that the spelling '''grammaticæ''', with ''æ'', is also used. The e caudata ("tailed e", from cauda "tail") is a modified form of the letter E that can be graphically represented as E with ogonek (ę) but has a distinct history of usage.

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Ecclesiastical Latin

Ecclesiastical Latin, also called Liturgical Latin or Church Latin, is the form of Latin that is used in the Roman and the other Latin rites of the Catholic Church, as well as in the Anglican Churches, Lutheran Churches, Methodist Churches, and the Western Rite of the Eastern Orthodox Church, for liturgical purposes.

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Education

Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, and habits.

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Elizabeth Jane Weston

Elizabeth Jane Weston (Elisabetha Ioanna Westonia; Alžběta Johana Vestonie) (November 2, 1582 in London – November 23, 1612 in Prague) was an English-Czech poet, mostly known for her Neo-Latin poetry.

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English language

English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.

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Erasmus

Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus (28 October 1466Gleason, John B. "The Birth Dates of John Colet and Erasmus of Rotterdam: Fresh Documentary Evidence," Renaissance Quarterly, The University of Chicago Press on behalf of the Renaissance Society of America, Vol. 32, No. 1 (Spring, 1979), pp. 73–76; – 12 July 1536), known as Erasmus or Erasmus of Rotterdam,Erasmus was his baptismal name, given after St. Erasmus of Formiae.

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Ethics (Spinoza)

Ethics, Demonstrated in Geometrical Order (Ethica, ordine geometrico demonstrata), usually known as the Ethics, is a philosophical treatise written by Benedict de Spinoza.

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Europe

Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.

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Exercitatio Anatomica de Motu Cordis et Sanguinis in Animalibus

Exercitatio Anatomica de Motu Cordis et Sanguinis in Animalibus (Latin for "An Anatomical Exercise on the Motion of the Heart and Blood in Living Beings"), commonly called De Motu Cordis, is the best-known work of the physician William Harvey.

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Finland

Finland (Suomi; Finland), officially the Republic of Finland is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, and Russia to the east.

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Flora Brasiliensis

Flora Brasiliensis is a book published between 1840 and 1906 by the editors Carl Friedrich Philipp von Martius, August Wilhelm Eichler, Ignatz Urban and many others.

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Flora Sinensis

Flora Sinensis is one of the first European natural history books about China, published in Vienna in 1656.

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Francis Bacon

Francis Bacon, 1st Viscount St Alban, (22 January 15619 April 1626) was an English philosopher, statesman, scientist, jurist, orator, and author.

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Francisco Sánchez de las Brozas

Francisco Sánchez de las Brozas (1523–1600), also known as El Brocense, and in Latin as Franciscus Sanctius Brocensis, was a Spanish philologist and humanist.

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Francisco Suárez

Francisco Suárez (5 January 1548 – 25 September 1617) was a Spanish Jesuit priest, philosopher and theologian, one of the leading figures of the School of Salamanca movement, and generally regarded among the greatest scholastics after Thomas Aquinas.

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Frederick William I of Prussia

Frederick William I (Friedrich Wilhelm I) (14 August 1688 – 31 May 1740), known as the "Soldier King" (Soldatenkönig), was the King in Prussia and Elector of Brandenburg from 1713 until his death in 1740 as well as the father of Frederick the Great.

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French language

French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.

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Fricative consonant

Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.

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Fundamenta nova theoriae functionum ellipticarum

Fundamenta nova theoriae functionum ellipticarum (New Foundations of the Theory of Elliptic Functions) is a book on Jacobi elliptic functions by Carl Gustav Jacob Jacobi.

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Galileo Galilei

Galileo Galilei (15 February 1564Drake (1978, p. 1). The date of Galileo's birth is given according to the Julian calendar, which was then in force throughout Christendom. In 1582 it was replaced in Italy and several other Catholic countries with the Gregorian calendar. Unless otherwise indicated, dates in this article are given according to the Gregorian calendar. – 8 January 1642) was an Italian polymath.

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George Buchanan

George Buchanan (Seòras Bochanan; February 1506 – 28 September 1582) was a Scottish historian and humanist scholar.

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George I of Great Britain

George I (George Louis; Georg Ludwig; 28 May 1660 – 11 June 1727) was King of Great Britain and Ireland from 1 August 1714 and ruler of the Duchy and Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) in the Holy Roman Empire from 1698 until his death.

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George Washington

George Washington (February 22, 1732 –, 1799), known as the "Father of His Country," was an American soldier and statesman who served from 1789 to 1797 as the first President of the United States.

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Gerolamo Cardano

Gerolamo (or Girolamo, or Geronimo) Cardano (Jérôme Cardan; Hieronymus Cardanus; 24 September 1501 – 21 September 1576) was an Italian polymath, whose interests and proficiencies ranged from being a mathematician, physician, biologist, physicist, chemist, astrologer, astronomer, philosopher, writer, and gambler.

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Girolamo Fracastoro

Girolamo Fracastoro (Hieronymus Fracastorius; c. 1476/86 August 1553) was an Italian physician, poet, and scholar in mathematics, geography and astronomy.

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Giuseppe Peano

Giuseppe Peano (27 August 1858 – 20 April 1932) was an Italian mathematician and glottologist.

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Greek language

Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.

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Guillaume Budé

Guillaume Budé (Guilielmus Budaeus; 26 January 146723 August 1540) was a French scholar.

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Hendrik van Rheede

Hendrik Adriaan van Rheede tot Drakenstein (Amsterdam, 13 April 1636 – at sea, 15 December 1691) was a military man and a colonial administrator of the Dutch East India Company and naturalist.

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Hortus Malabaricus

Hortus Malabaricus (meaning "Garden of Malabar") is a comprehensive treatise that deals with the properties of the flora of the Western Ghats region principally covering the areas now in the Indian states of Kerala, Karnataka and the union territory of Goa.

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Hugo Grotius

Hugo Grotius (10 April 1583 – 28 August 1645), also known as Huig de Groot or Hugo de Groot, was a Dutch jurist.

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Humanities

Humanities are academic disciplines that study aspects of human society and culture.

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Hungary

Hungary (Magyarország) is a country in Central Europe that covers an area of in the Carpathian Basin, bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west.

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I

I (named i, plural ies) is the ninth letter and the third vowel in the ISO basic Latin alphabet.

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In Praise of Folly

In Praise of Folly, also translated as The Praise of Folly, (Latin: Stultitiae Laus or Moriae Encomium (Greek title: Morias enkomion (Μωρίας ἐγκώμιον); Dutch title: Lof der Zotheid) is an essay written in Latin in 1509 by Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam and first printed in June 1511. Inspired by previous works of the Italian humanist De Triumpho Stultitiae, it is a satirical attack on superstitions and other traditions of European society as well as on the Western Church. Erasmus revised and extended his work, which was originally written in the space of a week while sojourning with Sir Thomas More at More's house in Bucklersbury in the City of London. The title Moriae Encomium had a punning second meaning as In Praise of More. In Praise of Folly is considered one of the most notable works of the Renaissance and played an important role in the beginnings of the Protestant Reformation. "Although Erasmus himself would have denied it vehemently, later reformers found that In Praise of Folly had helped prepare the way for the Protestant Reformation.".

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Intermezzo

In music, an intermezzo (plural form: intermezzi), in the most general sense, is a composition which fits between other musical or dramatic entities, such as acts of a play or movements of a larger musical work.

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International Code of Zoological Nomenclature

The International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) is a widely accepted convention in zoology that rules the formal scientific naming of organisms treated as animals.

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International scientific vocabulary

International scientific vocabulary (ISV) comprises scientific and specialized words whose language of origin may or may not be certain, but which are in current use in several modern languages (that is, translingually).

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Isaac Newton

Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician, astronomer, theologian, author and physicist (described in his own day as a "natural philosopher") who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time, and a key figure in the scientific revolution.

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Italic languages

The Italic languages are a subfamily of the Indo-European language family, originally spoken by Italic peoples.

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J

J is the tenth letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.

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Jacob Bidermann

Jacob Bidermann (1578 – August 20, 1639) was born in the Austrian (at that time) village of Ehingen, about 30 miles southwest of Ulm.

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Jacques Auguste de Thou

Jacques Auguste de Thou (Thuanus) (8 October 1553, Paris – 7 May 1617, Paris) was a French historian, book collector and president of the Parlement de Paris.

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Jan van der Hoeven

Jan van der Hoeven (9 February 1801 – 10 March 1868) was a Dutch zoologist.

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Jean Jaurès

Auguste Marie Joseph Jean Léon Jaurès, commonly referred as Jean Jaurès (3 September 185931 July 1914) was a French Socialist leader.

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Johann Joseph Fux

Johann Joseph Fux (c. 1660 – 13 February 1741) was an Austrian composer, music theorist and pedagogue of the late Baroque era.

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Johannes Kepler

Johannes Kepler (December 27, 1571 – November 15, 1630) was a German mathematician, astronomer, and astrologer.

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John Amos Comenius

John Amos Comenius (Jan Amos Komenský; Johann Amos Comenius; Latinized: Ioannes Amos Comenius; 28 March 1592 – 15 November 1670) was a Czech philosopher, pedagogue and theologian from the Margraviate of Moravia"Clamores Eliae" he dedicated "To my lovely mother, Moravia, one of her faithful son...". Clamores Eliae, p.69, Kastellaun/Hunsrück: A. Henn, 1977.

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John Barclay (poet)

John Barclay (28 January 1582 – 15 August 1621) was a Scottish writer, satirist and neo-Latin poet.

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John Colet

John Colet (January 1467 – 16 September 1519) was an English churchman and educational pioneer.

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John Dewey

John Dewey (October 20, 1859 – June 1, 1952) was an American philosopher, psychologist, Georgist, and educational reformer whose ideas have been influential in education and social reform.

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John Milton

John Milton (9 December 16088 November 1674) was an English poet, polemicist, man of letters, and civil servant for the Commonwealth of England under its Council of State and later under Oliver Cromwell.

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José de Acosta

José de Acosta (1539 or 1540 in Medina del Campo, Spain – February 15, 1600 in Salamanca, Spain) was a sixteenth-century Spanish Jesuit missionary and naturalist in Latin America.

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Juan de Mariana

Juan de Mariana, also known as Father Mariana (25 September 1536 – 17 February 1624), was a Spanish Jesuit priest, Scholastic, historian, and member of the Monarchomachs.

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Juan Ginés de Sepúlveda

Juan Ginés de Sepúlveda (11 June 1494 – 17 November 1573) was a Spanish Renaissance humanist, philosopher, theologian, and proponent of colonial slavery.

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Juan Luis Vives

Juan Luis Vives (Ioannes Lodovicus Vives; Joan Lluís Vives i March; Jan Ludovicus Vives; 6 March 6 May 1540) was a Spanish (Valencian) scholar and Renaissance humanist who spent most of his adult life in the Southern Netherlands.

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Juan Maldonado

Juan Maldonado (Maldonation, Maldonation) (1533 in Casas de Reina, Llerena, Extremadura – 5 January 1583 in Rome) was a Spanish Jesuit theologian and exegete.

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Kiev

Kiev or Kyiv (Kyiv; Kiyev; Kyjev) is the capital and largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper.

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Latin

Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Latin alphabet

The Latin alphabet or the Roman alphabet is a writing system originally used by the ancient Romans to write the Latin language.

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Latin liturgical rites

Latin liturgical rites are Christian liturgical rites of Latin tradition, used mainly by the Catholic Church as liturgical rites within the Latin Church, that originated in the area where the Latin language once dominated.

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Latin Mass

The term Latin Mass refers to the liturgy of the Roman Catholic Mass celebrated in Latin.

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Latino-Faliscan languages

The Latino-Faliscan or Latino-Venetic languages are a group of languages originating from Italy belonging to the Italic languages, a group of the Indo-European languages.

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Laurence Sterne

Laurence Sterne (24 November 1713 – 18 March 1768) was an Irish novelist and an Anglican clergyman.

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Law

Law is a system of rules that are created and enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior.

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Leonhard Euler

Leonhard Euler (Swiss Standard German:; German Standard German:; 15 April 170718 September 1783) was a Swiss mathematician, physicist, astronomer, logician and engineer, who made important and influential discoveries in many branches of mathematics, such as infinitesimal calculus and graph theory, while also making pioneering contributions to several branches such as topology and analytic number theory.

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Lingua franca

A lingua franca, also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vernacular language, or link language is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both native languages.

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Linguistics

Linguistics is the scientific study of language, and involves an analysis of language form, language meaning, and language in context.

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List of revived languages

A revived language is one that, having experienced near or complete extinction as either a spoken or written language, has been intentionally revived and has regained some of its former status.

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Long s

The long, medial, or descending s (ſ) is an archaic form of the lower case letter s. It replaced a single s, or the first in a double s, at the beginning or in the middle of a word (e.g. "ſinfulneſs" for "sinfulness" and "ſucceſsful" for "successful").

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Louis XIV of France

Louis XIV (Louis Dieudonné; 5 September 16381 September 1715), known as Louis the Great (Louis le Grand) or the Sun King (Roi Soleil), was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who reigned as King of France from 1643 until his death in 1715.

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Ludvig Holberg

Ludvig Holberg, Baron of Holberg (3 December 1684 – 28 January 1754) was a writer, essayist, philosopher, historian and playwright born in Bergen, Norway, during the time of the Dano-Norwegian dual monarchy.

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Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Neo-Latin Studies

The Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Neo-Latin Studies (LBI) (Ludwig Boltzmann Institut für Neulateinische Studien) in Innsbruck is a research institute of the Austrian Ludwig Boltzmann Gesellschaft.

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Luigi Galvani

Luigi Aloisio Galvani (Aloysius Galvanus; 9 September 1737 – 4 December 1798) was an Italian physician, physicist, biologist and philosopher, who discovered animal electricity.

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Luisa Sigea de Velasco

Luisa Sigea de Velasco (1522 in Tarancón – October 13, 1560 in Burgos), also known as Luísa Sigeia, Luísa Sigea Toledana and in the Latinized form Aloysia Sygaea Toletana, was a poet and intellectual of the 16th century, one of the major figures of Spanish humanism, who spent a good part of her life in the Portuguese court in the service of Maria of Portugal (1521–1577), as her Latin teacher.

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Martino Martini

Martino Martini (20 September 1614 – 6 June 1661) was an Italian Jesuit missionary, cartographer and historian, mainly working on ancient Imperial China.

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Matteo Ricci

Matteo Ricci, S.J. (Mattheus Riccius Maceratensis; 6 October 1552 – 11 May 1610), was an Italian Jesuit priest and one of the founding figures of the Jesuit China missions.

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Max Beerbohm

Sir Henry Maximilian "Max" Beerbohm (24 August 1872 – 20 May 1956) was an English essayist, parodist, and caricaturist under the signature Max.

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Medieval Latin

Medieval Latin was the form of Latin used in the Middle Ages, primarily as a medium of scholarly exchange, as the liturgical language of Chalcedonian Christianity and the Roman Catholic Church, and as a language of science, literature, law, and administration.

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Meditations on First Philosophy

Meditations on First Philosophy —The original Meditations, translated, in its entirety.

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Mediterranean Sea

The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.

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Michał Boym

Michał Piotr BoymHis first name is also often rendered as Michele, Michel, Miguel, Michael Peter (Transliterated also (using Wade-Giles) as Pu Che-yuen Mi-ko c. 1612–1659) was a Polish Jesuit missionary to China, scientist and explorer.

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Michael Servetus

Michael Servetus (Miguel Serveto, Michel Servet), also known as Miguel Servet, Miguel Serveto, Michel Servet, Revés, or Michel de Villeneuve (29 September 1509 or 1511 – 27 October 1553), was a Spanish (then French) theologian, physician, cartographer, and Renaissance humanist.

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Motu proprio

In law, motu proprio (Latin for: "on his own impulse") describes an official act taken without a formal request from another party.

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Neologism

A neologism (from Greek νέο- néo-, "new" and λόγος lógos, "speech, utterance") is a relatively recent or isolated term, word, or phrase that may be in the process of entering common use, but that has not yet been fully accepted into mainstream language.

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Nicolas Trigault

Nicolas Trigault (1577–1628) was a Walloon Jesuit, and a missionary in China.

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Nicolaus Copernicus

Nicolaus Copernicus (Mikołaj Kopernik; Nikolaus Kopernikus; Niklas Koppernigk; 19 February 1473 – 24 May 1543) was a Renaissance-era mathematician and astronomer who formulated a model of the universe that placed the Sun rather than the Earth at the center of the universe, likely independently of Aristarchus of Samos, who had formulated such a model some eighteen centuries earlier.

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Nomenclature

Nomenclature is a system of names or terms, or the rules for forming these terms in a particular field of arts or sciences.

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Novum Organum

The Novum Organum, fully Novum Organum Scientiarum ('new instrument of science'), is a philosophical work by Francis Bacon, written in Latin and published in 1620.

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Oedipus Aegyptiacus

Oedipus Aegyptiacus is Athanasius Kircher's supreme work of Egyptology.

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Old Church Slavonic

Old Church Slavonic, also known as Old Church Slavic (or Ancient/Old Slavonic often abbreviated to OCS; (autonym словѣ́ньскъ ѩꙁꙑ́къ, slověnĭskŭ językŭ), not to be confused with the Proto-Slavic, was the first Slavic literary language. The 9th-century Byzantine missionaries Saints Cyril and Methodius are credited with standardizing the language and using it in translating the Bible and other Ancient Greek ecclesiastical texts as part of the Christianization of the Slavs. It is thought to have been based primarily on the dialect of the 9th century Byzantine Slavs living in the Province of Thessalonica (now in Greece). It played an important role in the history of the Slavic languages and served as a basis and model for later Church Slavonic traditions, and some Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic churches use this later Church Slavonic as a liturgical language to this day. As the oldest attested Slavic language, OCS provides important evidence for the features of Proto-Slavic, the reconstructed common ancestor of all Slavic languages.

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Opticks

Opticks: or, A Treatise of the Reflexions, Refractions, Inflexions and Colours of Light is a book by English natural philosopher Isaac Newton that was published in English in 1704.

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Orbis Pictus

Orbis Pictus, or Orbis Sensualium Pictus (Visible World in Pictures) is a textbook for children written by Czech educator John Amos Comenius and published in 1658.

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Peace of Westphalia

The Peace of Westphalia (Westfälischer Friede) was a series of peace treaties signed between May and October 1648 in the Westphalian cities of Osnabrück and Münster that virtually ended the European wars of religion.

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Peter Martyr d'Anghiera

Peter Martyr d'Anghiera (Petrus Martyr Anglerius or ab Angleria; Pietro Martire d'Anghiera; Pedro Mártir de Anglería; 2 February 1457 – October 1526), formerly known in English as Peter Martyr of Angleria, was an Italian historian at the service of Spain during the Age of Exploration.

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Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica

Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica (Latin for Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy), often referred to as simply the Principia, is a work in three books by Isaac Newton, in Latin, first published 5 July 1687.

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Philosophy of education

Philosophy of education can refer either to the application of philosophy to the problem of education, examining definitions, goals and chains of meaning used in education by teachers, administrators or policymakers.

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Planetary nomenclature

Planetary nomenclature, like terrestrial nomenclature, is a system of uniquely identifying features on the surface of a planet or natural satellite so that the features can be easily located, described, and discussed.

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Poetry

Poetry (the term derives from a variant of the Greek term, poiesis, "making") is a form of literature that uses aesthetic and rhythmic qualities of language—such as phonaesthetics, sound symbolism, and metre—to evoke meanings in addition to, or in place of, the prosaic ostensible meaning.

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Poland

Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.

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Pope Benedict XVI

Pope Benedict XVI (Benedictus XVI; Benedetto XVI; Benedikt XVI; born Joseph Aloisius Ratzinger;; 16 April 1927) served as Pope and sovereign of the Vatican City State from 2005 until his resignation in 2013.

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Primary education

Primary education and elementary education is typically the first stage of formal education, coming after preschool and before secondary education (The first two grades of primary school, Grades 1 and 2, are also part of early childhood education).

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Printing

Printing is a process for reproducing text and images using a master form or template.

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Prodromus Florae Novae Hollandiae et Insulae Van Diemen

Prodromus Florae Novae Hollandiae et Insulae Van Diemen (Prodromus of the Flora of New Holland and Van Diemen's Land) is a flora of Australia written by botanist Robert Brown and published in 1810.

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Prose

Prose is a form of language that exhibits a natural flow of speech and grammatical structure rather than a rhythmic structure as in traditional poetry, where the common unit of verse is based on meter or rhyme.

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Psychopathia Sexualis (book)

Psychopathia Sexualis (Psychopathy of Sex), by Richard Freiherr von Krafft-Ebing, is one of the first texts about sexual pathology.

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Pulmonary circulation

The pulmonary circulation is the portion of the circulatory system which carries deoxygenated blood away from the right ventricle of the heart, to the lungs, and returns oxygenated blood to the left atrium and ventricle of the heart.

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Pulse

In medicine, a pulse represents the tactile arterial palpation of the heartbeat by trained fingertips.

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Reformation

The Reformation (or, more fully, the Protestant Reformation; also, the European Reformation) was a schism in Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther and continued by Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin and other Protestant Reformers in 16th century Europe.

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Renaissance

The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.

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Renaissance Latin

Renaissance Latin is a name given to the distinctive form of Latin style developed during the European Renaissance of the fourteenth to fifteenth centuries, particularly by the Renaissance humanism movement.

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René Descartes

René Descartes (Latinized: Renatus Cartesius; adjectival form: "Cartesian"; 31 March 1596 – 11 February 1650) was a French philosopher, mathematician, and scientist.

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Richard von Krafft-Ebing

Richard Freiherr von Krafft-Ebing (1840-1902; full name Richard Fridolin Joseph Freiherr Krafft von Festenberg auf Frohnberg, genannt von Ebing) was an Austro–German psychiatrist and author of the foundational work Psychopathia Sexualis (1886).

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Robert Brown (botanist, born 1773)

Robert Brown FRSE FRS FLS MWS (21 December 1773 – 10 June 1858) was a Scottish botanist and palaeobotanist who made important contributions to botany largely through his pioneering use of the microscope.

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Robert Walpole

Robert Walpole, 1st Earl of Orford, (26 August 1676 – 18 March 1745), known before 1742 as Sir Robert Walpole, was a British statesman who is generally regarded as the de facto first Prime Minister of Great Britain.

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Roman Empire

The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.

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Roman Republic

The Roman Republic (Res publica Romana) was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire.

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Romance languages

The Romance languages (also called Romanic languages or Neo-Latin languages) are the modern languages that began evolving from Vulgar Latin between the sixth and ninth centuries and that form a branch of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family.

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Russia

Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

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Scandinavia

Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural and linguistic ties.

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Scientist

A scientist is a person engaging in a systematic activity to acquire knowledge that describes and predicts the natural world.

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Sebastián Fox Morcillo

Sebastian Fox Morcillo (1526?-1559?), a Spanish scholar and philosopher, was born in Seville between 1526 and 1528.

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Second Vatican Council

The Second Vatican Council, fully the Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican and informally known as addressed relations between the Catholic Church and the modern world.

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Selenography

Selenography is the study of the surface and physical features of the Moon.

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Sibilant

Sibilance is an acoustic characteristic of fricative and affricate consonants of higher amplitude and pitch, made by directing a stream of air with the tongue towards the sharp edge of the teeth, which are held close together; a consonant that uses sibilance may be called a sibilant.

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Sidereus Nuncius

Sidereus Nuncius (usually Sidereal Messenger, also Starry Messenger or Sidereal Message) is a short astronomical treatise (or pamphlet) published in New Latin by Galileo Galilei on March 13, 1610.

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Slovakia

Slovakia (Slovensko), officially the Slovak Republic (Slovenská republika), is a landlocked country in Central Europe.

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Somnium (novel)

Somnium (Latin for "The Dream") is a novel written in 1608, in Latin, by Johannes Kepler.

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Species Plantarum

Species Plantarum (Latin for "The Species of Plants") is a book by Carl Linnaeus, originally published in 1753, which lists every species of plant known at the time, classified into genera.

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Summorum Pontificum

Summorum Pontificum (English: "Of the Supreme Pontiffs") is an apostolic letter of Pope Benedict XVI, issued in July 2007, which specified the circumstances in which priests of the Latin Church may celebrate Mass according to what he called the "Missal promulgated by Blessed John XXIII in 1962" (the latest edition of the Roman Missal, in the form known as the Tridentine Mass or Traditional Latin Mass), and administer most of the sacraments in the form used before the liturgical reforms that followed the Second Vatican Council.

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Systema Naturae

(originally in Latin written with the ligature æ) is one of the major works of the Swedish botanist, zoologist and physician Carl Linnaeus (1707–1778) and introduced the Linnaean taxonomy.

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Taxonomy (biology)

Taxonomy is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics.

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The I Tatti Renaissance Library

The I Tatti Renaissance Library is a book series published by the Harvard University Press, which aims to present important works of Italian Renaissance Latin Literature to a modern audience by printing the original Latin text on each left-hand leaf (verso), and an English translation on the facing page (recto).

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The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy, Gentleman

The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy, Gentleman (or Tristram Shandy) is a novel by Laurence Sterne.

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Thomas Hobbes

Thomas Hobbes (5 April 1588 – 4 December 1679), in some older texts Thomas Hobbes of Malmesbury, was an English philosopher who is considered one of the founders of modern political philosophy.

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Thomas More

Sir Thomas More (7 February 14786 July 1535), venerated in the Catholic Church as Saint Thomas More, was an English lawyer, social philosopher, author, statesman, and noted Renaissance humanist.

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Tractatus Theologico-Politicus

Written by the Dutch philosopher Baruch Spinoza, the Tractatus Theologico-Politicus (TTP) or Theologico-Political Treatise was one of the most controversial texts of the early modern period.

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Traditionalist Catholicism

Traditionalist Catholicism is a movement of Catholics in favour of restoring many or all of the customs, traditions, liturgical forms, public and private devotions and presentations of the teaching of the Catholic Church before the Second Vatican Council (1962–65).

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Treaty of Vienna (1738)

The Treaty of Vienna or Peace of Vienna was signed on 18 November 1738.

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Trinity

The Christian doctrine of the Trinity (from Greek τριάς and τριάδα, from "threefold") holds that God is one but three coeternal consubstantial persons or hypostases—the Father, the Son (Jesus Christ), and the Holy Spirit—as "one God in three Divine Persons".

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U

U (named u, plural ues) is the 21st letter and the fifth vowel in the ISO basic Latin alphabet.

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University

A university (universitas, "a whole") is an institution of higher (or tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in various academic disciplines.

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Utopia (book)

Utopia (Libellus vere aureus, nec minus salutaris quam festivus, de optimo rei publicae statu deque nova insula Utopia) is a work of fiction and socio-political satire by Thomas More (1478–1535) published in 1516 in Latin.

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V

V (named vee) is the 22nd letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.

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War of the Austrian Succession

The War of the Austrian Succession (1740–1748) involved most of the powers of Europe over the question of Maria Theresa's succession to the Habsburg Monarchy.

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William Gilbert (astronomer)

William Gilbert (24 May 1544 – 30 November 1603), also known as Gilberd, was an English physician, physicist and natural philosopher.

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William Harvey

William Harvey (1 April 1578 – 3 June 1657) was an English physician who made seminal contributions in anatomy and physiology.

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Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (27 January 1756 – 5 December 1791), baptised as Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart, was a prolific and influential composer of the classical era.

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Modern Latin language, Modern latin, Neo Latin, Neo Latin language, Neo latin, Neo-Latin, Neo-Latin language, Neolatin, New Latin language.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Latin

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