130 relations: Africa, Afro-Eurasia, Afrotropical realm, Age of Discovery, Alpaca, Alvise Cadamosto, Americas, Amerigo Vespucci, Andes, Antilles, Asia, Avocado, Barley, Bell pepper, Bering Strait, Bermuda, Biogeographic realm, Biology, Brazil, Burgos, Calabash, Canada, Cantino planisphere, Capsicum, Cashew, Cassava, Catholic Monarchs, Cattle, Caverio map, Chicken, Chili pepper, Christendom, Christopher Columbus, Clipperton Island, Cocoa bean, Columbian Exchange, Contarini–Rosselli map, Cosmographiae Introductio, Cotton, Crop, Cucurbita, Dakar, Earth, East Asia, East Indies, Eratosthenes, Europe, European colonization of the Americas, Ferdinand Magellan, Garden of Eden, ..., Giovanni da Verrazzano, Glossary of wine terms, Goat, Greenland, Guava, Guinea pig, Gulf of Paria, Helianthus, History, History of geography, Horse, Italians, Italy, Johannes Ruysch, Johannes Schöner globe, Last glacial period, Latin, Lentil, List of Caribbean islands, Llama, Lorenzo di Pierfrancesco de' Medici, Maize, Martin Waldseemüller, Mesoamerica, Naming of the Americas, Natural rubber, Nearctic realm, Neolithic Revolution, Neotropical realm, New World crops, New World monkey, New World vulture, New World warbler, New World wine, North America, Oat, Old World, Orinoco, Pacific Ocean, Palearctic realm, Paleo-Indians, Papaya, Pea, Peanut, Pedro Álvares Cabral, Peter Martyr d'Anghiera, Phaseolus vulgaris, Pig, Pineapple, Potato, Pre-Columbian era, Quinoa, Republic of Florence, Republic of Venice, Rye, Senegal, Settlement of the Americas, Sheep, South America, Spanish conquest of Yucatán, Strait, Sub-Saharan Africa, Taxonomy (biology), Terra incognita, Three Sisters (agriculture), Tobacco, Tomato, Toro, Zamora, Turkey (bird), United States, Vanilla, Vasco Núñez de Balboa, Voyages of Christopher Columbus, Waldseemüller map, West Indies, Western Hemisphere, Wheat, World, Yam (vegetable), 2nd Portuguese India Armada (Cabral, 1500). Expand index (80 more) » « Shrink index
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).
Afro-Eurasia (or Afroeurasia,Field, Henry. "", American Anthropologist, New Series Vol. 50, No. 3, Part 1 (Jul. - Sep., 1948), pp. 479-493. or Eurafrasia, or nicknamed the World Island) is a landmass which can be subdivided into Africa and Eurasia (which can be further subdivided into Asia and Europe).
The Afrotropical realm is one of the Earth's eight biogeographic realms.
The Age of Discovery, or the Age of Exploration (approximately from the beginning of the 15th century until the end of the 18th century) is an informal and loosely defined term for the period in European history in which extensive overseas exploration emerged as a powerful factor in European culture and was the beginning of globalization.
The Alpaca (Vicugna pacos) is a species of South American camelid, similar to, and often confused with the llama.
Alvise Cadamosto or Alvide da Ca' da Mosto (also known in Portuguese as Luís Cadamosto; c. 1432 – July 18, 1488) was an Venetian slave trader and explorer, who was hired by the Portuguese prince Henry the Navigator and undertook two known journeys to West Africa in 1455 and 1456, accompanied by the Genoese captain Antoniotto Usodimare.
The Americas (also collectively called America)"America." The Oxford Companion to the English Language.
Amerigo Vespucci (March 9, 1454February 22, 1512) was an Italian explorer, financier, navigator and cartographer.
The Andes or Andean Mountains (Cordillera de los Andes) are the longest continental mountain range in the world.
The Antilles (Antilles in French; Antillas in Spanish; Antillen in Dutch and Antilhas in Portuguese) is an archipelago bordered by the Caribbean Sea to the south and west, the Gulf of Mexico to the northwest, and the Atlantic Ocean to the north and east.
Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.
The avocado (Persea americana) is a tree, long thought to have originated in South Central Mexico, classified as a member of the flowering plant family Lauraceae.
Barley (Hordeum vulgare), a member of the grass family, is a major cereal grain grown in temperate climates globally.
The bell pepper (also known as sweet pepper, pepper or capsicum) is a cultivar group of the species Capsicum annuum.
The Bering Strait (Берингов пролив, Beringov proliv, Yupik: Imakpik) is a strait of the Pacific, which borders with the Arctic to north.
Bermuda is a British Overseas Territory in the North Atlantic Ocean.
A biogeographic realm or ecozone is the broadest biogeographic division of the Earth's land surface, based on distributional patterns of terrestrial organisms.
Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
Burgos is a city in northern Spain and the historic capital of Castile.
A calabash, bottle gourd, or white-flowered gourd, Lagenaria siceraria, also known by many other names, including long melon, New Guinea bean and Tasmania bean, is a vine grown for its fruit, which can be either harvested young to be consumed as a vegetable, or harvested mature to be dried and used as a utensil.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
The Cantino planisphere or Cantino world map is the earliest surviving map showing Portuguese geographic discoveries in the east and west.
Capsicum (also known as peppers) is a genus of flowering plants in the nightshade family Solanaceae.
The cashew tree (Anacardium occidentale) is a tropical evergreen tree that produces the cashew seed and the cashew apple.
Manihot esculenta, commonly called cassava, manioc, yuca, mandioca and Brazilian arrowroot, is a woody shrub native to South America of the spurge family, Euphorbiaceae.
The Catholic Monarchs is the joint title used in history for Queen Isabella I of Castile and King Ferdinand II of Aragon.
Cattle—colloquially cows—are the most common type of large domesticated ungulates.
The Caverio Map (also known as Caveri Map or Canerio Map) is a map drawn by Nicolay de Caveri, circa 1506.
The chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) is a type of domesticated fowl, a subspecies of the red junglefowl.
The chili pepper (also chile pepper, chilli pepper, or simply chilli) from Nahuatl chīlli) is the fruit of plants from the genus Capsicum, members of the nightshade family, Solanaceae. They are widely used in many cuisines to add spiciness to dishes. The substances that give chili peppers their intensity when ingested or applied topically are capsaicin and related compounds known as capsaicinoids. Chili peppers originated in Mexico. After the Columbian Exchange, many cultivars of chili pepper spread across the world, used for both food and traditional medicine. Worldwide in 2014, 32.3 million tonnes of green chili peppers and 3.8 million tonnes of dried chili peppers were produced. China is the world's largest producer of green chillies, providing half of the global total.
Christendom has several meanings.
Christopher Columbus (before 31 October 145120 May 1506) was an Italian explorer, navigator, and colonizer.
Clipperton Island (Île de Clipperton or Île de la Passion; Isla de la Pasión) is an uninhabited coral atoll in the eastern Pacific Ocean off the coast of Central America.
The cocoa bean, also called cacao bean, cocoa, and cacao, is the dried and fully fermented seed of Theobroma cacao, from which cocoa solids and, because of the seed's fat, cocoa butter can be extracted.
The Columbian Exchange was the widespread transfer of plants, animals, culture, human populations, technology, and ideas between the Americas and the Old World in the 15th and 16th centuries, related to European colonization and trade following Christopher Columbus's 1492 voyage.
The Contarini–Rosselli map of 1506 was the first printed world map showing the New World.
Cosmographiae Introductio ("Introduction to Cosmography"; Saint-Dié, 1507) was a book published in 1507 to accompany Martin Waldseemüller's printed globe and wall-map (Universalis Cosmographia), which were the first appearance of the name 'America'.
Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of the cotton plants of the genus Gossypium in the mallow family Malvaceae.
A crop is a plant or animal product that can be grown and harvested extensively for profit or subsistence.
Cucurbita (Latin for gourd) is a genus of herbaceous vines in the gourd family, Cucurbitaceae, also known as cucurbits, native to the Andes and Mesoamerica.
Dakar is the capital and largest city of Senegal.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
East Asia is the eastern subregion of the Asian continent, which can be defined in either geographical or ethno-cultural "The East Asian cultural sphere evolves when Japan, Korea, and what is today Vietnam all share adapted elements of Chinese civilization of this period (that of the Tang dynasty), in particular Buddhism, Confucian social and political values, and literary Chinese and its writing system." terms.
The East Indies or the Indies are the lands of South and Southeast Asia.
Eratosthenes of Cyrene (Ἐρατοσθένης ὁ Κυρηναῖος,; –) was a Greek mathematician, geographer, poet, astronomer, and music theorist.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
The European colonization of the Americas describes the history of the settlement and establishment of control of the continents of the Americas by most of the naval powers of Europe.
Ferdinand Magellan (or; Fernão de Magalhães,; Fernando de Magallanes,; c. 1480 – 27 April 1521) was a Portuguese explorer who organised the Spanish expedition to the East Indies from 1519 to 1522, resulting in the first circumnavigation of the Earth, completed by Juan Sebastián Elcano.
The Garden of Eden (Hebrew גַּן עֵדֶן, Gan ʿEḏen) or (often) Paradise, is the biblical "garden of God", described most notably in the Book of Genesis chapters 2 and 3, and also in the Book of Ezekiel.
Giovanni da Verrazzano (sometimes also incorrectly spelled Verrazano) (1485–1528) was an Italian explorer of North America, in the service of King Francis I of France.
The glossary of wine terms lists the definitions of many general terms used within the wine industry.
The domestic goat (Capra aegagrus hircus) is a subspecies of goat domesticated from the wild goat of southwest Asia and Eastern Europe.
Greenland (Kalaallit Nunaat,; Grønland) is an autonomous constituent country within the Kingdom of Denmark between the Arctic and Atlantic Oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.
Guavas (singular guava) are common tropical fruits cultivated and enjoyed in many tropical and subtropical regions.
The guinea pig or domestic guinea pig (Cavia porcellus), also known as cavy or domestic cavy, is a species of rodent belonging to the family Caviidae and the genus Cavia.
The Gulf of Paria (Golfo de Paria) is a shallow (37m at its deepest) semi-enclosed inland sea located between the island of Trinidad (Republic of Trinidad and Tobago) and the east coast of Venezuela.
Helianthus or sunflower is a genus of plants comprising about 70 species Flora of North America.
History (from Greek ἱστορία, historia, meaning "inquiry, knowledge acquired by investigation") is the study of the past as it is described in written documents.
The history of geography includes many histories of geography which have differed over time and between different cultural and political groups.
The horse (Equus ferus caballus) is one of two extant subspecies of ''Equus ferus''.
The Italians (Italiani) are a Latin European ethnic group and nation native to the Italian peninsula.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
Johannes Ruysch (c. 1460? in Utrecht – 1533 in Cologne), a.k.a. Johann Ruijsch or Giovanni Ruisch was an explorer, cartographer, astronomer, manuscript illustrator and painter from the Low Countries who produced a famous map of the world: the second oldest known printed representation of the New World.
The Johannes Schöner globes are a series of globes made by Johannes Schöner (1477–1547), the first being made in 1515.
The last glacial period occurred from the end of the Eemian interglacial to the end of the Younger Dryas, encompassing the period years ago.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
The lentil (Lens culinaris or Lens esculenta) is an edible pulse.
The llama (Lama glama) is a domesticated South American camelid, widely used as a meat and pack animal by Andean cultures since the Pre-Columbian era.
Lorenzo di Pierfrancesco de' Medici (4 August 1463 – 20 May 1503), nicknamed the Popolano, was an Italian banker and politician, the brother of Giovanni il Popolano.
Maize (Zea mays subsp. mays, from maíz after Taíno mahiz), also known as corn, is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples in southern Mexico about 10,000 years ago.
Martin Waldseemüller (Latinized as Martinus Ilacomylus, Ilacomilus or Hylacomylus; c. 1470 – 16 March 1520) was a German cartographer.
Mesoamerica is an important historical region and cultural area in the Americas, extending from approximately central Mexico through Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and northern Costa Rica, and within which pre-Columbian societies flourished before the Spanish colonization of the Americas in the 15th and 16th centuries.
The naming of the Americas, or America occurred shortly after Christopher Columbus's voyage to the Americas in 1492.
Natural rubber, also called India rubber or caoutchouc, as initially produced, consists of polymers of the organic compound isoprene, with minor impurities of other organic compounds, plus water.
The Nearctic is one of the eight biogeographic realms constituting the Earth's land surface.
The Neolithic Revolution, Neolithic Demographic Transition, Agricultural Revolution, or First Agricultural Revolution, was the wide-scale transition of many human cultures during the Neolithic period from a lifestyle of hunting and gathering to one of agriculture and settlement, making an increasingly larger population possible.
The Neotropical realm is one of the eight biogeographic realms constituting the Earth's land surface.
The phrase "New World crops" is usually used to describe crops that were native to North and South America before 1492 and not found anywhere else in the world at that time.
New World monkeys are the five families of primates that are found in the tropical regions of Central and South America and Mexico: Callitrichidae, Cebidae, Aotidae, Pitheciidae, and Atelidae.
The New World vulture or condor family Cathartidae contains seven species in five genera, all but one of which are monotypic.
The New World warblers or wood-warblers are a group of small, often colorful, passerine birds which make up the family Parulidae and are restricted to the New World.
New World wines are those wines produced outside the traditional wine-growing areas of Europe and the Middle East, in particular from Argentina, Australia, Chile, New Zealand, South Africa and the United States.
North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.
The oat (Avena sativa), sometimes called the common oat, is a species of cereal grain grown for its seed, which is known by the same name (usually in the plural, unlike other cereals and pseudocereals).
The term "Old World" is used in the West to refer to Africa, Asia and Europe (Afro-Eurasia or the World Island), regarded collectively as the part of the world known to its population before contact with the Americas and Oceania (the "New World").
The Orinoco River is one of the longest rivers in South America at.
The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions.
The Palearctic or Palaearctic is one of the eight biogeographic realms on the Earth's surface, first identified in the 19th century, and still in use today as the basis for zoogeographic classification.
Paleo-Indians, Paleoindians or Paleoamericans is a classification term given to the first peoples who entered, and subsequently inhabited, the Americas during the final glacial episodes of the late Pleistocene period.
The papaya (from Carib via Spanish), papaw, or pawpaw is the plant Carica papaya, one of the 22 accepted species in the genus Carica of the family Caricaceae.
The pea is most commonly the small spherical seed or the seed-pod of the pod fruit Pisum sativum.
The peanut, also known as the groundnut or the goober and taxonomically classified as Arachis hypogaea, is a legume crop grown mainly for its edible seeds.
Pedro Álvares Cabral (or; c. 1467 or 1468 – c. 1520) was a Portuguese nobleman, military commander, navigator and explorer regarded as the discoverer of Brazil.
Peter Martyr d'Anghiera (Petrus Martyr Anglerius or ab Angleria; Pietro Martire d'Anghiera; Pedro Mártir de Anglería; 2 February 1457 – October 1526), formerly known in English as Peter Martyr of Angleria, was an Italian historian at the service of Spain during the Age of Exploration.
Phaseolus vulgaris, also known as the common bean and green bean, among other names, is a herbaceous annual plant grown worldwide for its edible dry seeds or unripe fruit (both commonly called beans).
A pig is any of the animals in the genus Sus, within the even-toed ungulate family Suidae.
The pineapple (Ananas comosus) is a tropical plant with an edible multiple fruit consisting of coalesced berries, also called pineapples, and the most economically significant plant in the family Bromeliaceae.
The potato is a starchy, tuberous crop from the perennial nightshade Solanum tuberosum.
The Pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences on the American continents, spanning the time of the original settlement in the Upper Paleolithic period to European colonization during the Early Modern period.
Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa; (or, from Quechua kinwa or kinuwa) is a flowering plant in the amaranth family. It is a herbaceous annual plant grown as a grain crop primarily for its edible seeds. Quinoa is not a grass, but rather a pseudocereal botanically related to spinach and amaranth (Amaranthus spp.). Quinoa provides protein, dietary fiber, B vitamins, and dietary minerals in rich amounts above those of wheat, corn, rice or oats. It is gluten-free. After harvest, the seeds are processed to remove the bitter-tasting outer seed coat. Quinoa originated in the Andean region of northwestern South America, and was domesticated 3,000 to 4,000 years ago for human consumption in the Lake Titicaca basin of Peru and Bolivia, though archaeological evidence shows livestock uses 5,200 to 7,000 years ago.
The Republic of Florence, also known as the Florentine Republic (Repubblica Fiorentina), was a medieval and early modern state that was centered on the Italian city of Florence in Tuscany.
The Republic of Venice (Repubblica di Venezia, later: Repubblica Veneta; Repùblica de Venèsia, later: Repùblica Vèneta), traditionally known as La Serenissima (Most Serene Republic of Venice) (Serenissima Repubblica di Venezia; Serenìsima Repùblica Vèneta), was a sovereign state and maritime republic in northeastern Italy, which existed for a millennium between the 8th century and the 18th century.
Rye (Secale cereale) is a grass grown extensively as a grain, a cover crop and a forage crop.
Senegal (Sénégal), officially the Republic of Senegal, is a country in West Africa.
Paleolithic hunter-gatherers first entered North America from the North Asian Mammoth steppe via the Beringia land bridge which had formed between northeastern Siberia and western Alaska due to the lowering of sea level during the Last Glacial Maximum.
Domestic sheep (Ovis aries) are quadrupedal, ruminant mammal typically kept as livestock.
South America is a continent in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere.
The Spanish conquest of Yucatán was the campaign undertaken by the Spanish conquistadores against the Late Postclassic Maya states and polities in the Yucatán Peninsula, a vast limestone plain covering south-eastern Mexico, northern Guatemala, and all of Belize.
A strait is a naturally formed, narrow, typically navigable waterway that connects two larger bodies of water.
Sub-Saharan Africa is, geographically, the area of the continent of Africa that lies south of the Sahara.
Taxonomy is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics.
Terra incognita or terra ignota (Latin "unknown land"; incognita is stressed on its second syllable in Latin, but with variation in pronunciation in English) is a term used in cartography for regions that have not been mapped or documented.
The Three Sisters are the three main agricultural crops of various Native American groups in North America: winter squash, maize (corn), and climbing beans (typically tepary beans or common beans).
Tobacco is a product prepared from the leaves of the tobacco plant by curing them.
The tomato (see pronunciation) is the edible, often red, fruit/berry of the plant Solanum lycopersicum, commonly known as a tomato plant.
Toro is a town and municipality in the province of Zamora, part of the autonomous community of Castile and León, Spain.
The turkey is a large bird in the genus Meleagris, which is native to the Americas.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
Vanilla is a flavoring derived from orchids of the genus Vanilla, primarily from the Mexican species, flat-leaved vanilla (V. planifolia).
Vasco Núñez de Balboa (c. 1475around January 12–21, 1519) was a Spanish explorer, governor, and conquistador.
In 1492, a Spanish-based transatlantic maritime expedition led by Christopher Columbus encountered the Americas, a continent which was largely unknown in Europe and outside the Old World political and economic system.
The Waldseemüller map or Universalis Cosmographia ("Universal Cosmography") is a printed wall map of the world by German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller, originally published in April 1507.
The West Indies or the Caribbean Basin is a region of the North Atlantic Ocean in the Caribbean that includes the island countries and surrounding waters of three major archipelagoes: the Greater Antilles, the Lesser Antilles and the Lucayan Archipelago.
The Western Hemisphere is a geographical term for the half of Earth which lies west of the prime meridian (which crosses Greenwich, London, United Kingdom) and east of the antimeridian.
Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food.
The world is the planet Earth and all life upon it, including human civilization.
Yam is the common name for some plant species in the genus Dioscorea (family Dioscoreaceae) that form edible tubers.
The Second Portuguese India Armada was assembled in 1500 on the order of King Manuel I of Portugal and placed under the command of Pedro Álvares Cabral.