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The Abenaki (Abnaki, Abinaki, Alnôbak) are a Native American tribe and First Nation.
Abolitionism is a general term which describes the movement to end slavery.
An academy (Attic Greek: Ἀκαδήμεια; Koine Greek Ἀκαδημία) is an institution of secondary education, higher learning, research, or honorary membership.
Acer saccharum, the sugar maple or rock maple, is a species of maple native to the hardwood forests of eastern Canada, from Nova Scotia west through Quebec and southern Ontario to southeastern Manitoba around Lake of the Woods, and the northern parts of the Central and Eastern United States, from Minnesota eastward to the highlands of the eastern states.
The Adirondack Mountains form a massif in northeastern New York, United States.
The Adirondack Park is a part of New York's Forest Preserve in northeastern New York, United States.
The administrative divisions of New York are the various units of government that provide local government services in the state of New York.
Advertising is an audio or visual form of marketing communication that employs an openly sponsored, non-personal message to promote or sell a product, service or idea.
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).
African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans) are an ethnic group of Americans with total or partial ancestry from any of the black racial groups of Africa.
African Burial Ground National Monument is a monument at Duane Street and African Burial Ground Way (Elk Street) in the Civic Center section of Lower Manhattan, New York City.
Agnosticism is the view that the existence of God, of the divine or the supernatural is unknown or unknowable.
An airport is an aerodrome with extended facilities, mostly for commercial air transport.
An airport terminal is a building at an airport where passengers transfer between ground transportation and the facilities that allow them to board and disembark from aircraft.
AirTrain JFK is a 3-line, people mover system and elevated railway in New York City, serving John F. Kennedy International Airport in Queens.
Albert Arnold Gore Jr. (born March 31, 1948) is an American politician and environmentalist who served as the 45th Vice President of the United States from 1993 to 2001.
Albany County is a county in the state of New York, in the United States.
Albany is the capital of the U.S. state of New York and the seat of Albany County.
Alexander Hamilton (January 11, 1755 or 1757July 12, 1804) was a statesman and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States.
The Algonquian are one of the most populous and widespread North American native language groups.
The Allegheny Plateau, in the United States, is a large dissected plateau area in western and central New York, northern and western Pennsylvania, northern and western West Virginia, and eastern Ohio.
The Allegheny River is a principal tributary of the Ohio River; it is located in the Eastern United States.
Alton Brooks Parker (May 14, 1852 – May 10, 1926) was an American judge, best known as the Democrat who lost the presidential election of 1904 to incumbent Theodore Roosevelt in a landslide.
American ancestry refers to people in the United States who self-identify their ancestry as "American", rather than the more common officially recognized racial and ethnic groups that make up the bulk of the American people.
The American black bear (Ursus americanus) is a medium-sized bear native to North America.
The American Civil War (also known by other names) was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865.
The American Community Survey (ACS) is an ongoing survey by the U.S. Census Bureau.
American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States.
American football, referred to as football in the United States and Canada and also known as gridiron, is a team sport played by two teams of eleven players on a rectangular field with goalposts at each end.
The American Revolutionary War (17751783), also known as the American War of Independence, was a global war that began as a conflict between Great Britain and its Thirteen Colonies which declared independence as the United States of America. After 1765, growing philosophical and political differences strained the relationship between Great Britain and its colonies. Patriot protests against taxation without representation followed the Stamp Act and escalated into boycotts, which culminated in 1773 with the Sons of Liberty destroying a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor. Britain responded by closing Boston Harbor and passing a series of punitive measures against Massachusetts Bay Colony. Massachusetts colonists responded with the Suffolk Resolves, and they established a shadow government which wrested control of the countryside from the Crown. Twelve colonies formed a Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance, establishing committees and conventions that effectively seized power. British attempts to disarm the Massachusetts militia at Concord, Massachusetts in April 1775 led to open combat. Militia forces then besieged Boston, forcing a British evacuation in March 1776, and Congress appointed George Washington to command the Continental Army. Concurrently, an American attempt to invade Quebec and raise rebellion against the British failed decisively. On July 2, 1776, the Continental Congress voted for independence, issuing its declaration on July 4. Sir William Howe launched a British counter-offensive, capturing New York City and leaving American morale at a low ebb. However, victories at Trenton and Princeton restored American confidence. In 1777, the British launched an invasion from Quebec under John Burgoyne, intending to isolate the New England Colonies. Instead of assisting this effort, Howe took his army on a separate campaign against Philadelphia, and Burgoyne was decisively defeated at Saratoga in October 1777. Burgoyne's defeat had drastic consequences. France formally allied with the Americans and entered the war in 1778, and Spain joined the war the following year as an ally of France but not as an ally of the United States. In 1780, the Kingdom of Mysore attacked the British in India, and tensions between Great Britain and the Netherlands erupted into open war. In North America, the British mounted a "Southern strategy" led by Charles Cornwallis which hinged upon a Loyalist uprising, but too few came forward. Cornwallis suffered reversals at King's Mountain and Cowpens. He retreated to Yorktown, Virginia, intending an evacuation, but a decisive French naval victory deprived him of an escape. A Franco-American army led by the Comte de Rochambeau and Washington then besieged Cornwallis' army and, with no sign of relief, he surrendered in October 1781. Whigs in Britain had long opposed the pro-war Tories in Parliament, and the surrender gave them the upper hand. In early 1782, Parliament voted to end all offensive operations in North America, but the war continued in Europe and India. Britain remained under siege in Gibraltar but scored a major victory over the French navy. On September 3, 1783, the belligerent parties signed the Treaty of Paris in which Great Britain agreed to recognize the sovereignty of the United States and formally end the war. French involvement had proven decisive,Brooks, Richard (editor). Atlas of World Military History. HarperCollins, 2000, p. 101 "Washington's success in keeping the army together deprived the British of victory, but French intervention won the war." but France made few gains and incurred crippling debts. Spain made some minor territorial gains but failed in its primary aim of recovering Gibraltar. The Dutch were defeated on all counts and were compelled to cede territory to Great Britain. In India, the war against Mysore and its allies concluded in 1784 without any territorial changes.
An ancestor is a parent or (recursively) the parent of an antecedent (i.e., a grandparent, great-grandparent, great-great-grandparent, and so forth).
The Andes or Andean Mountains (Cordillera de los Andes) are the longest continental mountain range in the world.
Andrew Mark Cuomo (born December 6, 1957) is an American politician, author, and lawyer serving as the 56th and current Governor of New York, since 2011.
The Annapolis Convention, formally titled as a Meeting of Commissioners to Remedy Defects of the Federal Government, was a national political convention held September 11–14, 1786 at Mann's Tavern in Annapolis, Maryland, in which twelve delegates from five states—New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Delaware, and Virginia—gathered to discuss and develop a consensus about reversing the protectionist trade barriers that each state had erected.
Appalachia is a cultural region in the Eastern United States that stretches from the Southern Tier of New York to northern Alabama, Mississippi and Georgia.
The Appalachian Mountains (les Appalaches), often called the Appalachians, are a system of mountains in eastern North America.
An apple is a sweet, edible fruit produced by an apple tree (Malus pumila).
Applied science is the application of existing scientific knowledge to practical applications, like technology or inventions.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
An archipelago, sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of islands, or sometimes a sea containing a small number of scattered islands.
Argopecten irradians, formerly classified as Aequipecten irradians, common names Atlantic bay scallop or bay scallop, is an edible species of saltwater clam, a scallop, a marine bivalve mollusk in the family Pectinidae, the scallops.
The Articles of Confederation, formally the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union, was an agreement among the 13 original states of the United States of America that served as its first constitution.
Asian Americans are Americans of Asian descent.
The Association of American Universities (AAU) is a binational organization of leading research universities devoted to maintaining a strong system of academic research and education.
The Association of Religion Data Archives (ARDA) is a free source of online information related to American and international religion.
Atheism is, in the broadest sense, the absence of belief in the existence of deities.
The Atlantic coastal plain is a physiographic region of low relief along the East Coast of the United States.
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about.
The Attorney General of New York is the chief legal officer of the State of New York and head of the New York state government's Department of Law.
Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.
Aviation, or air transport, refers to the activities surrounding mechanical flight and the aircraft industry.
The Bank for International Settlements (BIS) is an international financial institution owned by central banks which "fosters international monetary and financial cooperation and serves as a bank for central banks".
Barack Hussein Obama II (born August 4, 1961) is an American politician who served as the 44th President of the United States from January 20, 2009, to January 20, 2017.
Barrier islands are coastal landforms and a type of dune system that are exceptionally flat or lumpy areas of sand that form by wave and tidal action parallel to the mainland coast.
The Battle of Long Island is also known as the Battle of Brooklyn and the Battle of Brooklyn Heights.
The Battles of Saratoga (September 19 and October 7, 1777) marked the climax of the Saratoga campaign, giving a decisive victory to the Americans over the British in the American Revolutionary War.
The beaver (genus Castor) is a large, primarily nocturnal, semiaquatic rodent.
The Beaver Wars, also known as the Iroquois Wars or the French and Iroquois Wars, encompass a series of conflicts fought intermittently during the 17th and 18th centuries in eastern North America.
Bedford–Stuyvesant (colloquially known as Bed–Stuy and Bedford-Stuy) is a neighborhood of 153,000 inhabitants in the north central portion of the New York City borough of Brooklyn.
Belmont Park is a major Thoroughbred horse-racing facility in the northeastern United States, located in just east of the limits. Opened on May 4, 1905, it is operated by the non-profit New York Racing Association, as are Aqueduct and Saratoga Race Course. The group was formed in 1955 as the Greater New York Association to assume the assets of the individual associations that ran Belmont, Aqueduct, Saratoga, and the now-defunct Jamaica Racetrack. Belmont Park is typically open for racing from late April through mid-July (known as the Spring meet), and again from mid-September through late October (the Fall meet). It is widely-known as the home of the Belmont Stakes in early June, regarded as the "Test of the Champion", the third leg of the Triple Crown. Along with Saratoga in Upstate New York, Keeneland and Churchill Downs in Kentucky, and Del Mar and Santa Anita in California, Belmont is considered one of the elite racetracks in North America. The race park's main dirt track has earned the nickname, "the Big Sandy," given its prominent overall dimensions and the deep, sometimes tiring surface. Belmont is also sometimes known as "The Championship Track" because almost every major champion in racing history since the early 20th century has competed on the racecourse – including all of the Triple Crown winners. Belmont hosted its largest crowd in 2004, when 120,139 saw Smarty Jones upset by Birdstone in its Triple Crown bid.
The Belmont Stakes is an American Grade I stakes Thoroughbred horse race held every June at Belmont Park in Elmont, New York.
Bengali, also known by its endonym Bangla (বাংলা), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in South Asia.
Beverwijck, often written using the pre-reform orthography Beverwyck, was a fur-trading community north of Fort Orange on the Hudson River in New Netherland that was renamed and developed as Albany, New York, after the English took control of the colony in 1664.
A bicameral legislature divides the legislators into two separate assemblies, chambers, or houses.
The Binghamton Metropolitan Statistical Area, also called Greater Binghamton or the Triple Cities, is a region of southern upstate New York in the Northeastern United States, anchored by the city of Binghamton.
The Binghamton Rumble Ponies are an American minor league baseball team based in Binghamton, New York.
The State University of New York at Binghamton, commonly referred to as Binghamton University or SUNY Binghamton, is a public research university with campuses in Binghamton, Vestal, and Johnson City, New York, United States.
Biotechnology is the broad area of science involving living systems and organisms to develop or make products, or "any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use" (UN Convention on Biological Diversity, Art. 2).
Bisexuality is romantic attraction, sexual attraction, or sexual behavior toward both males and females, or romantic or sexual attraction to people of any sex or gender identity; this latter aspect is sometimes alternatively termed pansexuality. The term bisexuality is mainly used in the context of human attraction to denote romantic or sexual feelings toward both men and women, and the concept is one of the three main classifications of sexual orientation along with heterosexuality and homosexuality, all of which exist on the heterosexual–homosexual continuum.
The term black church or African-American church refers to Protestant churches that currently or historically have ministered to predominantly black congregations in the United States.
A Bolivian American (bolivio-americanos, norteamericanos de origen boliviano or estadounidenses de origen boliviano) is an American of Bolivian descent.
New York City encompasses five county-level administrative divisions called boroughs: Manhattan, Brooklyn, Queens, The Bronx, and Staten Island.
A bridge is a structure built to span physical obstacles without closing the way underneath such as a body of water, valley, or road, for the purpose of providing passage over the obstacle.
The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom, a part of British Armed Forces.
The brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) is a species of freshwater fish in the salmon family Salmonidae.
Brooklyn is the most populous borough of New York City, with a census-estimated 2,648,771 residents in 2017.
The Brooklyn Cyclones are a minor league baseball team based in Brooklyn, New York that plays in the Short-Season A classification New York–Penn League, affiliated with the New York Mets.
The Brooklyn Nets are an American professional basketball team based in the borough of Brooklyn, in New York City.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
The Buffalo Bills are a professional American football team based in the Buffalo–Niagara Falls metropolitan area.
The Buffalo Bisons are a professional Minor League Baseball team based in Buffalo, New York.
Buffalo Metro Rail is the public transit rail system in Buffalo, New York, United States; it is operated by the Niagara Frontier Transportation Authority (NFTA). The system consists of a single, long light rail line that runs for most of the length of Main Street (New York State Route 5) in the City of Buffalo, from KeyBank Center in Downtown Buffalo to the south campus of the University at Buffalo in the northeast corner of the city. The first section of the line opened in October 1984; the current system was completed in November 1986.
The Buffalo Sabres are a professional ice hockey team based in Buffalo, New York.
Buffalo is the second largest city in the state of New York and the 81st most populous city in the United States.
The Buffalo-Niagara Falls Metropolitan Statistical Area is a metropolitan area, designated by the United States Census Bureau, encompassing two counties – Erie and Niagara – in Western New York, with a population, as of the 2010 census, of 1,135,509 inhabitants.
A business incubator is a company that helps new and startup companies to develop by providing services such as management training or office space.
Cabbage or headed cabbage (comprising several cultivars of Brassica oleracea) is a leafy green, red (purple), or white (pale green) biennial plant grown as an annual vegetable crop for its dense-leaved heads.
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States.
Campaign finance refers to all funds raised to promote candidates, political parties, or policy initiatives and referenda.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
The Canada–United States border, officially known as the International Boundary, is the longest international border in the world between two countries.
The Cantonese language is a variety of Chinese spoken in the city of Guangzhou (historically known as Canton) and its surrounding area in southeastern China.
The Capital District, also known as the Capital Region, refers to the metropolitan area surrounding Albany, the capital of the U.S. state of New York.
A capital market is a financial market in which long-term debt (over a year) or equity-backed securities are bought and sold.
Capital punishment is a legal penalty under the United States federal government criminal justice system.
Capital punishment is a legal penalty in the United States, currently used by 31 states, the federal government, and the military.
The capture of Fort Ticonderoga occurred during the American Revolutionary War on May 10, 1775, when a small force of Green Mountain Boys led by Ethan Allen and Colonel Benedict Arnold surprised and overcame a small British garrison at the fort and looted the personal belongings of the garrison.
Castle Clinton or Fort Clinton, previously known as Castle Garden, is a circular sandstone fort now located in Battery Park, in Manhattan, New York City.
Castle Island is a former island located in the city of Albany, Albany County, New York.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The Catskill Mountains, also known as the Catskills, are a physiographic province of the larger Appalachian Mountains, located in southeastern New York.
The Catskill Park is in the Catskill Mountains in New York in the United States.
A central business district (CBD) is the commercial and business centre of a city.
Central New York is the central region of New York State, roughly including the following counties and cities: Under this definition, the region has a population of about 1,177,073, and includes the Syracuse metropolitan area.
The Central New York Region (formerly the Central-Leatherstocking Region, also known as Leatherstocking Country) is a term used by the New York State Department of Economic Development to broadly describe the central region of upstate New York State for tourism purposes.
Central Park is an urban park in Manhattan, New York City.
The Champlain Valley is a region of the United States around Lake Champlain in Vermont and New York extending north slightly into Quebec, Canada.
Chappaqua is a hamlet and census-designated place in the town of New Castle, in northern Westchester County, New York.
A château (plural châteaux; in both cases) is a manor house or residence of the lord of the manor or a country house of nobility or gentry, with or without fortifications, originally—and still most frequently—in French-speaking regions.
China City of America is a China-themed construction project originally planned for the town of Thompson, Sullivan County, in the Catskill Mountains region of the U.S. state of New York, attracting thousands of wealthy Chinese immigrants through the federal U.S to invest in the United States. EB-5 immigrant investor program, grants permanent residency to foreign investors in exchange for job-creating investments in the United States.
Manhattan's Chinatown is a neighborhood in Lower Manhattan, New York City, bordering the Lower East Side to its east, Little Italy to its north, Civic Center to its south, and Tribeca to its west.
The first Brooklyn Chinatown, was originally established in the Sunset Park area of the New York City borough of Brooklyn.
There are multiple Chinatowns in the borough of Queens in New York City.
Waves of Chinese emigration (also known as the Chinese diaspora) have happened throughout history.
The New York metropolitan area is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, constituting the largest metropolitan Asian American group in the United States and the largest Asian-national metropolitan diaspora in the Western Hemisphere.
Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases mutually unintelligible, language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.
Chinese people are the various individuals or ethnic groups associated with China, usually through ancestry, ethnicity, nationality, citizenship or other affiliation.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
Christopher Street is a street in the West Village neighborhood of the New York City borough of Manhattan.
Chuang Yen Monastery is a Buddhist temple situated on 225 acres in Kent, Putnam County, New York, in the United States.
Charles Ellis Schumer (born November 23, 1950) is an American politician of the Democratic Party serving as the senior United States Senator from New York, a seat he was first elected to in 1998.
A city is a large human settlement.
The City University of New York (CUNY) is the public university system of New York City, and the largest urban university system in the United States.
Clothing (also known as clothes and attire) is a collective term for garments, items worn on the body.
Coastal management is defence against flooding and erosion, and techniques that stop erosion to claim lands.
The coat of arms of the state of New York was formally adopted in 1778, and appears as a component of the state's flag and seal.
Coccinella novemnotata, the nine-spotted ladybug or nine-spotted lady beetle, is a species of ladybug native to North America.
In law, codification is the process of collecting and restating the law of a jurisdiction in certain areas, usually by subject, forming a legal code, i.e. a codex (book) of law.
Colombian Americans (Colomboamericanos), are Americans who trace their ancestry to Colombia.
Colonie is a town in Albany County, New York, United States.
Columbia University (Columbia; officially Columbia University in the City of New York), established in 1754, is a private Ivy League research university in Upper Manhattan, New York City.
A combined statistical area (CSA) is composed of adjacent metropolitan (MSA) and micropolitan statistical areas (µSA) in the United States and Puerto Rico that can demonstrate economic or social linkage.
A commercial bank is an institution that provides services such as accepting deposits, providing business loans, and offering basic investment products.
Commercial fishing is the activity of catching fish and other seafood for commercial profit, mostly from wild fisheries.
The common snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina) is a large freshwater turtle of the family Chelydridae.
Commuter rail services in the United States, Canada, Cuba, Mexico, Costa Rica, and Panama provide common carrier passenger transportation along railway tracks, with scheduled service on fixed routes on a non-reservation basis, primarily for short-distance (local) travel between a central business district and adjacent suburbs and regional travel between cities of a conurbation.
This is a comparison between US states and countries' nominal Gross Domestic Product for the Alternative Future as based on International Monetary Fund and Bureau of Economic Analysis data.
A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically via computer programming.
Computer hardware includes the physical parts or components of a computer, such as the central processing unit, monitor, keyboard, computer data storage, graphic card, sound card and motherboard.
A confederation (also known as a confederacy or league) is a union of sovereign states, united for purposes of common action often in relation to other states.
Connecticut is the southernmost state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.
The Conservative Party of New York State is a political party in the United States founded in 1962 and active in the State of New York.
The Consolidated Laws of the State of New York are the codification of the permanent laws of a general nature of New York enacted by the New York State Legislature.
A constitutional convention is a gathering for the purpose of writing a new constitution or revising an existing constitution.
The Constitutional Convention (also known as the Philadelphia Convention, the Federal Convention, or the Grand Convention at Philadelphia) took place from May 25 to September 17, 1787, in the old Pennsylvania State House (later known as Independence Hall because of the adoption of the Declaration of Independence there eleven years before) in Philadelphia.
Consumer electronics or home electronics are electronic (analog or digital) equipments intended for everyday use, typically in private homes.
The Continental Army was formed by the Second Continental Congress after the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War by the colonies that became the United States of America.
The Continental Congress, also known as the Philadelphia Congress, was a convention of delegates called together from the Thirteen Colonies.
Cooperstown is a village in and county seat of Otsego County, New York, United States.
Cornell University is a private and statutory Ivy League research university located in Ithaca, New York.
Cosmopolitanism is the ideology that all human beings belong to a single community, based on a shared morality.
In the United States, an administrative or political subdivision of a state is a county, which is a region having specific boundaries and usually some level of governmental authority.
The creative industries refers to a range of economic activities which are concerned with the generation or exploitation of knowledge and information.
Cuban Americans (Cubanoamericanos) are Americans who trace their ancestry to Cuba.
A cuesta is a hill or ridge with a gentle slope on one side, and a steep slope on the other.
Currency money is money in full circulation that takes its value from the precious metal it contains, that is, its market value is (almost) the value of the metal it contains (apart from the Seigniorage or the minters' profit), though this is always overcompensated for in coins and banknotes from a country undergoing debasement.
David Alexander Paterson (born May 20, 1954) is an American politician who served as the 55th Governor of New York, succeeding Eliot Spitzer and serving out the final three years of Spitzer's term from March 2008 to the end of 2010.
The Declaration of Rights and Grievances was a document written by the Stamp Act Congress and passed on October 14, 1765.
Delaware is one of the 50 states of the United States, in the Mid-Atlantic or Northeastern region.
The Delaware River is a major river on the Atlantic coast of the United States.
Democracy (δημοκρατία dēmokraa thetía, literally "rule by people"), in modern usage, has three senses all for a system of government where the citizens exercise power by voting.
The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party (nicknamed the GOP for Grand Old Party).
The demographics of Asian Americans describe a heterogeneous group of people in the United States who trace their ancestry to one or more Asian countries.
The Devasthanam means Abode of Devas.
DeWitt Clinton (March 2, 1769February 11, 1828) was an American politician and naturalist who served as a United States Senator, Mayor of New York City and sixth Governor of New York.
The term dialect (from Latin,, from the Ancient Greek word,, "discourse", from,, "through" and,, "I speak") is used in two distinct ways to refer to two different types of linguistic phenomena.
Diamond is a solid form of carbon with a diamond cubic crystal structure.
A digital billboard is a billboard that displays digital images that are changed by a computer every few seconds.
Digital electronics or digital (electronic) circuits are electronics that operate on digital signals.
Digital media are any media that are encoded in machine-readable formats.
Diplomacy is the art and practice of conducting negotiations between representatives of states.
Dominican Americans (domínico-americanos, norteamericanos de origen dominicano or estadounidenses de origen dominicano) are Americans who trace their ancestry to the Dominican Republic.
Donald John Trump (born June 14, 1946) is the 45th and current President of the United States, in office since January 20, 2017.
Downstate New York is a term denoting the portion of New York State, United States, in contrast to Upstate New York.
The Duke of York is a title of nobility in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.
The United East India Company, sometimes known as the United East Indies Company (Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie; or Verenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie in modern spelling; abbreviated to VOC), better known to the English-speaking world as the Dutch East India Company or sometimes as the Dutch East Indies Company, was a multinational corporation that was founded in 1602 from a government-backed consolidation of several rival Dutch trading companies.
The Dutch (Dutch), occasionally referred to as Netherlanders—a term that is cognate to the Dutch word for Dutch people, "Nederlanders"—are a Germanic ethnic group native to the Netherlands.
The East River is a salt water tidal estuary in New York City.
East Rutherford is a borough in Bergen County, New Jersey, United States.
The eastern bluebird (Sialia sialis) is a small thrush found in open woodlands, farmlands, and orchards.
The Eastern Time Zone (ET) is a time zone encompassing 17 U.S. states in the eastern part of the contiguous United States, parts of eastern Canada, the state of Quintana Roo in Mexico, Panama in Central America, and the Caribbean Islands.
The Eastman School of Music is a comprehensive school of music located in Rochester, New York.
The economy of the United States is a highly developed mixed economy.
Ecuadorian Americans (ecuatorio-americanos, norteamericanos de origen ecuatoriano or estadounidenses de origen ecuatoriano) are Americans of full or partial Ecuadorian ancestry.
Efficient energy use, sometimes simply called energy efficiency, is the goal to reduce the amount of energy required to provide products and services.
The United States Electoral College is the mechanism established by the United States Constitution for the election of the president and vice president of the United States by small groups of appointed representatives, electors, from each state and the District of Columbia.
Ellis Island, in Upper New York Bay, was the gateway for over 12 million immigrants to the U.S. as the United States' busiest immigrant inspection station for over 60 years from 1892 until 1954.
Eminent domain (United States, Philippines), land acquisition (Singapore), compulsory purchase (United Kingdom, New Zealand, Ireland), resumption (Hong Kong, Uganda), resumption/compulsory acquisition (Australia), or expropriation (France, Italy, Mexico, South Africa, Canada, Brazil, Portugal, Spain, Chile, Denmark, Sweden) is the power of a state, provincial, or national government to take private property for public use.
Emission standards are the legal requirements governing air pollutants released into the atmosphere.
The U.S. state of New York has been known by many nicknames, most notably as the Empire State, adopted as late as the 19th century.
Empire State Development (ESD) is the umbrella organization for New York's two principal economic development public-benefit corporations, the New York State Urban Development Corporation (UDC) and the Job Development Authority (JDA).
Engineering is the creative application of science, mathematical methods, and empirical evidence to the innovation, design, construction, operation and maintenance of structures, machines, materials, devices, systems, processes, and organizations.
English Americans, also referred to as Anglo-Americans, are Americans whose ancestry originates wholly or partly in England, a country that is part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
Entrepreneurship is the process of designing, launching and running a new business, which is often initially a small business.
An entrepreneurial ecosystem or entrepreneurship ecosystem refers to the social and economic environment affecting the local/regional entrepreneurship.
Environmental quality is a set of properties and characteristics of the environment, either generalized or local, as they impinge on human beings and other organisms.
The Erie Canal is a canal in New York, United States that is part of the east–west, cross-state route of the New York State Canal System (formerly known as the New York State Barge Canal).
Erie County is a highly populated county in the U.S. state of New York.
The Erie people (also Erieehronon, Eriechronon, Riquéronon, Erielhonan, Eriez, Nation du Chat) were a Native American people historically living on the south shore of Lake Erie.
Eurypterus is an extinct genus of eurypterid, a group of organisms commonly called "sea scorpions".
Evacuation Day on November 25 marks the day in 1783 when British troops departed from New York City on Manhattan Island, after the end of the American Revolutionary War.
Evangelicalism, evangelical Christianity, or evangelical Protestantism, is a worldwide, crossdenominational movement within Protestant Christianity which maintains the belief that the essence of the Gospel consists of the doctrine of salvation by grace through faith in Jesus Christ's atonement.
Everglades National Park is an American national park that protects the southern 20 percent of the original Everglades in Florida.
The executive is the organ exercising authority in and holding responsibility for the governance of a state.
The federal government of the United States (U.S. federal government) is the national government of the United States, a constitutional republic in North America, composed of 50 states, one district, Washington, D.C. (the nation's capital), and several territories.
A federation (also known as a federal state) is a political entity characterized by a union of partially self-governing provinces, states, or other regions under a central (federal) government.
The term felony, in some common law countries, is defined as a serious crime.
Fifth Avenue is a major thoroughfare in the borough of Manhattan in New York City, United States.
Filipinos in the New York metropolitan area constitute one of the fastest growing ethnicities in the of the United States, attracted to the area's massive population and its attendant economic opportunities and cultural offerings.
Filmmaking (or, in an academic context, film production) is the process of making a film, generally in the sense of films intended for extensive theatrical exhibition.
A financial centre is a location that is home to a cluster of nationally or internationally significant financial services providers such as banks, investment managers, or stock exchanges.
The World Economic Forum publishes a Financial Development Index annually, which measures and analyses the factors enabling the development of financial systems among different economies.
The Financial District of Lower Manhattan, also known as FiDi, is a neighborhood located on the southern tip of Manhattan Island, where the City of New York itself originated in 1624.
The Finger Lakes are a group of 11 long, narrow, roughly north–south lakes in an area called the Finger Lakes region in Central New York, in the United States.
Finland (Suomi; Finland), officially the Republic of Finland is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, and Russia to the east.
Fire Island is the large center island of the outer barrier islands parallel to the south shore of Long Island, New York.
Fire Island National Seashore (FINS) is a United States National Seashore that protects a section of Fire Island, an approximately long barrier island separated from Long Island by the Great South Bay.
A fiscal year (or financial year, or sometimes budget year) is the period used by governments for accounting and budget purposes, which vary between countries.
Florida (Spanish for "land of flowers") is the southernmost contiguous state in the United States.
Flounders are a group of flatfish species.
Flushing Meadows–Corona Park, often referred to as Flushing Meadows Park, or simply Flushing Meadows, is a public park in New York City.
Flushing is a neighborhood in the New York City borough of Queens in the United States.
Forced displacement or forced immigration is the coerced movement of a person or people away from their home or home region and it often connotes violent coercion.
Fordham University is a private research university in New York City.
A forest is a large area dominated by trees.
Fort Amsterdam (subsequently named Fort James, Fort Willem Hendrick, Fort James (again), Fort William Henry, Fort Anne and Fort George) was a fort on the southern tip of Manhattan that was the administrative headquarters for the Dutch and then English/British rule of New York from 1625 or 1626 until being torn down in 1790 after the American Revolution.
Fort Nassau (a.k.a. Fort van Nassouwen) was the first Dutch settlement in North America, located beside the "North River" (the modern Hudson) within present-day Albany, New York, in the United States.
Fort Niagara is a fortification originally built to protect the interests of New France in North America.
Fort Orange (Fort Oranje) was the first permanent Dutch settlement in New Netherland; the present-day city of Albany, New York developed at this site.
The Fortification of Dorchester Heights was a decisive action early in the American Revolutionary War that precipitated the end of the siege of Boston and the withdrawal of British troops from that city.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt Sr. (January 30, 1882 – April 12, 1945), often referred to by his initials FDR, was an American statesman and political leader who served as the 32nd President of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945.
Frédéric Auguste Bartholdi (2 April 1834 – 4 October 1904) was a French sculptor who is best known for designing Liberty Enlightening the World, commonly known as the Statue of Liberty.
The French and Indian War (1754–63) comprised the North American theater of the worldwide Seven Years' War of 1756–63.
French Canadians (also referred to as Franco-Canadians or Canadiens; Canadien(ne)s français(es)) are an ethnic group who trace their ancestry to French colonists who settled in Canada from the 17th century onward.
The French colonization of the Americas began in the 16th century, and continued on into the following centuries as France established a colonial empire in the Western Hemisphere.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
A French creole, or French-based creole language, is a creole language (contact language with native speakers) for which French is the lexifier.
Game design is the art of applying design and aesthetics to create a game for entertainment or for educational, exercise, or experimental purposes.
Ganesha (गणेश), also known as Ganapati, Vinayaka, Pillaiyar and Binayak, is one of the best-known and most worshipped deities in the Hindu pantheon.
Garnets are a group of silicate minerals that have been used since the Bronze Age as gemstones and abrasives.
Gasoline (American English), or petrol (British English), is a transparent, petroleum-derived liquid that is used primarily as a fuel in spark-ignited internal combustion engines.
Gateway National Recreation Area is a National Recreation Area in the Port of New York and New Jersey, U.S.A. Scattered over Brooklyn, Queens, and Staten Island, New York, and Monmouth County, New Jersey, it provides recreational opportunities that are rare for a dense urban environment, including ocean swimming, bird watching, boating, hiking and camping.
Gautama Buddha (c. 563/480 – c. 483/400 BCE), also known as Siddhārtha Gautama, Shakyamuni Buddha, or simply the Buddha, after the title of Buddha, was an ascetic (śramaṇa) and sage, on whose teachings Buddhism was founded.
Gay is a term that primarily refers to a homosexual person or the trait of being homosexual.
The gay liberation movement of the late 1960s through the mid-1980s urged lesbians and gay men to engage in radical direct action, and to counter societal shame with gay pride.
Gay pride or LGBT pride is the positive stance against discrimination and violence toward lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people to promote their self-affirmation, dignity, equality rights, increase their visibility as a social group, build community, and celebrate sexual diversity and gender variance.
Geena Rocero (born 1983 or 1984) is a Filipino American supermodel, TED speaker, and transgender advocate based in New York City.
General American (abbreviated as GA or GenAm) is the umbrella variety of American English—the continuum of accents—spoken by a majority of Americans and popularly perceived, among Americans, as lacking any distinctly regional, ethnic, or socioeconomic characteristics.
The geography of New York City is characterized by its coastal position at the meeting of the Hudson River and the Atlantic Ocean in a naturally sheltered harbor.
George Clinton (July 26, 1739April 20, 1812) was an American soldier and statesman, considered one of the Founding Fathers of the United States.
George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 43rd President of the United States from 2001 to 2009.
George Washington (February 22, 1732 –, 1799), known as the "Father of His Country," was an American soldier and statesman who served from 1789 to 1797 as the first President of the United States.
Georgia is a state in the Southeastern United States.
German Americans (Deutschamerikaner) are Americans who have full or partial German ancestry.
Giovanni da Verrazzano (sometimes also incorrectly spelled Verrazano) (1485–1528) was an Italian explorer of North America, in the service of King Francis I of France.
Glacier National Park is a national park located in the U.S. state of Montana, on the Canada–United States border with the Canadian provinces of Alberta and British Columbia.
The Glens Falls Metropolitan Statistical Area, as defined by the United States Census Bureau, is an area consisting of two counties in Upstate New York, anchored by the city of Glens Falls.
A global city, also called world city or sometimes alpha city or world center, is a city which is a primary node in the global economic network.
Global warming, also referred to as climate change, is the observed century-scale rise in the average temperature of the Earth's climate system and its related effects.
GlobalFoundries is an American semiconductor foundry headquartered in Santa Clara, California, United States.
Gothic Revival (also referred to as Victorian Gothic or neo-Gothic) is an architectural movement that began in the late 1740s in England.
The Government of the State of New York, headquartered at the New York State Capitol in Albany, encompasses the administrative structure of the U.S. state of New York, as established by the state's constitution.
The government of New York City, headquartered at New York City Hall in Lower Manhattan, is organized under the New York City Charter and provides for a "strong" mayor-council system.
The Governor of the State of New York is the chief executive of the U.S. state of New York.
A graduate school (sometimes shortened as grad school) is a school that awards advanced academic degrees (i.e. master's and doctoral degrees) with the general requirement that students must have earned a previous undergraduate (bachelor's) degree with a high grade point average.
The Grand Canyon (Hopi: Ongtupqa; Wi:kaʼi:la, Navajo: Tsékooh Hatsoh, Spanish: Gran Cañón) is a steep-sided canyon carved by the Colorado River in Arizona, United States.
Grand Canyon National Park, located in northwestern Arizona, is the 15th site in the United States to have been named a national park.
Grand Central Terminal (GCT; also referred to as Grand Central Station or simply as Grand Central) is a commuter and intercity railroad terminal at 42nd Street and Park Avenue in Midtown Manhattan in New York City, United States.
The Grand Slam tournaments, also called majors, are the four most important annual tennis events.
Grant's Tomb, formally known as General Grant National Memorial, is the final resting place of Ulysses S. Grant (1822–1885), the 18th President of the United States, and his wife, Julia Dent Grant (1826–1902).
A grape is a fruit, botanically a berry, of the deciduous woody vines of the flowering plant genus Vitis.
The Great Valley, also called the Great Appalachian Valley or Great Valley Region, is one of the major landform features of eastern North America.
The Great Lakes (les Grands-Lacs), also called the Laurentian Great Lakes and the Great Lakes of North America, are a series of interconnected freshwater lakes located primarily in the upper mid-east region of North America, on the Canada–United States border, which connect to the Atlantic Ocean through the Saint Lawrence River.
The Great Lakes region of North America is a bi-national Canada-American region that includes portions of the eight U.S. states of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania and Wisconsin as well as the Canadian province of Ontario.
Great South Bay, actually a lagoon, is situated between Long Island and Fire Island, in the State of New York.
The Green Party of New York is a ballot-qualified political party in New York, which was founded in 1992.
A greenhouse gas is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiant energy within the thermal infrared range.
Greenwich Village often referred to by locals as simply "the Village", is a neighborhood on the west side of Lower Manhattan, New York City.
Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.
Gross metropolitan product (GMP) is a monetary measure of the value of all final goods and services produced within a metropolitan statistical area during a specified period (e.g., a quarter, a year).
Hamilton Grange National Memorial, also known as The Grange or the Hamilton Grange Mansion, is a National Park Service site in St. Nicholas Park, Manhattan, New York City, that preserves the relocated home of U.S. Founding Father Alexander Hamilton.
Haredi Judaism (חֲרֵדִי,; also spelled Charedi, plural Haredim or Charedim) is a broad spectrum of groups within Orthodox Judaism, all characterized by a rejection of modern secular culture.
Harlem is a large neighborhood in the northern section of the New York City borough of Manhattan.
Harrison is a town in Hudson County, New Jersey, United States.
Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
The United Nations is headquartered in New York City, in a complex designed by Brazilian architect Oscar Niemeyer and built by the architectural firm Harrison & Abramovitz.
A hedge fund is an investment fund that pools capital from accredited individuals or institutional investors and invests in a variety of assets, often with complex portfolio-construction and risk-management techniques.
Hempstead is one of the three towns in Nassau County, New York, United States, occupying the southwestern part of the county, in the western half of Long Island.
Henry Hudson (1565–1611) was an English sea explorer and navigator during the early 17th century, best known for his explorations of present-day Canada and parts of the northeastern United States.
High technology, often abbreviated to high tech (adjective forms high-technology, high-tech or hi-tech) is technology that is at the cutting edge: the most advanced technology available.
Higher education in the United States is an optional final stage of formal learning following secondary education.
A highway is any public or private road or other public way on land.
Hillary Diane Rodham Clinton (born October 26, 1947) is an American politician and diplomat who served as the First Lady of the United States from 1993 to 2001, U.S. Senator from New York from 2001 to 2009, 67th United States Secretary of State from 2009 to 2013, and the Democratic Party's nominee for President of the United States in the 2016 election.
Hindu refers to any person who regards themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism.
A Hindu temple is a symbolic house, seat and body of god.
Hindu Temple Society of North America, representing Sri Maha Vallabha Ganapati Devasthanam, (Sanskrit: श्री महावल्लभ गणपति देवस्थानम्), at 45–57 Bowne Street, Flushing, Queens, in New York City, claims to be the very first of the traditional Hindu temples in the USA.
Hindustani (हिन्दुस्तानी, ہندوستانی, ||lit.
Hispanic Americans and Latino Americans (Estadounidenses hispanos) are people in the United States who are descendants of people from countries of Latin America and Spain.
Hither Hills State Park is a state park located on the eastern end of the South Fork of Long Island near the hamlet of Montauk, New York.
HMS Jersey was a 60-gun fourth rate ship of the line of the Royal Navy, built to the 1733 proposals of the 1719 Establishment of dimensions at Plymouth Dockyard, and launched on 14 June 1736.
Hofstra University is a private, non-profit, nonsectarian university in Hempstead, New York.
The Home of Franklin D. Roosevelt National Historic Site preserves the Springwood estate in Hyde Park, New York.
Home rule is government of a colony, dependent country, or region by its own citizens.
Hong Kong (Chinese: 香港), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory of China on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia.
The Hudson River is a river that flows from north to south primarily through eastern New York in the United States.
Hudson River Park is a waterside park on the North River (Hudson River), and is the part of the Manhattan Waterfront Greenway that extends from 59th Street south to Battery Park in the New York City borough of Manhattan.
The Hudson Valley comprises the valley of the Hudson River and its adjacent communities in the U.S. state of New York, from the cities of Albany and Troy southward to Yonkers in Westchester County.
A humid continental climate (Köppen prefix D and a third letter of a or b) is a climatic region defined by Russo-German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1900, which is typified by large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot (and often humid) summers and cold (sometimes severely cold in the northern areas) winters.
A humid subtropical climate is a zone of climate characterized by hot and humid summers, and mild to cool winters.
Hurricane Sandy (unofficially referred to as Superstorm Sandy) was the deadliest and most destructive hurricane of the 2012 Atlantic hurricane season.
Hyde Park is a town in Dutchess County, New York, bordering the Hudson River north of Poughkeepsie.
I Love New York (stylized I ❤ NY) is a slogan, a logo and a song that are the basis of an advertising campaign used since 1977 to promote tourism in the state of New York, including New York City.
The International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States, with operations in over 170 countries.
Ice hockey is a contact team sport played on ice, usually in a rink, in which two teams of skaters use their sticks to shoot a vulcanized rubber puck into their opponent's net to score points.
Immigration is the international movement of people into a destination country of which they are not natives or where they do not possess citizenship in order to settle or reside there, especially as permanent residents or naturalized citizens, or to take up employment as a migrant worker or temporarily as a foreign worker.
The Immigration Act of 1924, or Johnson–Reed Act, including the National Origins Act, and Asian Exclusion Act, was a United States federal law that set quotas on the number of immigrants from certain countries while providing funding and an enforcement mechanism to carry out the longstanding (but hitherto unenforced) ban on other non-white immigrants.
The United States Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) was an agency of the U.S. Department of Labor from 1933 to 1940 and the U.S. Department of Justice from 1940 to 2003. Referred to by some as former INS and by others as legacy INS, the agency ceased to exist under that name on March 1, 2003, when most of its functions were transferred to three new entities – U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS), U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE), and U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) – within the newly created Department of Homeland Security, as part of a major government reorganization following the September 11 attacks of 2001. Prior to 1933, there were separate offices administering immigration and naturalization matters, known as the Bureau of Immigration and the Bureau of Naturalization, respectively. The INS was established on June 10, 1933, merging these previously separate areas of administration. In 1890, the federal government, rather than the individual states, regulated immigration into the United States, and the Immigration Act of 1891 established a Commissioner of Immigration in the Treasury Department. Reflecting changing governmental concerns, immigration was transferred to the purview of the United States Department of Commerce and Labor after 1903 and the Department of Labor after 1913. In 1940, with increasing concern about national security, immigration and naturalization was organized under the authority of the Department of Justice. In 2003 the administration of immigration services, including permanent residence, naturalization, asylum, and other functions, became the responsibility of the Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services (BCIS), which existed under that name only for a short time before changing to its current name, U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS). The investigative and enforcement functions of the INS (including investigations, deportation, and intelligence) were combined with the U.S. Customs investigators to create U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE). The border functions of the INS, which included the Border Patrol and INS Inspectors, were combined with U.S. Customs Inspectors to create U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP).
Immigration to the United States is the international movement of individuals who are not natives or do not possess citizenship in order to settle, reside, study, or work in the country.
The Independence Party is an affiliate in the U.S. state of New York of the Independence Party of America.
An independent or nonpartisan politician is an individual politician not affiliated with any political party.
The following is an alphabetical list of articles related to the U.S. State of New York.
Indian Americans or Indo-Americans are Americans whose ancestry belongs to any of the many ethnic groups of the Republic of India.
The Indian Removal Act was signed by President Andrew Jackson on May 28, 1830.
An Indian reservation is a legal designation for an area of land managed by a federally recognized Native American tribe under the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs rather than the state governments of the United States in which they are physically located.
The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian peoples of the Americas and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming, hunting and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, chiefdoms, states and empires. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples; some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Bolivia, Canada, Chile, Ecuador, Greenland, Guatemala, Guyana, Mexico, Panama and Peru. At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Aymara, Guaraní, Mayan languages and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many also maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects but also cater to modern needs. Some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture, and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples.
Information is any entity or form that provides the answer to a question of some kind or resolves uncertainty.
Information technology (IT) is the use of computers to store, retrieve, transmit, and manipulate data, or information, often in the context of a business or other enterprise.
Inland Northern (American) English, also known in American linguistics as the Inland North or Great Lakes dialect, is an American English dialect spoken primarily by White Americans in a geographic band reaching from Central New York westward along the Erie Canal, through much of the U.S. Great Lakes region, to eastern Iowa.
Innovation can be defined simply as a "new idea, device or method".
Innsbruck is the capital city of Tyrol in western Austria and the fifth-largest city in Austria.
An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as an IC, a chip, or a microchip) is a set of electronic circuits on one small flat piece (or "chip") of semiconductor material, normally silicon.
Intellectual capital is the intangible value of a business, covering its people (human capital), the value inherent in its relationships (Relational capital), and everything that is left when the employees go home (Structural capital), of which Intellectual property (IP) is but one component.
Like many wars, much of the American Revolutionary War was fought by means other than combat.
Intermodal passenger transport, also called mixed-mode commuting, involves using two or more modes of transportation in a journey.
International Transgender Day of Visibility is an annual event occurring on March 31 dedicated to celebrating transgender people and raising awareness of discrimination faced by transgender people worldwide.
Interstate 87 (I-87) is a Interstate Highway located entirely within the U.S. state of New York, and is part of the main highway between New York City and Montreal.
In the United States of America, an interstate compact is an agreement between two or more states.
An investment bank is typically a private company that provides various finance-related and other services to individuals, corporations, and governments such as raising financial capital by underwriting or acting as the client's agent in the issuance of securities.
Investment management is the professional asset management of various securities (shares, bonds and other securities) and other assets (e.g., real estate) in order to meet specified investment goals for the benefit of the investors.
Irish Americans (Gael-Mheiriceánaigh) are an ethnic group comprising Americans who have full or partial ancestry from Ireland, especially those who identify with that ancestry, along with their cultural characteristics.
The Iroquoian languages are a language family of indigenous peoples of North America.
The Iroquois or Haudenosaunee (People of the Longhouse) are a historically powerful northeast Native American confederacy.
Irreligion (adjective form: non-religious or irreligious) is the absence, indifference, rejection of, or hostility towards religion.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
The Islamic Cultural Center of New York is a mosque and Islamic cultural center in the borough of Manhattan in New York City, United States.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
Italian Americans (italoamericani or italo-americani) are an ethnic group consisting of Americans who have ancestry from Italy.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
Ithaca is a city in the Finger Lakes region of New York.
The Ivy League is a collegiate athletic conference comprising sports teams from eight private universities in the Northeastern United States.
Jamaican Americans are Americans who have full or partial Jamaican ancestry.
James II and VII (14 October 1633O.S. – 16 September 1701An assertion found in many sources that James II died 6 September 1701 (17 September 1701 New Style) may result from a miscalculation done by an author of anonymous "An Exact Account of the Sickness and Death of the Late King James II, as also of the Proceedings at St. Germains thereupon, 1701, in a letter from an English gentleman in France to his friend in London" (Somers Tracts, ed. 1809–1815, XI, pp. 339–342). The account reads: "And on Friday the 17th instant, about three in the afternoon, the king died, the day he always fasted in memory of our blessed Saviour's passion, the day he ever desired to die on, and the ninth hour, according to the Jewish account, when our Saviour was crucified." As 17 September 1701 New Style falls on a Saturday and the author insists that James died on Friday, "the day he ever desired to die on", an inevitable conclusion is that the author miscalculated the date, which later made it to various reference works. See "English Historical Documents 1660–1714", ed. by Andrew Browning (London and New York: Routledge, 2001), 136–138.) was King of England and Ireland as James II and King of Scotland as James VII, from 6 February 1685 until he was deposed in the Glorious Revolution of 1688.
is an East Asian language spoken by about 128 million people, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language.
Jefferson County is a county in the U.S. state of New York.
Jersey City is the second-most-populous city in the U.S. state of New Jersey, after Newark.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
Jews in New York City comprise approximately eight percent of the city's population, making the Jewish community the largest in the world outside of Israel.
John F. Kennedy International Airport (often referred to as Kennedy Airport, New York-JFK or simply JFK) is the primary international airport serving New York City.
John Jay (December 12, 1745 – May 17, 1829) was an American statesman, Patriot, diplomat, one of the Founding Fathers of the United States, negotiator and signatory of the Treaty of Paris of 1783, second Governor of New York, and the first Chief Justice of the United States (1789–1795).
Thayendanegea or Joseph Brant (March 1743 – November 24, 1807) was a Mohawk military and political leader, based in present-day New York, who was closely associated with Great Britain during and after the American Revolution.
The judiciary (also known as the judicial system or court system) is the system of courts that interprets and applies the law in the name of the state.
The Judiciary of New York (officially the New York State Unified Court System) is the judicial branch of the Government of New York, comprising all the courts of the State of New York (excluding extrajudicial administrative courts.) The Court of Appeals, sitting in Albany and consisting of seven judges, is the state's highest court.
The Juilliard School, informally referred to as Juilliard and located in the Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts on the Upper West Side of Manhattan, New York City, is a performing arts conservatory established in 1905.
Kathleen Courtney Hochul (born August 27, 1958) is an American politician serving as Lieutenant Governor of New York since 2015.
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems.
Kent is a town in Putnam County, New York, United States.
King Philip's War (sometimes called the First Indian War, Metacom's War, Metacomet's War, Pometacomet's Rebellion, or Metacom's Rebellion) was an armed conflict in 1675–78 between American Indian inhabitants of the New England region of North America versus New England colonists and their Indian allies.
The Kingdom of England (French: Royaume d'Angleterre; Danish: Kongeriget England; German: Königreich England) was a sovereign state on the island of Great Britain from the 10th century—when it emerged from various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms—until 1707, when it united with Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain.
The Kingdom of Great Britain, officially called simply Great Britain,Parliament of the Kingdom of England.
Kingston is a city in and the county seat of Ulster County, New York, United States.
Kirsten Elizabeth Gillibrand (Rutnik;; born December 9, 1966) is an American attorney and politician serving as the junior United States Senator from New York since January 2009.
Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someone or something, such as facts, information, descriptions, or skills, which is acquired through experience or education by perceiving, discovering, or learning.
Korean Americans (Hangul: 한국계 미국인, Hanja: 韓國系美國人, Hangukgye Migukin) are Americans of Korean heritage or descent, mostly from South Korea, and with a very small minority from North Korea, China, Japan and Post-Soviet states.
The Korean language (Chosŏn'gŭl/Hangul: 조선말/한국어; Hanja: 朝鮮말/韓國語) is an East Asian language spoken by about 80 million people.
Koreatown, Long Island, or the Long Island Koreatown (Hangul: 롱 아일랜드 코리아타운), on Long Island in the U.S. state of New York, is one of the largest and fastest growing ethnic Korean enclaves outside Korea.
Lake Champlain (French: Lac Champlain) (Abenaki: Pitawbagok) (Mohawk: Kaniatarakwà:ronte) is a natural freshwater lake in North America mainly within the borders of the United States (in the states of Vermont and New York) but partially situated across the Canada–U.S. border, in the Canadian province of Quebec.
Lake Erie is the fourth-largest lake (by surface area) of the five Great Lakes in North America, and the eleventh-largest globally if measured in terms of surface area.
Lake George, nicknamed the Queen of American Lakes, is a long, narrow oligotrophic lake located at the southeast base of the Adirondack Mountains, in the northeastern portion of the U.S. state of New York.
Lake Ontario is one of the five Great Lakes of North America.
Lake Placid is a village in the Adirondack Mountains in Essex County, New York, United States.
Lake Tear of the Clouds is a small tarn located in the town of Keene, in Essex County, New York, United States, on the southwest slope of Mount Marcy, the state's highest point, in the Adirondack Mountains.
Lake-effect snow is produced during cooler atmospheric conditions when a cold air mass moves across long expanses of warmer lake water, warming the lower layer of air which picks up water vapor from the lake, rises up through the colder air above, freezes and is deposited on the leeward (downwind) shores.
Land reclamation, usually known as reclamation, and also known as land fill (not to be confused with a landfill), is the process of creating new land from ocean, riverbeds, or lake beds.
In geography, latitude is a geographic coordinate that specifies the north–south position of a point on the Earth's surface.
A law school (also known as a law centre or college of law) is an institution specializing in legal education, usually involved as part of a process for becoming a lawyer within a given jurisdiction.
A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city.
The Lenape, also called the Leni Lenape, Lenni Lenape and Delaware people, are an indigenous people of the Northeastern Woodlands, who live in Canada and the United States.
A lesbian is a homosexual woman.
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) rights in the United States of America vary by jurisdiction.
The Lieutenant Governor of New York is a constitutional office in the executive branch of the Government of the State of New York.
Life imprisonment (also known as imprisonment for life, life in prison, a life sentence, a life term, lifelong incarceration, life incarceration or simply life) is any sentence of imprisonment for a crime under which convicted persons are to remain in prison either for the rest of their natural life or until paroled.
Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts is a complex of buildings in the Lincoln Square neighborhood of the borough of Manhattan in New York City.
Washington, D.C. has been the federal capital city of the United States since 1819.
The following is a list of public and private colleges and universities in the state of New York.
The ethnic groups of Africa number in the thousands, with each population generally having its own language (or dialect of a language) and culture.
The monarchs of the Kingdom of France and its predecessors (and successor monarchies) ruled from the establishment of the Kingdom of the Franks in 486 until the fall of the Second French Empire in 1870, with several interruptions.
The United States Office of Management and Budget (OMB) has defined 383 metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) for the United States and seven for Puerto Rico.
New York City, the most populous city in the United States, is home to over 6486 completed high rise buildings of at least 35 meters, of which at least 113 completed are taller than.
Forty-nine of the fifty U.S. states that make up the United States of America have one or more state songs, which are selected by each state legislature, and/or state governor, as a symbol (or emblem) of that particular U.S. state.
As of April 1, 2010, the date of the 2010 United States Census, the nine most populous U.S. states contain slightly more than half of the total population.
The following is a list of U.S. states and the District of Columbia ranked by the proportion of African Americans in the population.
A state of the United States is one of the 50 constituent entities that shares its sovereignty with the federal government.
The following is a list of the most populous incorporated places of the United States.
The United States has ten protected areas known as national seashores and four known as national lakeshores, which are operated by the National Park Service, an agency of the Department of the Interior.
These are lists of New York City Landmarks designated by the New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission.
A Little India is an ethnic enclave containing a large population of Indian people within a society where the majority of people are either not South Asians or where the majority in the enclave are indigenous to mostly northern states in the country of India within a South Asian society not identifying as Indian.
A logo (abbreviation of logotype, from λόγος logos "word" and τύπος typos "imprint") is a graphic mark, emblem, or symbol used to aid and promote public identification and recognition.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
Long Island is a densely populated island off the East Coast of the United States, beginning at New York Harbor just 0.35 miles (0.56 km) from Manhattan Island and extending eastward into the Atlantic Ocean.
The Long Island Ducks are an American professional baseball team based in Central Islip, New York.
The Long Island Rail Road, legally known as the Long Island Rail Road Company and often abbreviated as the LIRR, is a commuter rail system in the southeastern part of the U.S. state of New York, stretching from Manhattan to the eastern tip of Suffolk County on Long Island.
Long Island Sound is a tidal estuary of the Atlantic Ocean, lying between the eastern shores of Bronx County, New York City, southern Westchester County, and Connecticut to the north, and the North Shore of Long Island, to the south.
Los Angeles (Spanish for "The Angels";; officially: the City of Los Angeles; colloquially: by its initials L.A.) is the second-most populous city in the United States, after New York City.
Lower Manhattan, also known as Downtown Manhattan or Downtown New York, is the southernmost part of Manhattan, the central borough for business, culture, and government in the City of New York, which itself originated at the southern tip of Manhattan Island in 1624, at a point which now constitutes the present-day Financial District.
In general, loyalism is an individual's allegiance toward an established government, political party, or sovereign, especially during times of war and revolt.
Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908January 22, 1973), often referred to by his initials LBJ, was an American politician who served as the 36th President of the United States from 1963 to 1969, assuming the office after having served as the 37th Vice President of the United States from 1961 to 1963.
The Mahicans (or Mohicans) are an Eastern Algonquian Native American tribe related to the abutting Delaware people, originally settled in the upper Hudson River Valley (around Albany, New York) and western New England centered on Pittsfield, Massachusetts and lower present-day Vermont.
The mainline Protestant churches (also called mainstream Protestant and sometimes oldline Protestant) are a group of Protestant denominations in the United States that contrast in history and practice with evangelical, fundamentalist, and charismatic Protestant denominations.
Major League Baseball (MLB) is a professional baseball organization, the oldest of the four major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada.
Major League Soccer (MLS) is a men's professional soccer league sanctioned by U.S. Soccer that represents the sport's highest level in both the United States and Canada.
Manhattan is the most densely populated borough of New York City, its economic and administrative center, and its historical birthplace.
The Manor of Rensselaerswyck, Manor Rensselaerswyck, Van Rensselaer Manor, or just simply Rensselaerswyck (Rensselaerswijck), was the name of a colonial estate—specifically, a Dutch patroonship and later an English manor—owned by the van Rensselaer family that was located in what is now mainly the Capital District of New York in the United States.
Maple syrup is a syrup usually made from the xylem sap of sugar maple, red maple, or black maple trees, although it can also be made from other maple species.
The Marcellus Formation (also classified as the Marcellus Subgroup of the Hamilton Group, Marcellus Member of the Romney Formation, or simply the Marcellus Shale) is a Middle Devonian age unit of marine sedimentary rock found in eastern North America.
Marguerite de Navarre (Marguerite d'Angoulême, Marguerite d'Alençon; 11 April 149221 December 1549), also known as Marguerite of Angoulême and Margaret of Navarre, was the princess of France, Queen of Navarre, and Duchess of Alençon and Berry.
A maritime boundary is a conceptual division of the Earth's water surface areas using physiographic or geopolitical criteria.
Market capitalization (market cap) is the market value of a publicly traded company's outstanding shares.
Martha's Vineyard (Wampanoag: Noepe; often called just the Vineyard) is an island located south of Cape Cod in Massachusetts that is known for being an affluent summer colony.
The Mascouten (also Mascoutin, Mathkoutench, Muscoden, or Musketoon) were a tribe of Algonquian-speaking Native Americans located in the Midwest.
Massachusetts, officially known as the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.
The interdisciplinary field of materials science, also commonly termed materials science and engineering is the design and discovery of new materials, particularly solids.
A mausoleum is an external free-standing building constructed as a monument enclosing the interment space or burial chamber of a deceased person or people.
The Mayor of the City of New York is head of the executive branch of New York City's government.
A meadow is a field habitat vegetated by grass and other non-woody plants (grassland).
A media conglomerate, media group, or media institution is a company that owns numerous companies involved in mass media enterprises, such as television, radio, publishing, motion pictures, theme parks, or the Internet.
A medical school is a tertiary educational institution —or part of such an institution— that teaches medicine, and awards a professional degree for physicians and surgeons.
Mercy College (Mercy or Mercy NY) is a private, non-sectarian, non-profit, coeducational research university with its main campus located on 66 acres in Dobbs Ferry, New York, alongside the Hudson River, with additional locations in Manhattan, Bronx and Yorktown Heights.
Mergers and acquisitions (M&A) are transactions in which the ownership of companies, other business organizations, or their operating units are transferred or consolidated with other entities.
Metacomet (1638–1676), also known as Metacom and by his adopted English name King Philip,, New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1998.
MetLife Stadium is an American sports stadium located in East Rutherford, New Jersey.
Metonymy is a figure of speech in which a thing or concept is referred to by the name of something closely associated with that thing or concept.
Metres above mean sea level (MAMSL) or simply metres above sea level (MASL or m a.s.l.) is a standard metric measurement in metres of the elevation or altitude of a location in reference to a historic mean sea level.
The Metro-North Commuter Railroad, trading as MTA Metro-North Railroad or simply Metro-North, is a suburban commuter rail service run by the Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA), a public authority of the U.S. state of New York.
In the United States, a metropolitan statistical area (MSA) is a geographical region with a relatively high population density at its core and close economic ties throughout the area.
Mexican Americans (mexicoamericanos or estadounidenses de origen mexicano) are Americans of full or partial Mexican descent.
Michael Rubens Bloomberg (born on February 14, 1942) is an American businessman, engineer, author, politician, and philanthropist.
A microclimate is a local set of atmospheric conditions that differ from those in the surrounding areas, often with a slight difference but sometimes with a substantial one.
The Mid-Atlantic, also called Middle Atlantic states or the Mid-Atlantic states, form a region of the United States generally located between New England and the South Atlantic States.
Midtown Manhattan, or Midtown, represents the central lengthwise portion of the borough and island of Manhattan in New York City.
Milk is a white liquid produced by the mammary glands of mammals.
Millard Fillmore (January 7, 1800 – March 8, 1874) was the 13th President of the United States (1850–1853), the last to be a member of the Whig Party while in the White House.
The Mingo people are an Iroquoian-speaking group of Native Americans made up of peoples who migrated west to the Ohio Country in the mid-18th century, primarily Seneca and Cayuga.
Mink are dark-colored, semiaquatic, carnivorous mammals of the genera Neovison and Mustela, and part of the family Mustelidae which also includes weasels, otters and ferrets.
The "Miracle on Ice" refers to a medal-round game during the men's ice hockey tournament at the 1980 Winter Olympics in Lake Placid, New York, played between the hosting United States, and the four-time defending gold medalists, the Soviet Union.
The Modern Language Association of America, often referred to as the Modern Language Association (MLA), is the principal professional association in the United States for scholars of language and literature.
Modern American liberalism is the dominant version of liberalism in the United States.
The Mohawk people (who identify as Kanien'kehá:ka) are the most easterly tribe of the Haudenosaunee, or Iroquois Confederacy.
The Mohawk River is a U.S. Geological Survey.
The Mohawk Valley region of the U.S. state of New York is the area surrounding the Mohawk River, sandwiched between the Adirondack Mountains and Catskill Mountains.
Monroe County is a county in the western portion of the state of New York, in the United States.
The Montauk Point Light is a lighthouse located adjacent to Montauk Point State Park, at the easternmost point of Long Island, in the hamlet of Montauk in the Town of East Hampton in Suffolk County, New York.
Montauk State Park is a public recreation area occupying nearly at the headwaters of the Current River, southwest of Salem, Missouri.
Montreal (officially Montréal) is the most populous municipality in the Canadian province of Quebec and the second-most populous municipality in Canada.
Mount Marcy (Mohawk: Tewawe’éstha) is the highest point in New York State, with an elevation of.
Multiculturalism is a term with a range of meanings in the contexts of sociology, political philosophy, and in colloquial use.
Multiracial Americans are Americans who have mixed ancestry of "two or more races".
A municipal corporation is the legal term for a local governing body, including (but not necessarily limited to) cities, counties, towns, townships, charter townships, villages, and boroughs.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
Nanotechnology ("nanotech") is manipulation of matter on an atomic, molecular, and supramolecular scale.
The Nanticoke people are an indigenous American Algonquian people, whose traditional homelands are in Chesapeake Bay and Delaware.
Narragansett Bay is a bay and estuary on the north side of Rhode Island Sound covering 147 mi2 (380 km2), 120.5 mi2 (312 km2) in Rhode Island.
The Nasdaq Stock Market is an American stock exchange.
Nassau County or is a suburban county comprising much of western Long Island in the U.S. state of New York.
The National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum is an American history museum and hall of fame, located in Cooperstown, New York, and operated by private interests.
The National Basketball Association (NBA) is a men's professional basketball league in North America; composed of 30 teams (29 in the United States and 1 in Canada).
The National Football League (NFL) is a professional American football league consisting of 32 teams, divided equally between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the American Football Conference (AFC).
A National Heritage Area is a site designated by United States and intended to encourage historic preservation of the area and an appreciation of the history and heritage of the site.
A National Historic Landmark (NHL) is a building, district, object, site, or structure that is officially recognized by the United States government for its outstanding historical significance.
The National Hockey League (NHL; Ligue nationale de hockey—LNH) is a professional ice hockey league in North America, currently comprising 31 teams: 24 in the United States and 7 in Canada.
The National Museum of Racing and Hall of Fame was founded in 1950 in Saratoga Springs, New York, to honor the achievements of American Thoroughbred race horses, jockeys, and trainers.
The National Natural Landmarks (NNL) Program recognizes and encourages the conservation of outstanding examples of the natural history of the United States.
A national park is a park in use for conservation purposes.
The National Park Service (NPS) is an agency of the United States federal government that manages all national parks, many national monuments, and other conservation and historical properties with various title designations.
The National Register of Historic Places (NRHP) is the United States federal government's official list of districts, sites, buildings, structures, and objects deemed worthy of preservation for their historical significance.
The National September 11 Memorial & Museum (also known as the 9/11 Memorial & Museum) is a memorial and museum in New York City commemorating the September 11, 2001 attacks, which killed 2,977 people, and the 1993 World Trade Center bombing, which killed six.
The National Soccer Hall of Fame is a private, non-profit institution established in 1979 that honors soccer achievements in the United States.
Native Americans, also known as American Indians, Indians, Indigenous Americans and other terms, are the indigenous peoples of the United States.
A natural satellite or moon is, in the most common usage, an astronomical body that orbits a planet or minor planet (or sometimes another small Solar System body).
The Neutral Confederacy or Neutral Nation or Neutral people were a Iroquoian-speaking North American indigenous people who lived near the northern shores of Lake Ontario and Lake Erie, on the west side of the Niagara River, west of the Tabacco Nation.
New Amsterdam (Nieuw Amsterdam, or) was a 17th-century Dutch settlement established at the southern tip of Manhattan Island that served as the seat of the colonial government in New Netherland.
New England is a geographical region comprising six states of the northeastern United States: Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island and Connecticut.
The New Great Migration is the demographic change from 1965 to the present, which is a reversal of the previous 35-year trend of black migration within the United States.
New Hampshire is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.
New Jersey is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the Northeastern United States.
New Netherland (Dutch: Nieuw Nederland; Latin: Nova Belgica or Novum Belgium) was a 17th-century colony of the Dutch Republic that was located on the east coast of North America.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
New York Bay is the collective term for the marine areas surrounding the river mouth of the Hudson River into the Atlantic Ocean, in New Jersey and New York City.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
The New York City 2012 Olympic bid was one of the five short-listed bids for the 2012 Summer Olympics, ultimately won by London.
The New York City Charter is the municipal charter of New York City.
The New York City court system consists of the several citywide and state courts.
The New York City Department of Education (NYCDOE) is the department of the government of New York City that manages the city's public school system.
The New York City Department of Transportation (NYCDOT) is the agency of the government of New York City responsible for the management of much of New York City's transportation infrastructure.
New York City English, or Metropolitan New York English, is a regional dialect of American English spoken by many people in New York City and much of its surrounding metropolitan area.
New York City Football Club is a professional soccer club based in New York City, New York, that competes in Major League Soccer (MLS), the highest level of American soccer, as a member of the league's Eastern Conference.
The annual New York City LGBT Pride March, or New York City Pride March, traverses southward down Fifth Avenue and ends at Greenwich Village in Lower Manhattan.
The New York City Subway is a rapid transit system owned by the City of New York and leased to the New York City Transit Authority, a subsidiary agency of the state-run Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA).
The Constitution of the State of New York establishes the structure of the government of the State of New York, and enumerates the basic rights of the citizens of New York.
The County Court of the State of New York is a New York State Unified Court System court of general jurisdiction outside New York City.
The New York Court of Appeals is the highest court in the U.S. state of New York.
The New York Giants are a professional American football team based in the New York metropolitan area.
New York Harbor, part of the Port of New York and New Jersey, is at the mouth of the Hudson River where it empties into New York Bay and into the Atlantic Ocean at the East Coast of the United States.
New York Institute of Technology (also known as NYIT) is a private, independent, nonprofit, non-sectarian, coeducational research university founded in 1955.
The New York Islanders are a professional ice hockey team based in New York City.
The New York Jets are a professional American football team located in the New York metropolitan area.
The New York Knickerbockers, commonly referred to as the Knicks, are an American professional basketball team based in the borough of Manhattan, in New York City.
The English language as primarily spoken by Hispanic Americans on the East Coast of the United States demonstrates considerable influence from New York City English and African American Vernacular English, with certain additional features borrowed from the Spanish language.
The New York metropolitan area, also referred to as the Tri-State Area, is the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass, at 4,495 mi2 (11,642 km2).
The New York Mets are an American professional baseball team based in the New York City borough of Queens.
The New York Rangers are a professional ice hockey team based in New York City.
The New York Red Bulls are an American professional soccer club based in Harrison, New Jersey.
The New York Republican State Committee established 1855, is an affiliate of the United States Republican Party (GOP).
The New York State Assembly is the lower house of the New York State Legislature, the New York State Senate being the upper house.
The New York State Comptroller is a state cabinet officer of the U.S. state of New York and head of the New York state government's Department of Audit and Control.
The New York State Democratic Committee is the affiliate of the Democratic Party in the state of New York.
The New York State Department of Motor Vehicles (NYSDMV or DMV) is the department of the New York state government responsible for vehicle registration, vehicle inspections, driver's licenses, and photo ID cards, and adjudicating traffic violations.
The New York State Department of Transportation (NYSDOT) is the department of the New York state government responsible for the development and operation of highways, railroads, mass transit systems, ports, waterways and aviation facilities in the U.S. state of New York.
The New York State Education Department (NYSED) is the department of the New York state government responsible for the supervision for all public schools in New York and all standardized testing, as well as the production and administration of state tests and Regents Examinations.
New York State Legislature are the two houses that act as the state legislature of the U.S. state of New York.
New York state public benefit corporations and authorities operate like quasi-private corporations, with boards of directors appointed by elected officials, overseeing both publicly operated and privately operated systems.
The New York State Senate is the upper house of the New York State Legislature, the New York State Assembly being the lower house.
The New York State Thruway, often called simply the Thruway, is a system of limited-access highways located within the state of New York in the United States.
The New York Stock Exchange (abbreviated as NYSE, and nicknamed "The Big Board"), is an American stock exchange located at 11 Wall Street, Lower Manhattan, New York City, New York.
The Supreme Court of the State of New York is the trial-level court of general jurisdiction in the New York State Unified Court System.
New York University (NYU) is a private nonprofit research university based in New York City.
The New York Yankees are an American professional baseball team based in the New York City borough of the Bronx.
The 25th Congressional District of New York is a congressional district for the United States House of Representatives.
The U.S. state of New York currently comprises 27 congressional districts.
Newburgh is a city located in Orange County, New York, United States, north of New York City, and south of Albany, on the Hudson River.
Newsday is an American daily newspaper that primarily serves Nassau and Suffolk counties and the New York City borough of Queens on Long Island, although it is sold throughout the New York metropolitan area.
Niagara Falls is the collective name for three waterfalls that straddle the international border between the Canadian province of Ontario and the American state of New York.
Niagara Falls National Heritage Area is a federally designated National Heritage Area encompassing the Niagara Falls region of the U.S. State of New York.
Niagara Falls State Park is a state park in the City of Niagara Falls in Niagara County, New York, United States.
The Niagara Frontier refers to the stretch of land south of Lake Ontario and Lake Erie and extending westward to Cleveland, Ohio.
The Niagara Frontier Transportation Authority (NFTA) is a public authority responsible for the public transportation oversight of Erie and Niagara counties in the state of New York.
The Niagara River is a river that flows north from Lake Erie to Lake Ontario.
NJ Transit Rail Operations is the rail division of NJ Transit.
"No taxation without representation" is a slogan originating during the 1700s that summarized a primary grievance of the American colonists in the Thirteen Colonies, which was one of the major causes of the American Revolution.
Non-Hispanic whites or whites not of Hispanic or Latino origin (commonly referred to as Anglo-Americans)Mish, Frederic C., Editor in Chief Webster's Tenth New Collegiate Dictionary Springfield, Massachusetts, U.S.A.:1994--Merriam-Webster See original definition (definition #1) of Anglo in English: It is defined as a synonym for Anglo-American--Page 86 are European Americans who are not of Hispanic or Latino origin/ethnicity, as defined by the United States Census Bureau.
The North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD 88) is the vertical control datum of orthometric height established for vertical control surveying in the United States of America based upon the General Adjustment of the North American Datum of 1988.
North Carolina is a U.S. state in the southeastern region of the United States.
The North Country is a region of the U.S. state of New York that encompasses the state's extreme northern frontier, bordering Lake Ontario on the west, the Saint Lawrence River and the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Quebec on the north and northwest, and Lake Champlain and Vermont on the east.
The North Fork is a 30-mile-long peninsula in the northeast part of Suffolk County, New York, U.S., roughly parallel with an even longer peninsula known as the South Fork, both on the East End of Long Island.
The Northeast megalopolis (also Boston–Washington corridor or Bos-Wash corridor), the most populous megalopolis in the Western Hemisphere with over 50 million residents, is the most heavily urbanized region of the United States.
The Northeastern United States, also referred to as the American Northeast or simply the Northeast, is a geographical region of the United States bordered to the north by Canada, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by the Southern United States, and to the west by the Midwestern United States.
Norwegians (nordmenn) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Norway.
Olympic National Park is an American national park located in the State of Washington, on the Olympic Peninsula.
One Liberty Plaza, formerly the U.S. Steel Building, is a skyscraper in Lower Manhattan, in New York City, at the location of the former Singer Building (tallest structure ever dismantled) and the former City Investing Building.
One World Trade Center (also known as 1 World Trade Center, 1 WTC or Freedom Tower) is the main building of the rebuilt World Trade Center complex in Lower Manhattan, New York City.
Oneida County is a county located in the state of New York, in the United States.
The Oneida (Onyota'a:ka or Onayotekaonotyu, meaning the People of the Upright Stone, or standing stone, Thwahrù·nęʼ in Tuscarora) are a Native American tribe and First Nations band.
Oneonta is a city in southern Otsego County, New York, United States.
Ontario is one of the 13 provinces and territories of Canada and is located in east-central Canada.
An orchard is an intentional planting of trees or shrubs that is maintained for food production.
Orchard Park is an affluent town in Erie County, New York, United States, and a suburb southeast of Buffalo.
An orphan (from the ορφανός orphanós) is someone whose parents have died, unknown, or have permanently abandoned them.
Orthodox Judaism is a collective term for the traditionalist branches of Judaism, which seek to maximally maintain the received Jewish beliefs and observances and which coalesced in opposition to the various challenges of modernity and secularization.
Otsego County is a county in the U.S. state of New York.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to the U.S. State of New York: New York – U.S. state located on the Eastern seaboard and extending to the Great Lakes.
Pacific Islands Americans, also known as Oceanian Americans, Pacific Islander Americans, or Native Hawaiian and/or other Pacific Islander Americans, are Americans who have ethnic ancestry among the indigenous peoples of Oceania (viz. Polynesians, Melanesians and Micronesians).
Packet boats were medium-sized boats designed for domestic mail, passenger, and freight transportation in European countries and their colonies, including North American rivers and canals.
The Parliament of the United Kingdom, commonly known as the UK Parliament or British Parliament, is the supreme legislative body of the United Kingdom, the Crown dependencies and overseas territories.
Port Authority Trans-Hudson (PATH) is a rapid transit system serving Newark, Harrison, Hoboken, and Jersey City in metropolitan northern New Jersey, as well as lower and midtown Manhattan in New York City.
In the United States, a patroon (from Dutch patroon) was a landholder with manorial rights to large tracts of land in the 17th century Dutch colony of New Netherland on the east coast of North America.
The peach (Prunus persica) is a deciduous tree native to the region of Northwest China between the Tarim Basin and the north slopes of the Kunlun Mountains, where it was first domesticated and cultivated.
Pennsylvania (Pennsylvania German: Pennsylvaani or Pennsilfaani), officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States.
People v. LaValle, 3 N.Y.3d 88 (2004), was a landmark decision by the New York Court of Appeals, the highest court in the U.S. state of New York, in which the court ruled that the state's death penalty statute was unconstitutional because of the statute's direction on how the jury was to be instructed in case of deadlock.
Peruvian Americans (peruano americanos) are Americans of Peruvian descent.
The Tabacco people, Tobacco nation, the Petun, or Tionontati in their Iroquoian language, were a historical First Nations band government closely related to the Huron Confederacy (Wendat).
Philip John Schuyler (November 18, 1804) was a general in the American Revolution and a United States Senator from New York.
Philippine Airlines (PAL), a trade name of PAL Holdings, Inc.
Photographic processing or development is the chemical means by which photographic film or paper is treated after photographic exposure to produce a negative or positive image.
Seaside pleasure pier in Brighton, England. The first seaside piers were built in England in the early 19th century. A pier is a raised structure in a body of water, typically supported by well-spaced piles or pillars.
A plum is a fruit of the subgenus Prunus of the genus Prunus. The subgenus is distinguished from other subgenera (peaches, cherries, bird cherries, etc.) in the shoots having terminal bud and solitary side buds (not clustered), the flowers in groups of one to five together on short stems, and the fruit having a groove running down one side and a smooth stone (or pit).
Polish (język polski or simply polski) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and is the native language of the Poles.
A port is a maritime commercial facility which may comprise one or more wharves where ships may dock to load and discharge passengers and cargo.
The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey (PANYNJ) is a joint venture between the United States, New York and New Jersey, established in 1921 through an interstate compact authorized by the United States Congress.
In general, a port of entry (POE) is a place where one may lawfully enter a country.
The Port of New York and New Jersey is the port district of the New York-Newark metropolitan area, encompassing the region within approximately a radius of the Statue of Liberty National Monument.
Post-production is part of the process of filmmaking, video production, and photography.
Postgraduate education, or graduate education in North America, involves learning and studying for academic or professional degrees, academic or professional certificates, academic or professional diplomas, or other qualifications for which a first or bachelor's degree generally is required, and it is normally considered to be part of higher education.
A power outage (also called a power cut, a power out, a power blackout, power failure or a blackout) is a short-term or a long-term loss of the electric power to a particular area.
The President of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America.
Pride parades (also known as pride marches, pride events, and pride festivals) are events celebrating lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex (LGBTI) culture and pride.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
The protohistoric period of the state of West Virginia in the United States began in the mid-sixteenth century with the arrival of European trade goods.
The Province of New York (1664–1776) was a British proprietary colony and later royal colony on the northeast coast of North America.
The provinces and territories of Canada are the sub-national governments within the geographical areas of Canada under the authority of the Canadian Constitution.
A public company, publicly traded company, publicly held company, publicly listed company, or public corporation is a corporation whose ownership is dispersed among the general public in many shares of stock which are freely traded on a stock exchange or in over the counter markets.
Public transport (also known as public transportation, public transit, or mass transit) is transport of passengers by group travel systems available for use by the general public, typically managed on a schedule, operated on established routes, and that charge a posted fee for each trip.
Puerto Ricans (Puertorriqueños; or boricuas) are people from Puerto Rico, the inhabitants and citizens of Puerto Rico, and their descendants.
Putnam County is a county located in the U.S. state of New York.
Quacquarelli Symonds (QS) is a British company specialising in education.
A quarantine is used to separate and restrict the movement of people; it is a 'a restraint upon the activities or communication of persons or the transport of goods designed to prevent the spread of disease or pests', for a certain period of time.
Quebec (Québec)According to the Canadian government, Québec (with the acute accent) is the official name in French and Quebec (without the accent) is the province's official name in English; the name is.
Queens is the easternmost and largest in area of the five boroughs of New York City.
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most closely identify, and indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin (the only categories for ethnicity).
Rail transport is a means of transferring of passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails, also known as tracks.
Red Bull Arena is a soccer-specific stadium in Harrison, New Jersey that is home to the New York Red Bulls of Major League Soccer.
The Reform Party of New York State (also known as the New York State Reform Party) is the name of two unrelated political parties in the state of New York: a qualified party active only in New York State, and the former New York branch of the Reform Party of the United States of America.
A refugee, generally speaking, is a displaced person who has been forced to cross national boundaries and who cannot return home safely (for more detail see legal definition).
Rensselaer County is a county in the U.S. state of New York.
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, or RPI, is a private research university and space-grant institution located in Troy, New York, with two additional campuses in Hartford and Groton, Connecticut.
The Republican Party, also referred to as the GOP (abbreviation for Grand Old Party), is one of the two major political parties in the United States, the other being its historic rival, the Democratic Party.
Rhode Island, officially the State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, is a state in the New England region of the United States.
The Richelieu River rises at Lake Champlain, from which it flows to the north in the province of Quebec, Canada and empties into the St. Lawrence river.
Risk management is the identification, evaluation, and prioritization of risks (defined in ISO 31000 as the effect of uncertainty on objectives) followed by coordinator and economical application of resources to minimize, monitor, and control the probability or impact of unfortunate events or to maximize the realization of opportunities.
The Rochester metropolitan area, denoted the Rochester, NY Metropolitan Statistical Area by the United States Census Bureau, is a metropolitan statistical area consisting of six counties in Western New York, anchored by the city of Rochester, New York.
The Rochester Industrial and Rapid Transit Railway, more commonly known as the Rochester Subway was a light rail rapid transit line in the city of Rochester, New York from 1927 to 1956.
Rochester is a city on the southern shore of Lake Ontario in western New York.
The Rockefeller University is a center for scientific research, primarily in the biological and medical sciences, that provides doctoral and postdoctoral education.
Roosevelt Island is a narrow island in New York City's East River.
A rose is a woody perennial flowering plant of the genus Rosa, in the family Rosaceae, or the flower it bears.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
The Saint Lawrence River (Fleuve Saint-Laurent; Tuscarora: Kahnawáʼkye; Mohawk: Kaniatarowanenneh, meaning "big waterway") is a large river in the middle latitudes of North America.
A salt marsh or saltmarsh, also known as a coastal salt marsh or a tidal marsh, is a coastal ecosystem in the upper coastal intertidal zone between land and open saltwater or brackish water that is regularly flooded by the tides.
Same-sex marriage has been legally recognized in the U.S. state of New York since July 24, 2011, under the Marriage Equality Act, which was passed by the New York State Legislature on June 24, 2011 and signed by Governor Andrew Cuomo on the same day.
Samsung is a South Korean multinational conglomerate headquartered in Samsung Town, Seoul.
The Sappony or Saponi are a Native American tribe historically based in the Piedmont of North Carolina and Virginia.
Saratoga County is a county in the U.S. state of New York.
Saratoga National Historical Park is a United States National Historical Park located in the Town of Stillwater in eastern New York, north of Albany.
Saratoga Springs is a city in Saratoga County, New York, United States.
São Paulo LGBT Pride Parade (Parada do Orgulho LGBT de São Paulo) is an annual gay pride parade that takes place in Avenida Paulista, in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, since 1997.
The Schaghticoke are a Native American tribe of the Eastern Woodlands who historically consisted of Mahican, Potatuck, Weantinock, Tunxis, Podunk, and their descendants, peoples indigenous to what is now New York, Connecticut, and Massachusetts.
Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM), previously Science, Math, Engineering, and Technology (SMET), is a term used to group together these academic disciplines.
The state seal of New York features the state arms (officially adopted in 1778) surrounded by the words "The Great Seal of the State of New York".
A seawall (or sea wall) is a form of coastal defence constructed where the sea, and associated coastal processes, impact directly upon the landforms of the coast.
The Second Anglo-Dutch War (4 March 1665 – 31 July 1667), or the Second Dutch War (Tweede Engelse Oorlog "Second English War") was a conflict fought between England and the Dutch Republic for control over the seas and trade routes, where England tried to end the Dutch domination of world trade during a period of intense European commercial rivalry.
The secondary sector of the economy includes industries that produce a finished, usable product or are involved in construction.
The Secretary of State of New York is a cabinet officer in the government of the U.S. state of New York who leads the Department of State (NYSDOS).
A security is a tradable financial asset.
Seed money, sometimes known as seed funding or seed capital, is a form of securities offering in which an investor invests capital in exchange for an equity stake in the company.
Sherrill is a city in Oneida County, New York, United States.
Show business, sometimes shortened to show biz or showbiz (since 1945), is a vernacular term for all aspects of the entertainment industry.
The Siege of Boston (April 19, 1775 – March 17, 1776) was the opening phase of the American Revolutionary War.
A slogan is a memorable motto or phrase used in a clan, political, commercial, religious, and other context as a repetitive expression of an idea or purpose, with the goal of persuading members of the public or a more defined target group.
Small-claims courts have limited jurisdiction to hear civil cases between private litigants.
The Society of Jesus (SJ – from Societas Iesu) is a scholarly religious congregation of the Catholic Church which originated in sixteenth-century Spain.
Software development is the process of conceiving, specifying, designing, programming, documenting, testing, and bug fixing involved in creating and maintaining applications, frameworks, or other software components.
Soil is a mixture of organic matter, minerals, gases, liquids, and organisms that together support life.
A song, most broadly, is a single (and often standalone) work of music that is typically intended to be sung by the human voice with distinct and fixed pitches and patterns using sound and silence and a variety of forms that often include the repetition of sections.
The Sons of Liberty was an organization that was created in the Thirteen American Colonies.
The South Fork of Suffolk County, New York, United States is a peninsula in the southeastern section of the county on the South Shore of Long Island.
The Southeastern United States (Sureste de Estados Unidos, Sud-Est des États-Unis) is the eastern portion of the Southern United States, and the southern portion of the Eastern United States.
The Southern Tier is the counties of New York west of the Catskill Mountains along the northern border of Pennsylvania.
The Southern United States, also known as the American South, Dixie, Dixieland, or simply the South, is a region of the United States of America.
A sovereign state is, in international law, a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
The Cathedral of St.
The Stamp Act of 1765 (short title Duties in American Colonies Act 1765; 5 George III, c. 12) was an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain that imposed a direct tax on the colonies of British America and required that many printed materials in the colonies be produced on stamped paper produced in London, carrying an embossed revenue stamp.
The Stamp Act Congress, or First Congress of the American Colonies, was a meeting held between October 7 and 25, 1765, in New York City, consisting of representatives from some of the British colonies in North America; it was the first gathering of elected representatives from several of the American colonies to devise a unified protest against new British taxation.
Standard Chinese, also known as Modern Standard Mandarin, Standard Mandarin, or simply Mandarin, is a standard variety of Chinese that is the sole official language of both China and Taiwan (de facto), and also one of the four official languages of Singapore.
A standardized test is a test that is administered and scored in a consistent, or "standard", manner.
A startup company (startup or start-up) is an entrepreneurial venture which is typically a newly emerged business that aims to meet a marketplace need by developing a viable business model around a product, service, process or a platform.
The State University of New York (SUNY) is a system of public institutions of higher education in New York, United States.
Staten Island is the southernmost and westernmost of the five boroughs of New York City in the U.S. state of New York.
The Staten Island Yankees are a minor league baseball team, located in the New York City borough of Staten Island.
The Statue of Liberty (Liberty Enlightening the World; La Liberté éclairant le monde) is a colossal neoclassical sculpture on Liberty Island in New York Harbor in New York City, in the United States.
The Statue of Liberty National Monument is a United States National Monument located in the U.S. states of New Jersey and New York comprising Liberty Island and Ellis Island.
A stock exchange, securities exchange or bourse, is a facility where stock brokers and traders can buy and sell securities, such as shares of stock and bonds and other financial instruments.
The Stonewall Inn, often shortened to Stonewall, is a gay bar and recreational tavern in the Greenwich Village neighborhood of Lower Manhattan, New York City, and the site of the Stonewall riots of 1969, which is widely considered to be the single most important event leading to the gay liberation movement and the modern fight for gay and lesbian rights in the United States.
Stonewall National Monument is a U.S. National Monument in the West Village neighborhood of Greenwich Village in Lower Manhattan, New York City.
The Stonewall riots (also referred to as the Stonewall uprising or the Stonewall rebellion) were a series of spontaneous, violent demonstrations by members of the gay (LGBT) communityAt the time, the term "gay" was commonly used to refer to all LGBT people.
The State University of New York at Stony Brook (also known as Stony Brook University or SUNY Stony Brook) is a public sea-grant and space-grant research university in the eastern United States.
A storm surge, storm flood or storm tide is a coastal flood or tsunami-like phenomenon of rising water commonly associated with low pressure weather systems (such as tropical cyclones and strong extratropical cyclones), the severity of which is affected by the shallowness and orientation of the water body relative to storm path, as well as the timing of tides.
The striped bass (Morone saxatilis), also called Atlantic striped bass, striper, linesider, rock or rockfish, is an anadromous Perciforme fish of the family Moronidae found primarily along the Atlantic coast of North America.
Suffolk County is a suburban county on Long Island and the easternmost county in the U.S. state of New York.
Sullivan County is a county in the U.S. state of New York.
The 1779 Sullivan Expedition, also known as the Sullivan-Clinton Expedition, was an extended systematic military campaign during the American Revolutionary War against Loyalists ("Tories") and the four Amerindian nations of the Iroquois which had sided with the British.
The State University of New York Polytechnic Institute, commonly referred to as SUNY Polytechnic Institute or SUNY Poly, is a public research university with campuses in the town of Marcy in the Utica-Rome metropolitan area and Albany, New York.
A supermajority or supra-majority or a qualified majority, is a requirement for a proposal to gain a specified level of support which is greater than the threshold of one-half used for majority.
The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS) is the highest federal court of the United States.
The Susquehanna River (Lenape: Siskëwahane) is a major river located in the northeastern United States.
Susquehannock people, also called the Conestoga (by the English)The American Heritage Book of Indians, pages 188-189 were Iroquoian-speaking Native Americans who lived in areas adjacent to the Susquehanna River and its tributaries ranging from its upper reaches in the southern part of what is now New York (near the lands of the Five Nations of the Iroquois Confederacy), through eastern and central Pennsylvania West of the Poconos and the upper Delaware River (and the Delaware nations), with lands extending beyond the mouth of the Susquehanna in Maryland along the west bank of the Potomac at the north end of the Chesapeake Bay.
Sustainability is the process of change, in which the exploitation of resources, the direction of investments, the orientation of technological development and institutional change are all in harmony and enhance both current and future potential to meet human needs and aspirations.
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.
The Syracuse Chiefs are a Minor League Baseball team based in Syracuse, New York.
The Syracuse Metropolitan Statistical Area, as defined by the United States Census Bureau, is an area consisting of three counties in central New York, anchored by the city of Syracuse.
Syracuse University Press, founded in 1943, is a university press that is part of Syracuse University.
Syracuse is a city in and the county seat of Onondaga County, New York, in the United States.
Syringa vulgaris (lilac or common lilac) is a species of flowering plant in the olive family Oleaceae, native to the Balkan Peninsula, where it grows on rocky hills.
A tax refund or tax rebate is a refund on taxes when the tax liability is less than the taxes paid.
Tech Valley began as a marketing name for the eastern part of the U.S. state of New York, encompassing the Capital District and the Hudson Valley.
The Technion – Israel Institute of Technology (הטכניון – מכון טכנולוגי לישראל Ha-Tekhniyon — Makhon Tekhnologi le-Yisrael) is a public research university in Haifa, Israel.
A television show (often simply TV show) is any content produced for broadcast via over-the-air, satellite, cable, or internet and typically viewed on a television set, excluding breaking news, advertisements, or trailers that are typically placed between shows.
Terrain or relief (also topographical relief) involves the vertical and horizontal dimensions of land surface.
Texas (Texas or Tejas) is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population.
The Battery (also commonly known as Battery Park) is a public park located at the southern tip of Manhattan Island in New York City facing New York Harbor.
The Believer is an American bimonthly magazine of interviews, essays, and reviews.
The Broadway League, formerly the League of American Theatres and Producers and League of New York Theatres and Producers, is the national trade association for the Broadway theatre industry based in New York, New York.
The Bronx is the northernmost of the five boroughs of New York City, in the U.S. state of New York.
The Buffalo News is the daily newspaper of the Buffalo–Niagara Falls metropolitan area, located at 1 News Plaza in Downtown Buffalo, New York.
The Federalist (later known as The Federalist Papers) is a collection of 85 articles and essays written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay under the pseudonym "Publius" to promote the ratification of the United States Constitution.
The Hollywood Reporter (THR) is a multi-platform American digital and print magazine founded in 1930 and focusing on the Hollywood film industry, television, and entertainment industries, as well as Hollywood's intersection with fashion, finance, law, technology, lifestyle, and politics.
The Narrows is the tidal strait separating the boroughs of Staten Island and Brooklyn in New York City.
The Plain Dealer is the major daily newspaper of Cleveland, Ohio, United States.
The Washington Times is an American daily newspaper that covers general interest topics with a particular emphasis on American politics.
Theodore Roosevelt Jr. (October 27, 1858 – January 6, 1919) was an American statesman and writer who served as the 26th President of the United States from 1901 to 1909.
Theodore Roosevelt Birthplace National Historic Site is a recreated brownstone at 28 East 20th Street, between Broadway and Park Avenue South, in the borough of Manhattan in New York City.
The Third Anglo-Dutch War or the Third Dutch War (Derde Engelse Oorlog "Third English War", or Derde Engelse Zeeoorlog "Third English Sea War") was a military conflict between the Kingdom of England and the Dutch Republic, that lasted between April 1672 and early 1674.
The Thirteen Colonies were a group of British colonies on the east coast of North America founded in the 17th and 18th centuries that declared independence in 1776 and formed the United States of America.
Thomas P. DiNapoli (born February 10, 1954) is the 54th Comptroller of the state of New York.
Thomas Edmund Dewey (March 24, 1902 – March 16, 1971) was an American lawyer, prosecutor, and politician.
The Thomas J. Watson Research Center is the headquarters for IBM Research.
Thoroughbred horse racing is a worldwide sport and industry involving the racing of Thoroughbred horses.
The Thousand Islands constitute an archipelago of 1,864 islands that straddles the Canada–US border in the Saint Lawrence River as it emerges from the northeast corner of Lake Ontario.
Times Square is a major commercial intersection, tourist destination, entertainment center and neighborhood in the Midtown Manhattan section of New York City at the junction of Broadway and Seventh Avenue.
Toleration is the acceptance of an action, object, or person which one dislikes or disagrees with, where one is in a position to disallow it but chooses not to.
Tourism is travel for pleasure or business; also the theory and practice of touring, the business of attracting, accommodating, and entertaining tourists, and the business of operating tours.
A trade route is a logistical network identified as a series of pathways and stoppages used for the commercial transport of cargo.
A trademark, trade mark, or trade-markThe styling of trademark as a single word is predominantly used in the United States and Philippines only, while the two-word styling trade mark is used in many other countries around the world, including the European Union and Commonwealth and ex-Commonwealth jurisdictions (although Canada officially uses "trade-mark" pursuant to the Trade-mark Act, "trade mark" and "trademark" are also commonly used).
A trading post, trading station, or trading house was a place or establishment where the trading of goods took place; the term is generally used, in modern parlance, in reference to such establishments in historic Northern America, although the practice long predates that continent's colonization by Europeans.
A transatlantic telecommunications cable is a submarine communications cable connecting one side of the Atlantic Ocean to the other.
Transgender people have a gender identity or gender expression that differs from their assigned sex.
Transport law (or transportation law) is the area of law dealing with transport.
The Treaty of Paris, signed in Paris by representatives of King George III of Great Britain and representatives of the United States of America on September 3, 1783, ended the American Revolutionary War.
The Treaty of Westminster of 1674 was the peace treaty that ended the Third Anglo-Dutch War.
A trial court or court of first instance is a court having original jurisdiction, in which trials take place.
In the United States, the Triple Crown of Thoroughbred Racing, commonly known as the Triple Crown, is a title awarded to a three-year-old Thoroughbred horse who wins the Kentucky Derby, Preakness Stakes, and Belmont Stakes.
Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company, Limited (TSMC), also known as Taiwan Semiconductor, is the world's largest dedicated independent (pure-play) semiconductor foundry, with its headquarters and main operations located in the Hsinchu Science and Industrial Park in Hsinchu, Taiwan.
Tug Hill, sometimes referred to as the Tug Hill Plateau, is an upland region in Upstate New York in the United States, famous for heavy winter snows.
A tunnel is an underground passageway, dug through the surrounding soil/earth/rock and enclosed except for entrance and exit, commonly at each end.
Turtle Bay is a neighborhood in New York City, on the east side of Midtown Manhattan.
The Tuscarora (in Tuscarora Skarù:ręˀ, "hemp gatherers" or "Shirt-Wearing People") are a Native American tribe and First Nations band government of the Iroquoian-language family, with members today in North Carolina, New York, and Ontario.
The Tutelo (also Totero, Totteroy, Tutera; Yesan in Tutelo) were Native American people living above the Fall Line in present-day Virginia and West Virginia.
A state is a constituent political entity of the United States.
Ulster County is a county located in the U.S. state of New York.
Ulysses Simpson Grant (born Hiram Ulysses Grant; April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885) was an American soldier and statesman who served as Commanding General of the Army and the 18th President of the United States, the highest positions in the military and the government of the United States.
The Underground Railroad was a network of secret routes and safe houses established in the United States during the early to mid-19th century, and used by African-American slaves to escape into free states and Canada with the aid of abolitionists and allies who were sympathetic to their cause.
During the American Civil War (1861–1865), the Union, also known as the North, referred to the United States of America and specifically to the national government of President Abraham Lincoln and the 20 free states, as well as 4 border and slave states (some with split governments and troops sent both north and south) that supported it.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United Methodist Church (UMC) is a mainline Protestant denomination and a major part of Methodism.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Armed Forces are the military forces of the United States of America.
The United States Army (USA) is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.
The Bill of Rights is the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution.
The United States Census Bureau (USCB; officially the Bureau of the Census, as defined in Title) is a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy.
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the Federal government of the United States.
The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States.
The United States Declaration of Independence is the statement adopted by the Second Continental Congress meeting at the Pennsylvania State House (now known as Independence Hall) in Philadelphia on July 4, 1776.
The United States Geological Survey (USGS, formerly simply Geological Survey) is a scientific agency of the United States government.
The United States House of Representatives is the lower chamber of the United States Congress, the Senate being the upper chamber.
The United States Military Academy (USMA), also known as West Point, Army, Army West Point, The Academy or simply The Point, is a four-year coeducational federal service academy located in West Point, New York, in Orange County.
The election of President and Vice President of the United States is an indirect election in which citizens of the United States who are registered to vote in one of the 50 U.S. states or in Washington, D.C. cast ballots not directly for those offices, but instead for members of the U.S. Electoral College, known as electors.
The United States presidential election of 1904 was the 30th quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 8, 1904.
The United States presidential election of 1944 was the 40th quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 7, 1944.
The United States presidential election of 1960 was the 44th quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 8, 1960.
The United States presidential election of 1964, the 45th quadrennial American presidential election, was held on Tuesday, November 3, 1964.
The United States presidential election of 1968 was the 46th quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 5, 1968.
The United States presidential election of 1972, the 47th quadrennial presidential election, was held on Tuesday, November 7, 1972.
The United States presidential election of 1976 was the 48th quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 2, 1976.
The United States presidential election of 1980 was the 49th quadrennial presidential election.
The United States presidential election of 1984 was the 50th quadrennial presidential election.
The United States presidential election of 1988 was the 51st quadrennial United States presidential election.
The United States presidential election of 1992 was the 52nd quadrennial presidential election.
The United States presidential election of 1996 was the 53rd quadrennial presidential election.
The United States presidential election of 2000 was the 54th quadrennial presidential election.
The United States presidential election of 2004, the 55th quadrennial presidential election, was held on Tuesday, November 2, 2004.
The United States presidential election of 2008 was the 56th quadrennial presidential election.
The United States presidential election of 2012 was the 57th quadrennial American presidential election.
The United States presidential election of 2016 was the 58th quadrennial American presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 8, 2016.
The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress, which along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—comprise the legislature of the United States.
The State University of New York at Albany, also known as University at Albany, SUNY Albany or UAlbany, is a public research university with campuses in Albany, Guilderland, and Rensselaer, New York, United States.
The State University of New York at Buffalo is a public research university with campuses in Buffalo and Amherst, New York, United States.
The University of Rochester (U of R or UR) frequently referred to as Rochester, is a private research university in Rochester, New York.
The University of Texas System (UT System) encompasses 14 educational institutions in the U.S. state of Texas, of which eight are academic universities and six are health institutions.
The University of the State of New York (USNY) is the state of New York's governmental umbrella organization for both public and private institutions in New York State.
The Upper East Side is a neighborhood in the borough of Manhattan in New York City, between Central Park/Fifth Avenue, 59th Street, the East River, and 96th Street.
Upper Manhattan denotes the most northern region of the New York City Borough of Manhattan.
Upper New York Bay, or Upper Bay, is the traditional heart of the Port of New York and New Jersey, and often called New York Harbor.
The Upper West Side, sometimes abbreviated UWS, is a neighborhood in the borough of Manhattan, New York City, that lies between Central Park and the Hudson River and between West 59th Street and West 110th Street.
Upstate New York is the portion of the American state of New York lying north of the New York metropolitan area.
The United States Open Tennis Championships is a hard court tennis tournament.
The USTA Billie Jean King National Tennis Center is an American stadium complex located in Flushing Meadows–Corona Park in Queens, New York City.
The Utica–Rome Metropolitan Statistical Area, as defined by the United States Census Bureau, is an area consisting of two counties in central New York, anchored by the cities of Utica and Rome (both in Oneida County).
Vehicle inspection is a procedure mandated by national or subnational governments in many countries, in which a vehicle is inspected to ensure that it conforms to regulations governing safety, emissions, or both.
Venture capital (VC) is a type of private equity, a form of financing that is provided by firms or funds to small, early-stage, emerging firms that are deemed to have high growth potential, or which have demonstrated high growth (in terms of number of employees, annual revenue, or both).
Vermont is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.
A veto – Latin for "I forbid" – is the power (used by an officer of the state, for example) to unilaterally stop an official action, especially the enactment of legislation.
A village is a clustered human settlement or community, larger than a hamlet but smaller than a town, with a population ranging from a few hundred to a few thousand.
A vineyard is a plantation of grape-bearing vines, grown mainly for winemaking, but also raisins, table grapes and non-alcoholic grape juice.
Virginia (officially the Commonwealth of Virginia) is a state in the Southeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States located between the Atlantic Coast and the Appalachian Mountains.
Visual Effects (abbreviated VFX) is the process by which imagery is created or manipulated outside the context of a live action shot in film making.
Voter registration (or enrollment) is the requirement that a person otherwise eligible to vote register (or enroll) on an electoral roll before they will be entitled or permitted to vote.
Wallabout Bay is small body of water in Upper New York Bay along the northwest shore of the New York City borough of Brooklyn, between the present Williamsburg and Manhattan bridges, opposite Corlear's Hook on Manhattan to the west, across the East River.
The Wampanoag, also rendered Wôpanâak, are an American Indian people in North America.
The War of 1812 was a conflict fought between the United States, the United Kingdom, and their respective allies from June 1812 to February 1815.
A waterway is any navigable body of water.
A West Indian is a native or inhabitant of the West Indies (the Antilles and the Lucayan Archipelago).
Westchester County is a county in the U.S. state of New York.
The Western Hemisphere is a geographical term for the half of Earth which lies west of the prime meridian (which crosses Greenwich, London, United Kingdom) and east of the antimeridian.
Western New England English refers to the varieties of New England English native to Vermont, Connecticut, and the western half of Massachusetts; New York State's Hudson Valley (from Albany to Poughkeepsie) also aligns to this classification.
Western New York is the westernmost region of the state of New York.
A wetland is a land area that is saturated with water, either permanently or seasonally, such that it takes on the characteristics of a distinct ecosystem.
Wheatfield is a town in Niagara County, New York, United States.
White Americans are Americans who are descendants from any of the white racial groups of Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa, or in census statistics, those who self-report as white based on having majority-white ancestry.
White Plains is a city in Westchester County, New York, United States.
William Penn (14 October 1644 – 30 July 1718) was the son of Sir William Penn, and was an English real estate entrepreneur, philosopher, early Quaker, and founder of the English North American colony the Province of Pennsylvania.
Wine is an alcoholic beverage made from grapes fermented without the addition of sugars, acids, enzymes, water, or other nutrients.
A winery is a building or property that produces wine, or a business involved in the production of wine, such as a wine company.
A wireless network is a computer network that uses wireless data connections between network nodes.
The Women's Equality Party is a New York qualified political party active only in that state.
The Working Families Party (WFP) is a minor political party in the United States, founded in New York in 1998.
The original World Trade Center was a large complex of seven buildings in Lower Manhattan, New York City, United States.
Yellowstone National Park is an American national park located in Wyoming, Montana, and Idaho.
Yeshiva University is a private, non-profit research university located in New York City, United States, with four campuses in New York City.
Yiddish (ייִדיש, יידיש or אידיש, yidish/idish, "Jewish",; in older sources ייִדיש-טײַטש Yidish-Taitsh, Judaeo-German) is the historical language of the Ashkenazi Jews.
Yonkers is the fourth most populous city in the U.S. state of New York, behind New York City, Buffalo, and Rochester.
Yosemite National Park is an American national park lying in the western Sierra Nevada of California.
ZIP Codes are a system of postal codes used by the United States Postal Service (USPS) since 1963.
Zoning is the process of dividing land in a municipality into zones (e.g. residential, industrial) in which certain land uses are permitted or prohibited.
The 1932 Winter Olympics, officially known as the III Olympic Winter Games, were a winter multi-sport event in the United States, held in Lake Placid, New York.
The 1980 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XIII Olympic Winter Games (French: Les XIIIes Jeux olympiques d'hiver), was a multi-sport event which was celebrated from February 13, through February 24, 1980, in Lake Placid, New York.
The Twenty-second United States Census, known as Census 2000 and conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States on April 1, 2000, to be 281,421,906, an increase of 13.2% over the 248,709,873 people enumerated during the 1990 Census.
The 2010 United States Census (commonly referred to as the 2010 Census) is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census.
The 2012 Summer Olympics, formally the Games of the XXX Olympiad and commonly known as London 2012, was an international multi-sport event that was held from 27 July to 12 August 2012 in London, United Kingdom.
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.
4 World Trade Center (also known by its street address, 150 Greenwich Street) is a skyscraper that is part of the World Trade Center complex in New York City.
7 World Trade Center (7 WTC) refers to two buildings that have existed at the same location within the World Trade Center site in Lower Manhattan, New York City.
11th State, Art of New York, Culture of New York (state), Eleventh State, Estado Nueva York, Estado de Nueva York, Largest cities of New York, NY state, New York (State), New York (U.S. state, New York (U.S. state), New York (USA State), New York (USA state), New York State, New York State's, New York state, New Yourk State, New york (state), New york state, Nueva York (estado), Religion in New York, Religion in New York (state), State New York, State of New York, State of new york, State of new yourk, The State of New York, US-NY.