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New Zealand

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New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. [1]

591 relations: ABDO Publishing Company, Abel Tasman, Accent (sociolinguistics), Adventure travel, Advice (constitutional), Agricultural subsidy, Agriculture in New Zealand, Akaroa, Alfred Domett, Allopatric speciation, Alpine Fault, An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand, Anglican Church in Aotearoa, New Zealand and Polynesia, Anglicisation, Angolan Civil War, Antarctica New Zealand, ANZUS, Aoraki / Mount Cook, Aotearoa, Arthur Phillip, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Asian New Zealanders, Associated state, Association football, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, Atoll, Auckland, Auckland Airport, Auckland City Council, Auckland Region, Auckland University of Technology, Auckland University Press, Australasia, Australasia at the Olympics, Australia, Australia (continent), Australia–New Zealand relations, Australian and New Zealand Army Corps, Australian English, Avatar (2009 film), Bachelor's degree, Battle of Crete, Battle of Monte Cassino, Bay of Islands, BBC News, Bill (law), Bill 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ABDO Publishing Company

ABDO Publishing Company is a book publishing company, specializing in non-fiction books for the school library market.

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Abel Tasman

Abel Janszoon Tasman (1603 – 10 October 1659) was a Dutch seafarer, explorer, and merchant, best known for his voyages of 1642 and 1644 in the service of the Dutch East India Company (VOC).

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Accent (sociolinguistics)

In sociolinguistics, an accent is a manner of pronunciation peculiar to a particular individual, location, or nation.

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Adventure travel

Adventure travel is a type of niche tourism, involving exploration or travel with a certain degree of risk (real or perceived), and which may require special skills and physical exertion.

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Advice (constitutional)

Advice, in constitutional law, is formal, usually binding, instruction given by one constitutional officer of state to another.

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Agricultural subsidy

An agricultural subsidy is a governmental subsidy paid to agribusinesses, agricultural organizations and farms to supplement their income, manage the supply of agricultural commodities, and influence the cost and supply of such commodities.

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Agriculture in New Zealand

In New Zealand, agriculture is the largest sector of the tradable economy, contributing about two-thirds of exported goods in 2006-7.

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Akaroa

Akaroa is a small town on Banks Peninsula in the Canterbury region of the South Island of New Zealand, situated within a harbour of the same name.

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Alfred Domett

Alfred Domett, CMG (20 May 18112 November 1887) was an English colonial statesman and poet.

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Allopatric speciation

Allopatric speciation (from the ancient Greek allos, meaning "other", and patris, meaning "fatherland"), also referred to as geographic speciation, vicariant speciation, or its earlier name, the dumbbell model, is a mode of speciation that occurs when biological populations of the same species become isolated from each other to an extent that prevents or interferes with genetic interchange.

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Alpine Fault

The Alpine Fault is a geological fault, specifically a right-lateral strike-slip fault, that runs almost the entire length of New Zealand's South Island.

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An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand

An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand was an official encyclopedia about New Zealand, published by the Government of New Zealand in 1966.

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Anglican Church in Aotearoa, New Zealand and Polynesia

The Anglican Church in Aotearoa, New Zealand and Polynesia, formerly the Church of the Province of New Zealand, is a province of the Anglican Communion serving New Zealand, Fiji, Tonga, Samoa, and the Cook Islands.

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Anglicisation

Anglicisation (or anglicization, see English spelling differences), occasionally anglification, anglifying, englishing, refers to modifications made to foreign words, names and phrases to make them easier to spell, pronounce, or understand in English.

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Angolan Civil War

The Angolan Civil War (Guerra civil angolana) was a major civil conflict in Angola, beginning in 1975 and continuing, with some interludes, until 2002.

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Antarctica New Zealand

Antarctica New Zealand is an Institute set up by the New Zealand Government in 1996 to manage its interests in Antarctica and the Ross Sea.

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ANZUS

The Australia, New Zealand, United States Security Treaty (ANZUS or ANZUS Treaty) is the 1951, collective security non-binding agreement between Australia and New Zealand and, separately, Australia and the United States, to co-operate on military matters in the Pacific Ocean region, although today the treaty is taken to relate to conflicts worldwide.

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Aoraki / Mount Cook

Aoraki / Mount Cook is the highest mountain in New Zealand.

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Aotearoa

Aotearoa (commonly pronounced by some English speakers as) is the Māori name for New Zealand.

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Arthur Phillip

Admiral Arthur Phillip (11 October 1738 – 31 August 1814) was a Royal Navy officer and the first Governor of New South Wales who founded the British penal colony that later became the city of Sydney, Australia.

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Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation

Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) is a forum for 21 Pacific Rim member economies.

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Asian New Zealanders

Asian New Zealanders refers to New Zealanders of Asian ancestry.

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Associated state

An associated state is the minor partner in a formal, free relationship between a political territory with a degree of statehood and a (usually larger) nation, for which no other specific term, such as protectorate, is adopted.

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Association football

Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.

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Association of Southeast Asian Nations

The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is a regional intergovernmental organization comprising ten Southeast Asian countries that promotes intergovernmental cooperation and facilitates economic, political, security, military, educational, and sociocultural integration amongst its members, other Asian countries, and globally.

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Atoll

An atoll, sometimes called a coral atoll, is a ring-shaped coral reef including a coral rim that encircles a lagoon partially or completely.

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Auckland

Auckland is a city in New Zealand's North Island.

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Auckland Airport

Auckland Airport is the largest and busiest airport in New Zealand, with 19,387,627 (10,594,128 international and 8,793,499 domestic) passengers in the year ended October 2017.

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Auckland City Council

Auckland City Council was the local government authority for Auckland City, New Zealand, from 1871 to 1 November 2010, when it was amalgamated into the Auckland Council.

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Auckland Region

The Auckland Region is one of the sixteen regions of New Zealand, named for the city of Auckland, the country's largest urban area.

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Auckland University of Technology

Auckland University of Technology (AUT) (Te Wānanga Aronui o Tāmaki Makau Rau) is a university in New Zealand, formed on 1 January 2000 when a former technical college (originally established in 1895) was granted university status.

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Auckland University Press

Auckland University Press is a leading New Zealand publisher that produces creative and scholarly work for a general audience.

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Australasia

Australasia, a region of Oceania, comprises Australia, New Zealand, neighbouring islands in the Pacific Ocean and, sometimes, the island of New Guinea (which is usually considered to be part of Melanesia).

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Australasia at the Olympics

Australasia was a combined team of athletes from Australia and the Dominion of New Zealand that competed together at the 1908 and 1912 Summer Olympics.

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Australia

Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.

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Australia (continent)

The continent of Australia, sometimes known in technical contexts by the names Sahul, Australinea or Meganesia to distinguish it from the country of Australia, consists of the land masses which sit on Australia's continental shelf.

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Australia–New Zealand relations

Australia–New Zealand relations, also referred to as Trans-Tasman relations ("relations across the Tasman Sea"), are extremely close.

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Australian and New Zealand Army Corps

The Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (ANZAC) was a First World War army corps of the Mediterranean Expeditionary Force.

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Australian English

Australian English (AuE, en-AU) is a major variety of the English language, used throughout Australia.

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Avatar (2009 film)

Avatar, marketed as James Cameron's Avatar, is a 2009 American epic science fiction film directed, written, produced, and co-edited by James Cameron, and stars Sam Worthington, Zoe Saldana, Stephen Lang, Michelle Rodriguez, and Sigourney Weaver.

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Bachelor's degree

A bachelor's degree (from Middle Latin baccalaureus) or baccalaureate (from Modern Latin baccalaureatus) is an undergraduate academic degree awarded by colleges and universities upon completion of a course of study lasting three to seven years (depending on institution and academic discipline).

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Battle of Crete

The Battle of Crete (Luftlandeschlacht um Kreta, also Unternehmen Merkur, "Operation Mercury," Μάχη της Κρήτης) was fought during the Second World War on the Greek island of Crete.

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Battle of Monte Cassino

The Battle of Monte Cassino (also known as the Battle for Rome and the Battle for Cassino) was a costly series of four assaults by the Allies against the Winter Line in Italy held by Axis forces during the Italian Campaign of World War II.

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Bay of Islands

The Bay of Islands is an area on the east coast of the Far North District of the North Island of New Zealand.

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BBC News

BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.

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Bill (law)

A bill is proposed legislation under consideration by a legislature.

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Bill of Rights 1689

The Bill of Rights, also known as the English Bill of Rights, is an Act of the Parliament of England that deals with constitutional matters and sets out certain basic civil rights.

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Biodiversity of New Zealand

The biodiversity of New Zealand, a large island nation located in the southwestern Pacific Ocean, is varied and distinctive accumulated over many millions of years as lineages evolved in the local circumstances.

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Biogeography

Biogeography is the study of the distribution of species and ecosystems in geographic space and through geological time.

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Birds of New Zealand

The birds of New Zealand evolved into an avifauna that included a large number of endemic species (that is, species found in no other country).

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Black Monday (1987)

In finance, Black Monday refers to Monday, October 19, 1987, when stock markets around the world crashed.

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Blues

Blues is a music genre and musical form originated by African Americans in the Deep South of the United States around the end of the 19th century.

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Bosnian War

The Bosnian War was an international armed conflict that took place in Bosnia and Herzegovina between 1992 and 1995.

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Bougainville Campaign

The Bougainville Campaign was a series of land and naval battles of the Pacific campaign of World War II between Allied forces and the Empire of Japan.

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Boy (2010 film)

Boy is a 2010 New Zealand coming-of-age comedy-drama film written and directed by Taika Waititi.

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Brass band

A brass band is a musical ensemble generally consisting entirely of brass instruments, most often with a percussion section.

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British Empire

The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.

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Buddhism in New Zealand

Buddhism is New Zealand's third largest religion after Christianity and Hinduism, standing at 1.5% of the population of New Zealand.

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Cabinet collective responsibility

Cabinet collective responsibility, also known as collective ministerial responsibility, is a constitutional convention in Parliamentary systems that members of the cabinet must publicly support all governmental decisions made in Cabinet, even if they do not privately agree with them.

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Cabinet of New Zealand

The Cabinet of New Zealand (Te Rūnanga o te Kāwanatanga o Aotearoa) is the New Zealand Government's body of senior ministers, responsible to the New Zealand Parliament.

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Caldera

A caldera is a large cauldron-like depression that forms following the evacuation of a magma chamber/reservoir.

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Cambodian–Vietnamese War

The Cambodian–Vietnamese War, otherwise known in Vietnam as the "Counter-offensive on the Southwestern border" ("Chiến dịch Phản công Biên giới Tây-Nam) was an armed conflict between the Socialist Republic of Vietnam and Democratic Kampuchea.

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Cancer

Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.

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Canister shot

Canister shot is a kind of anti-personnel ammunition used in cannons.

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Canterbury, New Zealand

Canterbury (Waitaha) is a region of New Zealand, located in the central-eastern South Island.

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Capital of New Zealand

Wellington has been the capital of New Zealand since 1865.

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Cartography

Cartography (from Greek χάρτης chartēs, "papyrus, sheet of paper, map"; and γράφειν graphein, "write") is the study and practice of making maps.

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Catholic Church in New Zealand

The Catholic Church in New Zealand is part of the worldwide Catholic Church, which, inspired by the life, death and teachings of Jesus Christ, and under the spiritual leadership of the Pope and Roman curia in Vatican City (within Rome) is the largest Christian church in the world.

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Central Intelligence Agency

The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).

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Central Otago

Central Otago is an informal name for the inland part of the Otago region in the South Island of New Zealand.

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Cerebrovascular disease

Cerebrovascular disease includes a variety of medical conditions that affect the blood vessels of the brain and the cerebral circulation.

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Cetacea

Cetacea are a widely distributed and diverse clade of aquatic mammals that today consists of the whales, dolphins, and porpoises.

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Charles de Thierry

Charles Philippe Hippolyte de Thierry (April 1793 – 8 July 1864) was a nineteenth-century adventurer who attempted to establish his own sovereign state in New Zealand in the years before the Treaty of Waitangi between the British Crown and the Maori chiefs in 1840.

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Chatham Island

Chatham Island is by far the largest island of the Chatham Islands group, in the south Pacific Ocean off the eastern coast of New Zealand.

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Chatham Islands

The Chatham Islands form an archipelago in the Pacific Ocean about east of the South Island of New Zealand.

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Chatham Standard Time Zone

The Chatham Standard Time Zone is a geographic region that keeps time by adding twelve hours and forty-five minutes to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) resulting in UTC+12:45.

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Chief Justice of New Zealand

The Chief Justice of New Zealand (Te Kaiwhakawā Tumuaki o Aotearoa) is the head of the New Zealand judiciary, and presides over the Supreme Court of New Zealand.

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Choir

A choir (also known as a quire, chorale or chorus) is a musical ensemble of singers.

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Chorus Limited

Chorus is a provider of telecommunications infrastructure throughout New Zealand.

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Christchurch

Christchurch (Ōtautahi) is the largest city in the South Island of New Zealand and the seat of the Canterbury Region.

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Christchurch International Airport

Christchurch International Airport is the main airport that serves Christchurch, New Zealand.

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Christianity in New Zealand

Christianity in New Zealand dates to the arrival of missionaries in the early 19th century and is the country's primary religion.

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City of Literature

UNESCO's City of Literature programme is part of a wider Creative Cities Network which was launched in 2004 and is currently made up of 180 UNESCO Creative Cities globally.

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Closer Economic Relations

Closer Economic Relations (CER) is a free trade agreement between the governments of New Zealand and Australia.

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Coalition government

A coalition government is a cabinet of a parliamentary government in which many or multiple political parties cooperate, reducing the dominance of any one party within that "coalition".

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Cold wave

A cold wave (known in some regions as a cold snap or cold spell) is a weather phenomenon that is distinguished by a cooling of the air.

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Colonial Office

The Colonial Office was a government department of the Kingdom of Great Britain and later of the United Kingdom, first created to deal with the colonial affairs of British North America but needed also to oversee the increasing number of colonies of the British Empire.

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Colony of New South Wales

The colony of New South Wales was a colony of the British Empire from 1788 to 1901, when it became a State in the federal Commonwealth of Australia on 1 January 1901.

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Colony of New Zealand

The Colony of New Zealand was a British colony that existed in New Zealand from 1841 to 1907.

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Commonwealth of Nations

The Commonwealth of Nations, often known as simply the Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of 53 member states that are mostly former territories of the British Empire.

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Commonwealth realm

A Commonwealth realm is a sovereign state that is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations and shares the same person, currently Queen Elizabeth II, as its head of state and reigning constitutional monarch, but retains a Crown legally distinct from the other realms.

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Confidence and supply

In a parliamentary democracy based on the Westminster system, confidence and supply are required for a minority government to retain power in the lower house.

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Constitution of New Zealand

The Constitution of New Zealand is the sum of laws and principles that make up the body politic of the realm.

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Constitutional convention (political custom)

A constitutional convention is an informal and uncodified procedural agreement that is followed by the institutions of a state.

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Constitutional monarchy

A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the sovereign exercises authority in accordance with a written or unwritten constitution.

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Continent

A continent is one of several very large landmasses of the world.

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Continental collision

Continental collision is a phenomenon of the plate tectonics of Earth that occurs at convergent boundaries.

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Continental fragment

Continental crustal fragments, partially synonymous with microcontinents, are fragments of continents that have been broken off from main continental masses forming distinct islands, often several hundred kilometers from their place of origin.

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Cook Islands

The Cook Islands (Cook Islands Māori: Kūki 'Āirani) is a self-governing island country in the South Pacific Ocean in free association with New Zealand.

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Cook Islands dollar

The dollar is the currency of the Cook Islands.

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Cook Strait

Cook Strait (Te Moana-o-Raukawa) lies between the North and South Islands of New Zealand.

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Coronary artery disease

Coronary artery disease (CAD), also known as ischemic heart disease (IHD), refers to a group of diseases which includes stable angina, unstable angina, myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac death.

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Corruption in New Zealand

Corruption in New Zealand is examined on this page.

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Country music

Country music, also known as country and western or simply country, is a genre of popular music that originated in the southern United States in the early 1920s.

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Court of Appeal of New Zealand

The Court of Appeal of New Zealand is principal intermediate appellate court of New Zealand.

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Cricket

Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players each on a cricket field, at the centre of which is a rectangular pitch with a target at each end called the wicket (a set of three wooden stumps upon which two bails sit).

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Crown colony

Crown colony, dependent territory and royal colony are terms used to describe the administration of United Kingdom overseas territories that are controlled by the British Government.

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Crown entity

A Crown entity (from the Commonwealth term Crown) is an organisation that forms part of New Zealand's state sector established under the Crown Entities Act 2004, a unique umbrella governance and accountability statute.

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Cultural identity

Cultural identity is the identity or feeling of belonging to a group.

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Culture of Asia

The culture of Asia encompasses the collective and diverse customs and traditions of art, architecture, music, literature, lifestyle, philosophy, politics and religion that have been practiced and maintained by the numerous ethnic groups of the continent of Asia since prehistory.

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Culture of Australia

The culture of Australia is a Western culture, derived primarily from Britain but also influenced by the unique geography of Australia, the cultural input of Aboriginal, Torres Strait Islander and other Australian people.

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Culture of Europe

The culture of Europe is rooted in the art, architecture, music, literature, and philosophy that originated from the continent of Europe.

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Culture of New Zealand

The culture of New Zealand is essentially a Western culture influenced by the unique environment and geographic isolation of the islands, and the cultural input of the indigenous Māori and the various waves of multi-ethnic migration which followed the British colonisation of New Zealand.

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Culture of the United States

The culture of the United States of America is primarily of Western culture (European) origin and form, but is influenced by a multicultural ethos that includes African, Native American, Asian, Polynesian, and Latin American people and their cultures.

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Cyathea dealbata

Cyathea dealbata, also known as the silver tree-fern or silver fern, or as ponga or punga (from Māori kaponga or ponga), is a species of medium-sized tree fern, endemic to New Zealand.

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Cycling in New Zealand

Cycling in New Zealand, while relatively popular as a sport, bicycle use is a very marginal commuting mode, with the share hovering around 1-3% in most major cities.

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Cyprus dispute

The Cyprus dispute, also known as the Cyprus conflict, Cyprus issue or Cyprus problem, is the ongoing issue of Turkish military invasion and occupation of the northern third of the island since 1974.

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D'Urville Island (New Zealand)

d'Urville Island is an island in the Marlborough Sounds along the northern coast of the South Island of New Zealand.

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Dairy farming in New Zealand

Dairy farming in New Zealand began from small beginnings during the early days of colonisation by Europeans.

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Dalmatia

Dalmatia (Dalmacija; see names in other languages) is one of the four historical regions of Croatia, alongside Croatia proper, Slavonia and Istria.

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Declaration of the Independence of New Zealand

The Declaration of the Independence of New Zealand (He Wakaputanga o te Rangatiratanga o Nu Tireni), signed by a number of Māori chiefs in 1835, proclaimed the sovereign independence of New Zealand prior to the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi in 1840.

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Declaration of war

A declaration of war is a formal act by which one state goes to war against another.

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Deforestation

Deforestation, clearance, or clearing is the removal of a forest or stand of trees where the land is thereafter converted to a non-forest use.

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Deforestation in New Zealand

Deforestation in New Zealand has been a contentious environmental issue in the past, but now native forests, colloquially called "the bush", now have legal protection, and are not allowed to be tampered with by humans.

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Demographics of Africa

The population of Africa has grown rapidly over the past century, and consequently shows a large youth bulge, further reinforced by a low life expectancy of below 50 years in some African countries.

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Demonym

A demonym (δῆμος dẽmos "people, tribe", ὄόνομα ónoma "name") is a word that identifies residents or natives of a particular place, which is derived from the name of that particular place.

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Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (Australia)

The Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (also called DFAT, ˈdiː.fæˑt, DEE-fat) is the department of the Government of Australia with the responsibility of the foreign policy, foreign relations, foreign aid, consular services, and trade and investment of the Commonwealth of Australia.

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Dependent territory

A dependent territory, dependent area or dependency is a territory that does not possess full political independence or sovereignty as a sovereign state yet remains politically outside the controlling state's integral area.

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Depression (economics)

In economics, a depression is a sustained, long-term downturn in economic activity in one or more economies.

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Developed country

A developed country, industrialized country, more developed country, or "more economically developed country" (MEDC), is a sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations.

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Dictionary of New Zealand Biography

The Dictionary of New Zealand Biography (DNZB) is an encyclopedia or biographical dictionary containing biographies of over 3,000 deceased New Zealanders.

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Dominion of New Zealand

The Dominion of New Zealand was the historical successor to the Colony of New Zealand.

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Dredge oyster

The dredge oyster or Bluff oyster, Ostrea chilensis, known in Chile as ostra chilena, the Chilean oyster, is a species of marine bivalve mollusc in the family Ostreidae.

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Dunedin

Dunedin (Ōtepoti) is the second-largest city in the South Island of New Zealand, and the principal city of the Otago region.

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Dunedin (ship)

The Dunedin (1876–82) was the first ship to successfully transport a full cargo of refrigerated meat from New Zealand to England.

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East Asia Summit

The East Asia Summit (EAS) is a forum held annually by leaders of, initially, 16 countries in the East Asian, Southeast Asian and South Asian regions.

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Ecological island

An ecological island is not necessarily an island surrounded by water, but is an area of land, isolated by natural or artificial means from the surrounding land, where a natural micro-habitat exists amidst a larger differing ecosystem.

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Economic liberalization

Economic liberalization (or economic liberalisation) is the lessening of government regulations and restrictions in an economy in exchange for greater participation by private entities; the doctrine is associated with classical liberalism.

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Economist Group

The Economist Newspaper Limited, trading as The Economist Group, is a British multinational media company headquartered in London and best known as publisher of The Economist.

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Economy of New Zealand

The economy of New Zealand is the 53rd-largest national economy in the world when measured by nominal gross domestic product (GDP) and the 68th-largest in the world when measured by purchasing power parity (PPP).

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Edmund Hillary

Sir Edmund Percival Hillary OSN (20 July 1919 – 11 January 2008) was a New Zealand mountaineer, explorer, and philanthropist.

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Edward VII

Edward VII (Albert Edward; 9 November 1841 – 6 May 1910) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and Emperor of India from 22 January 1901 until his death in 1910.

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Elections in New Zealand

New Zealand is a representative democracy.

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Electoral Commission (New Zealand)

The Electoral Commission (Te Kaitiaki Take Kōwhiri) is an independent crown entity set up by the New Zealand Parliament.

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Elizabeth II

Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms.

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Elsevier

Elsevier is an information and analytics company and one of the world's major providers of scientific, technical, and medical information.

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Encyclopædia Britannica

The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.

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Endemism

Endemism is the ecological state of a species being unique to a defined geographic location, such as an island, nation, country or other defined zone, or habitat type; organisms that are indigenous to a place are not endemic to it if they are also found elsewhere.

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Energy in New Zealand

Despite abundant natural resources and a relatively small population, New Zealand is a net importer of energy, in the form of petroleum products.

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English language

English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.

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Ethnic groups in Europe

The Indigenous peoples of Europe are the focus of European ethnology, the field of anthropology related to the various indigenous groups that reside in the nations of Europe.

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Ethnic groups in the Middle East

The ethnic groups in the Middle East refers to the various peoples that reside in West Asia and Egypt in North Africa.

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Eurocentrism

Eurocentrism (also Western-centrism) is a worldview centered on and biased towards Western civilization.

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European New Zealanders

European New Zealanders are New Zealanders of European descent.

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Exclusive economic zone of New Zealand

New Zealand's exclusive economic zone covers 4,083,744 km2, which is approximately fifteen times the land area of the country.

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Extreme sport

Extreme sports are recreational activities perceived as involving a high degree of risk.

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Family (biology)

In biological classification, family (familia, plural familiae) is one of the eight major taxonomic ranks; it is classified between order and genus.

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Fauna

Fauna is all of the animal life of any particular region or time.

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Fiji

Fiji (Viti; Fiji Hindi: फ़िजी), officially the Republic of Fiji (Matanitu Tugalala o Viti; Fiji Hindi: फ़िजी गणराज्य), is an island country in Oceania in the South Pacific Ocean about northeast of New Zealand's North Island.

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Film producer

A film producer is a person who oversees the production of a film.

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Financial crisis of 2007–2008

The financial crisis of 2007–2008, also known as the global financial crisis and the 2008 financial crisis, is considered by many economists to have been the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression of the 1930s.

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Fiordland

Fiordland is a geographic region of New Zealand in the south-western corner of the South Island, comprising the western-most third of Southland.

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First Labour Government of New Zealand

The First Labour Government of New Zealand was the government of New Zealand from 1935 to 1949.

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First voyage of James Cook

The first voyage of James Cook was a combined Royal Navy and Royal Society expedition to the south Pacific Ocean aboard HMS ''Endeavour'', from 1768 to 1771.

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First-past-the-post voting

A first-past-the-post (FPTP) voting method is one in which voters indicate on a ballot the candidate of their choice, and the candidate who receives the most votes wins.

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Five Power Defence Arrangements

The Five Power Defence Arrangements (FPDA) are a series of defence relationships established by a series of multi-lateral agreements between the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, Malaysia and Singapore (all Commonwealth members) signed in 1971, whereby the five powers are to consult each other "immediately" in the event or threat of an armed attack on any of these five countries for the purpose of deciding what measures should be taken jointly or separately in response.

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Fjord

Geologically, a fjord or fiord is a long, narrow inlet with steep sides or cliffs, created by a glacier.

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Flightless bird

Flightless birds are birds that through evolution lost the ability to fly.

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Flora

Flora is the plant life occurring in a particular region or time, generally the naturally occurring or indigenous—native plant life.

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Fonterra

Fonterra Co-operative Group Limited is a New Zealand multinational dairy co-operative owned by around 10,500 New Zealand farmers.

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Forced assimilation

Forced assimilation is a process of cultural assimilation of religious or ethnic minority groups that is forced into an established and generally larger community.

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Free trade

Free trade is a free market policy followed by some international markets in which countries' governments do not restrict imports from, or exports to, other countries.

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Freedom House

Freedom House is a U.S.-based 501(c)(3) U.S. government-funded non-governmental organization (NGO) that conducts research and advocacy on democracy, political freedom, and human rights.

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Fungus

A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.

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Fur seal

Fur seals are any of nine species of pinnipeds belonging to the subfamily Arctocephalinae in the family Otariidae.

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Gallipoli Campaign

The Gallipoli Campaign, also known as the Dardanelles Campaign, the Battle of Gallipoli, or the Battle of Çanakkale (Çanakkale Savaşı), was a campaign of the First World War that took place on the Gallipoli peninsula (Gelibolu in modern Turkey) in the Ottoman Empire between 17 February 1915 and 9 January 1916.

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Genus

A genus (genera) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, as well as viruses, in biology.

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Geothermal power in New Zealand

Geothermal power in New Zealand is a small but significant part of the energy generation capacity of the country, providing approximately 13% of the country's electricity (from the New Zealand Geothermal Association website. Accessed 2013-10-04.) with installed capacity of 854 MW.

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Global Innovation Index

The Global Innovation Index (GII) is an annual ranking of countries by their capacity for, and success in, innovation.

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GNS Science

GNS Science (Māori: Te Pū Ao) is a New Zealand Crown Research Institute.

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God Defend New Zealand

"God Defend New Zealand" is one of two national anthems of New Zealand, the other being "God Save the Queen".

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God Save the Queen

"God Save the Queen" (alternatively "God Save the King", depending on the gender of the reigning monarch) is the national or royal anthem in a number of Commonwealth realms, their territories, and the British Crown dependencies.

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Golf

Golf is a club-and-ball sport in which players use various clubs to hit balls into a series of holes on a course in as few strokes as possible.

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Gondwana

Gondwana, or Gondwanaland, was a supercontinent that existed from the Neoproterozoic (about 550 million years ago) until the Carboniferous (about 320 million years ago).

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Government of Australia

The Government of the Commonwealth of Australia (also referred to as the Australian Government, the Commonwealth Government, or the Federal Government) is the government of the Commonwealth of Australia, a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy.

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Governor of New South Wales

The Governor of New South Wales is the viceregal representative of the Australian monarch, Queen Elizabeth II, in the state of New South Wales.

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Governor-General of New Zealand

The Governor-General of New Zealand (Te Kāwana Tianara o Aotearoa) is the viceregal representative of the monarch of New Zealand, currently Queen Elizabeth II.

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Great Barrier Island

Great Barrier Island lies in the outer Hauraki Gulf, New Zealand, north-east of central Auckland.

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Great Depression

The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place mostly during the 1930s, beginning in the United States.

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Gross domestic product

Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.

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Gulf War

The Gulf War (2 August 199028 February 1991), codenamed Operation Desert Shield (2 August 199017 January 1991) for operations leading to the buildup of troops and defense of Saudi Arabia and Operation Desert Storm (17 January 199128 February 1991) in its combat phase, was a war waged by coalition forces from 35 nations led by the United States against Iraq in response to Iraq's invasion and annexation of Kuwait.

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Haast's eagle

The Haast's eagle (Harpagornis moorei) is an extinct species of eagle that once lived in the South Island of New Zealand, commonly accepted to be the Pouakai of Maori legend.

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Hagley Park

Hagley Park is the largest urban open space (164.637 hectares), Christchurch City Council; New Zealand.

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Haka (sports)

The haka, a traditional war dance, or challenge, of the Māori people, has been used in sports in New Zealand and overseas.

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Hamilton, New Zealand

Hamilton (Kirikiriroa) is a city in the North Island of New Zealand.

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Hapū

In Māoridom and New Zealand, a hapū ("subtribe", or "clan") functions as "the basic political unit within Māori society".

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HarperCollins

HarperCollins Publishers L.L.C. is one of the world's largest publishing companies and is one of the Big Five English-language publishing companies, alongside Hachette, Macmillan, Penguin Random House, and Simon & Schuster.

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Hauraki Gulf

The Hauraki Gulf / Tīkapa Moana is a coastal feature of the North Island of New Zealand.

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Hawaiian kinship

Hawaiian kinship, also referred to as the generational system, is a kinship system used to define family.

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Hāngi

Hāngi is a traditional New Zealand Māori method of cooking food using heated rocks buried in a pit oven.

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Head of state

A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state.

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Health care in New Zealand

The health care system of New Zealand has undergone significant changes throughout the past several decades.

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Hei-tiki

The hei-tiki is an ornamental pendant of the Māori of New Zealand.

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Heinemann (publisher)

Heinemann is a publisher of professional resources and a provider of educational services established in 1978 in Portsmouth, New Hampshire, as a U.S. subsidiary of Heinemann UK.

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High Court of New Zealand

The High Court of New Zealand is a superior court established in 1841.

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Hikurangi Trench

The Hikurangi Trench, also called the Hikurangi Trough, is an oceanic trench in the bed of the Pacific Ocean off the east coast of the North Island of New Zealand, lying between the southern end of the Cook Strait and the Chatham Rise.

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Hindi

Hindi (Devanagari: हिन्दी, IAST: Hindī), or Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: मानक हिन्दी, IAST: Mānak Hindī) is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language.

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Hinduism in New Zealand

Hinduism is the second largest and fastest growing religion in New Zealand after Christianity, with over 90,000 adherents according to the 2013 Census.

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Hip hop music

Hip hop music, also called hip-hopMerriam-Webster Dictionary entry on hip-hop, retrieved from: A subculture especially of inner-city black youths who are typically devotees of rap music; the stylized rhythmic music that commonly accompanies rap; also rap together with this music.

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History of whaling

This article discusses the history of whaling from prehistoric times up to the commencement of the International Whaling Commission (IWC) moratorium on commercial whaling in 1986.

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HMS Endeavour

HMS Endeavour, also known as HM Bark Endeavour, was a British Royal Navy research vessel that Lieutenant James Cook commanded to Australia and New Zealand on his first voyage of discovery from 1768 to 1771.

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Horse racing in New Zealand

Horseracing in New Zealand consists of two forms: Thoroughbred and Standardbred or harness racing.

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Human capital flight

Human capital flight refers to the emigration of individuals who have received advanced training at home.

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Human Development Index

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic (composite index) of life expectancy, education, and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development.

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Hunt for the Wilderpeople

Hunt for the Wilderpeople is a 2016 New Zealand adventure comedy-drama film written and directed by Taika Waititi, whose screenplay was based on the book Wild Pork and Watercress by Barry Crump.

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Hydroelectric power in New Zealand

Hydroelectric power in New Zealand has been a part of the country's energy system for over 100 years and continues to provide more than half of the country's electricity needs.

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Immigration to New Zealand

Migration to New Zealand began with Polynesian settlement in New Zealand, then uninhabited, about 1250 to 1280.

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Imperial Conference

Imperial Conferences (Colonial Conferences before 1907) were periodic gatherings of government leaders from the self-governing colonies and dominions of the British Empire between 1887 and 1937, before the establishment of regular Meetings of Commonwealth Prime Ministers in 1944.

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Independence of New Zealand

The independence of New Zealand is a matter of continued academic and social debate.

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Index of Economic Freedom

The Index of Economic Freedom is an annual index and ranking created by The Heritage Foundation and The Wall Street Journal in 1995 to measure the degree of economic freedom in the world's nations.

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Indigenous peoples

Indigenous peoples, also known as first peoples, aboriginal peoples or native peoples, are ethnic groups who are the pre-colonial original inhabitants of a given region, in contrast to groups that have settled, occupied or colonized the area more recently.

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Indo-Australian Plate

The Indo-Australian Plate is a major tectonic plate that includes the continent of Australia and surrounding ocean, and extends northwest to include the Indian subcontinent and adjacent waters.

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Industrial Conciliation and Arbitration Act 1894

The Industrial Conciliation and Arbitration Act 1894 was a piece of industrial relations legislation passed by the Parliament of New Zealand in 1894.

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Innovation

Innovation can be defined simply as a "new idea, device or method".

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International Futures

International Futures (IFs) is a global integrated assessment model designed to help in thinking strategically and systematically about key global systems (economic, demographic, education, health, environment, technology, domestic governance, infrastructure, agriculture, energy and environment) housed at the Frederick S. Pardee Center for International Futures.

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International Monetary Fund

The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.

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International rankings of New Zealand

This is a list of New Zealand's international rankings on a range of social, economic and other criteria.

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International student

Foreign students are those who travel to a country different from their own for the purpose of tertiary study.

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International Telecommunication Union

The International Telecommunication Union (ITU; Union Internationale des Télécommunications (UIT)), originally the International Telegraph Union (Union Télégraphique Internationale), is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) that is responsible for issues that concern information and communication technologies.

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Iran–Iraq War

The Iran–Iraq War was an armed conflict between Iran and Iraq, beginning on 22 September 1980, when Iraq invaded Iran, and ending on 20 August 1988, when Iran accepted the UN-brokered ceasefire.

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Isla de los Estados

Isla de los Estados (English: Staten Island, from the Dutch Stateneiland) is an Argentine island that lies off the eastern extremity of the Argentine portion of Tierra del Fuego, from which it is separated by the Le Maire Strait.

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Islam in New Zealand

Islam in New Zealand is a minority religious affiliation.

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Island country

An island country is a country whose primary territory consists of one or more islands or parts of islands.

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Island restoration

The ecological restoration of islands, or island restoration, is the application of the principles of ecological restoration to islands and island groups.

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Iwi

Iwi are the largest social units in New Zealand Māori society.

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Jacinda Ardern

Jacinda Kate Laurell Ardern (born 26 July 1980) is a New Zealand politician who, since 26 October 2017, has served as the 40th Prime Minister of New Zealand.

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Jacob Le Maire

Jacob Le Maire (c. 1585, Antwerp or Amsterdam - 22 December 1616, at sea) was a Dutch mariner who circumnavigated the earth in 1615 and 1616.

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James Busby

James Busby (7 February 1802 – 15 July 1871) is widely regarded as the "father" of the Australian wine industry, as he brought the first collection of vine stock from Spain and France to Australia.

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James Cook

Captain James Cook (7 November 1728Old style date: 27 October14 February 1779) was a British explorer, navigator, cartographer, and captain in the Royal Navy.

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Jazz

Jazz is a music genre that originated in the African-American communities of New Orleans, United States, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and developed from roots in blues and ragtime.

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Joan Blaeu

Joan Blaeu (23 September 1596 – 21 December 1673) was a Dutch cartographer born in Alkmaar, the son of cartographer Willem Blaeu.

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John Ballance

John Ballance (27 March 1839 – 27 April 1893) was an Irish-born New Zealand politician who was the 14th Premier of New Zealand, from 1891 to 1893, the founder of the Liberal Party (the country's first organised political party), and a Georgist.

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Journalism

Journalism refers to the production and distribution of reports on recent events.

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Judicial independence

Judicial independence is the concept that the judiciary needs to be kept away from the other branches of government.

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Judiciary of New Zealand

The judiciary of New Zealand is a system of courts that interprets and applies the laws of New Zealand, to ensure equal justice under law, and to provide a mechanism for dispute resolution.

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Jus soli

Jus soli, meaning "right of the soil", commonly referred to as birthright citizenship, is the right of anyone born in the territory of a state to nationality or citizenship.

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Kaikoura Orogeny

The Kaikoura Orogeny is a New Zealand orogeny that has given birth to the Southern Alps.

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Kakapo

The kakapo (Māori: kākāpō) or night parrot, also called owl parrot (Strigops habroptila), is a species of large, flightless, nocturnal, ground-dwelling parrot of the super-family Strigopoidea, endemic to New Zealand.

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Kapa haka

Kapa haka is the term for Māori performing arts and literally means to form a line (kapa) and dance (haka).

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Karaka Bays

Karaka Bays is a suburb of Wellington, New Zealand.

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Kauri gum

Kauri gum is a fossilised resin detracted from kauri trees (Agathis australis), which is made into crafts such as jewellery.

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Köppen climate classification

The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems.

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Kermadec Trench

The Kermadec Trench is a linear ocean trench in the south Pacific Ocean.

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King Kong (2005 film)

King Kong is a 2005 epic monster adventure film co-written, produced, and directed by Peter Jackson.

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Kiwi

Kiwi or kiwis are flightless birds native to New Zealand, in the genus Apteryx and family Apterygidae.

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Kiwi (people)

Kiwi is the nickname used internationally for people from New Zealand, as well as being a relatively common self-reference.

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Kiwiana

Kiwiana are certain items and icons from New Zealand's heritage, especially from around the middle of the 20th century that are seen as representing iconic Kiwi elements.

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Kiwifruit

Kiwifruit (often abbreviated as kiwi), or Chinese gooseberry is the edible berry of several species of woody vines in the genus Actinidia.

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KiwiRail

KiwiRail Holdings Limited is a New Zealand State-owned enterprise responsible for rail operations in New Zealand.

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Lake Gunn

Lake Gunn is a lake in the South Island of New Zealand, located at.

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Lake Taupo

Lake Taupo is a lake in the North Island of New Zealand.

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Lamb and mutton

Lamb, hogget, and mutton are the meat of domestic sheep (species Ovis aries) at different ages.

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Land and water hemispheres

The land and water hemispheres of Earth, sometimes capitalised as the Land Hemisphere and Water Hemisphere, are the hemispheres of Earth containing the largest possible total areas of land and ocean, respectively.

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Languages of New Zealand

English is the de facto official and predominant language of New Zealand.

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Latin Americans

Latin Americans (Latinoamericanos, Latino-americanos) are the citizens of the Latin American countries and dependencies.

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Legislature

A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city.

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Leiopelmatidae

The Leiopelmatidae are the family of New Zealand primitive frogs, belonging to the suborder Archaeobatrachia.

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Liberal Government of New Zealand

The Liberal Government of New Zealand was the first responsible government in New Zealand politics organised along party lines.

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List of airports in New Zealand

This is a list of airports in New Zealand, sorted by location.

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List of dual place names in New Zealand

Some official place names in New Zealand are dual names, incorporating both the original Māori place names and the English names bestowed since European settlement.

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List of former territorial authorities in New Zealand

"Territorial authority" is the generic term used for local government entities in New Zealand.

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List of geckos of New Zealand

Three genera of geckos are native to New Zealand – Hoplodactylus, Naultinus and Toropuku.

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List of islands by area

This list of islands by area includes all islands in the world greater than and several other islands over, sorted in descending order by area.

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List of islands of New Zealand

New Zealand consists of a large number of islands; estimated around six hundred.

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List of New Zealand animals extinct in the Holocene

This is an incomplete list of extinct animals of New Zealand.

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List of New Zealand films

This is a list of feature films and feature-length telemovies produced or filmed in New Zealand, ordered by year of release.

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List of New Zealand-related topics

No description.

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Literary modernism

Literary modernism, or modernist literature, has its origins in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, mainly in Europe and North America, and is characterized by a very self-conscious break with traditional ways of writing, in both poetry and prose fiction.

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Living fossil

A living fossil is an extant taxon that closely resembles organisms otherwise known only from the fossil record.

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Loxene Golden Disc

The Loxene Golden Disc was an annual New Zealand music award.

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Mackenzie Basin

The Mackenzie Basin (popularly and traditionally known as the Mackenzie Country) is an elliptical intermontane basin located in the Mackenzie and Waitaki Districts, near the centre of the South Island of New Zealand.

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Macroeconomics

Macroeconomics (from the Greek prefix makro- meaning "large" and economics) is a branch of economics dealing with the performance, structure, behavior, and decision-making of an economy as a whole.

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Malayan Emergency

The Malayan Emergency (Darurat Malaya) was a guerrilla war fought in pre- and post-independence Federation of Malaya, from 1948 until 1960.

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Mandarin Chinese

Mandarin is a group of related varieties of Chinese spoken across most of northern and southwestern China.

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Market economy

A market economy is an economic system in which the decisions regarding investment, production, and distribution are guided by the price signals created by the forces of supply and demand.

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Marlborough Sounds

The Marlborough Sounds are an extensive network of sea-drowned valleys at the northern end of the South Island of New Zealand.

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Marshall Cavendish

Marshall Cavendish is a subsidiary company of Times Publishing Group, the printing and publishing subsidiary of Singapore-based conglomerate Fraser and Neave (which in turn currently owned by ThaiBev) and at present is a publisher of books, business directories and magazines.

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Maxima and minima

In mathematical analysis, the maxima and minima (the respective plurals of maximum and minimum) of a function, known collectively as extrema (the plural of extremum), are the largest and smallest value of the function, either within a given range (the local or relative extrema) or on the entire domain of a function (the global or absolute extrema).

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Māori culture

Māori culture is the culture of the Māori of New Zealand (an Eastern Polynesian people) and forms a distinctive part of New Zealand culture.

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Māori electorates

In New Zealand politics, Māori electorates, colloquially known as the Māori seats, are a special category of electorate that gives reserved positions to representatives of Māori in the New Zealand Parliament.

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Māori language

Māori, also known as te reo ("the language"), is an Eastern Polynesian language spoken by the Māori people, the indigenous population of New Zealand.

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Māori people

The Māori are the indigenous Polynesian people of New Zealand.

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Māori protest movement

The Māori protest movement is a broad indigenous-rights movement in Aotearoa New Zealand.

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Māui (Māori mythology)

In Māori mythology, as in other Polynesian traditions, Māui is a culture hero and a trickster, famous for his exploits and cleverness.

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McGill-Queen's University Press

The McGill-Queen's University Press (MQUP) is a joint venture between McGill University in Montreal, Quebec and Queen's University in Kingston, Ontario.

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Megafauna

In terrestrial zoology, megafauna (from Greek μέγας megas "large" and New Latin fauna "animal life") are large or giant animals.

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Mercer Quality of Living Survey

The Mercer Quality of Living Survey ranks 231 cities from Vienna to Baghdad on quality of life.

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Methuen Publishing

Methuen Publishing Ltd is an English publishing house.

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Michael Joseph Savage

Michael Joseph Savage (23 March 1872 – 27 March 1940) was an Australian-born New Zealand statesman who served as the 23rd Prime Minister of New Zealand, heading the First Labour Government from 6 December 1935 until his death.

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Military history of New Zealand

The military history of New Zealand is an aspect of the history of New Zealand that spans several hundred years.

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Military history of New Zealand during World War I

The military history of New Zealand during World War I began in August 1914 when Great Britain declared war on Germany at the start of the First World War, the New Zealand government followed without hesitation, despite its geographic isolation and small population.

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Military history of New Zealand during World War II

The military history of New Zealand during World War II began when New Zealand entered the Second World War by declaring war on Nazi Germany with Great Britain.

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Minister of Justice (New Zealand)

The Minister of Justice (in Māori: Tāhū o te Ture) is a minister in the government of New Zealand.

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Ministers of the New Zealand Government

Ministers, in the New Zealand Government, are members of Parliament who hold ministerial warrants from the Crown to perform certain functions of government.

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Ministry for Culture and Heritage

The Ministry for Culture and Heritage (MCH) (Māori: Manatū Taonga) is the public service department of New Zealand charged with advising the government on policies and issues involving the arts, culture, heritage, sport and recreation, and broadcasting sectors, and participating in functions that advance or promote those sectors.

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Ministry for the Environment (New Zealand)

The Ministry for the Environment (MfE) (Māori: Manatū Mō Te Taiao) is the public service department of New Zealand charged with advising the government on policies and issues affecting the environment, in addition to the relevant environmental laws and standards.

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Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment

The Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment (MBIE; Hīkina Whakatutuki) is the public service department of New Zealand charged with "delivering policy, services, advice and regulation" which contribute to New Zealand's economic productivity and business growth.

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Ministry of Economic Development (New Zealand)

The Ministry of Economic Development (Manatū Ōhanga) was a New Zealand public sector organisation tasked with promoting development of New Zealand's economy.

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Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade (New Zealand)

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade (MFAT) (Māori: Manatū Aorere) is the public service department of New Zealand charged with advising the government on foreign and trade policy, and promoting New Zealand's interests in trade and international relations.

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Minority government

A minority government, or minority cabinet or minority parliament, is a cabinet formed in a parliamentary system when a political party or coalition of parties does not have a majority of overall seats in the parliament.

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Missionary

A missionary is a member of a religious group sent into an area to proselytize and/or perform ministries of service, such as education, literacy, social justice, health care, and economic development.

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Mitochondrial DNA

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA or mDNA) is the DNA located in mitochondria, cellular organelles within eukaryotic cells that convert chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use, adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

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Mixed-member proportional representation

Mixed-member proportional (MMP) representation is a mixed electoral system in which voters get two votes: one to decide the representative for their single-seat constituency, and one for a political party.

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Moa

The moa were nine species (in six genera) of flightless birds endemic to New Zealand.

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Monarchy of New Zealand

The monarchy of New Zealand is the constitutional system of government in which a hereditary monarch is the sovereign and head of state of New Zealand.

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Moriori

Moriori are the indigenous people of the Chatham Islands (Rēkohu in Moriori, Wharekauri in Māori), east of the New Zealand archipelago in the Pacific Ocean.

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Most livable cities in the world

The world's most liveable cities is an informal name given to any list of cities as they rank on an annual survey of living conditions.

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Mount Ruapehu

Mount Ruapehu, also known simply as Ruapehu, is an active stratovolcano at the southern end of the Taupo Volcanic Zone in New Zealand.

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Mount Tongariro

Mount Tongariro is a compound volcano in the Taupo Volcanic Zone of the North Island of New Zealand.

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Mountaineering

Mountaineering is the sport of mountain climbing.

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Musket

A musket is a muzzle-loaded, smoothbore long gun that appeared in early 16th century Europe, at first as a heavier variant of the arquebus, capable of penetrating heavy armor.

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Musket Wars

The Musket Wars were a series of as many as 3,000 battles and raids fought throughout New Zealand as well as the Chatham Islands among Māori between 1807 and 1845, after Māori first obtained muskets and then engaged in an intertribal arms race in order to gain territory or seek revenge for past defeats.

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Nation

A nation is a stable community of people, formed on the basis of a common language, territory, economic life, ethnicity or psychological make-up manifested in a common culture.

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National anthems of New Zealand

New Zealand is one of only two countries in the world—the other being Denmark—with two official national anthems of equal status.

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National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research

The National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research or NIWA (Māori: Taihoro Nukurangi), is a Crown Research Institute of New Zealand.

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National security

National security refers to the security of a nation state, including its citizens, economy, and institutions, and is regarded as a duty of government.

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National sport

A national sport is considered to be an intrinsic part of the culture of a nation.

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National symbols of New Zealand

National symbols of New Zealand are used to represent what is unique about the nation, reflecting different aspects of its cultural life and history.

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Netball

Netball is a ball sport played by two teams of seven players.

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Netherlands

The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.

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New Caledonia

New Caledonia (Nouvelle-Calédonie)Previously known officially as the "Territory of New Caledonia and Dependencies" (Territoire de la Nouvelle-Calédonie et dépendances), then simply as the "Territory of New Caledonia" (French: Territoire de la Nouvelle-Calédonie), the official French name is now only Nouvelle-Calédonie (Organic Law of 19 March 1999, article 222 IV — see). The French courts often continue to use the appellation Territoire de la Nouvelle-Calédonie.

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New Zealand and the United Nations

New Zealand is a founding member of the United Nations, having taken part in 1945 in the United Nations Conference on International Organization in San Francisco.

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New Zealand Army

The New Zealand Army (Ngāti Tūmatauenga, "Tribe of the God of War") is the land component of the New Zealand Defence Force and comprises around 4,500 Regular Force personnel, 2,000 Territorial Force personnel and 500 civilians.

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New Zealand at the Olympics

New Zealand first competed as an independent nation at 1920 Summer Olympics.

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New Zealand Company

The New Zealand Company was a 19th-century English company that played a key role in the colonisation of New Zealand.

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New Zealand Constitution Act 1852

The New Zealand Constitution Act 1852 (15 & 16 Vict. c. 72) was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that granted self-government to the Colony of New Zealand.

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New Zealand cuisine

New Zealand cuisine is largely driven by local ingredients and seasonal variations.

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New Zealand Defence Force

The New Zealand Defence Force (Maori: Te Ope Kaatua o Aotearoa, "Line of Defence of New Zealand") consists of three services: the Royal New Zealand Navy; New Zealand Army; and the Royal New Zealand Air Force, and is commanded and headed by the Chief of Defence Force (CDF) the Commander-in-Chief of the NZDF is Dame Patsy Reddy, Governor-General of New Zealand, who exercises power on the advice of the Minister of Defence, Ron Mark, under the Defence Act 1990.

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New Zealand dollar

The New Zealand dollar (sign: $; code: NZD, also abbreviated NZ$) (Tāra o Aotearoa) is the currency and legal tender of New Zealand, the Cook Islands, Niue, the Ross Dependency, Tokelau, and a British territory, the Pitcairn Islands.

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New Zealand electorates

An electorate is a geographical constituency used for electing members to the New Zealand Parliament.

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New Zealand English

New Zealand English (NZE) is the variant of the English language spoken by most English-speaking New Zealanders.

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New Zealand Film Commission

The New Zealand Film Commission (NZFC, Te Tumu Whakaata Taonga in Maori) is a New Zealand government agency formed to assist with creating and promoting New Zealand films.

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New Zealand foreshore and seabed controversy

The New Zealand foreshore and seabed controversy is a debate in the politics of New Zealand.

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New Zealand Geographic Board

The New Zealand Geographic Board (NZGB) (Māori: Ngā Pou Taunaha o Aotearoa) is constituted under the New Zealand Geographic Board (Ngā Pou Taunaha o Aotearoa) Act 2008, and was previously constituted under the New Zealand Geographic Board Act 1946.

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New Zealand greater short-tailed bat

The New Zealand greater short-tailed bat (Mystacina robusta) is one of two species of New Zealand short-tailed bats, a family (Mystacinidae) unique to New Zealand.

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New Zealand House of Representatives

The New Zealand House of Representatives is a component of the New Zealand Parliament, along with the Sovereign (represented by the Governor-General).

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New Zealand in the Korean War

The involvement of New Zealand in the Korean War began in 1950 as a response to the United Nations Security Council's call for combat assistance in the erupting Korean War.

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New Zealand in the Vietnam War

New Zealand's involvement in the Vietnam War was highly controversial, sparking widespread protest at home from anti-Vietnam War movements modelled on their American counterparts.

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New Zealand Labour Party

The New Zealand Labour Party (Rōpū Reipa o Aotearoa), or simply Labour (Reipa), is a centre-left political party in New Zealand.

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New Zealand Legislative Council

The Legislative Council of New Zealand existed from 1841 until 1951.

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New Zealand Liberal Party

The New Zealand Liberal Party was the first organised political party in New Zealand.

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New Zealand men's national softball team

The New Zealand men's national softball team (nicknamed the Black Sox/Black Socks) is the national softball team for New Zealand.

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New Zealand Music Awards

The New Zealand Music Awards are conferred annually by Recorded Music NZ, for outstanding artistic and technical achievements in the recording field.

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New Zealand national cricket team

The New Zealand national cricket team, nicknamed the Black Caps, played their first Test in 1930 against England in Christchurch, becoming the fifth country to play Test cricket.

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New Zealand national netball team

The New Zealand national netball team, commonly known as the Silver Ferns, represent New Zealand in international netball.

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New Zealand National Party

The New Zealand National Party (Rōpū Nāhinara o Aotearoa), shortened to National (Nāhinara) or the Nats, is a centre-right political party in New Zealand.

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New Zealand national rugby league team

The New Zealand national rugby league team (Māori: Tīma rīki motu Aotearoa) has represented New Zealand in rugby league since 1907.

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New Zealand national rugby union team

The New Zealand national rugby union team, called the All Blacks, represents New Zealand in men's rugby union, which is known as the country's national sport.

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New Zealand nationality law

New Zealand nationality law determines who is and who is not a New Zealand citizen.

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New Zealand nuclear-free zone

In 1984, Prime Minister David Lange barred nuclear-powered or nuclear-armed ships from using New Zealand ports or entering New Zealand waters.

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New Zealand Parliament

The New Zealand Parliament (Pāremata Aotearoa) is the legislature of New Zealand, consisting of the Queen of New Zealand (Queen-in-Parliament) and the New Zealand House of Representatives.

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New Zealand Plant Conservation Network

The New Zealand Plant Conservation Network (NZPCN) is a non-governmental organisation devoted to the protection and restoration of New Zealand's indigenous plant life, including vascular plants, mosses, liverworts, hornworts and lichens.

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New Zealand Post Office

The New Zealand Post Office was a New Zealand government department.

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New Zealand Sign Language

New Zealand Sign Language or NZSL (Te Reo Rotarota) is the main language of the Deaf community in New Zealand.

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New Zealand Wars

The New Zealand Wars were a series of armed conflicts that took place in New Zealand from 1845 to 1872 between the New Zealand government and the Māori.

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New Zealand wine

New Zealand wine is produced in several mostly maritime, cool climate wine growing regions of New Zealand, an island country in the South Pacific Ocean.

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New Zealand–China Free Trade Agreement

The New Zealand–China Free Trade Agreement is a bilateral free trade agreement signed between the People's Republic of China and New Zealand in April 2008.

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New Zealand–United States relations

New Zealand–United States relations refers to international relations between New Zealand and the United States of America.

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New Zealanders

New Zealanders, colloquially known as Kiwis, are people associated with New Zealand, sharing a common history, culture, and language (New Zealand English).

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Niue

Niue (Niuean: Niuē) is an island country in the South Pacific Ocean, northeast of New Zealand, east of Tonga, south of Samoa, and west of the Cook Islands.

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Noble savage

A noble savage is a literary stock character who embodies the concept of the indigene, outsider, wild human, an "other" who has not been "corrupted" by civilization, and therefore symbolizes humanity's innate goodness.

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North Island

The North Island (Māori: Te Ika-a-Māui) is one of the two main islands of New Zealand, separated from the slightly larger but much less populous South Island by Cook Strait.

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North Island Volcanic Plateau

The North Island Volcanic Plateau (often called the Central Plateau and occasionally the Waimarino Plateau) is a volcanic plateau covering much of central North Island of New Zealand with volcanoes, lava plateaus, and crater lakes.

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Northland Peninsula

The Northland Peninsula, called the North Auckland Peninsula in earlier times, is in the far north of the North Island of New Zealand.

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Nothofagus

Nothofagus, also known as the southern beeches, is a genus of 43 species of trees and shrubs native to the Southern Hemisphere in southern South America (Chile, Argentina) and Australasia (east and southeast Australia, New Zealand, New Guinea and New Caledonia).

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NZ On Screen

NZ On Screen is a state-funded online promotional showcase of New Zealand television and film.

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NZ Transport Agency

The NZ Transport Agency (NZTA; Waka Kotahi) is a New Zealand Crown entity tasked with promoting safe and functional transport by land, including the responsibility for driver and vehicle licensing, investigating rail accidents and administering the New Zealand state highway network.

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Oceania

Oceania is a geographic region comprising Melanesia, Micronesia, Polynesia and Australasia.

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Oceanic climate

An oceanic or highland climate, also known as a marine or maritime climate, is the Köppen classification of climate typical of west coasts in higher middle latitudes of continents, and generally features cool summers (relative to their latitude) and cool winters, with a relatively narrow annual temperature range and few extremes of temperature, with the exception for transitional areas to continental, subarctic and highland climates.

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Ochre

Ochre (British English) (from Greek: ὤχρα, from ὠχρός, ōkhrós, pale) or ocher (American English) is a natural clay earth pigment which is a mixture of ferric oxide and varying amounts of clay and sand.

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OECD

The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques, OCDE) is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 35 member countries, founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade.

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Office of Treaty Settlements

The Office of Treaty Settlements (in Māori: Te Tari Whakatau Take e pa ana ki te Tiriti o Waitangi) is an office within the New Zealand Ministry of Justice tasked with negotiating settlements due to historical breaches of the Treaty of Waitangi.

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Official New Zealand Music Chart

The Official New Zealand Music Chart is the weekly New Zealand top 40 singles and albums charts, issued weekly by Recorded Music NZ (formerly Recording Industry Association of New Zealand).

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Once Were Warriors (film)

Once Were Warriors is a 1994 New Zealand drama film based on New Zealand author Alan Duff's bestselling 1990 first novel.

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Operation Astute

Operation Astute was an Australian-led military deployment to East Timor to quell unrest and return stability in the 2006 East Timor crisis.

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Otago

Otago is a region of New Zealand in the south of the South Island administered by the Otago Regional Council.

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Outline of New Zealand

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to New Zealand: New Zealand is an island nation located in the western South Pacific Ocean comprising two large islands, the North Island and the South Island, and numerous smaller islands, most notably Stewart Island/Rakiura and the Chatham Islands.

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Pacific Islander

Pacific Islanders or Pasifikas are the peoples of the Pacific Islands.

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Pacific Islands

The Pacific Islands are the islands of the Pacific Ocean.

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Pacific Islands Forum

The Pacific Islands Forum (PIF) is an inter-governmental organization that aims to enhance cooperation between the independent countries of the Pacific Ocean.

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Pacific Ocean

The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions.

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Pacific Plate

The Pacific Plate is an oceanic tectonic plate that lies beneath the Pacific Ocean.

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Pacific Rim

The Pacific Rim comprises the lands around the rim of the Pacific Ocean.

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Paphies australis

Paphies australis or pipi (from the Māori language) is a bivalve mollusc of the family Mesodesmatidae, endemic to New Zealand.

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Paranephrops

Paranephrops is a genus of freshwater crayfish found only in New Zealand.

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Parliamentary leader

A parliamentary leader is a political title or a descriptive term used in various countries to the person leading a caucus (or parliamentary group) in a legislative body, whether it be a national or sub-national legislature.

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Parliamentary sovereignty

Parliamentary sovereignty (also called parliamentary supremacy or legislative supremacy) is a concept in the constitutional law of some parliamentary democracies.

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Parliamentary system

A parliamentary system is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislative branch, typically a parliament, and is also held accountable to that parliament.

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Pasifika Festival

The Pasifika Festival is a Pacific Islands-themed festival held annually in Western Springs, Auckland City, New Zealand.

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Patsy Reddy

Dame Patricia Lee Reddy (born 17 May 1954) is a New Zealand lawyer and businesswoman serving as the 21st and current Governor-General of New Zealand, in office since 2016.

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Pavlova (food)

Pavlova is a meringue-based dessert named after the Russian ballerina Anna Pavlova.

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Pākehā

Pākehā (or Pakeha) is a Māori-language term for New Zealanders of European descent.

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Pākehā settlers

Pākehā settlers were European emigrants who journeyed to New Zealand, and more specifically to Auckland, the Wellington/Hawkes Bay region, Canterbury and Otago during the 19th century.

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Pāua

Pāua is the Māori name given to three species of large edible sea snails, marine gastropod molluscs which belong to the family Haliotidae (in which there is only one genus, Haliotis), known in the United States and Australia as abalone, and in the United Kingdom as ormer shells.

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Pencarrow Head Lighthouse

Pencarrow Head Lighthouse is a decommissioned Lighthouse at Pencarrow Head in the Wellington Region of the North Island of New Zealand.

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Penguin Books

Penguin Books is a British publishing house.

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Phormium

Phormium is a genus of two plant species in the Asphodelaceae family.

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Pipe band

A pipe band is a musical ensemble consisting of pipers and drummers.

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Pitcairn Islands

The Pitcairn Islands (Pitkern: Pitkern Ailen), officially Pitcairn, Henderson, Ducie and Oeno Islands, are a group of four volcanic islands in the southern Pacific Ocean that form the last British Overseas Territory in the South Pacific.

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Plate tectonics

Plate tectonics (from the Late Latin tectonicus, from the τεκτονικός "pertaining to building") is a scientific theory describing the large-scale motion of seven large plates and the movements of a larger number of smaller plates of the Earth's lithosphere, since tectonic processes began on Earth between 3 and 3.5 billion years ago.

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Podocarpaceae

Podocarpaceae is a large family of mainly Southern Hemisphere conifers, comprising about 156 species of evergreen trees and shrubs.

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Political Geography (journal)

Political Geography is a bimonthly peer-reviewed academic journal published by Elsevier covering spatial dimensions of politics.

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Polynesia

Polynesia (from πολύς polys "many" and νῆσος nēsos "island") is a subregion of Oceania, made up of more than 1,000 islands scattered over the central and southern Pacific Ocean.

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Polynesian culture

Polynesian culture is the culture of the indigenous peoples of Polynesia who share common traits in language, customs and society.

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Polynesian rat

The Polynesian rat, or Pacific rat (Rattus exulans), known to the Māori as kiore, is the third most widespread species of rat in the world behind the brown rat and black rat.

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Polynesians

The Polynesians are a subset of Austronesians native to the islands of Polynesia that speak the Polynesian languages, a branch of the Oceanic subfamily of the Austronesian language family.

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Porpoise

Porpoises are a group of fully aquatic marine mammals that are sometimes referred to as mereswine, all of which are classified under the family Phocoenidae, parvorder Odontoceti (toothed whales).

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Pounamu

Pounamu refers to several types of hard, durable and highly valued nephrite jade, bowenite, or serpentinite stone found in southern New Zealand.

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Presbyterian Church of Aotearoa New Zealand

The Presbyterian Church of Aotearoa New Zealand (PCANZ) is the main Presbyterian church in New Zealand.

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Prime Minister of New Zealand

The Prime Minister of New Zealand (Te Pirimia o Aotearoa) is the head of government of New Zealand.

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Privatization

Privatization (also spelled privatisation) is the purchase of all outstanding shares of a publicly traded company by private investors, or the sale of a state-owned enterprise to private investors.

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Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) is the official scientific journal of the National Academy of Sciences, published since 1915.

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Programme for International Student Assessment

The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) is a worldwide study by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in member and non-member nations intended to evaluate educational systems by measuring 15-year-old school pupils' scholastic performance on mathematics, science, and reading.

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Proportional representation

Proportional representation (PR) characterizes electoral systems by which divisions into an electorate are reflected proportionately into the elected body.

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Protectionism

Protectionism is the economic policy of restricting imports from other countries through methods such as tariffs on imported goods, import quotas, and a variety of other government regulations.

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Provinces of New Zealand

The provinces of the Colony of New Zealand existed as a form of sub-national government.

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Public holidays in New Zealand

Public holidays in New Zealand (also known as statutory holidays) consist of a variety of cultural, nationalistic, and religious holidays that are legislated in New Zealand.

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Public transport in the Wellington Region

Public transport in the Wellington Region is well developed compared to other parts of New Zealand.

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Puysegur Trench

The deep Puysegur Trench is a deep cleft in the floor of the south Tasman Sea formed by the subduction of the Indo-Australian Plate under the Pacific Plate to the south of New Zealand.

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Queenstown, New Zealand

Queenstown (Tāhuna) is a resort town in Otago in the south-west of New Zealand's South Island.

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Radio in New Zealand

Radio in New Zealand began in 1922, and is now dominated by almost 30 radio networks and station groups.

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Radio New Zealand

Radio New Zealand (Te Reo Irirangi o Aotearoa), commonly known as RNZ, is a New Zealand public service radio broadcaster and Crown entity established under the Radio New Zealand Act 1995.

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Radiocarbon dating

Radiocarbon dating (also referred to as carbon dating or carbon-14 dating) is a method for determining the age of an object containing organic material by using the properties of radiocarbon, a radioactive isotope of carbon.

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Rail transport in New Zealand

Rail transport in New Zealand is primarily provided by KiwiRail and focused on bulk freight, with a small number of tourist orientated passenger services, such as the, and.

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Ranfurly, New Zealand

Ranfurly is a town in the Central Otago District of Otago, New Zealand.

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Rangatira

Rangatira are the hereditary Māori leaders of hapū, and were described by ethnologists such as Elsdon Best as chieftains (p. 88).

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Rangiora

Rangiora is the largest town and seat of the Waimakariri District, in Canterbury, New Zealand.

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Rātana

The Rātana movement is a church and pan-iwi political movement founded by Tahupōtiki Wiremu Rātana in early 20th-century New Zealand.

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Real versus nominal value (economics)

In economics, a real value of a good or other entity has been adjusted for inflation, enabling comparison of quantities as if prices had not changed.

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Realm of New Zealand

The Realm of New Zealand is the entire area (or realm) in which the Queen of New Zealand is head of state.

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Recession

In economics, a recession is a business cycle contraction which results in a general slowdown in economic activity.

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Reckitt Benckiser

Reckitt Benckiser Group plc (RB) is a British multinational consumer goods company headquartered in Slough, England.

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Recorded Music NZ

Recorded Music NZ (formerly Recording Industry Association of New Zealand (RIANZ)) is a non-profit trade association of record producers, distributors and recording artists who sell music in New Zealand.

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Regionalism (art)

American Regionalism is an American realist modern art movement that included paintings, murals, lithographs, and illustrations depicting realistic scenes of rural and small-town America primarily in the Midwest and Deep South.

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Regions of New Zealand

New Zealand is divided into sixteen regions for local government purposes.

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Religious conversion

Religious conversion is the adoption of a set of beliefs identified with one particular religious denomination to the exclusion of others.

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Renewable energy in New Zealand

Approximately 40% of primary energy is from renewable energy sources in New Zealand.

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Representative democracy

Representative democracy (also indirect democracy, representative republic or psephocracy) is a type of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy.

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Reserve power

In a parliamentary or semi-presidential system of government, a reserve power is a power that may be exercised by the head of state without the approval of another branch of the government.

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Resource Management Act 1991

The Resource Management Act (RMA) passed in 1991 in New Zealand is a significant, and at times, controversial Act of Parliament.

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Richard Seddon

Richard John Seddon (22 June 1845 – 10 June 1906) was a New Zealand politician who served as the 15th Premier (Prime Minister) of New Zealand from 1893 until his death in office in 1906.

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Ringatū

The Ringatū church was founded in 1868 by Te Kooti Arikirangi te Turuki, commonly called Te Kooti.

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Rock and roll

Rock and roll (often written as rock & roll or rock 'n' roll) is a genre of popular music that originated and evolved in the United States during the late 1940s and early 1950sJim Dawson and Steve Propes, What Was the First Rock'n'Roll Record (1992),.

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Rogernomics

The term Rogernomics, a portmanteau of "Roger" and "economics", was coined by journalists at the New Zealand Listener by analogy with Reaganomics to describe the neoliberal economic policies followed by Roger Douglas after his appointment in 1984 as Minister of Finance in the Fourth Labour Government of New Zealand.

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Ross Dependency

The Ross Dependency is a region of Antarctica defined by a sector originating at the South Pole, passing along longitudes 160° east to 150° west, and terminating at latitude 60° south.

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Royal assent

Royal assent or sanction is the method by which a country's monarch (possibly through a delegated official) formally approves an act of that nation's parliament.

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Royal Geographical Society

The Royal Geographical Society (with the Institute of British Geographers) is the UK's learned society and professional body for geography, founded in 1830 for the advancement of geographical sciences.

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Royal New Zealand Air Force

The Royal New Zealand Air Force (RNZAF) (Maori: Te Tauaarangi o Aotearoa, "New Zealand Warriors of the Sky"; previously Te Hokowhitu o Kahurangi, "War Party of the Blue") is the air force component of the New Zealand Defence Force.

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Royal New Zealand Navy

The Royal New Zealand Navy (RNZN; Maori: Te Taua Moana o Aotearoa, "Warriors of the Sea of New Zealand") is the maritime arm of the New Zealand Defence Force. The fleet currently consists of ten ships and eight naval helicopters.

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Royal prerogative

The royal prerogative is a body of customary authority, privilege, and immunity, recognized in common law and, sometimes, in civil law jurisdictions possessing a monarchy, as belonging to the sovereign and which have become widely vested in the government.

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Rugby union

Rugby union, commonly known in most of the world as rugby, is a contact team sport which originated in England in the first half of the 19th century.

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Rugby World Cup

The Rugby World Cup is a men's rugby union tournament contested every four years between the top international teams.

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Ruthanasia

Ruthanasia, a portmanteau of "Ruth" and "euthanasia", is the pejorative name (typically used by opponents) given to the period of free-market policies conducted during the first term of the fourth National government in New Zealand, from 1990 to 1993.

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Saint Bathans mammal

The Saint Bathans mammal is a currently unnamed extinct mammal from the Miocene of New Zealand.

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Samoan language

Samoan (Gagana faʻa Sāmoa or Gagana Sāmoa – IPA) is the language of the Samoan Islands, comprising the Independent State of Samoa and the United States territory of American Samoa.

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Schwa

In linguistics, specifically phonetics and phonology, schwa (rarely or; sometimes spelled shwa) is the mid central vowel sound (rounded or unrounded) in the middle of the vowel chart, denoted by the IPA symbol ə, or another vowel sound close to that position.

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Scott Base

The Scott Base is a New Zealand Antarctic research facility located at Pram Point on Ross Island near Mount Erebus in New Zealand's Ross Dependency territorial claim.

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Seal hunting

Seal hunting, or sealing, is the personal or commercial hunting of seals.

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Second Battle of El Alamein

The Second Battle of El Alamein (23 October – 11 November 1942) was a battle of the Second World War that took place near the Egyptian railway halt of El Alamein. With the Allies victorious, it was the watershed of the Western Desert Campaign. The First Battle of El Alamein had prevented the Axis from advancing further into Egypt. In August 1942, Lieutenant-General Sir Bernard Law Montgomery took command of the Eighth Army following the sacking of General Claude Auchinleck and the death of his replacement Lieutenant-General William Gott in an air crash. The Allied victory turned the tide in the North African Campaign and ended the Axis threat to Egypt, the Suez Canal and the Middle Eastern and Persian oil fields via North Africa. The Second Battle of El Alamein revived the morale of the Allies, being the first big success against the Axis since Operation Crusader in late 1941. The battle coincided with the Allied invasion of French North Africa in Operation Torch, which started on 8 November, the Battle of Stalingrad and the Guadalcanal Campaign.

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Second Boer War

The Second Boer War (11 October 1899 – 31 May 1902) was fought between the British Empire and two Boer states, the South African Republic (Republic of Transvaal) and the Orange Free State, over the Empire's influence in South Africa.

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Secularity

Secularity (adjective form secular, from Latin saeculum meaning "worldly", "of a generation", "temporal", or a span of about 100 years) is the state of being separate from religion, or of not being exclusively allied with or against any particular religion.

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Semi-arid climate

A semi-arid climate or steppe climate is the climate of a region that receives precipitation below potential evapotranspiration, but not as low as a desert climate.

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Seventeen Provinces

The Seventeen Provinces were the Imperial states of the Habsburg Netherlands in the 16th century.

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Sewell Ministry, 1856

The Sewell Ministry was the first responsible government in New Zealand.

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Sikhism in New Zealand

The Sikh population in New Zealand more than doubled from 9,500 in the 2006 Census to 19,000 in the 2013 Census.

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Sinking of the Rainbow Warrior

The sinking of the Rainbow Warrior, codenamed Opération Satanique, was a bombing operation by the "action" branch of the French foreign intelligence services, the Direction générale de la sécurité extérieure (DGSE), carried out on 10 July 1985.

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Skink

Skinks are lizards belonging to the family Scincidae and the infraorder Scincomorpha.

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Somali Civil War

The Somali Civil War (Dagaalkii Sokeeye ee Soomaaliya, الحرب الأهلية الصومالية) is an ongoing civil war taking place in Somalia.

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South Island

The South Island (Māori: Te Waipounamu) is the larger of the two major islands of New Zealand, the other being the smaller but more populous North Island.

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South Island takahē

The South Island takahē, notornis, or takahē (Porphyrio hochstetteri), is a flightless bird indigenous to New Zealand and belonging to the rail family.

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Southern Alps

The Southern Alps (Kā Tiritiri-o-te-Moana) is a mountain range extending along much of the length of New Zealand's South Island, reaching its greatest elevations near the range's western side.

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Sovereign

The word Sovereign comes through Old French soverain from the Latin superānus and means "above".

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Sovereign state

A sovereign state is, in international law, a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area.

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Spark New Zealand

Spark New Zealand (formerly Telecom New Zealand) is a New Zealand telecommunications company providing fixed line telephone services, a mobile network, an internet service provider, and a major ICT provider to NZ businesses (through its Spark Digital division).

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Speaker of the New Zealand House of Representatives

In New Zealand, the Speaker of the House of Representatives (Te Mana Whakawā o te Whare) is the individual who chairs the country's legislative body, the New Zealand House of Representatives.

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Spectator sport

A spectator sport is a sport that is characterized by the presence of spectators, or watchers, at its competitions.

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Spiders of New Zealand

New Zealand has 1134 described spider species, with an estimated total fauna of 2000 species.

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Sport New Zealand

Sport New Zealand (Sport NZ) is a New Zealand crown entity responsible for governing sport and recreation in New Zealand.

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State school

State schools (also known as public schools outside England and Wales)In England and Wales, some independent schools for 13- to 18-year-olds are known as 'public schools'.

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States General of the Netherlands

The States General of the Netherlands (Staten-Generaal) is the bicameral legislature of the Netherlands consisting of the Senate (Eerste Kamer) and the House of Representatives (Tweede Kamer).

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Statistics New Zealand

Statistics New Zealand (Tatauranga Aotearoa), branded as Stats NZ, is the public service department of New Zealand charged with the collection of statistics related to the economy, population and society of New Zealand.

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Statute of Westminster 1931

The Statute of Westminster 1931 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom and modified versions of it are now domestic law within Australia and Canada; it has been repealed in New Zealand and implicitly in former Dominions that are no longer Commonwealth realms.

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Statute of Westminster Adoption Act 1947

The Statute of Westminster Adoption Act 1947 (Public Act no. 38 of 1947) was a constitutional Act of the Parliament of New Zealand that formally accepted the full external autonomy offered by the British Parliament.

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Stewart Island

Stewart Island/Rakiura (commonly called Stewart Island) is the third-largest island of New Zealand.

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Stuff.co.nz

Stuff.co.nz is a New Zealand news website published by Fairfax Digital, a division of Fairfax New Zealand Ltd, a subsidiary of Australian company Fairfax Media Ltd.

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Subduction

Subduction is a geological process that takes place at convergent boundaries of tectonic plates where one plate moves under another and is forced or sinks due to gravity into the mantle.

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Subtropics

The subtropics are geographic and climate zones located roughly between the tropics at latitude 23.5° (the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn) and temperate zones (normally referring to latitudes 35–66.5°) north and south of the Equator.

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Suez Crisis

The Suez Crisis, or the Second Arab–Israeli War, also named the Tripartite Aggression (in the Arab world) and Operation Kadesh or Sinai War (in Israel),Also named: Suez Canal Crisis, Suez War, Suez–Sinai war, Suez Campaign, Sinai Campaign, Operation Musketeer (أزمة السويس /‎ العدوان الثلاثي, "Suez Crisis"/ "the Tripartite Aggression"; Crise du canal de Suez; מבצע קדש "Operation Kadesh", or מלחמת סיני, "Sinai War") was an invasion of Egypt in late 1956 by Israel, followed by the United Kingdom and France.

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Summer Olympic Games

The Summer Olympic Games (Jeux olympiques d'été) or the Games of the Olympiad, first held in 1896, is an international multi-sport event that is hosted by a different city every four years.

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Supervolcano

A supervolcano is a large volcano that has had an eruption of magnitude 8, which is the largest value on the Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI).

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Supreme Court of New Zealand

The Supreme Court of New Zealand (in Māori: Te Kōti Mana Nui) is the highest court and the court of last resort of New Zealand, having formally come into existence on 1 January 2004.

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Sweet potato

The sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) is a dicotyledonous plant that belongs to the bindweed or morning glory family, Convolvulaceae.

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Tall poppy syndrome

The tall poppy syndrome describes aspects of a culture where people of high status are resented, attacked, cut down or criticised because they have been classified as superior to their peers.

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Tamarillo

The tamarillo is a small tree or shrub in the flowering plant family Solanaceae (the nightshade family).

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Tangihanga

Tangihanga, or more commonly, Tangi, is a traditional Māori funeral rite held on a marae.

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Taranaki (iwi)

Taranaki (Tuturu) is a Māori iwi of New Zealand.

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Tasman Sea

The Tasman Sea (Māori: Te Tai-o-Rehua) is a marginal sea of the South Pacific Ocean, situated between Australia and New Zealand.

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Taupo Volcanic Zone

The Taupo Volcanic Zone (TVZ) is a volcanic area in the North Island of New Zealand that has been active for the past two million years and is still highly active.

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Tauranga

Tauranga is the most populous city in the Bay of Plenty region of the North Island of New Zealand.

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Tā moko

Tā moko is the permanent marking of the face and body as traditionally practised by Māori, the indigenous people of New Zealand.

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Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand

Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand is an online encyclopedia created by the Ministry for Culture and Heritage of the New Zealand Government.

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Tectonic uplift

Tectonic uplift is the portion of the total geologic uplift of the mean Earth surface that is not attributable to an isostatic response to unloading.

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Telephone numbers in New Zealand

The New Zealand telephone numbering plan describes the allocation of telephone numbers in New Zealand and the Pitcairn Islands.

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Television in New Zealand

Television in New Zealand was introduced in 1960 as a state-run service.

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Tennis

Tennis is a racket sport that can be played individually against a single opponent (singles) or between two teams of two players each (doubles).

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Territorial authorities of New Zealand

Territorial authorities are the second tier of local government in New Zealand, below regional councils.

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Territorial claims in Antarctica

Seven sovereign states maintain a territorial claim on eight territories in Antarctica.

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Tertiary education

Tertiary education, also referred to as third stage, third level, and postsecondary education, is the educational level following the completion of a school providing a secondary education.

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The Chronicles of Narnia (film series)

The Chronicles of Narnia is a series of films based on The Chronicles of Narnia, a series of novels by C. S. Lewis.

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The Economist

The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London.

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The Heritage Foundation

The Heritage Foundation (abbreviated to Heritage) is an American conservative public policy think tank based in Washington, D.C. The foundation took a leading role in the conservative movement during the presidency of Ronald Reagan, whose policies were taken from Heritage's policy study Mandate for Leadership.

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The Hobbit (film series)

The Hobbit is a film series consisting of three high fantasy adventure films directed by Peter Jackson.

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The Last Samurai

The Last Samurai is a 2003 American period drama war film directed and co-produced by Edward Zwick, who also co-wrote the screenplay with John Logan and Marshall Herskovitz.

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The Lord of the Rings (film series)

The Lord of the Rings is a film series consisting of three high fantasy adventure films directed by Peter Jackson.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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The Original All Blacks

The Original All Blacks (also known simply as "The Originals") were the first New Zealand national rugby union team to tour outside Australasia.

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The World Factbook

The World Factbook, also known as the CIA World Factbook, is a reference resource produced by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) with almanac-style information about the countries of the world.

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The World's Fastest Indian

The World's Fastest Indian is a 2005 New Zealand biographical sports drama film based on the New Zealand speed bike racer Burt Munro and his highly modified Indian Scout motorcycle.

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Time in New Zealand

Time in New Zealand, by law, is divided into two standard time zones.

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Tokelau

Tokelau (previously known as the Union Islands, and officially as Tokelau Islands until 1976;; lit. "north-northeast") is an island country and dependent territory of New Zealand in the southern Pacific Ocean.

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Tonga

Tonga (Tongan: Puleʻanga Fakatuʻi ʻo Tonga), officially the Kingdom of Tonga, is a Polynesian sovereign state and archipelago comprising 169 islands, of which 36 are inhabited.

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Tonga Trench

The Tonga Trench is an oceanic trench located in the south-west Pacific Ocean.

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Total fertility rate

The total fertility rate (TFR), sometimes also called the fertility rate, absolute/potential natality, period total fertility rate (PTFR), or total period fertility rate (TPFR) of a population is the average number of children that would be born to a woman over her lifetime if.

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Tourism in New Zealand

Tourism comprises an important sector of the '''New Zealand''' economy, directly contributing NZ$12.9 billion (or 5.6%) of the country's GDP in 2016, as well as supporting 188,000 full-time equivalent jobs (nearly 7.5% of New Zealand's workforce).

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Tramping in New Zealand

Tramping, known elsewhere as backpacking, rambling, hill walking or bushwalking, is a popular activity in New Zealand.

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Trans-Tasman Travel Arrangement

The Trans-Tasman Travel Arrangement is an arrangement between Australia and New Zealand which allows for the free movement of citizens of one of these countries to the other.

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Transdev Auckland

Transdev Auckland, formerly Veolia Transport Auckland, Ltd., and before that Connex Auckland, Ltd., is a Transdev Australasia company.

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Transport in New Zealand

Transport in New Zealand, with its mountainous topography and a relatively small population mostly located near its long coastline, has always faced many challenges.

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Treaty

A treaty is an agreement under international law entered into by actors in international law, namely sovereign states and international organizations.

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Treaty of Waitangi

The Treaty of Waitangi (Te Tiriti o Waitangi) is a treaty first signed on 6 February 1840 by representatives of the British Crown and Māori chiefs (Rangatira) from the North Island of New Zealand.

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Treaty of Waitangi claims and settlements

Treaty of Waitangi claims and settlements have been a significant feature of New Zealand race relations and politics since 1975.

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Tree line

The tree line is the edge of the habitat at which trees are capable of growing.

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Tuatara

Tuatara are reptiles endemic to New Zealand.

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Tuatua

Paphies subtriangulata is a species of edible bivalve clam known as tuatua in the Māori language, a member of the family Mesodesmatidae and endemic to New Zealand.

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Tussock grasslands of New Zealand

Tussock grasslands form expansive and distinctive landscapes in the South Island and to a lesser extent in the central plateau region of the North Island of New Zealand.

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Uncodified constitution

An uncodified constitution is a type of constitution where the fundamental rules often take the form of customs, usage, precedent and a variety of statutes and legal instruments.

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Unicameralism

In government, unicameralism (Latin uni, one + camera, chamber) is the practice of having one legislative or parliamentary chamber.

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Unitary authority

A unitary authority is a type of local authority that has a single tier and is responsible for all local government functions within its area or performs additional functions which elsewhere in the relevant country are usually performed by national government or a higher level of sub-national government.

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Unitary state

A unitary state is a state governed as a single power in which the central government is ultimately supreme and any administrative divisions (sub-national units) exercise only the powers that the central government chooses to delegate.

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.

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United Nations

The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.

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United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories

The United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories is a list of places that the United Nations General Assembly deems to be "non-self-governing" and subject to the decolonization process.

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United States dollar

The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.

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United Tribes of New Zealand

The United Tribes of New Zealand (lit) was a confederation of Māori tribes based in the north of the North Island.

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Urban area

An urban area is a human settlement with high population density and infrastructure of built environment.

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Urbanization

Urbanization refers to the population shift from rural to urban residency, the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas, and the ways in which each society adapts to this change.

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Vascular plant

Vascular plants (from Latin vasculum: duct), also known as tracheophytes (from the equivalent Greek term trachea) and also higher plants, form a large group of plants (c. 308,312 accepted known species) that are defined as those land plants that have lignified tissues (the xylem) for conducting water and minerals throughout the plant.

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Venice Biennale

The Venice Biennale (La Biennale di Venezia; in English also called the "Venice Biennial") refers to an arts organization based in Venice and the name of the original and principal biennial exhibition the organization organizes.

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Victoria University Press

Victoria University Press (VUP), founded in the 1970s, is the book publishing arm of Victoria University of Wellington, located in Wellington, New Zealand.

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Volcanology of New Zealand

Volcanology of New Zealand is the scientific study of volcanoes and volcanic phenomena in New Zealand.

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Voter turnout

Voter turnout is the percentage of eligible voters who cast a ballot in an election.

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Waiheke Island

Waiheke Island (Māori) is the most populated and second-largest island in the Hauraki Gulf of New Zealand.

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Waitangi Tribunal

The Waitangi Tribunal (Māori: Te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi) is a New Zealand permanent commission of inquiry established under the Treaty of Waitangi Act 1975.

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Waka (canoe)

Waka are Māori watercraft, usually canoes ranging in size from small, unornamented canoes (waka tīwai) used for fishing and river travel, to large decorated war canoes (waka taua) up to long.

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War in Afghanistan (2001–present)

The War in Afghanistan (or the U.S. War in Afghanistan; code named Operation Enduring Freedom – Afghanistan (2001–2014) and Operation Freedom's Sentinel (2015–present)) followed the United States invasion of Afghanistan of October 7, 2001.

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Water supply and sanitation in New Zealand

The provision of water supply and sanitation in New Zealand is generally of good quality in urban areas.

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Wānanga

In the education system of New Zealand, a wānanga is a publicly owned tertiary institution that provides education in a Māori cultural context.

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Weka

The weka (also known as Maori hen or woodhen) (Gallirallus australis) is a flightless bird species of the rail family.

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Welfare state

The welfare state is a concept of government in which the state plays a key role in the protection and promotion of the social and economic well-being of its citizens.

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Wellington

Wellington (Te Whanganui-a-Tara) is the capital city and second most populous urban area of New Zealand, with residents.

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West Coast, New Zealand

The West Coast (Te Tai Poutini) is a region of New Zealand on the west coast of the South Island, it is one of the more remote and most sparsely populated areas of the country.

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Weta

Weta is the common name for a group of about 70 insect species in the families Anostostomatidae and Rhaphidophoridae, endemic to New Zealand.

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Whale Rider

Whale Rider is a 2002 New Zealand-German family drama film directed by Niki Caro, based on the novel of the same name by Witi Ihimaera.

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Wharenui

A wharenui (literally "big house") is a communal house of the Māori people of New Zealand, generally situated as the focal point of a marae.

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Whānau

Whānau is a Māori-language word for extended family, now increasingly entering New Zealand English, particularly in official publications.

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White Australia policy

The term White Australia policy comprises various historical policies that effectively barred people of non-European descent from emigrating into Australia.

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Whitebait

Whitebait is a collective term for the immature fry of fish, typically between long.

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Wikimedia Commons

Wikimedia Commons (or simply Commons) is an online repository of free-use images, sounds, and other media files.

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William Hobson

Captain William Hobson RN (26 September 1792 – 10 September 1842) was a British naval officer who served as the first Governor of New Zealand.

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William IV of the United Kingdom

William IV (William Henry; 21 August 1765 – 20 June 1837) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and King of Hanover from 26 June 1830 until his death in 1837.

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Women's suffrage in New Zealand

Women's suffrage in New Zealand was an important political issue in the late nineteenth century.

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World Bank Group

The World Bank Group (WBG) (Groupe de la Banque mondiale) is a family of five international organizations that make leveraged loans to developing countries.

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World Bank high-income economy

A high-income economy is defined by the World Bank as a country with a gross national income per capita US$12,236 or more in 2016, calculated using the Atlas method.

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Zealandia

Zealandia, also known as the New Zealand continent or Tasmantis is an almost entirely submerged mass of continental crust that sank after breaking away from Australia 60–85 million years ago, having separated from Antarctica between 85 and 130 million years ago.

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Zeeland

Zeeland (Zeelandic: Zeêland, historical English exonym Zealand) is the westernmost and least populous province of the Netherlands.

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.nz

.nz is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for New Zealand.

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1888–89 New Zealand Native football team

The 1888–89 New Zealand Native football team was a New Zealand rugby union team that toured Britain, Ireland, Australia and New Zealand in 1888 and 1889.

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1973 oil crisis

The 1973 oil crisis began in October 1973 when the members of the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries proclaimed an oil embargo.

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1979 energy crisis

The 1979 (or second) oil crisis or oil shock occurred in the world due to decreased oil output in the wake of the Iranian Revolution.

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1st New Zealand Parliament

The 1st New Zealand Parliament was a term of the Parliament of New Zealand.

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2013 New Zealand census

The 2013 New Zealand census was the thirty-third national census.

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Redirects here:

Administrative divisions of New Zealand, Administrative divisions of new zealand, AoTeAroa, Aotearoa / New Zealand, Enzed, Etymology of New Zealand, ISO 3166-1:NZ, Kiwiland, Kiwistan, Maoriland, Mew Zealand, Māoria, N Z, N Zealand, N z, N. Zealand, N.Z., NEW Z, NEW ZEALAND, NZ, NZL, Name of New Zealand, Neo Zealand, New Xealand, New Zaeland, New Zealand at the 2015 Commonwealth Youth Games, New Zealand's, New Zealand,, New Zealand., New Zealend, New Zealnad, New Zealnd, New Zeeland, New Zeland, New zealand, New zeeland, New zelanad, New zeland, New+Zealand, New-Zealand, New.Zealand, NewZealand, Newzealand, Niu Tireni, Nouvelle-Zelande, Nova Zeelandia, Nova Zelandia, Nu Tirani, Nz, Staaten land, Staten Land, Staten Landt, Subdivisions of New Zealand, Zelanian.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Zealand

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