150 relations: American National Standards Institute, Amiga, Amstrad CPC, ANSI escape code, Apple II series, ASA carriage control characters, ASCII, Atari 8-bit family, Atari TOS, ATASCII, AWK, BBC Micro, BeOS, C (programming language), C Sharp (programming language), C++, C0 and C1 control codes, Carriage return, Cartesian coordinate system, CDC 6000 series, Character encoding, Classic Mac OS, Colon (punctuation), Command-line interface, Commodore 64, Commodore International, Communication protocol, Compiler, Consistency, Constant (computer programming), Control character, CP/M, Cygwin, Data corruption, Debian, Decimal, Device driver, Diacritic, Digital Equipment Corporation, DOS, EBCDIC, ECMAScript, Ellipsis, Emphasis (typography), Enter key, Escape sequence, File (command), File Transfer Protocol, Filename extension, Find (Unix), ..., FreeBSD, Gedit, Glyph, Grep, Haskell (programming language), Heuristic (computer science), Hexadecimal, Hypertext Transfer Protocol, IBM, IBM AIX, IBM i, IBM PC DOS, International Organization for Standardization, Internet, Internet Relay Chat, ISO/IEC 2022, ISO/IEC 646, ISO/IEC 8859-1, Java (programming language), JSON, Line (text file), Line starve, Line wrap and word wrap, Linux, Lisp machine, List of Unicode characters, MacOS, Mainframe computer, Message transfer agent, Microsoft Notepad, Microsoft Windows, Morse code, MP/M, MS-DOS, MS-DOS Editor, Multics, NOP, Oberon (operating system), OpenVMS, Operating system, OS-9, OS/2, OS/390, Page (paper), Page break, Palm OS, Paragraph, Perl, PHP, Pilcrow, Porting, Printer (computing), Prosigns for Morse code, Punched card, Python (programming language), Qmail, QNX, Quotation mark, Record Management Services, Record-oriented filesystem, RISC OS, RSX-11, RT-11, Scrolling, Sed, Simple Mail Transfer Protocol, Sinclair Research, Strikethrough, Subroutine, Symbian, Tab key, Telegraphist, Teleprinter, Teletype Corporation, Teletype Model 33, Text editor, Text file, TOPS-10, Tr (Unix), TRS-80, Typewriter, Unicode, Unix, Unix-like, Unix2dos, UTF-8, Variable (computer science), Vim (text editor), Web browser, Whitespace character, Windows 10, Windows-1252, Word processor, WordPad, Xenix, YAML, Z/OS, ZX Spectrum, ZX80, ZX81. Expand index (100 more) » « Shrink index
The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) is a private non-profit organization that oversees the development of voluntary consensus standards for products, services, processes, systems, and personnel in the United States.
The Amiga is a family of personal computers introduced by Commodore in 1985.
The Amstrad CPC (short for Colour Personal Computer) is a series of 8-bit home computers produced by Amstrad between 1984 and 1990.
ANSI escape sequences are a standard for in-band signaling to control the cursor location, color, and other options on video text terminals.
The Apple II series (trademarked with square brackets as "Apple.
ASA control characters are simple printing command characters used to control the movement of paper through line printers.
ASCII, abbreviated from American Standard Code for Information Interchange, is a character encoding standard for electronic communication.
The Atari 8-bit family is a series of 8-bit home computers introduced by Atari, Inc. in 1979 and manufactured until 1992.
TOS (The Operating System also Tramiel Operating System from Jack Tramiel, owner of Atari Corp. at the time) is the operating system of the Atari ST range of computers.
The ATASCII character set, from ATARI Standard Code for Information Interchange, alternatively ATARI ASCII, is the variation on ASCII used in the Atari 8-bit family of home computers.
AWK is a programming language designed for text processing and typically used as a data extraction and reporting tool.
The British Broadcasting Corporation Microcomputer System, or BBC Micro, is a series of microcomputers and associated peripherals designed and built by the Acorn Computer company for the BBC Computer Literacy Project, operated by the British Broadcasting Corporation.
BeOS is an operating system for personal computers first developed by Be Inc. in 1991.
C (as in the letter ''c'') is a general-purpose, imperative computer programming language, supporting structured programming, lexical variable scope and recursion, while a static type system prevents many unintended operations.
C# (/si: ʃɑːrp/) is a multi-paradigm programming language encompassing strong typing, imperative, declarative, functional, generic, object-oriented (class-based), and component-oriented programming disciplines.
C++ ("see plus plus") is a general-purpose programming language.
The C0 and C1 control code or control character sets define control codes for use in text by computer systems that use the ISO/IEC 2022 system of specifying control and graphic characters.
A carriage return, sometimes known as a cartridge return and often shortened to CR, or return, is a control character or mechanism used to reset a device's position to the beginning of a line of text.
A Cartesian coordinate system is a coordinate system that specifies each point uniquely in a plane by a pair of numerical coordinates, which are the signed distances to the point from two fixed perpendicular directed lines, measured in the same unit of length.
The CDC 6000 series was a family of mainframe computers manufactured by Control Data Corporation in the 1960s.
Character encoding is used to represent a repertoire of characters by some kind of encoding system.
Classic Mac OS is a colloquial term used to describe a series of operating systems developed for the Macintosh family of personal computers by Apple Inc. from 1984 until 2001.
The colon is a punctuation mark consisting of two equally sized dots centered on the same vertical line.
A command-line interface or command language interpreter (CLI), also known as command-line user interface, console user interface and character user interface (CUI), is a means of interacting with a computer program where the user (or client) issues commands to the program in the form of successive lines of text (command lines).
The Commodore 64, also known as the C64 or the CBM 64, is an 8-bit home computer introduced in January 1982 by Commodore International (first shown at the Consumer Electronics Show, in Las Vegas, January 7–10, 1982).
Commodore International (or Commodore International Limited) was an American home computer and electronics manufacturer founded by Jack Tramiel.
In telecommunication, a communication protocol is a system of rules that allow two or more entities of a communications system to transmit information via any kind of variation of a physical quantity.
A compiler is computer software that transforms computer code written in one programming language (the source language) into another programming language (the target language).
In classical deductive logic, a consistent theory is one that does not contain a contradiction.
In computer programming, a constant is a value that cannot be altered by the program during normal execution, i.e., the value is constant.
In computing and telecommunication, a control character or non-printing character is a code point (a number) in a character set, that does not represent a written symbol.
CP/M, originally standing for Control Program/Monitor and later Control Program for Microcomputers, is a mass-market operating system created for Intel 8080/85-based microcomputers by Gary Kildall of Digital Research, Inc.
Cygwin is a Unix-like environment and command-line interface for Microsoft Windows.
Data corruption refers to errors in computer data that occur during writing, reading, storage, transmission, or processing, which introduce unintended changes to the original data.
Debian is a Unix-like computer operating system that is composed entirely of free software, and packaged by a group of individuals participating in the Debian Project.
The decimal numeral system (also called base-ten positional numeral system, and occasionally called denary) is the standard system for denoting integer and non-integer numbers.
In computing, a device driver is a computer program that operates or controls a particular type of device that is attached to a computer.
A diacritic – also diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign, or an accent – is a glyph added to a letter, or basic glyph.
Digital Equipment Corporation, also known as DEC and using the trademark Digital, was a major American company in the computer industry from the 1950s to the 1990s.
DOS is a family of disk operating systems.
Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code (EBCDIC) is an eight-bit character encoding used mainly on IBM mainframe and IBM midrange computer operating systems.
ECMAScript (or ES) is a trademarked scripting-language specification standardized by Ecma International in ECMA-262 and ISO/IEC 16262.
An ellipsis (plural ellipses; from the ἔλλειψις, élleipsis, 'omission' or 'falling short') is a series of dots (typically three, such as "…") that usually indicates an intentional omission of a word, sentence, or whole section from a text without altering its original meaning.
In typography, emphasis is the strengthening of words in a text with a font in a different style from the rest of the text, to highlight them.
On computer keyboards, the enter key (or the return key on Macs and most Sun Workstations) in most cases causes a command line, window form, or dialog box to operate its default function.
An escape sequence is a series of characters used to change the state of computers and their attached peripheral devices, rather than to be displayed or printed as regular data bytes would be.
file is a standard Unix program for recognizing the type of data contained in a computer file.
The File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a standard network protocol used for the transfer of computer files between a client and server on a computer network.
A filename extension is an identifier specified as a suffix to the name of a computer file.
In Unix-like and some other operating systems, find is a command-line utility that searches one or more directory trees of a file system, locates files based on some user-specified criteria and applies a user-specified action on each matched file.
FreeBSD is a free and open-source Unix-like operating system descended from Research Unix via the Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD).
gedit is the default text editor of the GNOME desktop environment and part of the GNOME Core Applications.
In typography, a glyph is an elemental symbol within an agreed set of symbols, intended to represent a readable character for the purposes of writing.
grep is a command-line utility for searching plain-text data sets for lines that match a regular expression.
Haskell is a standardized, general-purpose compiled purely functional programming language, with non-strict semantics and strong static typing.
In computer science, artificial intelligence, and mathematical optimization, a heuristic (from Greek εὑρίσκω "I find, discover") is a technique designed for solving a problem more quickly when classic methods are too slow, or for finding an approximate solution when classic methods fail to find any exact solution.
In mathematics and computing, hexadecimal (also base, or hex) is a positional numeral system with a radix, or base, of 16.
The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application protocol for distributed, collaborative, and hypermedia information systems.
The International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States, with operations in over 170 countries.
AIX (Advanced Interactive eXecutive, pronounced) is a series of proprietary Unix operating systems developed and sold by IBM for several of its computer platforms.
IBM i is an operating system that runs on IBM Power Systems and on IBM PureSystems.
IBM PC DOS (an acronym for IBM personal computer disk operating system) is a discontinued operating system for the IBM Personal Computer, manufactured and sold by IBM from the early 1980s into the 2000s.
The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations.
The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link devices worldwide.
Internet Relay Chat (IRC) is an application layer protocol that facilitates communication in the form of text.
ISO/IEC 2022 Information technology—Character code structure and extension techniques, is an ISO standard (equivalent to the ECMA standard ECMA-35) specifying.
ISO/IEC 646 is the name of a set of ISO standards, described as Information technology — ISO 7-bit coded character set for information interchange and developed in cooperation with ASCII at least since 1964.
ISO/IEC 8859-1:1998, Information technology — 8-bit single-byte coded graphic character sets — Part 1: Latin alphabet No.
Java is a general-purpose computer-programming language that is concurrent, class-based, object-oriented, and specifically designed to have as few implementation dependencies as possible.
In computing, a line is a unit of organization for text files.
A line starve describes the feeding of paper in a line printer back one line or moving the cursor on a character terminal up one line.
Line breaking, also known as word wrapping, is the process of breaking a section of text into lines such that it will fit in the available width of a page, window or other display area.
Linux is a family of free and open-source software operating systems built around the Linux kernel.
Lisp machines are general-purpose computers designed to efficiently run Lisp as their main software and programming language, usually via hardware support.
This is a list of Unicode characters.
macOS (previously and later) is a series of graphical operating systems developed and marketed by Apple Inc. since 2001.
Mainframe computers (colloquially referred to as "big iron") are computers used primarily by large organizations for critical applications; bulk data processing, such as census, industry and consumer statistics, enterprise resource planning; and transaction processing.
Within Internet message handling services (MHS), a message transfer agent or mail transfer agent (MTA) or mail relay is software that transfers electronic mail messages from one computer to another using a client–server application architecture.
Notepad is a simple text editor for Microsoft Windows and a basic text-editing program which enables computer users to create documents.
Microsoft Windows is a group of several graphical operating system families, all of which are developed, marketed, and sold by Microsoft.
Morse code is a method of transmitting text information as a series of on-off tones, lights, or clicks that can be directly understood by a skilled listener or observer without special equipment.
MP/M (Multi-Programming Monitor Control Program) is a discontinued multi-user version of the CP/M operating system, created by Digital Research developer Tom Rolander in 1979.
MS-DOS (acronym for Microsoft Disk Operating System) is an operating system for x86-based personal computers mostly developed by Microsoft.
MS-DOS Editor, commonly just called edit, is a character-based text editor that comes with MS-DOS (since version 5) and 32-bit versions of Microsoft Windows.
Multics (Multiplexed Information and Computing Service) is an influential early time-sharing operating system, based around the concept of a single-level memory.
In computer science, a NOP, no-op, or NOOP (pronounced "no op"; short for no operation) is an assembly language instruction, programming language statement, or computer protocol command that does nothing.
The Oberon SystemNiklaus Wirth & Jürg Gutknecht: (1988) The Oberon System.
OpenVMS is a closed-source, proprietary computer operating system for use in general-purpose computing.
An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs.
OS-9 is a family of real-time, process-based, multitasking, multi-user operating systems, developed in the 1980s, originally by Microware Systems Corporation for the Motorola 6809 microprocessor.
OS/2 is a series of computer operating systems, initially created by Microsoft and IBM under the leadership of IBM software designer Ed Iacobucci.
OS/390 is an IBM operating system for the System/390 IBM mainframe computers.
A page is one side of a leaf (or sheet) of paper, parchment or other material (or electronic media) in a book, magazine, newspaper, or other collection of sheets, on which text or illustrations can be printed, written or drawn, to create documents.
A page break is a marker in an electronic document that tells the document interpreter that the content which follows is part of a new page.
Palm OS (also known as Garnet OS) is a discontinued mobile operating system initially developed by Palm, Inc., for personal digital assistants (PDAs) in 1996.
A paragraph (from the Ancient Greek παράγραφος paragraphos, "to write beside" or "written beside") is a self-contained unit of a discourse in writing dealing with a particular point or idea.
Perl is a family of two high-level, general-purpose, interpreted, dynamic programming languages, Perl 5 and Perl 6.
PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor (or simply PHP) is a server-side scripting language designed for Web development, but also used as a general-purpose programming language.
The pilcrow (¶), also called the paragraph mark, paragraph sign, paraph, alinea (Latin: a lineā, "off the line"), or blind P, is a typographical character for individual paragraphs.
In software engineering, porting is the process of adapting software for the purpose of achieving some form of execution in a computing environment that is different from the one that a given program (meant for such execution) was originally designed for (e.g. different CPU, operating system, or third party library).
In computing, a printer is a peripheral device which makes a persistent human-readable representation of graphics or text on paper.
Procedure signs or prosigns are shorthand signals used in radio telegraphy procedures, for the purpose of simplifying and standardizing communications related to radio operating issues among two or more radio operators.
A punched card or punch card is a piece of stiff paper that can be used to contain digital data represented by the presence or absence of holes in predefined positions.
Python is an interpreted high-level programming language for general-purpose programming.
qmail is a mail transfer agent (MTA) that runs on Unix.
QNX is a commercial Unix-like real-time operating system, aimed primarily at the embedded systems market.
Quotation marks, also called quotes, quote marks, quotemarks, speech marks, inverted commas or talking marks, are punctuation marks used in pairs in various writing systems to set off direct speech, a quotation, or a phrase.
Record Management Services (RMS) are procedures in the VMS, RSTS/E, RT-11 and high-end RSX-11 operating systems that programs may call to process files and records within files.
In computer science, a record-oriented filesystem is a file system where data is stored as collections of records.
RISC OS is a computer operating system originally designed by Acorn Computers Ltd in Cambridge, England.
RSX-11 is a discontinued family of multi-user real-time operating systems for PDP-11 computers created by Digital Equipment Corporation.
RT-11 ("RT" for real-time) is a discontinued small, single-user real-time operating system for the Digital Equipment Corporation PDP-11 family of 16-bit computers.
In computer displays, filmmaking, television production, and other kinetic displays, scrolling is sliding text, images or video across a monitor or display, vertically or horizontally.
sed (stream editor) is a Unix utility that parses and transforms text, using a simple, compact programming language.
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) is an Internet standard for electronic mail (email) transmission.
Sinclair Research Ltd is a British consumer electronics company founded by Clive Sinclair in Cambridge.
Strikethrough is a typographical presentation of words with a horizontal line through their center, resulting in: text like this.
In computer programming, a subroutine is a sequence of program instructions that performs a specific task, packaged as a unit.
Symbian is a discontinued mobile operating system (OS) and computing platform designed for smartphones.
The tab key (abbreviation of tabulator key or tabular key) on a keyboard is used to advance the cursor to the next tab stop.
A telegraphist (British English), telegrapher (American English), or telegraph operator is an operator who uses a telegraph key to send and receive the Morse code in order to communicate by land lines or radio.
A teleprinter (teletypewriter, Teletype or TTY) is an electromechanical typewriter that can be used to send and receive typed messages through various communications channels, in both point-to-point and point-to-multipoint configurations.
The Teletype Corporation, a part of American Telephone and Telegraph Company's Western Electric manufacturing arm since 1930, came into being in 1928 when the Morkrum-Kleinschmidt Company changed its name to the name of its trademark equipment.
The Teletype Model 33 is an electromechanical teleprinter designed for light-duty office.
A text editor is a type of computer program that edits plain text.
A text file (sometimes spelled "textfile"; an old alternative name is "flatfile") is a kind of computer file that is structured as a sequence of lines of electronic text.
The TOPS-10 System (Timesharing / Total Operating System-10) was a computer operating system from Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) for the PDP-10 (or DECsystem-10) mainframe computer launched in 1967.
tr is a command in Unix-like operating systems.
The TRS-80 Micro Computer System (TRS-80, later renamed the Model I to distinguish it from successors) is a desktop microcomputer launched in 1977 and sold by Tandy Corporation through their Radio Shack stores.
A typewriter is a mechanical or electromechanical machine for writing characters similar to those produced by printer's movable type.
Unicode is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding, representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems.
Unix (trademarked as UNIX) is a family of multitasking, multiuser computer operating systems that derive from the original AT&T Unix, development starting in the 1970s at the Bell Labs research center by Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, and others.
A Unix-like (sometimes referred to as UN*X or *nix) operating system is one that behaves in a manner similar to a Unix system, while not necessarily conforming to or being certified to any version of the Single UNIX Specification.
unix2dos (sometimes named todos or u2d) is a tool to convert line breaks in a text file from Unix format (Line feed) to DOS format (carriage return + Line feed) and vice versa.
UTF-8 is a variable width character encoding capable of encoding all 1,112,064 valid code points in Unicode using one to four 8-bit bytes.
In computer programming, a variable or scalar is a storage location (identified by a memory address) paired with an associated symbolic name (an identifier), which contains some known or unknown quantity of information referred to as a value.
Vim ("Vim is pronounced as one word, like Jim, not vi-ai-em. It's written with a capital, since it's a name, again like Jim." a contraction of Vi IMproved) is a clone, with additions, of Bill Joy's vi text editor program for Unix.
A web browser (commonly referred to as a browser) is a software application for accessing information on the World Wide Web.
In computer programming, white space is any character or series of characters that represent horizontal or vertical space in typography.
Windows 10 (codenamed Redstone, formerly Threshold) is a personal computer operating system developed and released by Microsoft, as part of the Windows NT family of operating systems.
Windows-1252 or CP-1252 (code page 1252) is a 1 byte character encoding of the Latin alphabet, used by default in the legacy components of Microsoft Windows in English and some other Western languages (other languages use different default encodings).
A word processor is a computer program or device that provides for input, editing, formatting and output of text, often plus other features.
WordPad is a basic word processor that is included with almost all versions of Microsoft Windows from Windows 95 onwards.
Xenix is a discontinued version of the Unix operating system for various microcomputer platforms, licensed by Microsoft from AT&T Corporation in the late 1970s.
YAML (YAML Ain't Markup Language) is a human-readable data serialization language.
z/OS is a 64-bit operating system for IBM mainframes, produced by IBM.
The ZX Spectrum is an 8-bit personal home computer released in the United Kingdom in 1982 by Sinclair Research.
The Sinclair ZX80 is a home computer brought to market in 1980 by Science of Cambridge Ltd.
The ZX81 is a home computer that was produced by Sinclair Research and manufactured in Dundee, Scotland by Timex Corporation.
/N, /R/N, /n, /r/n, 0D 0A, 0d 0a, 0x0A, 0x0a, ASCII 10, CR LF, CR/LF, CRLF, Control-J, Crlf, Ctrl-J, End of Line, End of line, End-of-line, Endl, Hard return, LF (ASCII), Line Feed, Line break (computing), Line breaking character, Line end, Line ending, Line endings, Line feed, Line separator, Line-feed, Line-feeds, Linebreak, Linefeed, New line character, New-line, Newlines, Paragraph separator, Translation mode, U+0085, \R\N, \n, \n\r, \r\n, ^J, ␊, ␍␊, ␤.