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Index Niacin

Niacin, also known as nicotinic acid, is an organic compound and a form of vitamin B3, an essential human nutrient. [1]

179 relations: ABCA1, Acute (medicine), Acute liver failure, Adipocyte, Adipokine, Adiponectin, Adipose tissue, Agaricus bisporus, American Medical Association, Amide, Amine, Amino acid, Antagonist, Apolipoprotein A1, Apolipoprotein C3, Apricot, Arizona State University, Artery, Aspirin, Atheroma, Atherosclerosis, B vitamins, Bell pepper, Biosynthesis, Birth defect, Blood sugar level, Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, Breakfast cereal, Carboxamide, Carboxylic acid, Carcinoid syndrome, Cardiovascular disease, Casal collar, Casimir Funk, Catabolism, Chemical formula, Chemokine, Cholesterylester transfer protein, Cofactor (biochemistry), Conrad Elvehjem, Contraindication, Convenience food, Cyclic adenosine monophosphate, Dehydration, Dehydrogenase, Diabetes mellitus, Dietary supplement, Downregulation and upregulation, Dyslipidemia, Endothelium, ..., Ester, European Food Safety Authority, Fatty acid, Fertilizer, Flushing (physiology), Food fortification, G protein–coupled receptor, Gastrointestinal tract, Ginger, Goodman & Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, GPER, Grain, Ground meat, Hartnup disease, Heart, Heart arrhythmia, Hepatotoxicity, Heredity, High-density lipoprotein, Hominy, Hugo Weidel, Hypercholesterolemia, Hypertension, Ibuprofen, In vitro, In vivo, Indigestion, Inositol, Interleukin, International nonproprietary name, Intestinal permeability, Iron, Itch, Joseph Goldberger, Keratinocyte, Kidney, Langerhans cell, Laropiprant, Liebigs Annalen, Lime (material), Linus Pauling Institute, Lipid-lowering agent, Liver, Liver disease, Low-density lipoprotein, Macula of retina, Maculopathy, Maize, Malnutrition, Meat, Medscape, Melatonin, Meteorite, Model organism, Modified-release dosage, Multiple sclerosis, NAD+ kinase, NASA, National Academy of Medicine, Neuroimmune system, Neuroinflammation, Niacin receptor 1, Niacin receptor 2, Nicotinamide, Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, Nicotine, Nitric acid, Nixtamalization, Nutrient, Organic compound, Pandemic, Panspermia, Parkinson's disease, Pasta, Pellagra, Pennsylvania State University, Peptic ulcer disease, Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, PH, Potato, PPARGC1B, Precursor (chemistry), Pregnancy, Prostaglandin D2, Prostaglandin receptor, Protein Data Bank, Prothrombin time, Pyridine, Pyridinecarboxylic acids, Reference Daily Intake, Retina, Rhinitis, Riboflavin, Royal Society of Chemistry, Rush University Medical Center, Samuel M. McElvain, Seafood, Serotonin, Sesame, Skipjack tuna, Spice, Spleen, Statin, Sunflower seed, Tarragon, Therapeutic index, Thiamine, Thrombosis, Tom Douglas Spies, Transaminase, Triglyceride, Tropomyosin receptor kinase B, Tryptophan, Tumor necrosis factor superfamily, Turkey as food, Vasodilation, Veal, Venison, Very low-density lipoprotein, Vitamin A, Vitamin B3, Vitamin B6, Vitamin C, Vitamin D, White blood cell, Whole food, Whole grain, 3-Methylpyridine. Expand index (129 more) »


ATP-binding cassette transporter ABCA1 (member 1 of human transporter sub-family ABCA), also known as the cholesterol efflux regulatory protein (CERP) is a protein which in humans is encoded by the ABCA1 gene.

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Acute (medicine)

In medicine, describing a disease as acute denotes that it is of short duration and, as a corollary of that, of recent onset.

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Acute liver failure

Acute liver failure is the appearance of severe complications rapidly after the first signs of liver disease (such as jaundice), and indicates that the liver has sustained severe damage (loss of function of 80–90% of liver cells).

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Adipocytes, also known as lipocytes and fat cells, are the cells that primarily compose adipose tissue, specialized in storing energy as fat.

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The adipokines, or adipocytokines (Greek adipo-, fat; cytos-, cell; and -kinos, movement) are cytokines (cell signaling proteins) secreted by adipose tissue.

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Adiponectin (also referred to as GBP-28, apM1, AdipoQ and Acrp30) is a protein hormone which is involved in regulating glucose levels as well as fatty acid breakdown.

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Adipose tissue

In biology, adipose tissue, body fat, or simply fat is a loose connective tissue composed mostly of adipocytes.

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Agaricus bisporus

Agaricus bisporus is an edible basidiomycete mushroom native to grasslands in Europe and North America.

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American Medical Association

The American Medical Association (AMA), founded in 1847 and incorporated in 1897, is the largest association of physicians—both MDs and DOs—and medical students in the United States.

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An amide (or or), also known as an acid amide, is a compound with the functional group RnE(O)xNR′2 (R and R′ refer to H or organic groups).

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In organic chemistry, amines are compounds and functional groups that contain a basic nitrogen atom with a lone pair.

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Amino acid

Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.

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An antagonist is a character, group of characters, institution or concept that stands in or represents opposition against which the protagonist(s) must contend.

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Apolipoprotein A1

Apolipoprotein A1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOA1 gene.

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Apolipoprotein C3

Apolipoprotein C-III also known as apo-CIII is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOC3 gene.

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An apricot is a fruit, or the tree that bears the fruit, of several species in the genus Prunus (stone fruits).

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Arizona State University

Arizona State University (commonly referred to as ASU or Arizona State) is a public metropolitan research university on five campuses across the Phoenix metropolitan area, and four regional learning centers throughout Arizona.

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An artery (plural arteries) is a blood vessel that takes blood away from the heart to all parts of the body (tissues, lungs, etc).

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Aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), is a medication used to treat pain, fever, or inflammation.

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An atheroma is a reversible accumulation of degenerative material in the inner layer of an artery wall.

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Atherosclerosis is a disease in which the inside of an artery narrows due to the build up of plaque.

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B vitamins

B vitamins are a class of water-soluble vitamins that play important roles in cell metabolism.

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Bell pepper

The bell pepper (also known as sweet pepper, pepper or capsicum) is a cultivar group of the species Capsicum annuum.

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Biosynthesis (also called anabolism) is a multi-step, enzyme-catalyzed process where substrates are converted into more complex products in living organisms.

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Birth defect

A birth defect, also known as a congenital disorder, is a condition present at birth regardless of its cause.

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Blood sugar level

The blood sugar level, blood sugar concentration, or blood glucose level is the amount of glucose present in the blood of humans and other animals.

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Brain-derived neurotrophic factor

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, also known as BDNF, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the BDNF gene.

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Breakfast cereal

Breakfast cereal is a food product made from processed cereal grains that is often eaten as a breakfast in primarily Western societies.

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In organic chemistry carboxamides (or amino carbonyls) are functional groups with the general structure R-CO-NR'R′′ with R, R', and R′′ as organic substituents, or hydrogen.

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Carboxylic acid

A carboxylic acid is an organic compound that contains a carboxyl group (C(.

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Carcinoid syndrome

Carcinoid syndrome is a paraneoplastic syndrome comprising the signs and symptoms that occur secondary to carcinoid tumors.

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Cardiovascular disease

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels.

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Casal collar

The Casal collar or Casal necklace is a clinical sign in which there is an erythematous pigmented skin rash in the distribution of a broad collar (dermatomes C3 and C4).

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Casimir Funk

Kazimierz Funk (February 23, 1884 – November 19, 1967 Casimir Funk A Biographical Sketch (1884–1967). Journal of Nutrition 1972 Sep;102(9):1105–13.. Available from: http://jn.nutrition.org/content/102/9/1105.full.pdf), commonly anglicized as Casimir Funk, was a Polish biochemist, generally credited with being among the first to formulate (in 1912) the concept of vitamins, which he called "vital amines" or "vitamines".

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Catabolism (from Greek κάτω kato, "downward" and βάλλειν ballein, "to throw") is the set of metabolic pathways that breaks down molecules into smaller units that are either oxidized to release energy or used in other anabolic reactions.

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Chemical formula

A chemical formula is a way of presenting information about the chemical proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound or molecule, using chemical element symbols, numbers, and sometimes also other symbols, such as parentheses, dashes, brackets, commas and plus (+) and minus (−) signs.

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Chemokines (Greek -kinos, movement) are a family of small cytokines, or signaling proteins secreted by cells.

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Cholesterylester transfer protein

Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), also called plasma lipid transfer protein, is a plasma protein that facilitates the transport of cholesteryl esters and triglycerides between the lipoproteins.

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Cofactor (biochemistry)

A cofactor is a non-protein chemical compound or metallic ion that is required for an enzyme's activity.

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Conrad Elvehjem

Conrad Arnold Elvehjem (May 27, 1901July 27, 1962) was internationally known as an American biochemist in nutrition.

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In medicine, a contraindication is a condition or factor that serves as a reason to withhold a certain medical treatment due to the harm that it would cause the patient.

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Convenience food

Convenience food, or tertiary processed food, is food that is commercially prepared (often through processing) to optimise ease of consumption.

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Cyclic adenosine monophosphate

Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP, cyclic AMP, or 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate) is a second messenger important in many biological processes.

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In physiology, dehydration is a deficit of total body water, with an accompanying disruption of metabolic processes.

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A dehydrogenase (also called DH or DHase in the literature) is an enzyme belonging to the group of oxidoreductases that oxidizes a substrate by reducing an electron acceptor, usually NAD+/NADP+ or a flavin coenzyme such as FAD or FMN.

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Diabetes mellitus

Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.

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Dietary supplement

A dietary supplement is a manufactured product intended to supplement the diet when taken by mouth as a pill, capsule, tablet, or liquid.

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Downregulation and upregulation

In the biological context of organisms' production of gene products, downregulation is the process by which a cell decreases the quantity of a cellular component, such as RNA or protein, in response to an external stimulus.

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Dyslipidemia is an abnormal amount of lipids (e.g. triglycerides, cholesterol and/or fat phospholipids) in the blood.

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Endothelium refers to cells that line the interior surface of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels, forming an interface between circulating blood or lymph in the lumen and the rest of the vessel wall.

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In chemistry, an ester is a chemical compound derived from an acid (organic or inorganic) in which at least one –OH (hydroxyl) group is replaced by an –O–alkyl (alkoxy) group.

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European Food Safety Authority

The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) is the agency of the European Union (EU) that provides independent scientific advice and communicates on existing and emerging risks associated with the food chain.

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Fatty acid

In chemistry, particularly in biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid with a long aliphatic chain, which is either saturated or unsaturated.

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A fertilizer (American English) or fertiliser (British English; see spelling differences) is any material of natural or synthetic origin (other than liming materials) that is applied to soils or to plant tissues to supply one or more plant nutrients essential to the growth of plants.

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Flushing (physiology)

For a person to flush is to become markedly red in the face and often other areas of the skin, from various physiological conditions.

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Food fortification

Food fortification or enrichment is the process of adding micronutrients (essential trace elements and vitamins) to food.

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G protein–coupled receptor

G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs), also known as seven-(pass)-transmembrane domain receptors, 7TM receptors, heptahelical receptors, serpentine receptor, and G protein–linked receptors (GPLR), constitute a large protein family of receptors that detect molecules outside the cell and activate internal signal transduction pathways and, ultimately, cellular responses.

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Gastrointestinal tract

The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.

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Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is a flowering plant whose rhizome, ginger root or simply ginger, is widely used as a spice or a folk medicine.

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Goodman & Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics

Goodman & Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, commonly referred to as the Blue Bible or Goodman & Gilman, is a textbook of pharmacology originally authored by Louis S. Goodman and Alfred Gilman.

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G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 (GPER), also known as G protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GPER gene.

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A grain is a small, hard, dry seed, with or without an attached hull or fruit layer, harvested for human or animal consumption.

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Ground meat

Ground meat (called mince or minced meat outside North America) is meat finely chopped by a meat grinder or a chopping knife.

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Hartnup disease

Hartnup disease (also known as "pellagra-like dermatosis" and "Hartnup disorder") is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder affecting the absorption of nonpolar amino acids (particularly tryptophan that can be, in turn, converted into serotonin, melatonin, and niacin).

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The heart is a muscular organ in most animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system.

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Heart arrhythmia

Heart arrhythmia (also known as arrhythmia, dysrhythmia, or irregular heartbeat) is a group of conditions in which the heartbeat is irregular, too fast, or too slow.

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Hepatotoxicity (from hepatic toxicity) implies chemical-driven liver damage.

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Heredity is the passing on of traits from parents to their offspring, either through asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction, the offspring cells or organisms acquire the genetic information of their parents.

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High-density lipoprotein

High-density lipoproteins (HDL) are one of the five major groups of lipoproteins.

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Hominy is a food produced from dried maize (corn in the U.S.) kernels that have been treated with an alkali, in a process called nixtamalization.

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Hugo Weidel

Hugo Weidel (13 November 1849 – 7 June 1899) was an Austrian chemist known for inventing Weidel's reaction and describing the structure of organic compound niacin.

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Hypercholesterolemia, also called high cholesterol, is the presence of high levels of cholesterol in the blood.

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Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.

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Ibuprofen is a medication in the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) class that is used for treating pain, fever, and inflammation.

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In vitro

In vitro (meaning: in the glass) studies are performed with microorganisms, cells, or biological molecules outside their normal biological context.

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In vivo

Studies that are in vivo (Latin for "within the living"; often not italicized in English) are those in which the effects of various biological entities are tested on whole, living organisms or cells, usually animals, including humans, and plants, as opposed to a tissue extract or dead organism.

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Indigestion, also known as dyspepsia, is a condition of impaired digestion.

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Myo-inositol, or simply inositol, is a carbocyclic sugar that is abundant in brain and other mammalian tissues, mediates cell signal transduction in response to a variety of hormones, neurotransmitters and growth factors and participates in osmoregulation It is a sugar alcohol with half the sweetness of sucrose (table sugar).

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Interleukins (ILs) are a group of cytokines (secreted proteins and signal molecules) that were first seen to be expressed by white blood cells (leukocytes).

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International nonproprietary name

The International Nonproprietary Name (INN) is an official generic and non-proprietary name given to a pharmaceutical drug or an active ingredient.

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Intestinal permeability

Intestinal permeability is a term describing the control of material passing from inside the gastrointestinal tract through the cells lining the gut wall, into the rest of the body.

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Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.

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Itch (also known as pruritus) is a sensation that causes the desire or reflex to scratch.

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Joseph Goldberger

Joseph Goldberger (Goldberger József) (July 16, 1874 – January 17, 1929) was an American physician and epidemiologist in the United States Public Health Service (PHS).

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A keratinocyte is the predominant cell type in the epidermis, the outermost layer of the skin, constituting 90% of the cells found there.

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The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.

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Langerhans cell

Langerhans cells are dendritic cells (antigen-presenting immune cells) of the skin, and contain organelles called Birbeck granules.

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Laropiprant (INN) was a drug used in combination with niacin to reduce blood cholesterol (LDL and VLDL) that is no longer sold, due to increases in side-effects with no cardiovascular benefit.

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Liebigs Annalen

Justus Liebigs Annalen der Chemie (often cited as just Liebigs Annalen) was one of the oldest and historically most important journals in the field of organic chemistry worldwide.

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Lime (material)

Lime is a calcium-containing inorganic mineral in which oxides, and hydroxides predominate.

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Linus Pauling Institute

The Linus Pauling Institute is a research institute located at the Oregon State University with a focus on health maintenance.

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Lipid-lowering agent

Hypolipidemic agents, or antihyperlipidemic agents, are a diverse group of pharmaceuticals that are used in the treatment of high levels of fats (lipids), such as cholesterol, in the blood (hyperlipidemia).

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The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.

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Liver disease

Liver disease (also called hepatic disease) is a type of damage to or disease of the liver.

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Low-density lipoprotein

Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is one of the five major groups of lipoprotein which transport all fat molecules around the body in the extracellular water.

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Macula of retina

The macula or macula lutea is an oval-shaped pigmented area near the center of the retina of the human eye and some other animalian eyes.

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A maculopathy is any pathological condition of the macula, an area at the centre of the retina that is associated with highly sensitive, accurate vision.

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Maize (Zea mays subsp. mays, from maíz after Taíno mahiz), also known as corn, is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples in southern Mexico about 10,000 years ago.

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Malnutrition is a condition that results from eating a diet in which one or more nutrients are either not enough or are too much such that the diet causes health problems.

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Meat is animal flesh that is eaten as food.

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Medscape is a website providing access to medical information for clinicians; the organization also provides continuing education for physicians and health professionals.

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Melatonin, also known as N-acetyl-5-methoxy tryptamine, is a hormone that is produced by the pineal gland in animals and regulates sleep and wakefulness.

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A meteorite is a solid piece of debris from an object, such as a comet, asteroid, or meteoroid, that originates in outer space and survives its passage through the atmosphere to reach the surface of a planet or moon.

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Model organism

A model organism is a non-human species that is extensively studied to understand particular biological phenomena, with the expectation that discoveries made in the organism model will provide insight into the workings of other organisms.

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Modified-release dosage

Modified-release dosage is a mechanism that (in contrast to immediate-release dosage) delivers a drug with a delay after its administration (delayed-release dosage) or for a prolonged period of time (extended-release dosage) or to a specific target in the body (targeted-release dosage).

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Multiple sclerosis

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease in which the insulating covers of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord are damaged.

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NAD+ kinase

NAD+ kinase (EC, NADK) is an enzyme that converts nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) into NADP+ through phosphorylating the NAD+ coenzyme.

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The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.

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National Academy of Medicine

The National Academy of Medicine (NAM), formerly called the Institute of Medicine (IoM), is an American nonprofit, non-governmental organization.

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Neuroimmune system

The neuroimmune system is a system of structures and processes involving the biochemical and electrophysiological interactions between the nervous system and immune system which protect neurons from pathogens.

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Neuroinflammation is inflammation of the nervous tissue.

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Niacin receptor 1

Hydroxycarboxylic acid receptor 2 (HCA2), also known as niacin receptor 1 (NIACR1) and GPR109A, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the HCAR2 gene.

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Niacin receptor 2

Hydroxycarboxylic acid receptor 3 (HCA3), also known as niacin receptor 2 (NIACR2) and GPR109B, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the HCAR3 gene.

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Nicotinamide (NAA), also known as niacinamide, is a form of vitamin B3 found in food and used as a dietary supplement and medication.

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Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is a coenzyme found in all living cells.

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Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, abbreviated NADP or, in older notation, TPN (triphosphopyridine nucleotide), is a cofactor used in anabolic reactions, such as lipid and nucleic acid synthesis, which require NADPH as a reducing agent.

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Nicotine is a potent parasympathomimetic stimulant and an alkaloid found in the nightshade family of plants.

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Nitric acid

Nitric acid (HNO3), also known as aqua fortis (Latin for "strong water") and spirit of niter, is a highly corrosive mineral acid.

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Nixtamalization typically refers to a process for the preparation of maize (corn), or other grain, in which the corn is soaked and cooked in an alkaline solution, usually limewater (but sometimes wood ash lye) washed, and then hulled.

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A nutrient is a substance used by an organism to survive, grow, and reproduce.

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Organic compound

In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.

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A pandemic (from Greek πᾶν pan "all" and δῆμος demos "people") is an epidemic of infectious disease that has spread across a large region; for instance multiple continents, or even worldwide.

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Panspermia is the hypothesis that life exists throughout the Universe, distributed by space dust, meteoroids, asteroids, comets, planetoids, and also by spacecraft carrying unintended contamination by microorganisms.

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Parkinson's disease

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a long-term degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects the motor system.

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Pasta is a staple food of traditional Italian cuisine, with the first reference dating to 1154 in Sicily.

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Pellagra is a disease caused by a lack of the vitamin niacin (vitamin B3).

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Pennsylvania State University

The Pennsylvania State University (commonly referred to as Penn State or PSU) is a state-related, land-grant, doctoral university with campuses and facilities throughout Pennsylvania.

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Peptic ulcer disease

Peptic ulcer disease (PUD) is a break in the lining of the stomach, first part of the small intestine or occasionally the lower esophagus.

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Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ or PPARG), also known as the glitazone receptor, or NR1C3 (nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group C, member 3) is a type II nuclear receptor that in humans is encoded by the PPARG gene.

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In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.

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The potato is a starchy, tuberous crop from the perennial nightshade Solanum tuberosum.

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Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-beta is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PPARGC1B gene.

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Precursor (chemistry)

In chemistry, a precursor is a compound that participates in a chemical reaction that produces another compound.

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Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman.

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Prostaglandin D2

Prostaglandin D2 (or PGD2) is a prostaglandin that binds to the receptor PTGDR (DP1), as well as CRTH2 (DP2).

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Prostaglandin receptor

Prostaglandin receptors or prostanoid receptors represent a sub-class of cell surface membrane receptors that are regarded as the primary receptors for one or more of the classical, naturally occurring prostanoids viz., prostaglandin D2, (i.e. PGD2), PGE2, PGF2alpha, prostacyclin (PGI2), thromboxane A2 (TXA2), and PGH2.

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Protein Data Bank

The Protein Data Bank (PDB) is a crystallographic database for the three-dimensional structural data of large biological molecules, such as proteins and nucleic acids.

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Prothrombin time

The prothrombin time (PT)—along with its derived measures of prothrombin ratio (PR) and international normalized ratio (INR)—are assays evaluating the extrinsic pathway of coagulation.

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Pyridine is a basic heterocyclic organic compound with the chemical formula C5H5N.

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Pyridinecarboxylic acids

Pyridinecarboxylic acids are a family of three compounds, consisting of a pyridine ring and a carboxyl group.

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Reference Daily Intake

The Reference Daily Intake (RDI) is the daily intake level of a nutrient that is considered to be sufficient to meet the requirements of 97–98% of healthy individuals in every demographic in the United States.

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The retina is the innermost, light-sensitive "coat", or layer, of shell tissue of the eye of most vertebrates and some molluscs.

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Rhinitis, also known as coryza, is irritation and inflammation of the mucous membrane inside the nose.

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Riboflavin, also known as vitamin B2, is a vitamin found in food and used as a dietary supplement.

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Royal Society of Chemistry

The Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) is a learned society (professional association) in the United Kingdom with the goal of "advancing the chemical sciences".

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Rush University Medical Center

Rush University Medical Center is an academic medical center located in Chicago, Illinois, with a patient capacity of 664.

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Samuel M. McElvain

Samuel Marion McElvain (December 9, 1897 – April 11, 1973) was an American chemist.

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Seafood is any form of sea life regarded as food by humans.

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Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter.

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Sesame (Sesamum indicum) is a flowering plant in the genus Sesamum, also called benne.

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Skipjack tuna

The skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) is a medium-sized perciform fish in the tuna family, Scombridae.

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A spice is a seed, fruit, root, bark, or other plant substance primarily used for flavoring, coloring or preserving food.

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The spleen is an organ found in virtually all vertebrates.

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Statins, also known as HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, are a class of lipid-lowering medications.

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Sunflower seed

The sunflower seed is the fruit of the sunflower (Helianthus annuus).

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Tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus), also known as estragon, is a species of perennial herb in the sunflower family.

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Therapeutic index

The therapeutic index (TI; also referred to as therapeutic ratio) is a comparison of the amount of a therapeutic agent that causes the therapeutic effect to the amount that causes toxicity.

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Thiamine, also known as thiamin or vitamin B1, is a vitamin found in food, and manufactured as a dietary supplement and medication.

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Thrombosis (from Ancient Greek θρόμβωσις thrómbōsis "clotting”) is the formation of a blood clot inside a blood vessel, obstructing the flow of blood through the circulatory system.

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Tom Douglas Spies


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Transaminases or aminotransferases are enzymes that catalyze a transamination reaction between an amino acid and an α-keto acid.

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A triglyceride (TG, triacylglycerol, TAG, or triacylglyceride) is an ester derived from glycerol and three fatty acids (from tri- and glyceride).

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Tropomyosin receptor kinase B

Tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB), also known as tyrosine receptor kinase B, or BDNF/NT-3 growth factors receptor or neurotrophic tyrosine kinase, receptor, type 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NTRK2 gene.

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Tryptophan (symbol Trp or W) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.

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Tumor necrosis factor superfamily

The tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily is a protein superfamily of type II transmembrane proteins containing TNF homology domain and forming trimers.

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Turkey as food

Turkey meat, commonly referred to as just turkey, is the meat from turkeys, typically domesticated turkeys.

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Vasodilation is the widening of blood vessels.

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Veal is the meat of calves, in contrast to the beef from older cattle.

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Venison is the meat of a deer.

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Very low-density lipoprotein

Very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), density relative to extracellular water, is a type of lipoprotein made by the liver.

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Vitamin A

Vitamin A is a group of unsaturated nutritional organic compounds that includes retinol, retinal, retinoic acid, and several provitamin A carotenoids (most notably beta-carotene).

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Vitamin B3

Vitamin B3, also known as vitamin B3 complex, is vitamin that includes three forms: nicotinamide (niacinamide), niacin (nicotinic acid), and nicotinamide riboside.

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Vitamin B6

Vitamin B6 refers to a group of chemically similar compounds which can be interconverted in biological systems.

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Vitamin C

Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid and L-ascorbic acid, is a vitamin found in food and used as a dietary supplement.

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Vitamin D

Vitamin D is a group of fat-soluble secosteroids responsible for increasing intestinal absorption of calcium, magnesium, and phosphate, and multiple other biological effects.

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White blood cell

White blood cells (WBCs), also called leukocytes or leucocytes, are the cells of the immune system that are involved in protecting the body against both infectious disease and foreign invaders.

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Whole food

Whole foods are plant foods that are unprocessed and unrefined, or processed and refined as little as possible, before being consumed.

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Whole grain

A whole grain is a grain of any cereal and pseudocereal that contains the endosperm, germ, and bran, in contrast to refined grains, which retain only the endosperm.

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3-Methylpyridine or 3-picoline, is an organic compound with formula 3-CH3C5H4N.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Niacin

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