459 relations: Abortion in Nicaragua, Academic degree, Act of Independence of Central America, Adolfo Díaz, Afro-Latin Americans, Afro-Nicaraguan, Agritourism, Agroforestry, ALBA, Alexis Argüello, Amazon rainforest, American Revolutionary War, Amerrisque Mountains, Anahuac (Aztec), Anastasio Somoza Debayle, Anastasio Somoza García, Andes, Anglicanism, Anteater, Antigua and Barbuda, Apoyo Lagoon Natural Reserve, Arawak, Arawakan languages, Archipelago of San Andrés, Providencia and Santa Catalina, Armenians, Arnoldo Alemán, Arturo Cruz, Association football, Augusto César Sandino, Autonomous administrative division, Avocado, Aztecs, Bachata (dance), Bachata (music), Baseball, Battle of San Fernando de Omoa, BBC News, Bibliography of Nicaragua, Biodiversity hotspot, Birth rate, Bixa orellana, Bluefields, Boaco, Boaco Department, Bolivia, Bonanza, North Caribbean Coast Autonomous Region, Bosawás Biosphere Reserve, Boxing, Brian Willson, Broad Front for Democracy, ..., Bryan–Chamorro Treaty, Buddhism, Bull shark, Business Anti-Corruption Portal, Cacaopera people, Cacique, California Gold Rush, Camping, Canada, Captaincy General of Guatemala, Carazo Department, Caribbean, Caribbean Lowlands, Caribbean Plate, Carlos Fonseca, Carlos Martínez Rivas, Cassava, Catholic Church, Cayman Islands, Central America, Central America Volcanic Arc, Central Intelligence Agency, Central Time Zone, Cerro Negro, Chiapas, Chibchan languages, Chicha, Child care, Chinandega, Chinandega Department, Chinese Nicaraguans, Cholula (Mesoamerican site), Chontales Department, Christian denomination, Christopher Columbus, Claribel Alegría, Climbing, Cloud forest, Coco River, Coconut, Coconut milk, Cocos Plate, Colin Powell, Colombia, Computer, Computer science, Concepción (volcano), Confidencial, Conquistador, Conscription, Conservative Party (Nicaragua), Constitution of Nicaragua, Constitutional republic, Constitutionalist Liberal Party, Contras, Cooking banana, Coordinadora Democrática 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Abortion in Nicaragua is completely illegal.
An academic degree is a qualification awarded to students upon successful completion of a course of study in higher education, normally at a college or university.
The Act of Independence of Central America, also known as the Act of Independence of Guatemala, is the legal document by which the Provincial Council of the Province of Guatemala proclaimed the independence of Central America from the Spanish Empire and invited the other provinces of the Captaincy General of Guatemala to send envoys to a congress to decide the form of the region's independence.
Adolfo Díaz Recinos (15 July 1875 Alajuela, Costa Rica – 29 January 1964, San José, Costa Rica) was the 12th President of Nicaragua between 9 May 1911 and 1 January 1917 and 18th between 14 November 1926 and 1 January 1929.
Afro-Latin Americans or Black Latin Americans refers to Latin American people of significant African ancestry.
Afro-Nicaraguans are Nicaraguans of African descent in Nicaragua.
Agritourism or agrotourism, as it is defined most broadly, involves any agriculturally based operation or activity that brings visitors to a farm or ranch.
Agroforestry is a land use management system in which trees or shrubs are grown around or among crops or pastureland.
ALBA or ALBA-TCP, formally the Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America (Alianza Bolivariana para los Pueblos de Nuestra América) or the Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America - Peoples’ Trade Treaty (Alianza Bolivariana para los Pueblos de Nuestra América - Tratado de Comercio de los Pueblos), is an intergovernmental organization based on the idea of the social, political and economic integration of the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean.
Alexis Argüello (April 19, 1952 – July 1, 2009) was a Nicaraguan professional boxer who competed from 1968 to 1995, and later became a politician.
The Amazon rainforest (Portuguese: Floresta Amazônica or Amazônia; Selva Amazónica, Amazonía or usually Amazonia; Forêt amazonienne; Amazoneregenwoud), also known in English as Amazonia or the Amazon Jungle, is a moist broadleaf forest in the Amazon biome that covers most of the Amazon basin of South America.
The American Revolutionary War (17751783), also known as the American War of Independence, was a global war that began as a conflict between Great Britain and its Thirteen Colonies which declared independence as the United States of America. After 1765, growing philosophical and political differences strained the relationship between Great Britain and its colonies. Patriot protests against taxation without representation followed the Stamp Act and escalated into boycotts, which culminated in 1773 with the Sons of Liberty destroying a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor. Britain responded by closing Boston Harbor and passing a series of punitive measures against Massachusetts Bay Colony. Massachusetts colonists responded with the Suffolk Resolves, and they established a shadow government which wrested control of the countryside from the Crown. Twelve colonies formed a Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance, establishing committees and conventions that effectively seized power. British attempts to disarm the Massachusetts militia at Concord, Massachusetts in April 1775 led to open combat. Militia forces then besieged Boston, forcing a British evacuation in March 1776, and Congress appointed George Washington to command the Continental Army. Concurrently, an American attempt to invade Quebec and raise rebellion against the British failed decisively. On July 2, 1776, the Continental Congress voted for independence, issuing its declaration on July 4. Sir William Howe launched a British counter-offensive, capturing New York City and leaving American morale at a low ebb. However, victories at Trenton and Princeton restored American confidence. In 1777, the British launched an invasion from Quebec under John Burgoyne, intending to isolate the New England Colonies. Instead of assisting this effort, Howe took his army on a separate campaign against Philadelphia, and Burgoyne was decisively defeated at Saratoga in October 1777. Burgoyne's defeat had drastic consequences. France formally allied with the Americans and entered the war in 1778, and Spain joined the war the following year as an ally of France but not as an ally of the United States. In 1780, the Kingdom of Mysore attacked the British in India, and tensions between Great Britain and the Netherlands erupted into open war. In North America, the British mounted a "Southern strategy" led by Charles Cornwallis which hinged upon a Loyalist uprising, but too few came forward. Cornwallis suffered reversals at King's Mountain and Cowpens. He retreated to Yorktown, Virginia, intending an evacuation, but a decisive French naval victory deprived him of an escape. A Franco-American army led by the Comte de Rochambeau and Washington then besieged Cornwallis' army and, with no sign of relief, he surrendered in October 1781. Whigs in Britain had long opposed the pro-war Tories in Parliament, and the surrender gave them the upper hand. In early 1782, Parliament voted to end all offensive operations in North America, but the war continued in Europe and India. Britain remained under siege in Gibraltar but scored a major victory over the French navy. On September 3, 1783, the belligerent parties signed the Treaty of Paris in which Great Britain agreed to recognize the sovereignty of the United States and formally end the war. French involvement had proven decisive,Brooks, Richard (editor). Atlas of World Military History. HarperCollins, 2000, p. 101 "Washington's success in keeping the army together deprived the British of victory, but French intervention won the war." but France made few gains and incurred crippling debts. Spain made some minor territorial gains but failed in its primary aim of recovering Gibraltar. The Dutch were defeated on all counts and were compelled to cede territory to Great Britain. In India, the war against Mysore and its allies concluded in 1784 without any territorial changes.
The Amerrisque Mountains (Serranías de Amerrisque, Cordillera de Amerrisque) are the central spine of Nicaragua and part of the Central American Range which extends throughout central Nicaragua for about 700 km (436 mi) from Honduras in the NW to Costa Rica in the SW, just a few miles from the Caribbean.
Anahuac, 1.5 miles above sea level between 19° and 20° north latitude and 98°45’ to 99°20’ west longitude, is the ancient core of Mexico.
Anastasio "Tachito" Somoza DeBayle (5 December 1925 – 17 September 1980) was a Nicaraguan politician and officially the 73rd and 76th President of Nicaragua from 1 May 1967 to 1 May 1972 and from 1 December 1974 to 17 July 1979.
Anastasio Somoza García (1 February 1896 – 29 September 1956) was officially the 21st President of Nicaragua from 1 January 1937 to 1 May 1947 and from 21 May 1950 to 29 September 1956, but ruled effectively as dictator from 1936 until his assassination.
The Andes or Andean Mountains (Cordillera de los Andes) are the longest continental mountain range in the world.
Anglicanism is a Western Christian tradition that evolved out of the practices, liturgy and identity of the Church of England following the Protestant Reformation.
Anteater is a common name for the four extant mammal species of the suborder Vermilingua (meaning "worm tongue") commonly known for eating ants and termites.
Antigua and Barbuda is a sovereign state in the West Indies in the Americas, lying between the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean.
Laguna de Apoyo Nature Reserve (Spanish: Reserva Natural Laguna de Apoyo) is a nature reserve located between the departments of Masaya and Granada in Nicaragua.
The Arawak are a group of indigenous peoples of South America and of the Caribbean.
Arawakan (Arahuacan, Maipuran Arawakan, "mainstream" Arawakan, Arawakan proper), also known as Maipurean (also Maipuran, Maipureano, Maipúre), is a language family that developed among ancient indigenous peoples in South America.
Archipelago of San Andrés, Providencia and Santa Catalina (Archipiélago de San Andrés, Providencia y Santa Catalina), or, in everyday language, San Andrés y Providencia, is one of the departments of Colombia.
Armenians (հայեր, hayer) are an ethnic group native to the Armenian Highlands.
José Arnoldo Alemán Lacayo (born January 23, 1947) was the 81st President of Nicaragua from January 10, 1997 to January 10, 2002.
Arturo José Cruz Porras (December 18, 1923 – July 9, 2013), sometimes called Arturo Cruz, Sr. to distinguish him from his son, was a Nicaraguan banker and technocrat.
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.
Augusto C. Sandino (May 18, 1895 February 21, 1934), also known as Augusto Nicolás Calderón Sandino, was a Nicaraguan revolutionary and leader of a rebellion between 1927 and 1933 against the U.S. military occupation of Nicaragua.
An autonomous administrative division (also referred to as an autonomous area, entity, unit, region, subdivision, or territory) is a subdivision or dependent territory of a country that has a degree of self-governance, or autonomy, from an external authority.
The avocado (Persea americana) is a tree, long thought to have originated in South Central Mexico, classified as a member of the flowering plant family Lauraceae.
The Aztecs were a Mesoamerican culture that flourished in central Mexico in the post-classic period from 1300 to 1521.
Bachata is a style of social dance from the Dominican Republic which is now danced all over the world.
Bachata is a genre of Latin American music that originated in the Dominican Republic in the first half of the 20th century with European, Indigenous, and African musical elements.
Baseball is a bat-and-ball game played between two opposing teams who take turns batting and fielding.
The Battle of San Fernando de Omoa was a short siege and battle between British and Spanish forces fought not long after Spain entered the American Revolutionary War on the American side.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
This is a bibliography of selected works about Nicaragua.
A biodiversity hotspot is a biogeographic region with significant levels of biodiversity that is threatened with destruction.
The birth rate (technically, births/population rate) is the total number of live births per 1,000 in a population in a year or period.
Achiote (Bixa orellana) is a shrub or small tree originating from the tropical region of the Americas.
Bluefields is the capital of the South Caribbean Autonomous Region (RACS) in Nicaragua.
Boaco is the capital city and municipality of the Boaco Department of Nicaragua.
Boaco is a department in Nicaragua.
Bolivia (Mborivia; Buliwya; Wuliwya), officially known as the Plurinational State of Bolivia (Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia), is a landlocked country located in western-central South America.
Bonanza, Nicaragua is a municipality in the North Caribbean Coast Autonomous Region of Nicaragua.
The Bosawás Biosphere Reserve in the northern part of state Jinotega (border with Honduras), Nicaragua is a hilly tropical forest designated in 1997 as a UNESCO biosphere reserve.
Boxing is a combat sport in which two people, usually wearing protective gloves, throw punches at each other for a predetermined set of time in a boxing ring.
The Broad Front for Democracy (Frente Amplio por la Democracia) was a Panamanian political party founded in 2013.
The Bryan–Chamorro Treaty was signed between Nicaragua and The United States on August 5, 1914.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
The bull shark (Carcharhinus leucas), also known as the Zambezi shark (informally "zambi") in Africa, and Lake Nicaragua shark in Nicaragua, is a requiem shark commonly found worldwide in warm, shallow waters along coasts and in rivers.
The Business Anti-Corruption Portal (BACP) is a one-stop shop for business anti-corruption information offering tools on how to mitigate risks and costs of corruption when doing business abroad.
The Cacaopera people were an indigenous people in El Salvador.
A cacique (feminine form: cacica) is a leader of an indigenous group, derived from the Taíno word kasikɛ for the pre-Columbian tribal chiefs in the Bahamas, the Greater Antilles, and the northern Lesser Antilles.
The California Gold Rush (1848–1855) began on January 24, 1848, when gold was found by James W. Marshall at Sutter's Mill in Coloma, California.
Camping is an outdoor activity involving overnight stays away from home in a shelter, such as a tent.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
The Captaincy General of Guatemala (Capitanía General de Guatemala), also known as the Kingdom of Guatemala (Spanish: Reino de Guatemala), was an administrative division of the Spanish Empire, under the viceroyalty of New Spain in Central America, including the present-day nations of Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, El Salvador, Belize and Guatemala, and the Mexican state of Chiapas.
Carazo is a department in Nicaragua.
The Caribbean is a region that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands (some surrounded by the Caribbean Sea and some bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean) and the surrounding coasts.
The Caribbean Lowlands are a plains region along eastern areas of Central American nations.
The Caribbean Plate is a mostly oceanic tectonic plate underlying Central America and the Caribbean Sea off the north coast of South America.
Carlos Fonseca Amador (June 23, 1936 – November 8, 1976) was a Nicaraguan teacher and librarian who founded the Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN).
Carlos Martínez Rivas was a Nicaraguan poet, most famous for his poem "El paraíso recobrado" ("The recovered paradise"), a love poem first published in 1944.
Manihot esculenta, commonly called cassava, manioc, yuca, mandioca and Brazilian arrowroot, is a woody shrub native to South America of the spurge family, Euphorbiaceae.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The Cayman Islands is an autonomous British Overseas Territory in the western Caribbean Sea.
Central America (América Central, Centroamérica) is the southernmost, isthmian portion of the North American continent, which connects with the South American continent on the southeast.
The Central American Volcanic Arc (often abbreviated to CAVA) is a chain of volcanoes which extends parallel to the Pacific coast line of the Central American Isthmus, from Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and down to northern Panama.
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).
The North American Central Time Zone (CT) is a time zone in parts of Canada, the United States, Mexico, Central America, some Caribbean Islands, and part of the Eastern Pacific Ocean.
Cerro Negro is an active volcano in the Cordillera de los Maribios mountain range in Nicaragua, about 10 km from the village of Malpaisillo.
Chiapas, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Chiapas (Estado Libre y Soberano de Chiapas), is one of the 31 states that with Mexico City make up the 32 federal entities of Mexico.
The Chibchan languages (also Chibchan, Chibchano) make up a language family indigenous to the Isthmo-Colombian Area, which extends from eastern Honduras to northern Colombia and includes populations of these countries as well as Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama.
In South and Central America, chicha is a fermented (alcoholic) or non-fermented beverage usually derived from grains, maize, or fruit.
Child care, or otherwise known as daycare, is the care and supervision of a child or multiple children at a time.
Chinandega is a city and the departmental seat of Chinandega department (4,822.42 km2) in Nicaragua.
Chinandega is a department in Nicaragua, located on the border with Honduras.
Chinese Nicaraguan (Simplified Chinese: 尼加拉瓜华人 Pinyin: níjiālāguā huá rén Spanish: sino-nicaragüenses) are Nicaraguans of Chinese ancestry who immigrated to or born in Nicaragua.
Cholula (Cholōllān) (Spanish) was an important city of pre-Columbian Mesoamerica, dating back to at least the 2nd century BCE, with settlement as a village going back at least some thousand years earlier.
Chontales is a department in Nicaragua.
A Christian denomination is a distinct religious body within Christianity, identified by traits such as a name, organisation, leadership and doctrine.
Christopher Columbus (before 31 October 145120 May 1506) was an Italian explorer, navigator, and colonizer.
Clara Isabel Alegría Vides (May 12, 1924 – January 25, 2018), also known by her pseudonym Claribel Alegría, was a Nicaraguan-Salvadoran poet, essayist, novelist, and journalist who was a major voice in the literature of contemporary Central America.
Climbing is the activity of using one's hands, feet, or any other part of the body to ascend a steep object.
A cloud forest, also called a water forest, is a generally tropical or subtropical, evergreen, montane, moist forest characterized by a persistent, frequent or seasonal low-level cloud cover, usually at the canopy level, formally described in the International Cloud Atlas (2017) as silvagenitus.
The Río Coco, formerly known as the Río Segovia, Cape River, or Yara River, is a river in southern Honduras and northern Nicaragua.
The coconut tree (Cocos nucifera) is a member of the family Arecaceae (palm family) and the only species of the genus Cocos.
Coconut milk is the liquid that comes from the grated meat of a mature coconut.
The Cocos Plate is a young oceanic tectonic plate beneath the Pacific Ocean off the west coast of Central America, named for Cocos Island, which rides upon it.
Colin Luther Powell (born April 5, 1937) is an American statesman and a retired four-star general in the United States Army.
Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia, is a sovereign state largely situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America.
A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically via computer programming.
Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information and computation, together with practical techniques for the implementation and application of these foundations.
Concepción is one of two volcanoes (along with Maderas) that form the island of Ometepe, which is situated in Lake Nicaragua in Nicaragua, Central America.
Confidencial is a Nicaraguan weekly newspaper, with offices in the capital Managua.
Conquistadors (from Spanish or Portuguese conquistadores "conquerors") is a term used to refer to the soldiers and explorers of the Spanish Empire or the Portuguese Empire in a general sense.
Conscription, sometimes called the draft, is the compulsory enlistment of people in a national service, most often a military service.
The Conservative Party is a conservative political party in Nicaragua.
The Constitution of Nicaragua was reformed due to a negotiation of the executive and legislative branches in 1995.
A Constitutional republic is a republic that operates under a system of separation of powers, where both the chief executive and members of the legislature are elected by the citizens and must govern within an existing written constitution.
The Constitutionalist Liberal Party (Partido Liberal Constitucionalista, PLC.) is an opposition political party in Nicaragua.
The Contras were the various U.S.-backed and funded right-wing rebel groups that were active from 1979 to the early 1990s in opposition to the socialist Sandinista Junta of National Reconstruction government in Nicaragua.
Cooking bananas are banana cultivars in the genus Musa whose fruits are generally used in cooking.
The Coordinadora Democrática Nicaragüense (Democratic Coordinating Committee, CDN) was a coalition of three right-wing Nicaraguan parties which boycotted the Nicaraguan general election, 1984.
Cordillera de Maribios (or Cordillera de Marrabios) is a mountain range in León and Chinandega departments, western Nicaragua, at and about 64.4 km (40 mi) long.
Coriander (Coriandrum sativum), also known as cilantro or Chinese parsley, is an annual herb in the family Apiaceae.
Corinto is a town of 16,624 (2005 population) on the northwest Pacific coast of Nicaragua in the province of Chinandega.
The Corn Islands (Las Islas del Maíz) are two islands about east of the Caribbean coast of Nicaragua, constituting one of 12 municipalities of the South Caribbean Coast Autonomous Region.
Cosigüina (also spelt Cosegüina) is a stratovolcano located in the western part of Nicaragua.
Costa Rica ("Rich Coast"), officially the Republic of Costa Rica (República de Costa Rica), is a country in Central America, bordered by Nicaragua to the north, Panama to the southeast, the Pacific Ocean to the west, the Caribbean Sea to the east, and Ecuador to the south of Cocos Island.
Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos.
The culture of Europe is rooted in the art, architecture, music, literature, and philosophy that originated from the continent of Europe.
Music and religious icons in Iberian culture and Amerindian sounds and flavors.
Cumbia folkloric rhythm and dance from Colombia.
Dance music is music composed specifically to facilitate or accompany dancing.
Danes (danskere) are a nation and a Germanic ethnic group native to Denmark, who speak Danish and share the common Danish culture.
José Daniel Ortega Saavedra (born November 11, 1945) is a Nicaraguan politician serving as President of Nicaragua since 2007; previously he was leader of Nicaragua from 1979 to 1990, first as Coordinator of the Junta of National Reconstruction (1979–1985) and then as President (1985–1990).
Decapitation is the complete separation of the head from the body.
Deer (singular and plural) are the ruminant mammals forming the family Cervidae.
In 2011, the Syrian population was estimated at roughly 23 million permanent inhabitants, including people with refugee status from Palestine and Iraq and are an overall indigenous Levantine people.
José Dennis Martínez Ortíz (born May 14, 1955), nicknamed "El Presidente" (The President), is a former Major League Baseball pitcher.
Dennis Martínez National Stadium (Estadio Nacional Dennis Martínez) is located in Managua, Nicaragua.
A department is an administrative or political subdivision in many countries.
Diriangen was the tribal leader of the Chorotegas of Nicaragua.
Dominica (Island Carib), officially the Commonwealth of Dominica, is an island republic in the West Indies.
The Dominican Republic (República Dominicana) is a sovereign state located in the island of Hispaniola, in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean region.
Eagle is the common name for many large birds of prey of the family Accipitridae.
The Nicaraguan Ecocanal is a proposed project in Nicaragua to build a shallow-draft waterway connecting the inland Lake of Nicaragua with the Caribbean Sea via the San Juan river in the south of the country.
An ecosystem is a community made up of living organisms and nonliving components such as air, water, and mineral soil.
Ecotourism is a form of tourism involving visiting fragile, pristine, and relatively undisturbed natural areas, intended as a low-impact and often small scale alternative to standard commercial mass tourism.
El Güegüense (also known as Macho Ratón) is a satirical drama and was the first literary work of post-Columbian Nicaragua.
El Nuevo Diario is a Nicaraguan newspaper, with offices in the capital Managua.
El Ostional is a coastal town on the Pacific Ocean, in the municipality of San Juan del Sur and Rivas department in south-west Nicaragua.
El Rama is a municipality in the South Caribbean Coast Autonomous Region of Nicaragua.
El Salvador, officially the Republic of El Salvador (República de El Salvador, literally "Republic of The Savior"), is the smallest and the most densely populated country in Central America.
Elections in Nicaragua gives information on elections and election results in Nicaragua.
Electoral fraud, election manipulation, or vote rigging is illegal interference with the process of an election, whether by increasing the vote share of the favored candidate, depressing the vote share of the rival candidates, or both.
Electronics is the discipline dealing with the development and application of devices and systems involving the flow of electrons in a vacuum, in gaseous media, and in semiconductors.
Embezzlement is the act of withholding assets for the purpose of conversion (theft) of such assets, by one or more persons to whom the assets were entrusted, either to be held or to be used for specific purposes.
The emerald toucanet or northern emerald toucanet (Aulacorhynchus prasinus) is a species of near-passerine bird in the Ramphastidae family occurring in mountainous regions of Mexico and Central America.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
The English are a nation and an ethnic group native to England who speak the English language. The English identity is of early medieval origin, when they were known in Old English as the Angelcynn ("family of the Angles"). Their ethnonym is derived from the Angles, one of the Germanic peoples who migrated to Great Britain around the 5th century AD. England is one of the countries of the United Kingdom, and the majority of people living there are British citizens. Historically, the English population is descended from several peoples the earlier Celtic Britons (or Brythons) and the Germanic tribes that settled in Britain following the withdrawal of the Romans, including Angles, Saxons, Jutes and Frisians. Collectively known as the Anglo-Saxons, they founded what was to become England (from the Old English Englaland) along with the later Danes, Anglo-Normans and other groups. In the Acts of Union 1707, the Kingdom of England was succeeded by the Kingdom of Great Britain. Over the years, English customs and identity have become fairly closely aligned with British customs and identity in general. Today many English people have recent forebears from other parts of the United Kingdom, while some are also descended from more recent immigrants from other European countries and from the Commonwealth. The English people are the source of the English language, the Westminster system, the common law system and numerous major sports such as cricket, football, rugby union, rugby league and tennis. These and other English cultural characteristics have spread worldwide, in part as a result of the former British Empire.
An English-based creole language (often shortened to English creole) is a creole language derived from the English language, for which English is the lexifier.
Enrique José Bolaños Geyer (born May 13, 1928) was the President of Nicaragua from January 10, 2002 to January 10, 2007.
Ernesto Cardenal Martínez (born 20 January 1925) is a Nicaraguan former Catholic priest, poet, and politician.
Escondido (Río Escondido) is a river in southeastern Nicaragua.
Estelí, officially Villa de San Antonio de Pavia de Estelí is a city and municipality within the Estelí department.
Estelí is a department of Nicaragua.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
Evangelicalism, evangelical Christianity, or evangelical Protestantism, is a worldwide, crossdenominational movement within Protestant Christianity which maintains the belief that the essence of the Gospel consists of the doctrine of salvation by grace through faith in Jesus Christ's atonement.
Everth Cabrera (born November 17, 1986) is a Nicaraguan professional baseball infielder for the Leones de Yucatán of the Mexican Baseball League.
The executive is the organ exercising authority in and holding responsibility for the governance of a state.
A hereditary dictatorship, or family dictatorship, in political science terms a personalistic regime, is a form of dictatorship that occurs in a nominally or formally republican or socialist regime, but operates in practice like an absolute monarchy or despotate, in that political power passes within the dictator's family.
The Federal Republic of Central America (República Federal de Centroamérica), also called the United Provinces of Central America (Provincias Unidas del Centro de América) in its first year of creation, was a sovereign state in Central America consisting of the territories of the former Captaincy General of Guatemala of New Spain.
The Federal Research Division (FRD) is the research and analysis unit of the United States Library of Congress.
A fern is a member of a group of vascular plants that reproduce via spores and have neither seeds nor flowers.
A fiddle is a bowed string musical instrument, most often a violin.
A filibuster or freebooter, in the context of foreign policy, is someone who engages in an (at least nominally) unauthorized military expedition into a foreign country or territory to foment or support a revolution.
The Mexican Empire (Imperio Mexicano) was a short-lived monarchy and the first independent post-colonial state in Mexico.
A foreign direct investment (FDI) is an investment in the form of a controlling ownership in a business in one country by an entity based in another country.
The foreign policy of the Ronald Reagan administration was the foreign policy of the United States from 1981 to 1989.
The Fortress of the Immaculate Conception, (Spanish: El Castillo de la Inmaculada Concepción) is a fortification located on the southern bank of the San Juan River (Río San Juan), in the village of El Castillo in southern Nicaragua.
Francisco Hernández de Córdoba (1475 ? - 1526) is usually reputed as the founder of Nicaragua, and in fact he founded two important Nicaraguan cities, Granada and León.
The French (Français) are a Latin European ethnic group and nation who are identified with the country of France.
Gallo pinto or gallopinto is a traditional dish of Nicaragua, made with rice and red or black beans.
The Garifuna (Pardo) (pl. Garinagu in Garifuna) are Indigenous of mixed-race descendants of West African, Central African, Island Carib, European, and Arawak people.
Garifuna (Karif) is a minority language widely spoken in villages of Garifuna people in the western part of the northern coast of Central America.
Wrong info! --> A gendarmerie or gendarmery is a military component with jurisdiction in civil law enforcement.
Geophysics is a subject of natural science concerned with the physical processes and physical properties of the Earth and its surrounding space environment, and the use of quantitative methods for their analysis.
German Nicaraguan is a Nicaraguan having German ancestries or a German naturalized Nicaraguan.
Germans (Deutsche) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry, culture and history.
Gil González Dávila or Gil González de Ávila was a Spanish Conquistador and the first European to arrive in present-day Nicaragua.
Gioconda Belli (born December 9, 1948 in Managua, Nicaragua) is a Nicaraguan author, novelist and poet.
Nicaragua is a country in Central America with constitutional democracy with executive, legislative, judicial, and electoral branches of government.
Granada is the capital city of the province of Granada, in the autonomous community of Andalusia, Spain.
Granada is a department in Nicaragua.
Granada is a city in western Nicaragua and the capital of the Granada Department.
Guatemala City (Ciudad de Guatemala), locally known as Guatemala or Guate, officially Nueva Guatemala de la Asunción (New Guatemala of the Assumption), is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Guatemala, and the most populous in Central America.
The guinea pig or domestic guinea pig (Cavia porcellus), also known as cavy or domestic cavy, is a species of rodent belonging to the family Caviidae and the genus Cavia.
The Gulf of Fonseca (Golfo de Fonseca), part of the Pacific Ocean, is a gulf on Central America, bordering El Salvador, Honduras, and Nicaragua.
A hammer is a tool or device that delivers a blow (a sudden impact) to an object.
The Han Chinese,.
A head of government (or chief of government) is a generic term used for either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, (commonly referred to as countries, nations or nation-states) who often presides over a cabinet, a group of ministers or secretaries who lead executive departments.
A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state.
Health care or healthcare is the maintenance or improvement of health via the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, illness, injury, and other physical and mental impairments in human beings.
Healthcare in Nicaragua involves the collaboration of private and public institutions.
Hiking is the preferred term, in Canada and the United States, for a long, vigorous walk, usually on trails (footpaths), in the countryside, while the word walking is used for shorter, particularly urban walks.
Jewish Nicaraguans or Nicaraguan Jews (Judío Nicaragüense) are Nicaraguans of Jewish ancestry who were born in or have immigrated to Nicaragua.
Honduras, officially the Republic of Honduras (República de Honduras), is a republic in Central America.
Vice Admiral Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson, 1st Duke of Bronté, (29 September 1758 – 21 October 1805) was a British flag officer in the Royal Navy.
Hummingbirds are birds from the Americas that constitute the family Trochilidae.
The Iberian Peninsula, also known as Iberia, is located in the southwest corner of Europe.
The Immaculate Conception is the conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary free from original sin by virtue of the merits of her son Jesus Christ.
Impeachment is the process by which a legislative body formally levels charges against a high official of government.
"In God We Trust" is the official motto of the United States of America and of the U.S. state of Florida.
Independence is a condition of a nation, country, or state in which its residents and population, or some portion thereof, exercise self-government, and usually sovereignty, over the territory.
The Index of Economic Freedom is an annual index and ranking created by The Heritage Foundation and The Wall Street Journal in 1995 to measure the degree of economic freedom in the world's nations.
The following is an alphabetical list of topics related to the Republic of Nicaragua.
Indigenous peoples, also known as first peoples, aboriginal peoples or native peoples, are ethnic groups who are the pre-colonial original inhabitants of a given region, in contrast to groups that have settled, occupied or colonized the area more recently.
The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian peoples of the Americas and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming, hunting and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, chiefdoms, states and empires. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples; some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Bolivia, Canada, Chile, Ecuador, Greenland, Guatemala, Guyana, Mexico, Panama and Peru. At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Aymara, Guaraní, Mayan languages and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many also maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects but also cater to modern needs. Some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture, and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples.
Indio Maíz Biological Reserve measures about 4,500 square kilometers and is situated on the southeastern corner of Nicaragua bordering the San Juan River and Costa Rica.
Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.
Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) is a term used under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) for reductions in greenhouse gas emissions that all countries that signed the UNFCCC were asked to publish in the lead-up to the 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference held in Paris, France, in December 2015.
The Intermediate Area is an archaeological geographical area of the Americas that was defined in its clearest form by Gordon R. Willey in his 1971 book An Introduction to American Archaeology, Vol.
The International Court of Justice (abbreviated ICJ; commonly referred to as the World Court) is the principal judicial organ of the United Nations (UN).
International Futures (IFs) is a global integrated assessment model designed to help in thinking strategically and systematically about key global systems (economic, demographic, education, health, environment, technology, domestic governance, infrastructure, agriculture, energy and environment) housed at the Frederick S. Pardee Center for International Futures.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
The Iran–Contra affair (ماجرای ایران-کنترا, caso Irán-Contra), also referred to as Irangate, Contragate or the Iran–Contra scandal, was a political scandal in the United States that occurred during the second term of the Reagan Administration.
The Island Caribs, also known as the Kalinago or simply Caribs, are an indigenous Caribbean people of the Lesser Antilles.
The Isthmo-Colombian Area is defined as a cultural area encompassing those territories occupied predominantly by speakers of the Chibchan languages at the time of European contact.
An isthmus (or; plural: isthmuses; from neck) is a narrow piece of land connecting two larger areas across an expanse of water by which they are otherwise separated.
The Isthmus of Panama (Istmo de Panamá), also historically known as the Isthmus of Darien (Istmo de Darién), is the narrow strip of land that lies between the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific Ocean, linking North and South America.
The Italians (Italiani) are a Latin European ethnic group and nation native to the Italian peninsula.
Jamaica is an island country situated in the Caribbean Sea.
are a nation and an ethnic group that is native to Japan and makes up 98.5% of the total population of that country.
Jays are several species of medium-sized, usually colorful and noisy, passerine birds in the crow family, Corvidae.
The city of Jinotega is the capital of the department of Jinotega in the north central region of Nicaragua.
Jinotega is the second largest department in Nicaragua.
Jinotepe is a city and municipality in the Carazo department of Nicaragua.
José Coronel Urtecho (28 February 1906 – 19 March 1994) was a Nicaraguan poet, translator, essayist, critic, narrator, playwright, diplomat and historian.
José Santos Zelaya López (1 November 1853 Managua – 17 May 1919 New York City) was the President of Nicaragua from 25 July 1893 to 21 December 1909.
Nicaraguan Postage, 1953| --> Juan Bautista Sacasa (León, Nicaragua, 21 December 1874 – Los Angeles, California, 17 April 1946) was the 20th President of Nicaragua from 1 January 1933 to 9 June 1936.
The judiciary (also known as the judicial system or court system) is the system of courts that interprets and applies the law in the name of the state.
Juigalpa is the capital city of the Chontales Department of Nicaragua.
A kayak is a small, narrow watercraft which is propelled by means of a double-bladed paddle.
Kayaking is the use of a kayak for moving across water.
La Mosquitia is the easternmost part of Honduras along the Mosquito Coast, which extends into northeastern Nicaragua.
La Prensa is a Nicaraguan newspaper, with offices in the capital Managua.
La Prensa Gráfica commonly known as La Prensa is a daily newspaper published in El Salvador by Grupo Dutriz.
Lake Managua (also known as Lake Xolotlán) (located at) is a lake in Nicaragua.
Lake Nicaragua or Cocibolca or Granada (Lago de Nicaragua, Lago Cocibolca, Mar Dulce, Gran Lago, Gran Lago Dulce, or Lago de Granada) is a freshwater lake in Nicaragua.
Land reform (also agrarian reform, though that can have a broader meaning) involves the changing of laws, regulations or customs regarding land ownership.
The official language of Nicaragua is Spanish; however, Nicaraguans on the Caribbean coast speak indigenous languages and also English.
León is a department in Nicaragua.
León Viejo is a World Heritage Site in Nicaragua.
León is the second largest city in Nicaragua, after Managua.
Lebanon (لبنان; Lebanese pronunciation:; Liban), officially known as the Lebanese RepublicRepublic of Lebanon is the most common phrase used by Lebanese government agencies.
A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city.
The lesser goldfinch (Spinus psaltria) is a very small songbird of the Americas.
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) persons in Nicaragua may face legal challenges not experienced by non-LGBT residents.
Liberation theology is a synthesis of Christian theology and Marxist socio-economic analyses that emphasizes social concern for the poor and the political liberation for oppressed peoples.
The Library of Congress (LOC) is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States.
Literacy is traditionally meant as the ability to read and write.
The Los Angeles Dodgers are an American professional baseball team based in Los Angeles, California.
Luis Mena Vado was the President of Nicaragua from 27 to 30 August 1910, after the fall of the government of General José Santos Zelaya.
Luis Anastasio Somoza Debayle (18 November 1922 – 13 April 1967) was the 26th President of Nicaragua from 29 September 1956 to 1 May 1963, but was effectively dictator of the country from 1956 until his death.
Macaws are long-tailed, often colorful New World parrots.
Macro-Chibchan is a proposed grouping of the languages of the Lencan, Misumalpan, & Chibchan families into a single large phylum (macrofamily).
With a height of, Maderas is the smaller of the two volcanoes which make up the island of Ometepe, situated in Lake Nicaragua in Nicaragua, Central America.
Madriz is a department in Nicaragua.
Maize (Zea mays subsp. mays, from maíz after Taíno mahiz), also known as corn, is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples in southern Mexico about 10,000 years ago.
Major League Baseball (MLB) is a professional baseball organization, the oldest of the four major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada.
Managua is the capital and largest city of Nicaragua, and the center of eponymous department.
Managua is a department in Nicaragua.
A mandolin (mandolino; literally "small mandola") is a stringed musical instrument in the lute family and is usually plucked with a plectrum or "pick".
Mangoes are juicy stone fruit (drupe) from numerous species of tropical trees belonging to the flowering plant genus Mangifera, cultivated mostly for their edible fruit.
Mangue, also known as Chorotega,Daniel G. Brinton.
The marimba is a percussion instrument consisting of a set of wooden bars struck with mallets called knobs to produce musical tones.
Mary was a 1st-century BC Galilean Jewish woman of Nazareth, and the mother of Jesus, according to the New Testament and the Quran.
Masaya is the capital city of Masaya department in Nicaragua.
Masaya is a department in Nicaragua.
Masaya is a caldera located in Masaya, Nicaragua, 20 km south of the capital Managua.
Matagalpa is a department in central Nicaragua.
Matagalpa is a city in Nicaragua which is the capital of the department of Matagalpa.
The Maya peoples are a large group of Indigenous peoples of Mesoamerica.
Merengue is a type of music and dance originating in the Dominican Republic, which has become a very popular genre throughout Latin America, and also in several major cities in the United States which have Hispanic communities.
Mesoamerica is an important historical region and cultural area in the Americas, extending from approximately central Mexico through Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and northern Costa Rica, and within which pre-Columbian societies flourished before the Spanish colonization of the Americas in the 15th and 16th centuries.
The Mesoamerican language area is a sprachbund containing many of the languages natively spoken in the cultural area of Mesoamerica.
Mestizo is a term traditionally used in Spain, Latin America, and the Philippines that originally referred a person of combined European and Native American descent, regardless of where the person was born.
Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
The Nicaraguan Armed Forces are the military forces of Nicaragua.
Mískito Coast Creole or Nicaragua Creole English is a language spoken in Nicaragua based on English.
Miskito (Mískitu in the Miskito language) is a Misumalpan language spoken by the Miskito people in northeastern Nicaragua, especially in the North Caribbean Coast Autonomous Region, and in eastern Honduras.
The Miskito are an indigenous ethnic group in Central America, of whom many are mixed race.
The Misumalpan languages (also Misumalpa or Misuluan) are a small family of languages spoken by indigenous peoples on the east coast of Nicaragua and nearby areas.
Modernismo is a literary movement that primarily took place during the end of Nineteenth- and early Twentieth-century in Spanish-America, best exemplified by Rubén Darío.
Mombacho is a stratovolcano in Nicaragua, near the city of Granada.
Momotombo is a stratovolcano in Nicaragua, not far from the city of León.
Money laundering is the act of concealing the transformation of profits from illegal activities and corruption into ostensibly "legitimate" assets.
Mongabay.com is a web site that publishes news on environmental science, energy, and green design, and features extensive information on tropical rainforests, including pictures and deforestation statistics for countries of the world.
Monkeys are non-hominoid simians, generally possessing tails and consisting of about 260 known living species.
The Moravian Church, formally named the Unitas Fratrum (Latin for "Unity of the Brethren"), in German known as Brüdergemeine (meaning "Brethren's Congregation from Herrnhut", the place of the Church's renewal in the 18th century), is one of the oldest Protestant denominations in the world with its heritage dating back to the Bohemian Reformation in the fifteenth century and the Unity of the Brethren (Czech: Jednota bratrská) established in the Kingdom of Bohemia.
The Mosquito Coast, also known as the Miskito Coast and the Miskito Kingdom, historically comprised the kingdoms fluctuating area along the eastern coast of present-day Nicaragua and Honduras.
Mosses are small flowerless plants that typically grow in dense green clumps or mats, often in damp or shady locations.
A multi-party system is a system in which multiple political parties across the political spectrum run for national election, and all have the capacity to gain control of government offices, separately or in coalition.
The 15 departments and 2 autonomous regions of Nicaragua are divided into 153 municipalities.
Music of Nicaragua is a mixture of indigenous and European, especially Spanish, influences.
A nacatamal is a traditional dish found in Nicaragua and Honduras, similar to the tamal.
The Nahuas are a group of indigenous people of Mexico and El Salvador.
Nahuatl (The Classical Nahuatl word nāhuatl (noun stem nāhua, + absolutive -tl) is thought to mean "a good, clear sound" This language name has several spellings, among them náhuatl (the standard spelling in the Spanish language),() Naoatl, Nauatl, Nahuatl, Nawatl. In a back formation from the name of the language, the ethnic group of Nahuatl speakers are called Nahua.), known historically as Aztec, is a language or group of languages of the Uto-Aztecan language family.
The National Assembly (Asamblea Nacional) is the legislative branch of the government of Nicaragua.
A national dish is a culinary dish that is strongly associated with a particular country.
In Nicaragua, the National Guard (Guardia Nacional, otherwise known as la Guardia) was a militia and a gendarmerie created during the occupation of that country by the United States from 1909 to 1933.
The National Nicaraguan Police Force (La Policía Nacional Nicaragüense) is the national police of Nicaragua.
A nature reserve (also called a natural reserve, bioreserve, (natural/nature) preserve, or (national/nature) conserve) is a protected area of importance for wildlife, flora, fauna or features of geological or other special interest, which is reserved and managed for conservation and to provide special opportunities for study or research.
The Nicaraguan Canal (Canal de Nicaragua), formally the Nicaraguan Canal and Development Project (also referred to as the Nicaragua Grand Canal, or the Grand Interoceanic Canal) was a proposed shipping route through Nicaragua to connect the Caribbean Sea (and therefore the Atlantic Ocean) with the Pacific Ocean.
The Nicaragua National Football Stadium (Estadio Nacional de Fútbol) in Managua, Nicaragua, is home to the Nicaragua national football team.
The National Institute of Information Development of Nicaragua; (Spanish: Instituto Nacional de Información de Desarollo de Nicaragua (INIDE)), is responsible for completing censuses and surveys.
The Republic of Nicaragua v. The United States of America (1986) is a public international law case decided by the International Court of Justice (ICJ).
The Nicaraguan Air Force continues the former Sandinista air units.
The córdoba (sign: C$; code: NIO) is the currency of Nicaragua.
The Nicaraguan civil war of 1926–1927, or the Constitutionalist War, broke out after a coup d'état by Emiliano Chamorro, a member of the Conservative Party, removed Nicaragua's democratically elected government, resulting in a rebellion by members of the Liberal Party.
The 1980s were the backdrop to a savage civil war which saw conflict destroy the nation of Nicaragua, and the lives of 50,000+ civilians in the process.
A general election was held in Nicaragua on November 4, 1984, to elect a president and parliament.
A general election was held in Nicaragua to elect a president and parliament on February 25, 1990.
A general election was held in Nicaragua to elect a president and parliament on October 20, 1996.
General elections were held in Nicaragua to elect a president and parliament on November 4, 2001.
Nicaragua held a general election on November 5, 2006.
General elections were held in Nicaragua on 6 November 2016 to elect the President, the National Assembly and members of the Central American Parliament.
Nicaraguan literature can be traced to pre-Columbian times with the myths and oral literature that formed the cosmogonic view of the world that indigenous people had.
The Nicaraguan Navy of Somoza's National Guard consisted of a few old patrol boats in the early 1980s.
The Nicaraguan Revolution (Revolución Nicaragüense or Revolución Popular Sandinista) encompassed the rising opposition to the Somoza dictatorship in the 1960s and 1970s, the campaign led by the Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN) to violently oust the dictatorship in 1978–79, the subsequent efforts of the FSLN to govern Nicaragua from 1979 until 1990 and the Contra War which was waged between the FSLN-led government of Nicaragua and the United States-backed Contras from 1981-1990.
Nicaraguan Spanish (Español nicaragüense) is geographically defined as the form of Spanish spoken in Nicaragua.
Nicaraguans (Nicaragüense; also Nica, Nicoya and Pinolero) are people inhabiting in, originating or having significant heritage from Nicaragua.
Nicarao was said to be the name of an indigenous chieftain or cacique who presided over a territory in southwestern Nicaragua during the early 16th century.
Avram Noam Chomsky (born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist, philosopher, cognitive scientist, historian, social critic and political activist.
The North Caribbean Coast Autonomous Region (Región Autónoma de la Costa Caribe Norte), sometimes shortened to RACN, or RACCN (for North Caribbean Coast Autonomous Region), or RAAN (for its former name of Región Autónoma del Atlántico Norte), is one of two autonomous regions in Nicaragua.
Nueva Segovia is a department in Nicaragua.
An oak is a tree or shrub in the genus Quercus (Latin "oak tree") of the beech family, Fagaceae.
Oceanic crust is the uppermost layer of the oceanic portion of a tectonic plate.
Ocotal is the capital of the Nueva Segovia Department in Nicaragua, Central America.
Ometepe is an island formed by two volcanoes rising out of Lake Nicaragua in the Republic of Nicaragua.
Oral literature or folk literature corresponds in the sphere of the spoken (oral) word to literature as literature operates in the domain of the written word.
The Orchidaceae are a diverse and widespread family of flowering plants, with blooms that are often colourful and fragrant, commonly known as the orchid family.
Oregano (Origanum vulgare) is a flowering plant in the mint family (Lamiaceae).
The Organization of American States (Organización de los Estados Americanos, Organização dos Estados Americanos, Organisation des États américains), or the OAS or OEA, is a continental organization that was founded on 30 April 1948, for the purposes of regional solidarity and cooperation among its member states.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Nicaragua: Nicaragua – sovereign, representative democratic republic and the most extensive nation in Central America.
Overexploitation, also called overharvesting, refers to harvesting a renewable resource to the point of diminishing returns.
Pablo Antonio Cuadra (1912–2002) was a Nicaraguan essayist, art and literary critic, playwright, graphic artist and one of the most famous poets of Nicaragua.
Paleo-Indians, Paleoindians or Paleoamericans is a classification term given to the first peoples who entered, and subsequently inhabited, the Americas during the final glacial episodes of the late Pleistocene period.
Palo de Mayo (Maypole; or ¡M ayo Ya!) is a type of Afro-Caribbean dance with sensual movements that forms part of the culture of several communities in the RAAS region in Nicaragua, as well as Belize, the Bay Islands of Honduras and Bocas del Toro in Panama.
The Panama Canal (Canal de Panamá) is an artificial waterway in Panama that connects the Atlantic Ocean with the Pacific Ocean.
The papaya (from Carib via Spanish), papaw, or pawpaw is the plant Carica papaya, one of the 22 accepted species in the genus Carica of the family Caricaceae.
Paraguay (Paraguái), officially the Republic of Paraguay (República del Paraguay; Tetã Paraguái), is a landlocked country in central South America, bordered by Argentina to the south and southwest, Brazil to the east and northeast, and Bolivia to the northwest.
A parakeet is any one of a large number of small to medium-sized species of parrot, in multiple genera, that generally have long tail feathers.
A patron saint, patroness saint, patron hallow or heavenly protector is a saint who in Roman Catholicism, Anglicanism, Eastern Orthodoxy, or particular branches of Islam, is regarded as the heavenly advocate of a nation, place, craft, activity, class, clan, family or person.
Pedro Arias de Ávila (c. 1440 - March 6, 1531) (often Pedrarias Dávila) was a Spanish soldier and colonial administrator.
Pedro Joaquín Chamorro Cardenal (23 September 1924 Granada, Nicaragua – 10 January 1978 Managua) was a Nicaraguan journalist and publisher.
A perfect game is defined by Major League Baseball as a game in which a pitcher (or combination of pitchers) pitches a victory that lasts a minimum of nine innings in which no opposing player reaches base.
A pine is any conifer in the genus Pinus,, of the family Pinaceae.
Pinolillo is a sweet cornmeal and it is a cacao-based traditional drink in Nicaragua and also consumed in Costa Rica.
Pipil (natively Nawat) is a Uto-Toltec or Uto-Nicarao language of the Uto-Aztecan family, which stretches from Utah in the United States down through El Salvador to Nicaragua in Central America.
The Pipils or Cuzcatlecs are an indigenous people who live in western El Salvador, which they call Cuzcatlan.
The Pittsburgh Pirates are an American professional baseball team based in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
Plate tectonics (from the Late Latin tectonicus, from the τεκτονικός "pertaining to building") is a scientific theory describing the large-scale motion of seven large plates and the movements of a larger number of smaller plates of the Earth's lithosphere, since tectonic processes began on Earth between 3 and 3.5 billion years ago.
A portmanteau or portmanteau word is a linguistic blend of words,, p. 644 in which parts of multiple words or their phones (sounds) are combined into a new word, as in smog, coined by blending smoke and fog, or motel, from motor and hotel.
The Pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences on the American continents, spanning the time of the original settlement in the Upper Paleolithic period to European colonization during the Early Modern period.
The President of the Republic of Nicaragua (Presidente de la República de Nicaragua) is the head of state of Nicaragua.
A presidential system is a democratic and republican system of government where a head of government leads an executive branch that is separate from the legislative branch.
The protected areas of Nicaragua are areas that have natural beauty or significance and are protected by Nicaragua.
A protectorate, in its inception adopted by modern international law, is a dependent territory that has been granted local autonomy and some independence while still retaining the suzerainty of a greater sovereign state.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
Puerto Cabezas (Bragman's Bluff; Bilwi) is a municipality in Nicaragua.
Punta is a dance originated in the Central American coast of Belize, Honduras and Guatemala in the late 18th century with African beats.
Purchasing power parity (PPP) is a neoclassical economic theory that states that the exchange rate between two countries is equal to the ratio of the currencies' respective purchasing power.
Quita Sueño Bank (claimed as Quitasueño) is a reef formation of Colombia which was once claimed by the United States, located 110 km North-northeast of Providencia Island.
Rainforests are forests characterized by high rainfall, with annual rainfall in the case of tropical rainforests between, and definitions varying by region for temperate rainforests.
Rama Cay Creole is a Creole language spoken by some 800 to 900 people on the island of Rama Cay in eastern Nicaragua.
Rama is one of the indigenous languages of the Chibchan family spoken by the Rama people on the island of Rama Cay and south of lake Bluefields on the Caribbean coast of Nicaragua.
The Rama are an indigenous people living on the eastern coast of Nicaragua.
Río San Juan is a department in Nicaragua.
Recreational fishing, also called sport fishing, is fishing for pleasure or competition.
René Schick Gutiérrez (23 November 1909 – 3 August 1966) was President of Nicaragua from 1 May 1963 to 3 August 1966, but was considered a puppet politician of Luis Somoza.
Representative democracy (also indirect democracy, representative republic or psephocracy) is a type of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy.
The resplendent quetzal (Pharomachrus mocinno) is a bird in the trogon family.
Ricardo Antonio Mayorga Perez (born October 3, 1973) is a Nicaraguan professional boxer and former mixed martial artist.
A rift valley is a linear-shaped lowland between several highlands or mountain ranges created by the action of a geologic rift or fault.
Rigoberto López Pérez (May 13, 1929 – September 21, 1956) was a Nicaraguan poet, artist and composer.
Rivas is a department of the Republic of Nicaragua.
Rivas is a city and municipality in southwestern Nicaragua on the Isthmus of the same name.
A riverboat is a watercraft designed for inland navigation on lakes, rivers, and artificial waterways.
Roberto Enrique Clemente Walker (August 18, 1934 – December 31, 1972) was a Puerto Rican professional baseball right fielder who played 18 seasons in Major League Baseball (MLB) for the Pittsburgh Pirates.
Román Alberto González Luna (born June 17, 1987), best known by his nickname "Chocolatito", is a Nicaraguan professional boxer.
Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was an American politician and actor who served as the 40th President of the United States from 1981 to 1989.
Rosario Murillo Zambrana (born 22 June 1951) is the Vice-President and First Lady of Nicaragua.
Rosita is a municipality in the North Caribbean Autonomous Region of Nicaragua.
Félix Rubén García Sarmiento (January 18, 1867 – February 6, 1916), known as Rubén Darío, was a Nicaraguan poet who initiated the Spanish-American literary movement known as modernismo (modernism) that flourished at the end of the 19th century.
Salsa is a popular form of social dance that originated in the Caribbean.
Salsa music is a popular dance music that initially arose in New York City during the 1960s.
Salve a ti, Nicaragua (Hail to thee, Nicaragua) is the Nicaraguan national anthem.
San Carlos is the capital city of the municipality of San Carlos and of the Río San Juan Department of Nicaragua.
San Juan del Sur is a municipality and coastal town on the Pacific Ocean, in the Rivas department in southwest Nicaragua.
The San Juan Expedition took place between March and November 1780 during the American War of Independence when a British force under the command of John Polson and Captain Horatio Nelson landed on the coast of the present-day Nicaragua, with the aim of sailing up the San Juan River to capture the strategically crucial towns of Granada and León, located on the northwestern shore of Lake Nicaragua.
The San Juan River (Spanish: Río San Juan), also known as El Desaguadero ("the drain"), is a river that flows east out of Lake Nicaragua into the Caribbean Sea.
The Sandinista National Liberation Front (Frente Sandinista de Liberación Nacional, FSLN) is a democratic socialist political party in Nicaragua.
Sawfishes, also known as carpenter sharks, are a family of rays characterized by a long, narrow, flattened rostrum, or nose extension, lined with sharp transverse teeth, arranged in a way that resembles a saw.
Sergio Ramírez Mercado (born August 5, 1942 in Masatepe, Nicaragua) is a Nicaraguan writer and intellectual who served in the leftist Government Junta of National Reconstruction and as Vice President of the country 1985-1990 under the presidency of Daniel Ortega.
Sesame (Sesamum indicum) is a flowering plant in the genus Sesamum, also called benne.
Siuna, Nicaragua is a county-sized administrative municipality, located approximately 318 km from the capital city of Managua, Nicaragua and 218 km from the coastal city and regional capital Puerto Cabezas in the North Caribbean Autonomous Region (RACN).
Slash-and-burn agriculture, or fire–fallow cultivation, is a farming method that involves the cutting and burning of plants in a forest or woodland to create a field called a swidden.
Somoto is a city and municipality located in the hills of northern Nicaragua, and capital of the department of Madriz.
The Somoza family was an influential political dynasty who ruled Nicaragua as a family dictatorship from 1936 to 1979.
South Caribbean Coast Autonomous Region (Región Autónoma de la Costa Caribe Sur), sometimes shortened to RACS, RACCS, or RAAS (for its former name of Región Autónoma del Atlántico Sur), is one of two autonomous regions in Nicaragua.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
Spaniards are a Latin European ethnic group and nation.
The Spanish Empire (Imperio Español; Imperium Hispanicum), historically known as the Hispanic Monarchy (Monarquía Hispánica) and as the Catholic Monarchy (Monarquía Católica) was one of the largest empires in history.
Spondias purpurea is a species in flowering plant in the cashew family, Anacardiaceae, that is native to tropical regions of the Americas and can be found from Mexico to Brasil.
A staple food, or simply a staple, is a food that is eaten routinely and in such quantities that it constitutes a dominant portion of a standard diet for a given people, supplying a large fraction of energy needs and generally forming a significant proportion of the intake of other nutrients as well.
A state religion (also called an established religion or official religion) is a religious body or creed officially endorsed by the state.
Subduction is a geological process that takes place at convergent boundaries of tectonic plates where one plate moves under another and is forced or sinks due to gravity into the mantle.
The SUCRE (Sistema Unitario de Compensación Regional, English: Unified System for Regional Compensation) is a regional currency proposed for commercial exchanges between members of the regional trade bloc Bolivarian Alliance for the Americas (ALBA), which was created as an alternative to the Free Trade Agreement of the Americas (FTAA).
Sumo (also known as Sumu) is the collective name for a group of Misumalpan languages spoken in Nicaragua and Honduras.
The Mayangna (also known as Sumu or Sumo) are a people who live on the eastern coasts of Nicaragua and Honduras, an area commonly known as the Mosquito Coast.
Surfing is a surface water sport in which the wave rider, referred to as a surfer, rides on the forward or deep face of a moving wave, which is usually carrying the surfer towards the shore.
Swimming is the self-propulsion of a person through fresh or salt water, usually for recreation, sport, exercise, or survival.
Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.
Taiwanese people (Mandarin: 臺灣人 (traditional), 台湾人 (simplified); Minnan: 臺灣儂; Hakka 臺灣人 (Romanization: Thòi-vàn ngìn)) are people from Taiwan who share a common Taiwanese culture and speak Mandarin Chinese, Hokkien, Hakka, or Aboriginal languages as a mother tongue.
Tamarind (Tamarindus indica) is a leguminous tree in the family Fabaceae indigenous to tropical Africa.
Tango is a partner dance which originated in the 1880s along the River Plate (Río de Plata), the natural border between Argentina and Uruguay.
A tapir is a large, herbivorous mammal, similar in shape to a pig, with a short, prehensile nose trunk.
Taxonomy is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics.
Tegucigalpa (formally Tegucigalpa, Municipality of the Central District, Tegucigalpa, Municipio del Distrito Central or Tegucigalpa, M.D.C.), colloquially referred to as Téguz, is the capital and largest city of Honduras along with its twin sister, Comayagüela.
Country Code: +505 International Call Prefix: 00 National Significant Number (NSN): eight digits.
Territorial disputes of Nicaragua include the territorial dispute with Colombia over the Archipelago de San Andres y Providencia and Quita Sueno Bank.
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church), often informally known as the Mormon Church, is a nontrinitarian, Christian restorationist church that is considered by its members to be the restoration of the original church founded by Jesus Christ.
The Nicaragua Dispatch is an independent online English-language news website based in Granada, Nicaragua.
The World Factbook, also known as the CIA World Factbook, is a reference resource produced by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) with almanac-style information about the countries of the world.
Theatre or theater is a collaborative form of fine art that uses live performers, typically actors or actresses, to present the experience of a real or imagined event before a live audience in a specific place, often a stage.
Tierra caliente is an informal term used in Latin America to refer to places with a distinctly tropical climate.
Tierra templada (Spanish for temperate land) is a pseudoclimatological term used in Latin America to refer to places which are either located in the tropics at a moderately high elevation or are marginally outside the astronomical tropics, producing a somewhat cooler overall climate than that found in the tropical lowlands, the zone of which is known as the tierra caliente.
The Toltec culture is an archaeological Mesoamerican culture that dominated a state centered in Tula, Hidalgo, Mexico in the early post-classic period of Mesoamerican chronology (ca. 900–1168 CE).
Toucans are members of the Neotropical near passerine bird family Ramphastidae.
A tourist attraction is a place of interest where tourists visit, typically for its inherent or exhibited natural or cultural value, historical significance, natural or built beauty, offering leisure and amusement.
A trade union or trades union, also called a labour union (Canada) or labor union (US), is an organization of workers who have come together to achieve many common goals; such as protecting the integrity of its trade, improving safety standards, and attaining better wages, benefits (such as vacation, health care, and retirement), and working conditions through the increased bargaining power wielded by the creation of a monopoly of the workers.
The Tuma River is a river located in Nicaragua.
The turkey is a large bird in the genus Meleagris, which is native to the Americas.
Turkish people or the Turks (Türkler), also known as Anatolian Turks (Anadolu Türkleri), are a Turkic ethnic group and nation living mainly in Turkey and speaking Turkish, the most widely spoken Turkic language.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
UNESCO Nadezhda K. Krupskaya literacy prize was named after Russian politician of the Soviet era Nadezhda K. Krupskaya.
A unitary state is a state governed as a single power in which the central government is ultimately supreme and any administrative divisions (sub-national units) exercise only the powers that the central government chooses to delegate.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is the United Nations' global development network.
The United States has at various times in recent history provided support to terrorist and paramilitary organizations around the world.
The United States Marine Corps (USMC), also referred to as the United States Marines, is a branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for conducting amphibious operations with the United States Navy.
Venezuela, officially denominated Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (República Bolivariana de Venezuela),Previously, the official name was Estado de Venezuela (1830–1856), República de Venezuela (1856–1864), Estados Unidos de Venezuela (1864–1953), and again República de Venezuela (1953–1999).
The Vice President of the Republic of Nicaragua (Vicepresidente de la República de Nicaragua) is the second highest political position in Nicaragua.
Vicente de la Cruz Padilla (born September 27, 1977) is a Nicaraguan former professional baseball pitcher.
Violeta Chamorro (born 18 October 1929) is a Nicaraguan politician, former president and publisher, known for ending the Contra War, the final chapter of the Nicaraguan Revolution, and bringing peace to the country.
A voiceless alveolar fricative is a type of fricative consonant pronounced with the tip or blade of the tongue against the alveolar ridge (gum line) just behind the teeth.
The voiceless glottal fricative, sometimes called voiceless glottal transition, and sometimes called the aspirate, is a type of sound used in some spoken languages that patterns like a fricative or approximant consonant phonologically, but often lacks the usual phonetic characteristics of a consonant.
Volcanic ash consists of fragments of pulverized rock, minerals and volcanic glass, created during volcanic eruptions and measuring less than 2 mm (0.079 inches) in diameter.
A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface.
Political war-weariness is the public or political disapproval for the continuation of a prolonged conflict or war.
This article has been written in 2008, with updates concerning access figures in 2012.
West Africa, also called Western Africa and the West of Africa, is the westernmost region of Africa.
The Western Hemisphere is a geographical term for the half of Earth which lies west of the prime meridian (which crosses Greenwich, London, United Kingdom) and east of the antimeridian.
White Latin Americans or European Latin Americans are Latin Americans who are considered white, typically due to European, or in some cases Levantine, descent.
A wildlife sanctuary, is a naturally occurring sanctuary, such as an island, that provides protection for species from hunting, predation, competition or poaching; it is a protected area, a geographic territory within which wildlife is protected.
William Walker (May 8, 1824 – September 12, 1860) was an American physician, lawyer, journalist and mercenary who organized several private military expeditions into Latin America, with the intention of establishing English-speaking slave colonies under his personal control, an enterprise then known as "filibustering".
The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.
Zelaya is a former department in Nicaragua.
.ni is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Nicaragua.
The 1972 Nicaragua earthquake occurred at 12:29:44 a.m. local time (06:29:44 UTC) on December 23 near Managua, the capital of Nicaragua.
The 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference, COP 21 or CMP 11 was held in Paris, France, from 30 November to 12 December 2015.
On 18 April 2018, demonstrators in several cities of Nicaragua began protests against President Daniel Ortega's decree of social security reforms that increased taxes and decreased benefits.
Administrative divisions of Nicaragua, Etymology of Nicaragua, Flora and fauna of Nicaragua, Health in Nicaragua, ISO 3166-1:NI, Nicaragua, Central America, Nicaraguan, Nicarugua, Nicuragua, Republic of Nicaragua, Republica De Nicaragua, República de Nicaragua, Sport in Nicaragua, Subdivisions of Nicaragua, The Republic of Nicaragua.