50 relations: Alan Turing, American Academy of Arts and Sciences, American Mathematical Society, American Physical Society, Boltzmann constant, Boltzmann distribution, Charles Babbage Institute, Chicago, Colossus computer, Computer Pioneer Award, Edward Teller, Emil Konopinski, Energy, ENIAC, Enrico Fermi, Erdős number, George Kistiakowsky, Greek language, Husbands and Wives, IAS machine, Illinois, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, J. Robert Oppenheimer, John C. Browne, John von Neumann, Liquid, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, MANIAC I, MANIAC II, Mathematician, Metropolis–Hastings algorithm, Monte Carlo method, Nándor Balázs, New Mexico, Physicist, Richard Feynman, Robert D. Richtmyer, Simulated annealing, Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, Stanislaw Ulam, Stochastic, Temperature, University of California, University of Chicago, Von Neumann paradox, W. K. Hastings, Weighted arithmetic mean, Woody Allen, World War II.

## Alan Turing

Alan Mathison Turing (23 June 1912 – 7 June 1954) was an English computer scientist, mathematician, logician, cryptanalyst, philosopher, and theoretical biologist.

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## American Academy of Arts and Sciences

The American Academy of Arts and Sciences is one of the oldest learned societies in the United States of America.

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## American Mathematical Society

The American Mathematical Society (AMS) is an association of professional mathematicians dedicated to the interests of mathematical research and scholarship, and serves the national and international community through its publications, meetings, advocacy and other programs.

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## American Physical Society

The American Physical Society (APS) is the world's second largest organization of physicists.

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## Boltzmann constant

The Boltzmann constant, which is named after Ludwig Boltzmann, is a physical constant relating the average kinetic energy of particles in a gas with the temperature of the gas.

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## Boltzmann distribution

In statistical mechanics and mathematics, a Boltzmann distribution (also called Gibbs distribution Translated by J.B. Sykes and M.J. Kearsley. See section 28) is a probability distribution, probability measure, or frequency distribution of particles in a system over various possible states.

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## Charles Babbage Institute

The Charles Babbage Institute is a research center at the University of Minnesota specializing in the history of information technology, particularly the history of digital computing, programming/software, and computer networking since 1935.

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## Chicago

Chicago, officially the City of Chicago, is the third most populous city in the United States, after New York City and Los Angeles.

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## Colossus computer

Colossus was a set of computers developed by British codebreakers in the years 1943–1945 to help in the cryptanalysis of the Lorenz cipher.

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## Computer Pioneer Award

The Computer Pioneer Award was established in 1981 by the Board of Governors of the IEEE Computer Society to recognize and honor the vision of those people whose efforts resulted in the creation and continued vitality of the computer industry.

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## Edward Teller

Edward Teller (Teller Ede; January 15, 1908 – September 9, 2003) was a Hungarian-American theoretical physicist who is known colloquially as "the father of the hydrogen bomb", although he claimed he did not care for the title.

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## Emil Konopinski

Emil John (Jan) Konopinski (December 25, 1911 in Michigan City, Indiana – May 26, 1990 in Bloomington, Indiana) was an American nuclear scientist, New York Times of Polish origin.

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## Energy

In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object.

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## ENIAC

ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer) was amongst the earliest electronic general-purpose computers made.

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## Enrico Fermi

Enrico Fermi (29 September 1901 – 28 November 1954) was an Italian-American physicist and the creator of the world's first nuclear reactor, the Chicago Pile-1.

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## Erdős number

The Erdős number describes the "collaborative distance" between mathematician and another person, as measured by authorship of mathematical papers.

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## George Kistiakowsky

George Bogdanovich Kistiakowsky (November 18, 1900 – December 7, 1982) (Георгій Богданович Кістяківський, Георгий Богданович Кистяковский) was a Ukrainian-American physical chemistry professor at Harvard who participated in the Manhattan Project and later served as President Dwight D. Eisenhower's Science Advisor.

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## Greek language

Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.

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## Husbands and Wives

Husbands and Wives is a 1992 American comedy-drama film written and directed by Woody Allen.

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## IAS machine

The IAS machine was the first electronic computer to be built at the Institute for Advanced Study (IAS) in Princeton, New Jersey.

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## Illinois

Illinois is a state in the Midwestern region of the United States.

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## Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers

The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) is a professional association with its corporate office in New York City and its operations center in Piscataway, New Jersey.

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## J. Robert Oppenheimer

Julius Robert Oppenheimer (April 22, 1904 – February 18, 1967) was an American theoretical physicist and professor of physics at the University of California, Berkeley.

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## John C. Browne

John C. Browne (born July 29, 1942) is an American physicist.

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## John von Neumann

John von Neumann (Neumann János Lajos,; December 28, 1903 – February 8, 1957) was a Hungarian-American mathematician, physicist, computer scientist, and polymath.

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## Liquid

A liquid is a nearly incompressible fluid that conforms to the shape of its container but retains a (nearly) constant volume independent of pressure.

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## Los Alamos National Laboratory

Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos or LANL for short) is a United States Department of Energy national laboratory initially organized during World War II for the design of nuclear weapons as part of the Manhattan Project.

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## Los Alamos, New Mexico

Los Alamos (Los Álamos, meaning "The Cottonwoods" or "The Poplars") is a town in Los Alamos County, New Mexico, United States that is recognized as the birthplace of the atomic bomb––the primary objective of the Manhattan Project by Los Alamos National Laboratory during World War II.

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## MANIAC I

The MANIAC (Mathematical Analyzer, Numerical Integrator, and Computer or Mathematical Analyzer, Numerator, Integrator, and Computer) was an early computer built under the direction of Nicholas Metropolis at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory.

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## MANIAC II

The MANIAC II (Mathematical Analyzer Numerical Integrator and Computer Model II) was a first-generation electronic computer, built in 1957 for use at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory.

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## Mathematician

A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics in his or her work, typically to solve mathematical problems.

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## Metropolis–Hastings algorithm

In statistics and in statistical physics, the Metropolis–Hastings algorithm is a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method for obtaining a sequence of random samples from a probability distribution for which direct sampling is difficult.

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## Monte Carlo method

Monte Carlo methods (or Monte Carlo experiments) are a broad class of computational algorithms that rely on repeated random sampling to obtain numerical results.

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## Nándor Balázs

Nándor Balázs (Balázs Nándor László, Budapest, July 7, 1926 – Setauket, New York, August 16, 2003) Hungarian-American physicist, external member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (from 1995).

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## New Mexico

New Mexico (Nuevo México, Yootó Hahoodzo) is a state in the Southwestern Region of the United States of America.

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## Physicist

A physicist is a scientist who has specialized knowledge in the field of physics, which encompasses the interactions of matter and energy at all length and time scales in the physical universe.

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## Richard Feynman

Richard Phillips Feynman (May 11, 1918 – February 15, 1988) was an American theoretical physicist, known for his work in the path integral formulation of quantum mechanics, the theory of quantum electrodynamics, and the physics of the superfluidity of supercooled liquid helium, as well as in particle physics for which he proposed the parton model.

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## Robert D. Richtmyer

Robert Davis Richtmyer (October 10, 1910 – September 24, 2003) was an American physicist, mathematician, educator, author, and musician.

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## Simulated annealing

Simulated annealing (SA) is a probabilistic technique for approximating the global optimum of a given function.

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## Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics

The Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics (SIAM) is an academic association dedicated to the use of mathematics in industry.

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## Stanislaw Ulam

Stanisław Marcin Ulam (13 April 1909 – 13 May 1984) was a Polish-American scientist in the fields of mathematics and nuclear physics.

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## Stochastic

The word stochastic is an adjective in English that describes something that was randomly determined.

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## Temperature

Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold.

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## University of California

The University of California (UC) is a public university system in the US state of California.

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## University of Chicago

The University of Chicago (UChicago, U of C, or Chicago) is a private, non-profit research university in Chicago, Illinois.

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## Von Neumann paradox

In mathematics, the von Neumann paradox, named after John von Neumann, is the idea that one can break a planar figure such as the unit square into sets of points and subject each set to an area-preserving affine transformation such that the result is two planar figures of the same size as the original.

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## W. K. Hastings

Wilfred Keith Hastings (July 21, 1930 in Toronto, Ontario, Canada - May 13, 2016) was a statistician.

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## Weighted arithmetic mean

The weighted arithmetic mean is similar to an ordinary arithmetic mean (the most common type of average), except that instead of each of the data points contributing equally to the final average, some data points contribute more than others.

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## Woody Allen

Heywood Allen (born Allan Stewart Konigsberg; December 1, 1935) is an American director, writer, actor, comedian, and musician whose career spans more than six decades.

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## World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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## Redirects here:

Metropolis, Nicholas, N. Metropolis, Nicholas C. Metropolis, Nicholas Constantine Metropolis, Nick Metropolis.