281 relations: Abortion, Academy, Agitprop, Alexander Dubček, Ana Pauker, Anwar Sadat, Apprenticeship, Austria, BAC One-Eleven, Bessarabia, Bourgeoisie, British Aerospace, Bucharest, Buenos Aires, Bukovina, Capital punishment in Romania, Câmpulung, Ceaușescu family, Ceaușescu's final speech, Ceaușescu's speech of 21 August 1968, Central Committee, Charles de Gaulle, China, Chivu Stoica, Cighid, Cluj-Napoca, Cold War, Communist society, Conducător, Constantin Dăscălescu, Contempt of court, Corneliu Vadim Tudor, Coup d'état, Craiova, Cult of personality, Cultural Revolution, Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, Czechoslovakia, Dacians, Decoration of Honour for Services to the Republic of Austria, Decree 770, Defence minister, Demographics of Romania, Divorce, Doftana prison, Drobeta-Turnu Severin, Dumitru Burlan, East Berlin, East Germany, Eastern Bloc, ..., Edward Behr (journalist), Egypt, Elena Ceaușescu, Elizabeth II, Emil Bobu, Encyclopædia Britannica, Erich Honecker, Ethnic hatred, European Economic Community, Execution by firing squad, External debt, Führer, FC Steaua București, Fidel Castro, Franz Jonas, General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, Genocide, Ghencea Cemetery, Gheorghe Apostol, Gheorghe Gaston Marin, Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej, Gheorgheni, Glasnost, Government and Opposition, Gustáv Husák, Helicopter, Hirohito, HIV/AIDS, Hungarian People's Republic, Hungarians in Romania, Ilie Verdeț, IMDb, Indira Gandhi, International Monetary Fund, International Olympic Committee, Internment, Ion Antonescu, Ion Gheorghe Maurer, Ion Iliescu, Ion Mihai Pacepa, Iosif Constantin Drăgan, Iran, Iranian Revolution, Iron Curtain, Iron Guard, Israel, Istituto Affari Internazionali, Ivan Bodiul, János Kádár, Jean-Bédel Bokassa, Jean-François Thiriart, Jiang Qing, Jimmy Carter, Jiu River, Jiu Valley miners' strike of 1977, Josip Broz Tito, Jubilee Medal "Thirty Years of Victory in the Great Patriotic War 1941–1945", Juche, Juliana Geran Pilon, July Theses, Jurnalul Național, Karl Marx, Kim Il-sung, Kingdom of Romania, László Tőkés, Lebanese University, Leeds, Legion of Honour, Leonid Brezhnev, Library of Congress Country Studies, Lieutenant general, List of honorary British knights and dames, List of Presidents of Romania, Los Angeles, Manea Mănescu, Mao Zedong, Maoism, Margrethe II of Denmark, Marxism, Marxism–Leninism, Mass surveillance, Michael the Brave, Mikhail Gorbachev, Military dictatorship of Chile (1973–90), Military Order of Saint James of the Sword, Mircea I of Wallachia, Mobutu Sese Seko, Moldova, Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, Moncada Barracks, Mongolian People's Republic, Moscow, National Bolshevism, National Geographic, National Salvation Front (Romania), Nazi Germany, Neo-Stalinism, Nepotism, New Year's Eve, Nicolae Ceaușescu's cult of personality, Nicu Ceaușescu, North Korea, North Korean cult of personality, North Vietnam, Olt County, Olympic Order, One-party state, Order of José Martí, Order of Karl Marx, Order of Lenin, Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany, Order of Merit of the Italian Republic, Order of Sikatuna, Order of St. Olav, Order of the Bath, Order of the Crown of the Realm, Order of the Elephant, Order of the Liberator General San Martín, Order of the October Revolution, Order of the Southern Cross, Orders, decorations, and medals of Bulgaria, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, Palestine Liberation Organization, Pantheon Books, Patriotic Guards (Romania), People's Republic, People's Republic of Bulgaria, Perestroika, Plenary session, Polish October, Polish People's Republic, Popular Movement of the Revolution, Potemkin village, Prague, Prague Spring, President of Romania, President of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Proletkult, Protochronism, Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Râmnicu Vâlcea, Rebellion, Red Army, Revisionism (Marxism), Revolution Square, Bucharest, Revolutions of 1989, Richard Nixon, Roman Empire, Romania, Romanian Communist Party, Romanian Land Forces, Romanian language, Romanian leu, Romanian nationalism, Romanian orphans, Romanian Orthodox Church, Romanian presidential election, 1974, Romanian Revolution, Romanians, Royal Order of the Seraphim, Rudolf Kirchschläger, Salvador Dalí, Scînteia, Sceptre, Scornicești, Secret police, Secretary (title), Securitate, Shoemaking, Siad Barre, Sibiu, Siguranța, Six-Day War, Snagov, Socialism with a human face, Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Socialist mode of production, Socialist realism, Socialist Republic of Romania, Socialist state, Socialist Unity Party of Germany, Solidarity (Polish trade union), Soviet occupation of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina, Soviet Union, SovRom, Stalinism, State Council of Romania, Stelian Tănase, Syncretic politics, Târgoviște, Târgu Jiu, The Internationale, The Times, Timișoara, Titoism, Todor Zhivkov, Totalitarianism, Trial of Nicolae and Elena Ceaușescu, Union of Communist Youth, United Kingdom, Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán, University of Bucharest, University of Buenos Aires, University of Liberia, University of Nice Sophia Antipolis, University of the Philippines, Valentin Ceaușescu, Vasile Milea, Victor Stănculescu, Voice of America, Warsaw Pact, Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia, Władysław Gomułka, West Germany, Western Bloc, Western Europe, Withering away of the state, Wojciech Jaruzelski, World War II, Yasser Arafat, Yugoslavia, Zaire, Zoia Ceaușescu, 1973 Chilean coup d'état, 1973 oil crisis, 1980 Summer Olympics, 1980 Summer Olympics boycott, 1984 Summer Olympics, 1984 Summer Olympics boycott, 1985–86 European Cup, 2,500 year celebration of the Persian Empire. 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Abortion is the ending of pregnancy by removing an embryo or fetus before it can survive outside the uterus.
An academy (Attic Greek: Ἀκαδήμεια; Koine Greek Ἀκαδημία) is an institution of secondary education, higher learning, research, or honorary membership.
Agitprop (from r, portmanteau of "agitation" and "propaganda") is political propaganda, especially the communist propaganda used in Soviet Russia, that is spread to the general public through popular media such as literature, plays, pamphlets, films, and other art forms with an explicitly political message.
Alexander Dubček (27 November 1921 – 7 November 1992) was a Slovak politician who served as the First secretary of the Presidium of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (KSČ) (de facto leader of Czechoslovakia) from January 1968 to April 1969.
Ana Pauker (born Hannah Rabinsohn; 13 December 1893 – 3 June 1960) was a Romanian communist leader and served as the country's foreign minister in the late 1940s and early 1950s.
Muhammad Anwar el-Sadat (محمد أنور السادات, Egyptian muħæmmæd ˈʔɑnwɑɾ essæˈdæːt; 25 December 1918 – 6 October 1981) was the third President of Egypt, serving from 15 October 1970 until his assassination by fundamentalist army officers on 6 October 1981.
An apprenticeship is a system of training a new generation of practitioners of a trade or profession with on-the-job training and often some accompanying study (classroom work and reading).
Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.
The British Aircraft Corporation One-Eleven, also known as the BAC-111 or BAC 1-11, is a British short-range jet airliner used during the 1960s and 1970s.
Bessarabia (Basarabia; Бессарабия, Bessarabiya; Besarabya; Бессара́бія, Bessarabiya; Бесарабия, Besarabiya) is a historical region in Eastern Europe, bounded by the Dniester river on the east and the Prut river on the west.
The bourgeoisie is a polysemous French term that can mean.
British Aerospace plc (BAe) was a British aircraft, munitions and defence-systems manufacturer.
Bucharest (București) is the capital and largest city of Romania, as well as its cultural, industrial, and financial centre.
Buenos Aires is the capital and most populous city of Argentina.
Bukovina (Bucovina; Bukowina/Buchenland; Bukowina; Bukovina, Буковина Bukovyna; see also other languages) is a historical region in Central Europe,Klaus Peter Berger,, Kluwer Law International, 2010, p. 132 divided between Romania and Ukraine, located on the northern slopes of the central Eastern Carpathians and the adjoining plains.
Capital punishment in Romania was abolished in 1990, and has been prohibited by the Constitution of Romania since 1991.
Câmpulung (also spelled Cîmpulung,, Langenau), or Câmpulung Muscel, is a city in the Argeș County, Muntenia, Romania.
Nicolae Ceaușescu, who led Romania from 1965 to 1989, had a large family, several members of which wielded influence in Communist Romania.
Ceaușescu's final speech was a speech delivered by Romanian dictator Nicolae Ceaușescu on 21 December 1989.
Ceaușescu's speech of 21 August 1968 was a public address by Nicolae Ceaușescu, General Secretary of the Romanian Communist Party and President of the State Council, strongly condemning the Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia.
Central Committee was the common designation of a standing administrative body of communist parties, analogous to a board of directors, whether ruling or non-ruling in the 20th century and of the surviving communist states in the 21st century.
Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle (22 November 1890 – 9 November 1970) was a French general and statesman who led the French Resistance against Nazi Germany in World War II and chaired the Provisional Government of the French Republic from 1944 to 1946 in order to reestablish democracy in France.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Chivu Stoica (the family name being Chivu; Smeeni, Buzău, 8 August 1908 – Bucharest, 18 February 1975) was a leading Romanian Communist politician, who served as 48th Prime Minister of Romania.
Cighid is probably the most infamous children's home in Romania.
Cluj-Napoca (Klausenburg; Kolozsvár,; Medieval Latin: Castrum Clus, Claudiopolis; and קלויזנבורג, Kloiznburg), commonly known as Cluj, is the fourth most populous city in Romania, and the seat of Cluj County in the northwestern part of the country.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
In Marxist thought, communist society or the communist system is the type of society and economic system postulated to emerge from technological advances in the productive forces, representing the ultimate goal of the political ideology of Communism.
Conducător ("Leader") was the title used officially in two instances by Romanian politicians, and earlier by Carol II.
Constantin Dăscălescu (2 July 1923 – 15 May 2003) was a Romanian communist politician who served as Prime Minister of Romania (21 May 1982 – 22 December 1989) during the communist rule of Nicolae Ceaușescu until the Romanian Revolution.
Contempt of court, often referred to simply as "contempt", is the offense of being disobedient to or discourteous toward a court of law and its officers in the form of behavior that opposes or defies the authority, justice and dignity of the court.
Corneliu Vadim Tudor (28 November 1949 – 14 September 2015) was the leader of the Greater Romania Party (Partidul România Mare), poet, writer, journalist and a Member of the European Parliament.
A coup d'état, also known simply as a coup, a putsch, golpe de estado, or an overthrow, is a type of revolution, where the illegal and overt seizure of a state by the military or other elites within the state apparatus occurs.
A cult of personality arises when a country's regime – or, more rarely, an individual politician – uses the techniques of mass media, propaganda, the big lie, spectacle, the arts, patriotism, and government-organized demonstrations and rallies to create an idealized, heroic, and worshipful image of a leader, often through unquestioning flattery and praise.
The Cultural Revolution, formally the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, was a sociopolitical movement in China from 1966 until 1976.
The Czechoslovak Socialist Republic (Czech/Slovak: Československá socialistická republika, ČSSR) ruled Czechoslovakia from 1948 until 23 April 1990, when the country was under Communist rule.
Czechoslovakia, or Czecho-Slovakia (Czech and Československo, Česko-Slovensko), was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until its peaceful dissolution into the:Czech Republic and:Slovakia on 1 January 1993.
The Dacians (Daci; loc Δάοι, Δάκαι) were an Indo-European people, part of or related to the Thracians.
The Decoration of Honour for Services to the Republic of Austria (Ehrenzeichen für Verdienste um die Republik Österreich) is a national honour awarded by the Republic of Austria.
Decreței (from the Romanian language word decret, meaning "decree"; diminutive decrețel) are Romanians born in the late 1960s and 1970s, shortly after the communist regime of Nicolae Ceaușescu issued Decree 770, aimed at the creation of a new and large Romanian population by restricting abortion and contraception.
The title Defence Minister, Minister for Defence, Minister of National Defense, Secretary of Defence, Secretary of State for Defense or some similar variation, is assigned to the person in a cabinet position in charge of a Ministry of Defence, which regulates the armed forces in sovereign states.
This article is about the demographic features of the population of Romania, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.
Divorce, also known as dissolution of marriage, is the termination of a marriage or marital union, the canceling or reorganizing of the legal duties and responsibilities of marriage, thus dissolving the bonds of matrimony between a married couple under the rule of law of the particular country or state.
Doftana was a Romanian prison, sometimes referred to as "the Romanian Bastille".
Drobeta-Turnu Severin (Drobeta; Szörényvár, Szörénytornya; Северин; Дробета-Турн Северин/Drobeta-Turn Severin) is a city in Mehedinți County, Oltenia, Romania, on the left bank of the Danube, below the Iron Gates.
Dumitru Burlan (born May 11, 1939, Licurici, Gorj County) is a Romanian former Securitate officer.
East Berlin existed from 1949 to 1990 and consisted of the Soviet sector of Berlin established in 1945.
East Germany, officially the German Democratic Republic (GDR; Deutsche Demokratische Republik, DDR), existed from 1949 to 1990 and covers the period when the eastern portion of Germany existed as a state that was part of the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War period.
The Eastern Bloc was the group of socialist states of Central and Eastern Europe, generally the Soviet Union and the countries of the Warsaw Pact.
Edward Samuel Behr (7 May 1926 in Paris – 27 May 2007 in Paris) was a foreign correspondent and war journalist, who worked for many years for Newsweek.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
Elena Ceaușescu (née Lenuța Petrescu; 7 January 1916 – 25 December 1989) was a Romanian communist politician who was the wife of Nicolae Ceaușescu, President of the Socialist Republic of Romania.
Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms.
Emil Bobu (22 February 1927 – 12 July 2014) was a Romanian Communist activist and politician, who served as Interior Minister from 1973 to 1975 and as Labor Minister from 1979 to 1981.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
Erich Honecker (25 August 1912 – 29 May 1994) was a German politician who, as the General Secretary of the Socialist Unity Party, led the German Democratic Republic (East Germany) from 1971 until the weeks preceding the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989. From 1976 onward he was also the country's official head of state as chairman of the State Council following Willi Stoph's relinquishment of the post. Honecker's political career began in the 1930s when he became an official of the Communist Party of Germany, a position for which he was imprisoned during the Nazi era. Following World War II, he was freed and soon relaunched his political activities, founding the youth organisation the Free German Youth in 1946 and serving as the group's chairman until 1955. As the Security Secretary of the Party’s Central Committee in the new East German state, he was the prime organiser of the building of the Berlin Wall in 1961 and, in this function, bore responsibility for the "order to fire" along the Inner German border. In 1971, he initiated a political power struggle that led, with Soviet support, to his replacing Walter Ulbricht as First Secretary of the Central Committee and as chairman of the state's National Defense Council. Under his command, the country adopted a programme of "consumer socialism" and moved toward the international community by normalising relations with West Germany and also becoming a full member of the UN, in what is considered one of his greatest political successes. As Cold War tensions eased in the late 1980s under perestroika and glasnost, the liberal reforms of Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev, Honecker refused all but cosmetic changes to the East German political system, citing the continual hardliner attitudes of Kim Il-sung and Fidel Castro, whose respective regimes of North Korea and Cuba had been critical of reforms, leaders who ruthlessly suppressed opposition. As anticommunist protests grew, Honecker begged the USSR to intervene and suppress the protests to maintain communist rule in East Germany like the Prague Spring of 1968 and the Hungarian Revolution of 1956; Gorbachev refused. Honecker was forced to resign by his party in October 1989 in a bid to improve the government's image before the public. Honecker's eighteen years at the helm of the soon-to-collapse German Democratic Republic came to an end. Following German reunification, he sought asylum in the Chilean embassy in Moscow in 1991 but was extradited back to Germany a year later to stand trial for his role in the human rights abuses committed by the East German government. However, the proceedings were abandoned due to illness and he was freed from custody to travel to join his family in exile in Chile, where he died in May 1994 from liver cancer.
Ethnic hatred, inter-ethnic hatred, racial hatred, or ethnic tension refers to feelings and acts of prejudice and hostility towards an ethnic group in various degrees.
The European Economic Community (EEC) was a regional organisation which aimed to bring about economic integration among its member states.
Execution by firing squad, in the past sometimes called fusillading (from the French fusil, rifle), is a method of capital punishment, particularly common in the military and in times of war.
External loan (or foreign debt) is the total debt a country owes to foreign creditors, complemented by internal debt owed to domestic lenders.
Führer (These are also cognates of the Latin peritus ("experienced"), Sanskrit piparti "brings over" and the Greek poros "passage, way".-->, spelled Fuehrer when the umlaut is not available) is a German word meaning "leader" or "guide".
FCSB, short for Fotbal Club Steaua București and colloquially known as simply Steaua, is a Romanian professional football club based in Bucharest.
Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (August 13, 1926 – November 25, 2016) was a Cuban communist revolutionary and politician who governed the Republic of Cuba as Prime Minister from 1959 to 1976 and then as President from 1976 to 2008.
Franz Josef Jonas (4 October 1899 – 24 April 1974) was an Austrian politician.
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) was a legal agreement between many countries, whose overall purpose was to promote international trade by reducing or eliminating trade barriers such as tariffs or quotas.
Genocide is intentional action to destroy a people (usually defined as an ethnic, national, racial, or religious group) in whole or in part.
Ghencea cemetery is located in Ghencea neighborhood of Bucharest, on Ghencea Boulevard, in Sector 6.
Gheorghe Apostol (May 16, 1913 – August 21, 2010) was a Romanian politician, deputy Prime Minister of Romania and a former leader of the Communist Party, noted for his rivalry with Nicolae Ceaușescu.
Gheorghe Gaston Marin (April 14, 1918 – February 25, 2010) was a Romanian communist politician who had many roles under Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej and Nicolae Ceauşescu.
Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej (8 November 1901 – 19 March 1965) was a Romanian communist politician who served as the first Communist leader of Romania from 1947 to 1965 as General Secretary of the Romanian Communist Party.
Gheorgheni (Gyergyószentmiklós) is a city in Harghita County, Romania.
In the Russian language the word glasnost (гла́сность) has several general and specific meanings.
Government and Opposition is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal on politics.
Gustáv Husák (10 January 1913 – 18 November 1991) was a Slovak politician, president of Czechoslovakia and a long-term Secretary General of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (1969–1987).
A helicopter is a type of rotorcraft in which lift and thrust are supplied by rotors.
was the 124th Emperor of Japan according to the traditional order of succession, reigning from 25 December 1926, until his death on 7 January 1989.
Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
The Hungarian People's Republic (Magyar Népköztársaság) was a one-party socialist republic (communist state) from 20 August 1949 to 23 October 1989.
The Hungarian minority of Romania is the largest ethnic minority in Romania, consisting of 1,227,623 people and making up 6.1% of the total population, according to the 2011 census.
Ilie Verdeț (10 May 1925 – 20 March 2001) was a Romanian communist politician.
IMDb, also known as Internet Movie Database, is an online database of information related to world films, television programs, home videos and video games, and internet streams, including cast, production crew and personnel biographies, plot summaries, trivia, and fan reviews and ratings.
Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi (née Nehru; 19 November 1917 – 31 October 1984) was an Indian politician, stateswoman and a central figure of the Indian National Congress.
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.
The International Olympic Committee (IOC; French: Comité International Olympique, CIO) is a Swiss private non-governmental organisation based in Lausanne, Switzerland, which is the authority responsible for the modern Olympic Games.
Internment is the imprisonment of people, commonly in large groups, without charges or intent to file charges, and thus no trial.
Ion Antonescu (– June 1, 1946) was a Romanian soldier and authoritarian politician who, as the Prime Minister and Conducător during most of World War II, presided over two successive wartime dictatorships.
Ion Gheorghe Iosif Maurer (23 September 1902 – 8 February 2000) was a Romanian communist politician and lawyer, as well as a 49th Prime Minister of Romania.
Ion Iliescu (born 3 March 1930) is a Romanian politician who served as President of Romania from 1989 until 1996, and from 2000 until 2004.
Ion Mihai Pacepa (born 28 October 1928) is a former three-star general in Communist Romania, who defected to the United States in July 1978 following President Jimmy Carter's approval of his request for political asylum.
Iosif Constantin Drăgan (June 20, 1917 – August 21, 2008) was a Romanian and Italian businessman, writer, historian and founder of the ButanGas company.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
The Iranian Revolution (Enqelāb-e Iran; also known as the Islamic Revolution or the 1979 Revolution), Iran Chamber.
The Iron Curtain was the name for the boundary dividing Europe into two separate areas from the end of World War II in 1945 until the end of the Cold War in 1991.
The Iron Guard (Garda de fier) is the name most commonly given to a far-right movement and political party in Romania in the period from 1927 into the early part of World War II.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
The Istituto Affari Internazionali (IAI) (English: Institute of International Affairs) is an Italian non-profit organization founded in 1965 by Altiero Spinelli, its first director, thanks to joint contributions from the Fondazione Olivetti, the cultural and political association Il Mulino and the Nord e Sud Research Center, as well as to substantial support from the Ford Foundation.
Ivan Ivanovich Bodiul (– 27 January 2013) was a Soviet and Moldovan politician prominent in the Moldavian SSR, particularly during the Brezhnev era.
János Kádár (26 May 1912 – 6 July 1989) was a Hungarian communist leader and the General Secretary of the Hungarian Socialist Workers' Party, presiding over the country from 1956 until his retirement in 1988.
Jean-Bédel Bokassa (22 February 1921 – 3 November 1996), also known as Bokassa I of Central Africa and Salah Eddine Ahmed Bokassa, was the ruler of the Central African Republic and its successor state, the Central African Empire, from his coup d'état on 1 January 1966 until overthrown in a subsequent coup (supported by France) on 20 September 1979.
Jean-François Thiriart (22 March 1922, Brussels – 23 November 1992) was a Belgian politician associated with neo-fascist and neo-Nazi groups.
Jiang Qing (March 19, 1914May 14, 1991), also known as Madame Mao, was a Chinese Communist Revolutionary, Chinese actress, and major political figure during the Cultural Revolution (1966–76).
James Earl Carter Jr. (born October 1, 1924) is an American politician who served as the 39th President of the United States from 1977 to 1981.
The Jiu (Zsil; Rabon) is a river in southern Romania.
The Jiu Valley miners' strike of 1977 was the largest protest movement against the Communist regime in Romania before its final days, ushering in a period of intermittent labour unrest that would last a dozen years, and the most important challenge posed by a group of workers to the regime since the protests triggered by the Hungarian Revolution of 1956.
Josip Broz (Cyrillic: Јосип Броз,; 7 May 1892 – 4 May 1980), commonly known as Tito (Cyrillic: Тито), was a Yugoslav communist revolutionary and political leader, serving in various roles from 1943 until his death in 1980.
The Jubilee Medal "Thirty Years of Victory in the Great Patriotic War 1941–1945" (Юбилейная медаль «Тридцать лет Победы в Великой Отечественной войне 1941–1945 гг.») was a state commemorative medal of the Soviet Union established on April 25, 1975 by decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR to denote the thirtieth anniversary of the Soviet victory over Nazi Germany in World War II.
Juche (subject;; usually left untranslated or translated as "self-reliance") is the official state ideology of North Korea, described by the government as Kim Il-sung's "original, brilliant and revolutionary contribution to national and international thought".
Juliana Geran Pilon is a Romanian-born naturalized American writer.
The July Theses (Tezele din iulie) is a name commonly given to a speech delivered by Romanian leader Nicolae Ceaușescu on July 6, 1971, before the Executive Committee of the Romanian Communist Party (PCR).
Jurnalul Național is a Romanian newspaper, part of the INTACT Media Group led by Dan Voiculescu, which also includes the popular television station Antena 1.
Karl MarxThe name "Karl Heinrich Marx", used in various lexicons, is based on an error.
Kim Il-sung (or Kim Il Sung) (born Kim Sŏng-ju; 15 April 1912 – 8 July 1994) was the first leader of North Korea, from its establishment in 1948 until his death in 1994.
The Kingdom of Romania (Regatul României) was a constitutional monarchy in Southeastern Europe which existed from 1881, when prince Carol I of Romania was proclaimed King, until 1947, when King Michael I of Romania abdicated and the Parliament proclaimed Romania a republic.
László Tőkés (born 1 April 1952) is a Romanian-born Hungarian pastor and politician.
The Lebanese University (Université libanaise, الجامعة اللبنانية) is the only public institution for higher learning in Lebanon.
Leeds is a city in the metropolitan borough of Leeds, in the county of West Yorkshire, England.
The Legion of Honour, with its full name National Order of the Legion of Honour (Ordre national de la Légion d'honneur), is the highest French order of merit for military and civil merits, established in 1802 by Napoléon Bonaparte and retained by all the divergent governments and regimes later holding power in France, up to the present.
Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev (a; Леоні́д Іллі́ч Бре́жнєв, 19 December 1906 (O.S. 6 December) – 10 November 1982) was a Soviet politician who led the Soviet Union from 1964 to 1982 as the General Secretary of the Central Committee (CC) of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU), presiding over the country until his death and funeral in 1982.
The Country Studies are works published by the Federal Research Division of the United States Library of Congress, freely available for use by researchers.
Lieutenant general, lieutenant-general and similar (abbrev Lt Gen, LTG and similar) is a three-star military rank (NATO code OF-8) used in many countries.
This is an incomplete list of people who have been created honorary Knights or Dames by the British crown, as well as those who have been raised to the two comparable Orders of Chivalry (Order of Merit and Order of the Companions of Honour) and the Royal Victorian Chain, which do not carry pre-nominal styles.
The President of Romania serves as the head of state of Romania.
Los Angeles (Spanish for "The Angels";; officially: the City of Los Angeles; colloquially: by its initials L.A.) is the second-most populous city in the United States, after New York City.
Manea Mănescu (9 August 1916 – 27 February 2009) was a Romanian communist politician who served as Prime Minister for five years (29 March 1974 – 29 March 1979) during Nicolae Ceaușescu's Communist regime.
Mao Zedong (December 26, 1893September 9, 1976), commonly known as Chairman Mao, was a Chinese communist revolutionary who became the founding father of the People's Republic of China, which he ruled as the Chairman of the Communist Party of China from its establishment in 1949 until his death in 1976.
Maoism, known in China as Mao Zedong Thought, is a political theory derived from the teachings of the Chinese political leader Mao Zedong, whose followers are known as Maoists.
Margrethe II (Margrethe 2.,; Margreta 2.; Margrethe II; full name: Margrethe Alexandrine Þórhildur Ingrid; born 16 April 1940) is the Queen of Denmark; as well as the supreme authority of the Church of Denmark and Commander-in-Chief of the Danish Defence.
Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that views class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation.
In political science, Marxism–Leninism is the ideology of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, of the Communist International and of Stalinist political parties.
Mass surveillance is the intricate surveillance of an entire or a substantial fraction of a population in order to monitor that group of citizens.
Michael the Brave (Mihai Viteazu(l) or Mihai Bravu, Vitéz Mihály; 1558 – 9 August 1601) was the Prince of Wallachia (as Michael II, 1593–1601), Prince of Moldavia (1600) and de facto ruler of Transylvania (1599–1600).
Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev, GCL (born 2 March 1931) is a Russian and former Soviet politician.
The military dictatorship of Chile (dictadura militar de Chile) was an authoritarian military government that ruled Chile between 1973 and 1990.
The Military Order of Saint James of the Sword (Ordem Militar de Sant'Iago da Espada) is a Portuguese order of chivalry.
Mircea the Elder (Mircea cel Bătrân,, d. 31 January 1418) was Voivode of Wallachia from 1386 until his death.
Marshal Mobutu Sese Seko Kuku Ngbendu Wa Za Banga (born Joseph-Désiré Mobutu; 14 October 1930 – 7 September 1997) was the military dictator and President of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (which Mobutu renamed Zaire in 1971) from 1965 to 1997.
Moldova (or sometimes), officially the Republic of Moldova (Republica Moldova), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe, bordered by Romania to the west and Ukraine to the north, east, and south (by way of the disputed territory of Transnistria).
The Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, also known as the Nazi–Soviet Pact,Charles Peters (2005), Five Days in Philadelphia: The Amazing "We Want Willkie!" Convention of 1940 and How It Freed FDR to Save the Western World, New York: PublicAffairs, Ch.
The Moncada Barracks was a military barracks in Santiago de Cuba, named after the General Guillermón Moncada, a hero of the Cuban War of Independence.
The Mongolian People's Republic (Бүгд Найрамдах Монгол Ард Улс (БНМАУ), Bügd Nairamdakh Mongol Ard Uls (BNMAU)), commonly known as Outer Mongolia, was a unitary sovereign socialist state which existed between 1924 and 1992, coterminous with the present-day country of Mongolia in East Asia.
Moscow (a) is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.1 million within the urban area.
National Bolshevism, often shortened to Nazbolism (Нацболы), is a political movement that combines elements of radical nationalism (especially Russian nationalism) and Bolshevism.
National Geographic (formerly the National Geographic Magazine and branded also as NAT GEO or) is the official magazine of the National Geographic Society.
The National Salvation Front (Frontul Salvării Naționale, FSN) is the name of a political organization that was the governing body of Romania in the first weeks after the Romanian Revolution in 1989.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
Neo-Stalinism (Неосталинизм) is the promotion of positive views of Joseph Stalin's role in history, the partial re-establishing of Stalin's policies on certain issues and nostalgia for the Stalin period.
Nepotism is based on favour granted to relatives in various fields, including business, politics, entertainment, sports, religion and other activities.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
During the Cold War, Romanian dictator Nicolae Ceaușescu presided over the most pervasive cult of personality within the Eastern Bloc.
Nicu Ceaușescu (1 September 1951 – 26 September 1996) was a Romanian physicist and communist politician who was the youngest child of Romanian leader Nicolae and Elena Ceaușescu.
North Korea (Chosŏn'gŭl:조선; Hanja:朝鮮; Chosŏn), officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (abbreviated as DPRK, PRK, DPR Korea, or Korea DPR), is a country in East Asia constituting the northern part of the Korean Peninsula.
The North Korean cult of personality surrounding its ruling family, the Kim family, has existed in North Korea for decades and can be found in many examples of North Korean culture.
North Vietnam, officially the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV) (Việt Nam Dân Chủ Cộng Hòa), was a country in Southeast Asia from 1945 to 1976, although it did not achieve widespread recognition until 1954.
Olt is a county (județ) of Romania on the border with Bulgaria, in the historical regions of Oltenia and Muntenia (the regions are separated by the Olt river).
The Olympic Order is the highest award of the Olympic Movement and is awarded for particularly distinguished contributions to the Olympic Movement, i.e. recognition of efforts worthy of merit in the cause of sport.
A one-party state, single-party state, one-party system, or single-party system is a type of state in which one political party has the right to form the government, usually based on the existing constitution.
The Order of José Martí (Orden José Martí) is a state honor in Cuba.
The Order of Karl Marx was the most important order in the German Democratic Republic (GDR).
The Order of Lenin (Orden Lenina), named after the leader of the Russian October Revolution, was established by the Central Executive Committee on April 6, 1930.
The Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany (German: Verdienstorden der Bundesrepublik Deutschland) is the only federal decoration of Germany.
The Order of Merit of the Italian Republic (Ordine al merito della Repubblica Italiana) was founded as the senior order of knighthood by the second President of the Italian Republic, Luigi Einaudi in 1951.
The Order of Sikatuna (Orden ni Sikatuna) is the national order of diplomatic merit of the Republic of the Philippines.
The Royal Norwegian Order of Saint Olav (Den Kongelige Norske Sankt Olavs Orden; or Sanct Olafs Orden, the old Norwegian name) is a Norwegian order of chivalry instituted by King Oscar I on August 21, 1847.
The Most Honourable Order of the Bath (formerly the Most Honourable Military Order of the Bath) is a British order of chivalry founded by George I on 18 May 1725.
The Most Exalted Order of the Crown of the Realm (Darjah Utama Seri Mahkota Negara) is a Malaysian Federal Award.
The Order of the Elephant (Elefantordenen) is a Danish order of chivalry and is Denmark's highest-ranked honour.
The Order of the Liberator General San Martin (Orden del Libertador General San Martín) is the highest decoration in Argentina.
The Order of the October Revolution (Орден Октябрьской Революции, Orden Oktyabr'skoy Revolyutsii) was instituted on October 31, 1967, in time for the 50th anniversary of the October Revolution.
The National Order of the Southern Cross (Ordem Nacional do Cruzeiro do Sul) is a Brazilian order of chivalry founded by Emperor Pedro I on 1 December 1822.
Orders, decorations and medals of Bulgaria are regulated by the law on the Orders and Medals of the Republic Of Bulgaria of 29 May 2003.
The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is the world's largest security-oriented intergovernmental organization.
The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO; منظمة التحرير الفلسطينية) is an organization founded in 1964 with the purpose of the "liberation of Palestine" through armed struggle, with much of its violence aimed at Israeli civilians.
Pantheon Books is an American book publishing imprint with editorial independence.
The Patriotic Guards (Gărzile Patriotice) were Romanian paramilitary formations formed during the Socialist Republic of Romania, designed to provide additional defence in case of outside attack.
"People's Republic" is a title used by some sovereign states with republican constitutions.
The People's Republic of Bulgaria (PRB; Народна република България (НРБ) Narodna republika Bǎlgariya (NRB)) was the official name of Bulgaria when it was a socialist republic.
Perestroika (a) was a political movement for reformation within the Communist Party of the Soviet Union during the 1980s until 1991 and is widely associated with Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev and his glasnost (meaning "openness") policy reform.
A plenary session is a session of a conference which all members of all parties are to attend.
Polish October, also known as October 1956, Polish thaw, or Gomułka's thaw, marked a change in the politics of Poland in the second half of 1956.
The Polish People's Republic (Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa, PRL) covers the history of contemporary Poland between 1952 and 1990 under the Soviet-backed socialist government established after the Red Army's release of its territory from German occupation in World War II.
The Popular Movement of the Revolution (Mouvement Populaire de la Révolution, or MPR) was the ruling political party in Zaire which, for most of its existence, was the sole permitted faction in Zaire's one-party state.
In politics and economics, a Potemkin village (also Potyomkin village, derived from the потёмкинские деревни, potyomkinskiye derevni) is any construction (literal or figurative) built solely to deceive others into thinking that a situation is better than it really is.
Prague (Praha, Prag) is the capital and largest city in the Czech Republic, the 14th largest city in the European Union and also the historical capital of Bohemia.
The Prague Spring (Pražské jaro, Pražská jar) was a period of political liberalization in Czechoslovakia during the era of its domination by the Soviet Union after World War II.
The President of Romania is the head of state of Romania.
The President of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (Président de la République démocratique du Congo, Rais wa Jamhuri ya Kidemokrasia ya Kongo, Mokonzi wa Republíki ya Kongó Demokratíki), is the head of state of the Democratic Republic of the Congo and commander-in-chief of the armed forces.
Proletkult (p), a portmanteau of the Russian words "proletarskaya kultura" (proletarian culture), was an experimental Soviet artistic institution that arose in conjunction with the Russian Revolution of 1917.
Protochronism (anglicized from the Protocronism, from the Ancient Greek terms for "first in time") is a Romanian term describing the tendency to ascribe, largely relying on questionable data and subjective interpretations, an idealized past to the country as a whole.
Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (RFE/RL) is a broadcasting organization that broadcasts and reports news, information, and analysis to countries in Eastern Europe, Central Asia and the Middle East where it says that "the free flow of information is either banned by government authorities or not fully developed".
Râmnicu Vâlcea (also spelled Rîmnicu Vîlcea) (population: 92,573) is the capital city of Vâlcea County, Romania (in the historical province of Oltenia).
Rebellion, uprising, or insurrection is a refusal of obedience or order.
The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (Рабоче-крестьянская Красная армия (РККА), Raboche-krest'yanskaya Krasnaya armiya (RKKA), frequently shortened in Russian to Красная aрмия (КА), Krasnaya armiya (KA), in English: Red Army, also in critical literature and folklore of that epoch – Red Horde, Army of Work) was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
Within the Marxist movement, the word revisionism is used to refer to various ideas, principles and theories that are based on a significant revision of fundamental Marxist premises.
Revolution Square (Piața Revoluției) is a square in central Bucharest, on Calea Victoriei.
The Revolutions of 1989 formed part of a revolutionary wave in the late 1980s and early 1990s that resulted in the end of communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe and beyond.
Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was an American politician who served as the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 until 1974, when he resigned from office, the only U.S. president to do so.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Romania (România) is a sovereign state located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.
The Romanian Communist Party (Romanian: Partidul Comunist Român, PCR) was a communist party in Romania.
The Romanian Land Forces (Forțele Terestre Române) is the army of Romania, and the main component of the Romanian Armed Forces.
Romanian (obsolete spellings Rumanian, Roumanian; autonym: limba română, "the Romanian language", or românește, lit. "in Romanian") is an East Romance language spoken by approximately 24–26 million people as a native language, primarily in Romania and Moldova, and by another 4 million people as a second language.
The Romanian leu (plural lei; ISO 4217 code RON; numeric code 946) is the currency of Romania.
Romanian nationalism is the nationalism which asserts that Romanians are a nation and promotes the cultural unity of Romanians.
The standard of living for Romanian orphans is still problematic despite vast improvements since their conditions were leaked to the West after the fall of the Communist government in 1989.
The Romanian Orthodox Church (Biserica Ortodoxă Română) is an autocephalous Orthodox Church in full communion with other Eastern Orthodox Christian Churches and ranked seventh in order of precedence.
A presidential election was held in the Socialist Republic of Romania on 28 March 1974.
The Romanian Revolution (Revoluția Română) was a period of violent civil unrest in Romania in December 1989 and part of the Revolutions of 1989 that occurred in several countries.
The Romanians (români or—historically, but now a seldom-used regionalism—rumâni; dated exonym: Vlachs) are a Latin European ethnic group and nation native to Romania, that share a common Romanian culture, ancestry, and speak the Romanian language, the most widespread spoken Eastern Romance language which is descended from the Latin language. According to the 2011 Romanian census, just under 89% of Romania's citizens identified themselves as ethnic Romanians. In one interpretation of the census results in Moldova, the Moldovans are counted as Romanians, which would mean that the latter form part of the majority in that country as well.Ethnic Groups Worldwide: A Ready Reference Handbook By David Levinson, Published 1998 – Greenwood Publishing Group.At the time of the 1989 census, Moldova's total population was 4,335,400. The largest nationality in the republic, ethnic Romanians, numbered 2,795,000 persons, accounting for 64.5 percent of the population. Source:: "however it is one interpretation of census data results. The subject of Moldovan vs Romanian ethnicity touches upon the sensitive topic of", page 108 sqq. Romanians are also an ethnic minority in several nearby countries situated in Central, respectively Eastern Europe, particularly in Hungary, Czech Republic, Ukraine (including Moldovans), Serbia, and Bulgaria. Today, estimates of the number of Romanian people worldwide vary from 26 to 30 million according to various sources, evidently depending on the definition of the term 'Romanian', Romanians native to Romania and Republic of Moldova and their afferent diasporas, native speakers of Romanian, as well as other Eastern Romance-speaking groups considered by most scholars as a constituent part of the broader Romanian people, specifically Aromanians, Megleno-Romanians, Istro-Romanians, and Vlachs in Serbia (including medieval Vlachs), in Croatia, in Bulgaria, or in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The Royal Order of the Seraphim (Swedish: Kungliga Serafimerorden; Seraphim being a category of Angels) is a Swedish order of chivalry created by King Frederick I on 23 February 1748, together with the Order of the Sword and the Order of the Polar Star.
Rudolf Kirchschläger (20 March 1915 – 30 March 2000) was an Austrian diplomat, politician and judge.
Salvador Domingo Felipe Jacinto Dalí i Domènech, 1st Marquess of Dalí de Púbol (11 May 190423 January 1989), known professionally as Salvador Dalí, was a prominent Spanish surrealist born in Figueres, Catalonia, Spain.
Scînteia ("The Spark"; the initial spelling of the name in Romanian was Scânteia until the change of the orthography in 1953, as it would have been again, the orthography having officially reverted in 1993) was the name of two newspapers edited by Communist groups at different intervals in Romanian history.
A sceptre (British English) or scepter (American English; see spelling differences) is a symbolic ornamental staff or wand held in the hand by a ruling monarch as an item of royal or imperial insignia.
Scornicești is a town in Olt County, Romania with a population of 11,766.
The term secret police (or political police)Ilan Berman & J. Michael Waller, "Introduction: The Centrality of the Secret Police" in Dismantling Tyranny: Transitioning Beyond Totalitarian Regimes (Rowman & Littlefield, 2006), p. xv.
Secretary is a title often used in organizations to indicate a person having a certain amount of authority, power, or importance in the organization.
The Securitate (Romanian for Security) was the popular term for the Departamentul Securității Statului (Department of State Security), the secret police agency of the Socialist Republic of Romania.
Shoemaking is the process of making footwear.
Mohamed Siad Barre (Maxamed Siyaad Barre; محمد سياد بري; October 6, 1919 – January 2, 1995) was a Somali politician who served as the President of the Somali Democratic Republic from 1969 to 1991.
Sibiu (antiquated Sibiiu; Hermannstadt, Transylvanian Saxon: Härmeschtat, Nagyszeben) is a city in Transylvania, Romania, with a population of 147,245.
Siguranța was the generic name for the successive secret police services in the Kingdom of Romania.
The Six-Day War (Hebrew: מלחמת ששת הימים, Milhemet Sheshet Ha Yamim; Arabic: النكسة, an-Naksah, "The Setback" or حرب ۱۹٦۷, Ḥarb 1967, "War of 1967"), also known as the June War, 1967 Arab–Israeli War, or Third Arab–Israeli War, was fought between 5 and 10 June 1967 by Israel and the neighboring states of Egypt (known at the time as the United Arab Republic), Jordan, and Syria.
Snagov (population: 6,041) is a commune, located 40 km north of Bucharest in Ilfov County, Romania.
Socialism with a human face (in Czech: socialismus s lidskou tváří, in Slovak: socializmus s ľudskou tvárou) was a political programme announced by Alexander Dubček and his colleagues agreed at Presidium of Communist Party of Czechoslovakia on April 1968 after he became the chairman of the Party in January 1968.
The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFR Yugoslavia or SFRY) was a socialist state led by the League of Communists of Yugoslavia, that existed from its foundation in the aftermath of World War II until its dissolution in 1992 amid the Yugoslav Wars.
In Marxist theory, socialism (also called the socialist mode of production) refers to a specific historical phase of economic development and its corresponding set of social relations that supersede capitalism in the schema of historical materialism.
Socialist realism is a style of idealized realistic art that was developed in the Soviet Union and was imposed as the official style in that country between 1932 and 1988, as well as in other socialist countries after World War II.
The Socialist Republic of Romania (Republica Socialistă România, RSR) refers to Romania under Marxist-Leninist one-party Communist rule that existed officially from 1947 to 1989.
A socialist state, socialist republic or socialist country (sometimes workers' state or workers' republic) is a sovereign state constitutionally dedicated to the establishment of socialism.
The Socialist Unity Party of Germany (Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschlands, SED), established in April 1946, was the governing Marxist–Leninist political party of the German Democratic Republic from the country's foundation in October 1949 until it was dissolved after the Peaceful Revolution in 1989.
Solidarity (Solidarność, pronounced; full name: Independent Self-governing Labour Union "Solidarity"—Niezależny Samorządny Związek Zawodowy „Solidarność”) is a Polish labour union that was founded on 17 September 1980 at the Lenin Shipyard under the leadership of Lech Wałęsa.
The Soviet occupation of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina was the military occupation, by the Soviet Red Army, during June 28 – July 4, 1940, of the Romanian regions of Northern Bukovina and Hertza, and of Bessarabia, a region under Romanian administration since Russian Civil War times.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The SovRoms (plural of SovRom) were economic enterprises established in Romania following the Communist takeover at the end of World War II, in place until 1954–1956 (when they were dissolved by the Romanian authorities).
Stalinism is the means of governing and related policies implemented from the 1920s to 1953 by Joseph Stalin (1878–1953).
The State Council (Consiliul de Stat) was the supreme executive authority of Communist Romania from 1961 to 1989.
Stelian Tănase (born February 17, 1952) is a Romanian writer, journalist, political analyst, and talk show host.
Syncretic politics, or spectral-syncretic, refers to politics that combine elements from across the conventional left–right political spectrum.
Târgoviște (alternative spelling: Tîrgoviște) is a city in Romania, and the county seat of the Dâmbovița County.
Târgu Jiu is the capital of Gorj County in the Oltenia region of Romania.
"The Internationale" (L'Internationale) is a left-wing anthem.
The Times is a British daily (Monday to Saturday) national newspaper based in London, England.
Timișoara (Temeswar, also formerly Temeschburg or Temeschwar; Temesvár,; טעמשוואר; Темишвар / Temišvar; Banat Bulgarian: Timišvár; Temeşvar; Temešvár) is the capital city of Timiș County, and the main social, economic and cultural centre in western Romania.
Titoism is described as the post-World War II policies and practices associated with Josip Broz Tito during the Cold War, characterized by an opposition to the Soviet Union.
Todor Hristov Zhivkov (Тодор Христов Живков; 7 September 1911 – 5 August 1998) was the communist leader of the People's Republic of Bulgaria (PRB) from 4 March 1954 until 10 November 1989.
Benito Mussolini Totalitarianism is a political concept where the state recognizes no limits to its authority and strives to control every aspect of public and private life wherever feasible.
The trial of Nicolae and Elena Ceaușescu was a short trial held on 25 December 1989 by an Exceptional Military Tribunal, a drumhead court-martial created at the request of the Council of the National Salvation Front, resulting in the death sentence and execution of former Romanian President and General Secretary of the Romanian Communist Party Nicolae Ceaușescu and his wife, Elena Ceaușescu.
The Union of Communist Youth (Romanian: Uniunea Tineretului Comunist; UTC) was the Romanian Communist Party's youth organisation.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán (Autonomous University of Yucatan), or UADY, is an autonomous public university in the state of Yucatán, Mexico, with its central campuses located in the state capital of Mérida.
The University of Bucharest (Universitatea din București), commonly known after its abbreviation UB in Romania, is a public university founded in 1864 by decree of Prince Alexandru Ioan Cuza to convert the former Saint Sava Academy into the current University of Bucharest, making it the second oldest modern university in Romania.
The University of Buenos Aires (Universidad de Buenos Aires, UBA) is the largest university in Argentina and the second largest university by enrollment in Latin America.
The University of Liberia (UL or LU in older versions of abbreviation) is a publicly funded institution of higher learning located in Monrovia, Liberia.
The Nice Sophia Antipolis University (Université Nice Sophia Antipolis) is a university located in Nice, France and neighboring areas.
Valentin Ceaușescu (born 17 February 1948) is a Romanian physicist.
Vasile Milea (1 January 1927, Lerești, Argeș – 22 December 1989) was Nicolae Ceaușescu's minister of defense during the Romanian Revolution of 1989 and was involved in the reprisal phase of the revolution that caused the deaths of 162 people.
Victor Atanasie Stănculescu (May 10, 1928 – June 19, 2016) was a Romanian general during the Communist era.
Voice of America (VOA) is a U.S. government-funded international radio broadcast source that serves as the United States federal government's official institution for non-military, external broadcasting.
The Warsaw Pact, formally known as the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance, was a collective defence treaty signed in Warsaw, Poland among the Soviet Union and seven Soviet satellite states of Central and Eastern Europe during the Cold War.
The Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia, officially known as Operation Danube, was a joint invasion of Czechoslovakia by five Warsaw Pact nations – the Soviet Union, Bulgaria, Hungary, East Germany and Poland – on the night of 20–21 August 1968.
Władysław Gomułka (6 February 1905 – 1 September 1982) was a Polish communist politician.
West Germany is the common English name for the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG; Bundesrepublik Deutschland, BRD) in the period between its creation on 23 May 1949 and German reunification on 3 October 1990.
The Western Bloc during the Cold War refers to the countries allied with the United States and NATO against the Soviet Union and the Warsaw Pact.
Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe.
"Withering away of the state" is a Marxist concept coined by Friedrich Engels referring to the idea that, with realization of the ideals of socialism, the social institution of a state will eventually become obsolete and disappear, as the society will be able to govern itself without the state and its coercive enforcement of the law.
Wojciech Witold Jaruzelski (6 July 1923 – 25 May 2014) was a Polish military officer and politician.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Mohammed Yasser Abdel Rahman Abdel Raouf Arafat al-Qudwa (محمد ياسر عبد الرحمن عبد الرؤوف عرفات; 24 August 1929 – 11 November 2004), popularly known as Yasser Arafat (ياسر عرفات) or by his kunya Abu Ammar (أبو عمار), was a Palestinian political leader.
Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija/Југославија; Jugoslavija; Југославија; Pannonian Rusyn: Югославия, transcr. Juhoslavija)Jugosllavia; Jugoszlávia; Juhoslávia; Iugoslavia; Jugoslávie; Iugoslavia; Yugoslavya; Югославия, transcr. Jugoslavija.
Zaire, officially the Republic of Zaire (République du Zaïre), was the name for the Democratic Republic of the Congo that existed between 1971 and 1997 in Central Africa.
Zoia Ceaușescu (28 February 1949 – 20 November 2006) was a Romanian mathematician, the daughter of Communist leader Nicolae Ceaușescu and his wife, Elena.
The 1973 Chilean coup d'état was a watershed moment in both the history of Chile and the Cold War.
The 1973 oil crisis began in October 1973 when the members of the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries proclaimed an oil embargo.
The 1980 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXII Olympiad (r), was an international multi-sport event held in Moscow, Soviet Union, in present-day Russia.
The 1980 Summer Olympics boycott was one part of a number of actions initiated by the United States to protest the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan.
The 1984 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXIII Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event that was held from July 28 to August 12, 1984, in Los Angeles (LA), California, United States.
The boycott of the 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles followed four years after the U.S.-led boycott of the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow.
The 1985–86 European Cup was the 31st season of UEFA's premier club football tournament, the European Cup.
The 2,500 year celebration of the Persian Empire (جشنهای ۲۵۰۰ سالهٔ شاهنشاهی ایران), officially known as The 2,500th year of Foundation of Imperial State of Iran (دوهزار و پانصدمین سال بنیانگذاری شاهنشاهی ایران), consisted of an elaborate set of festivities that took place on 12–16 October 1971 on the occasion of the 2,500th anniversary of the founding of the Imperial State of Iran and the Achaemenid Empire by Cyrus the Great.
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