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Nicolae Xenopol

Index Nicolae Xenopol

Nicolae Dimitrie Xenopol (or, also Nicu Xenopol; Francized Nicolas Xenopol; October 11, 1858 – December 1917) was a Romanian politician, diplomat, economist and writer, the younger brother of historian Alexandru Dimitrie Xenopol and, like him, a member of Junimea society. [1]

187 relations: A. C. Cuza, Academic art, Alexandru Averescu, Alexandru Bădărău, Alexandru Bogdan-Pitești, Alexandru Davila, Alexandru Dimitrie Xenopol, Alexandru Macedonski, Alliance Israélite Universelle, Allies of World War I, Antisemitism, Auguste Comte, Austria-Hungary, Émile Louis Victor de Laveleye, Babeș-Bolyai University, Balkans, Băneasa, Bucharest, Bibliothèque nationale de France, Boarding house, Bourgeoisie, Boyar, Bucharest, Bucharest Academy of Economic Studies, Bukovina, Bulgarians in Romania, C. A. Rosetti, Carol I of Romania, Căile Ferate Române, Central Powers, Cezar Petrescu, Chamber of Deputies (Romania), Choir, Cincinat Pavelescu, Ciprian Porumbescu, Class conflict, Conservatism, Conservative Party (Romania, 1880–1918), Conservative-Democratic Party, Constantin Dobrogeanu-Gherea, Contemporanul, Convorbiri Literare, Corneliu Moldovanu, Cosmopolitanism, Crowd psychology, Dilema veche, Dimitrie Gusti, Doctor of Law, Dragoș, Voivode of Moldavia, Dragoman, Duiliu Zamfirescu, ..., Editura Minerva, Elena Văcărescu, Elitism, Empire of Japan, Evenimentul Zilei, Evolutionism, Șerban Cioculescu, Familia (magazine), Francization, French language, French Third Republic, G. P. Putnam's Sons, Galați, Gândirea, George Călinescu, George Panu, German Empire, German idealism, Germans of Romania, Gheorghe Băgulescu, Gheorghe Grigore Cantacuzino, Gheorghe Tașcă, Greater Romania, Greeks in Romania, Henri Cihoski, History of the Jews in Greece, History of the Jews in Romania, Humanitas (publishing house), I. Dragoslav, I.B. Tauris, Iacob Negruzzi, Iași, Ioan Slavici, Ion C. Brătianu, Ion Luca Caragiale, Irredentism, Judicial disqualification, Junimea, Kingdom of Greece, Kingdom of Italy, Kingdom of Prussia, Kingdom of Romania, Land reform in Romania, Law Enforcement and Public Safety Service, Le Temps (Paris), Left-wing politics, Legion of Honour, Leon C. Negruzzi, Leon Feraru, Liberalism and radicalism in Romania, Literary language, Literary realism, Luceafărul (magazine), Lucian Boia, Lyric poetry, Magazin Istoric, Marxism, Mehedinți County, Metaphysical naturalism, Mihai Cimpoi, Mihai Eminescu, Mihail Dragomirescu, Mihail Sadoveanu, Mina Minovici, Ministry of Economy (Romania), Misanthropy, Modernization theory, Moldavia, Montesquieu, National Liberal Party (Romania, 1875), Nationalism, Nicolae Filimon, Nicolae Filipescu, Nicolae Gane, Nicolae Iorga, Nicolae Vasilescu-Karpen, Oberösterreichische Rundschau, Octavian Goga, Ottoman Empire, Paris, Parody, Pastiche, Patriotism, Persian Letters, Petre P. Carp, Plagiarism, Positivism, Prefect (Romania), Prime Minister of Romania, Progressivism, Protectionism, Protestantism in Greece, Romania during World War I, Romanian Athenaeum, Romanian Land Forces, Romanian language, Romanian Orthodox Church, Romanians, Romanticism, Românul, Rosetti family, Russian Empire, Satire, Senate of Romania, Slavic name suffixes, Socialist Republic of Romania, Société d'économie politique, Street organ, Sud-Est (magazine), Take Ionescu, Timpul, Titu Maiorescu, Tokyo, Trade union, Transylvania, Travel literature, Treaty of Bucharest (1916), Tudor Vianu, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, University of Bucharest, University of Galați, University of Liège, University of Michigan Library, University of Paris, Universul, Valahia University of Târgoviște, Victor Eftimiu, West Coast of the United States, Workers' compensation, World War I, World War II, Yankee, Ziarul Financiar, Zigu Ornea, Zollverein, 1 Decembrie 1918 University, Alba Iulia, 19th-century French literature. Expand index (137 more) »

A. C. Cuza

Alexandru C. Cuza (November 8, 1857 – 1947), also known as A. C. Cuza, was a Romanian far-right politician and theorist.

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Academic art

Academic art, or academicism or academism, is a style of painting, sculpture, and architecture produced under the influence of European academies of art.

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Alexandru Averescu

Alexandru Averescu (3 April 1859 – 2 October 1938) was a Romanian marshal and populist politician.

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Alexandru Bădărău

Alexandru A. Bădărău (April 9, 1859–March 27, 1927) was a Romanian politician, academic and journalist.

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Alexandru Bogdan-Pitești

Alexandru Bogdan-Pitești (born Alexandru Bogdan, also known as Ion Doican, Ion Duican and Al. Dodan; June 13, 1870 – May 12, 1922) was a Romanian Symbolist poet, essayist, and art and literary critic, who was also known as a journalist and left-wing political agitator.

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Alexandru Davila

Alexandru Davila (February 12, 1862 – October 19, 1929) was a Romanian dramatist, diplomat, public administrator, and memoirist.

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Alexandru Dimitrie Xenopol

Alexandru Dimitrie Xenopol (March 23, 1847, Iaşi – February 27, 1920, Bucharest) was a Romanian historian, philosopher, professor, economist, sociologist, and author.

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Alexandru Macedonski

Alexandru Macedonski (also rendered as Al. A. Macedonski, Macedonschi or Macedonsky; March 14, 1854 – November 24, 1920) was a Romanian poet, novelist, dramatist and literary critic, known especially for having promoted French Symbolism in his native country, and for leading the Romanian Symbolist movement during its early decades.

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Alliance Israélite Universelle

The Alliance israélite universelle (כל ישראל חברים) is a Paris-based international Jewish organization founded in 1860 by the French statesman Adolphe Crémieux to safeguard the human rights of Jews around the world.

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Allies of World War I

The Allies of World War I, or Entente Powers, were the countries that opposed the Central Powers in the First World War.

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Antisemitism (also spelled anti-Semitism or anti-semitism) is hostility to, prejudice, or discrimination against Jews.

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Auguste Comte

Isidore Marie Auguste François Xavier Comte (19 January 1798 – 5 September 1857) was a French philosopher who founded the discipline of praxeology and the doctrine of positivism.

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Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Austrian Empire (the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council, or Cisleithania) and the Kingdom of Hungary (Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen or Transleithania) that existed from 1867 to 1918, when it collapsed as a result of defeat in World War I. The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867.

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Émile Louis Victor de Laveleye

Émile Louis Victor de Laveleye (5 April 1822 – 3 January 1892) was a Belgian economist.

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Babeș-Bolyai University

The Babeș-Bolyai University (Universitatea Babeș-Bolyai, Babeș-Bolyai Tudományegyetem, Babeș-Bolyai Universität), commonly known after its abbreviation, UBB, is a public university in Cluj-Napoca, Romania.

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The Balkans, or the Balkan Peninsula, is a geographic area in southeastern Europe with various and disputed definitions.

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Băneasa, Bucharest

Băneasa is a borough in the north side of Bucharest, near the Băneasa Lake (0.45 km²).

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Bibliothèque nationale de France

The (BnF, English: National Library of France) is the national library of France, located in Paris.

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Boarding house

A boarding house is a house (frequently a family home) in which lodgers rent one or more rooms for one or more nights, and sometimes for extended periods of weeks, months, and years.

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The bourgeoisie is a polysemous French term that can mean.

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A boyar was a member of the highest rank of the feudal Bulgarian, Kievan, Moscovian, Wallachian and Moldavian and later, Romanian aristocracies, second only to the ruling princes (in Bulgaria, tsars), from the 10th century to the 17th century.

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Bucharest (București) is the capital and largest city of Romania, as well as its cultural, industrial, and financial centre.

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Bucharest Academy of Economic Studies

The Bucharest University of Economic Studies (Academia de Studii Economice din București, abbreviated ASE) is a public university in Bucharest, Romania.

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Bukovina (Bucovina; Bukowina/Buchenland; Bukowina; Bukovina, Буковина Bukovyna; see also other languages) is a historical region in Central Europe,Klaus Peter Berger,, Kluwer Law International, 2010, p. 132 divided between Romania and Ukraine, located on the northern slopes of the central Eastern Carpathians and the adjoining plains.

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Bulgarians in Romania

Bulgarians (bulgari) are a recognized minority in Romania (Румъния, Rumaniya), numbering 7,336 according to the 2011 Romanian census, down from 8,025 in 2002.

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C. A. Rosetti

Constantin Alexandru Rosetti (2 June 1816 – 8 April 1885) was a Romanian literary and political leader, born in Bucharest into the Princely Rosetti family.

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Carol I of Romania

Carol I (20 April 1839 – 27 September (O.S.) / 10 October (N.S.) 1914), born Prince Karl of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, was the monarch of Romania from 1866 to 1914.

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Căile Ferate Române

Căile Ferate Române (abbreviated as the CFR) is the state railway carrier of Romania.

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Central Powers

The Central Powers (Mittelmächte; Központi hatalmak; İttifak Devletleri / Bağlaşma Devletleri; translit), consisting of Germany,, the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria – hence also known as the Quadruple Alliance (Vierbund) – was one of the two main factions during World War I (1914–18).

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Cezar Petrescu

Cezar Petrescu (December 1, 1892, Cotnari, Iaşi County–March 9, 1961) was a Romanian journalist, novelist and children's writer.

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Chamber of Deputies (Romania)

The Chamber of Deputies (Camera Deputaților) is the lower house in Romania's bicameral parliament.

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A choir (also known as a quire, chorale or chorus) is a musical ensemble of singers.

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Cincinat Pavelescu

Cincinat Pavelescu (– November 30, 1934) was a Romanian poet and playwright.

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Ciprian Porumbescu

Ciprian Porumbescu (born Ciprian Gołęmbiowski on October 14, 1853 – June 6, 1883) was a Romanian composer born in Șipotele Sucevei in Bukovina (now Shepit, Putyla Raion, Ukraine).

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Class conflict

Class conflict, frequently referred to as class warfare or class struggle, is the tension or antagonism which exists in society due to competing socioeconomic interests and desires between people of different classes.

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Conservatism is a political and social philosophy promoting traditional social institutions in the context of culture and civilization.

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Conservative Party (Romania, 1880–1918)

The Conservative Party (Partidul Conservator) was between 1880 and 1918 one of Romania's two most important parties, the other one being the Liberal Party.

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Conservative-Democratic Party

The Conservative-Democratic Party (PCD) was a political party in Romania.

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Constantin Dobrogeanu-Gherea

Constantin Dobrogeanu-Gherea (born Solomon Katz; 1855, village of Slavayanka near Yekaterinoslav (modern Dnipro), then in Imperial Russia – 1920, Bucharest) was a Romanian Marxist theorist, politician, sociologist, literary critic, and journalist.

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Contemporanul (The Contemporary) is a Romanian literary magazine published in Iaşi, Romania from 1881 to 1891.

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Convorbiri Literare

Convorbiri Literare (meaning Literary Talk in English) is a Romanian literary magazine published in Romania.

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Corneliu Moldovanu

Corneliu Moldovanu (pen name of Corneliu Vasiliu; 15 August 1883 – 2 September 1952) was a Romanian poet, prose writer and playwright.

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Cosmopolitanism is the ideology that all human beings belong to a single community, based on a shared morality.

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Crowd psychology

Crowd psychology, also known as mob psychology, is a branch of social psychology.

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Dilema veche

Dilema veche (English: "Old Dilemma") is a Romanian weekly magazine that covers culture, social topics, and politics.

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Dimitrie Gusti

Dimitrie Gusti (13 February 1880 – 30 October 1955) was a Romanian sociologist, ethnologist, historian, and voluntarist philosopher; a professor at the University of Iaşi and the University of Bucharest, he served as Romania's Minister of Education in 1932-1933.

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Doctor of Law

Doctor of Law or Doctor of Laws is a degree in law.

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Dragoș, Voivode of Moldavia

Dragoș, also known as Dragoș Vodă, or Dragoș the Founder was the first Voivode of Moldavia, who reigned in the middle of the, according to the earliest Moldavian chronicles.

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A dragoman was an interpreter, translator, and official guide between Turkish, Arabic, and Persian-speaking countries and polities of the Middle East and European embassies, consulates, vice-consulates and trading posts.

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Duiliu Zamfirescu

Duiliu Zamfirescu (30 October 1858 – 3 June 1922) was a Romanian novelist, poet, short story writer, lawyer, nationalist politician, journalist, diplomat and memoirist.

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Editura Minerva

Editura Minerva is one of the largest publishing houses in Romania.

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Elena Văcărescu

Elena Văcărescu or Hélène Vacaresco (September 21, 1864 in Bucharest – February 17, 1947 in Paris) was a Romanian-French aristocrat writer, twice a laureate of the Académie française.

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Elitism is the belief or attitude that individuals who form an elite — a select group of people with a certain ancestry, intrinsic quality, high intellect, wealth, special skills, or experience — are more likely to be constructive to society as a whole, and therefore deserve influence or authority greater than that of others.

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Empire of Japan

The was the historical nation-state and great power that existed from the Meiji Restoration in 1868 to the enactment of the 1947 constitution of modern Japan.

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Evenimentul Zilei

Evenimentul zilei is one of the leading newspapers in Romania.

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Evolutionism describes the belief in the evolution of organisms.

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Șerban Cioculescu

Șerban Cioculescu (7 September 1902 – 25 June 1988) was a Romanian literary critic, literary historian and columnist, who held teaching positions in Romanian literature at the University of Iași and the University of Bucharest, as well as membership of the Romanian Academy and chairmanship of its Library.

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Familia (magazine)

The Romanian-language Familia literary magazine was first published by Iosif Vulcan in Budapest from 5 June 1865 to 17 April 1880.

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Francization or Francisation (in Canadian English and American English), Frenchification (in British and also in American English), or Gallicization designates the extension of the French language by its adoption as a first language or not, adoption that can be forced upon or desired by the concerned population.

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French language

French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.

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French Third Republic

The French Third Republic (La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe République) was the system of government adopted in France from 1870 when the Second French Empire collapsed during the Franco-Prussian War until 1940 when France's defeat by Nazi Germany in World War II led to the formation of the Vichy government in France.

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G. P. Putnam's Sons


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Galați (also known by other alternative names) is the capital city of Galați County, in the historical region of Moldavia, eastern Romania.

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Gândirea ("The Thinking"), known during its early years as Gândirea Literară - Artistică - Socială ("The Literary - Artistic - Social Thinking"), was a Romanian literary, political and art magazine.

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George Călinescu

George Călinescu (19 June 1899, Iași – 12 March 1965, Otopeni) was a Romanian literary critic, historian, novelist, academician and journalist, and a writer of classicist and humanist tendencies.

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George Panu

George Panu (March 9, 1848 – November 6, 1910) was a Moldavian, later Romanian memoirist, literary critic, journalist and politician.

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German Empire

The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich),Herbert Tuttle wrote in September 1881 that the term "Reich" does not literally connote an empire as has been commonly assumed by English-speaking people.

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German idealism

German idealism (also known as post-Kantian idealism, post-Kantian philosophy, or simply post-Kantianism) was a philosophical movement that emerged in Germany in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.

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Germans of Romania

The Germans of Romania or Rumäniendeutsche are an ethnic group of Romania.

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Gheorghe Băgulescu

Gheorghe Băgulescu (1886–1963) was a Romanian Brigadier-General during World War II, writer and art collector.

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Gheorghe Grigore Cantacuzino

Gheorghe Grigore Cantacuzino, or Cantacuzino-Nababul (22 September 1833 – 22 March 1913), was a Romanian politician and lawyer, one of the leading Conservative Party policymakers.

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Gheorghe Tașcă

Gheorghe Taşcă (born Iorgu Taşcă, January 30, 1875 in Bălăbăneşti Tutova County, now in Galați County) was a Romanian economist and politician.

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Greater Romania

The term Greater Romania (România Mare) usually refers to the borders of the Kingdom of Romania in the interwar period.

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Greeks in Romania

There has been a Greek presence in Romania for at least 27 centuries.

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Henri Cihoski

Henri Cihoski (October 2, 1871 in Tecuci – May 18, 1950 in Sighet) was a Romanian Lieutenant-General during World War I, of Polish origin.

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History of the Jews in Greece

Jews have been present in Greece since at least the fourth century BC.

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History of the Jews in Romania

The history of the Jews in Romania concerns the Jews both of Romania and of Romanian origins, from their first mention on what is present-day Romanian territory.

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Humanitas (publishing house)

Humanitas (Editura Humanitas) is an independent Romanian publishing house, founded on February 1, 1990 (after the Romanian Revolution) in Bucharest by the philosopher Gabriel Liiceanu, based on a state-owned publishing house, Editura Politică.

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I. Dragoslav


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I.B. Tauris

I.B. Tauris (usually typeset as I.B.Tauris) was an independent publishing house with offices in London and New York City.

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Iacob Negruzzi

Iacob C. Negruzzi (December 31, 1842 – January 6, 1932) was a Moldavian, later Romanian poet and prose writer.

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Iași (also referred to as Jassy or Iassy) is the second-largest city in Romania, after the national capital Bucharest, and the seat of Iași County.

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Ioan Slavici

Ioan Slavici (January 18, 1848 – August 17, 1925) was a Transylvanian, later Romanian writer and journalist.

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Ion C. Brătianu

Ion Constantin Brătianu (June 2, 1821 – May 16, 1891) was one of the major political figures of 19th-century Romania.

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Ion Luca Caragiale

Ion Luca Caragiale (commonly referred to as I. L. Caragiale; According to his birth certificate, published and discussed by Constantin Popescu-Cadem in Manuscriptum, Vol. VIII, Nr. 2, 1977, p.179-184 – 9 June 1912) was a Wallachian, later Romanian playwright, short story writer, poet, theater manager, political commentator and journalist.

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Irredentism is any political or popular movement that seeks to reclaim and reoccupy a land that the movement's members consider to be a "lost" (or "unredeemed") territory from their nation's past.

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Judicial disqualification

Judicial disqualification, also referred to as recusal, is the act of abstaining from participation in an official action such as a legal proceeding due to a conflict of interest of the presiding court official or administrative officer.

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Junimea was a Romanian literary society founded in Iaşi in 1863, through the initiative of several foreign-educated personalities led by Titu Maiorescu, Petre P. Carp, Vasile Pogor, Theodor Rosetti and Iacob Negruzzi.

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Kingdom of Greece

The Kingdom of Greece (Greek: Βασίλειον τῆς Ἑλλάδος) was a state established in 1832 at the Convention of London by the Great Powers (the United Kingdom, Kingdom of France and the Russian Empire).

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Kingdom of Italy

The Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia) was a state which existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy—until 1946—when a constitutional referendum led civil discontent to abandon the monarchy and form the modern Italian Republic.

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Kingdom of Prussia

The Kingdom of Prussia (Königreich Preußen) was a German kingdom that constituted the state of Prussia between 1701 and 1918.

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Kingdom of Romania

The Kingdom of Romania (Regatul României) was a constitutional monarchy in Southeastern Europe which existed from 1881, when prince Carol I of Romania was proclaimed King, until 1947, when King Michael I of Romania abdicated and the Parliament proclaimed Romania a republic.

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Land reform in Romania

Four major land reforms have taken place in Romania: in 1864, 1921, 1945 and 1991.

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Law Enforcement and Public Safety Service

Law Enforcement and Public Safety Service (Hungarian "Rendészeti Biztonsági Szolgálat") is a part of the Hungarian National Police which is very similar to Western-European Gendarmerie-type police forces.

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Le Temps (Paris)

Le Temps (The Times) was one of Paris's most important daily newspapers from 25 April 1861 to 30 November 1942.

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Left-wing politics

Left-wing politics supports social equality and egalitarianism, often in opposition to social hierarchy.

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Legion of Honour

The Legion of Honour, with its full name National Order of the Legion of Honour (Ordre national de la Légion d'honneur), is the highest French order of merit for military and civil merits, established in 1802 by Napoléon Bonaparte and retained by all the divergent governments and regimes later holding power in France, up to the present.

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Leon C. Negruzzi

Leon C. Negruzzi (June 5, 1840 – July 15/16, 1890) was a Moldavian, later Romanian politician and writer.

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Leon Feraru

Leon Feraru (born Leon Enselberg,Aurel Sasu (ed.), Dicționarul biografic al literaturii române, Vol. I, p. 580. Pitești: Editura Paralela 45, 2004. Ghena Pricop, "Personalități ale Comunității Evreiești din Brăila", in Hristian et al., p. 238 also credited as L. Schmidt; 1887 – 1961 or 1962) was a Romanian and American poet, literary historian and translator.

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Liberalism and radicalism in Romania

This article gives an overview of liberalism and radicalism in Romania.

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Literary language

A literary language is the form of a language used in the writing of the language.

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Literary realism

Literary realism is part of the realist art movement beginning with mid nineteenth-century French literature (Stendhal), and Russian literature (Alexander Pushkin) and extending to the late nineteenth and early twentieth century.

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Luceafărul (magazine)

Luceafărul ("The Evening Star") was a Romanian-language literary and cultural magazine that appeared in three series: 1902-1914 and 1919-1920; 1934-1939; and 1941-1945.

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Lucian Boia

Lucian Boia (born 1 February 1944 in Bucharest) is a Romanian historian.

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Lyric poetry

Lyric poetry is a formal type of poetry which expresses personal emotions or feelings, typically spoken in the first person.

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Magazin Istoric

Magazin Istoric (The Historical Magazine) is a Romanian monthly magazine.

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Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that views class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation.

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Mehedinți County

Mehedinți is a county (județ) of Romania on the border with Serbia and Bulgaria.

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Metaphysical naturalism

Metaphysical naturalism, also called ontological naturalism, philosophical naturalism, and scientific materialism is a philosophical worldview, which holds that there is nothing but natural elements, principles, and relations of the kind studied by the natural sciences.

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Mihai Cimpoi

Mihai Cimpoi (born September 3, 1942, Larga) is a Moldovan politician.

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Mihai Eminescu

Mihai Eminescu (born Mihail Eminovici; 15 January 1850 – 15 June 1889) was a Romantic poet, novelist and journalist, generally regarded as the most famous and influential Romanian poet.

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Mihail Dragomirescu

Mihail Dragomirescu (March 22, 1868 – November 25, 1942) was a Romanian aesthetician, literary theorist and critic.

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Mihail Sadoveanu

Mihail Sadoveanu (occasionally referred to as Mihai Sadoveanu; November 5, 1880 – October 19, 1961) was a Romanian novelist, short story writer, journalist and political figure, who twice served as acting head of state for the communist republic (1947–1948 and 1958).

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Mina Minovici

Mina Minovici (1857 – April 25, 1933) was a Romanian forensic scientist, famous for his extensive research regarding cadaverous alkaloids, putrefaction, simulated mind diseases, and criminal anthropology.

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Ministry of Economy (Romania)

The Ministry of Economy of Romania (Ministerul Economiei) is one of the ministries of the Government of Romania.

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Misanthropy is the general hatred, dislike, distrust or contempt of the human species or human nature.

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Modernization theory

Modernization theory is used to explain the process of modernization within societies.

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Moldavia (Moldova, or Țara Moldovei (in Romanian Latin alphabet), Цара Мѡлдовєй (in old Romanian Cyrillic alphabet) is a historical region and former principality in Central and Eastern Europe, corresponding to the territory between the Eastern Carpathians and the Dniester River. An initially independent and later autonomous state, it existed from the 14th century to 1859, when it united with Wallachia (Țara Românească) as the basis of the modern Romanian state; at various times, Moldavia included the regions of Bessarabia (with the Budjak), all of Bukovina and Hertza. The region of Pokuttya was also part of it for a period of time. The western half of Moldavia is now part of Romania, the eastern side belongs to the Republic of Moldova, and the northern and southeastern parts are territories of Ukraine.

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Charles-Louis de Secondat, Baron de La Brède et de Montesquieu (18 January 1689 – 10 February 1755), generally referred to as simply Montesquieu, was a French judge, man of letters, and political philosopher.

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National Liberal Party (Romania, 1875)

The National Liberal Party (Partidul Național Liberal, PNL) was the first organised political party in Romania, a major force in the country's politics from its foundation in 1875 to World War II.

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Nationalism is a political, social, and economic system characterized by the promotion of the interests of a particular nation, especially with the aim of gaining and maintaining sovereignty (self-governance) over the homeland.

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Nicolae Filimon

Nicolae Filimon (6 September 1819 – 19 March 1865) was a Wallachian Romanian novelist and short-story writer, remembered as the author of the first Realist novel in Romanian literature, Ciocoii vechi şi noi ("The Old and the New Parvenus"), which was centered on the self-seeking figure Dinu Păturică (who drew comparisons with Stendhal's Julien Sorel).

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Nicolae Filipescu

Nicolae Filipescu (December 5, 1862 – September 30, 1916) was a Romanian politician.

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Nicolae Gane

Nicolae Gane (February 1, 1838 – April 16, 1916) was a Moldavian, later Romanian prose writer, poet and politician.

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Nicolae Iorga

Nicolae Iorga (sometimes Neculai Iorga, Nicolas Jorga, Nicolai Jorga or Nicola Jorga, born Nicu N. Iorga;Iova, p. xxvii. January 17, 1871 – November 27, 1940) was a Romanian historian, politician, literary critic, memoirist, poet and playwright.

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Nicolae Vasilescu-Karpen

Nicolae Vasilescu Karpen (December 10 (O.S.)/December 22 (N.S.), 1870, Craiova – March 2, 1964, Bucharest) was a Romanian engineer and physicist, who worked in telegraphy and telephony and had achievements in mechanical engineering, elasticity, thermodynamics, long distance telephony, electrochemistry, and civil engineering.

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Oberösterreichische Rundschau

Oberösterreichische Rundschau is a weekly newspaper in Upper Austria, published in 13 regional editions.

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Octavian Goga

Octavian Goga (1 April 1881 – 7 May 1938) was a Romanian politician, poet, playwright, journalist, and translator.

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Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.

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Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.

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A parody (also called a spoof, send-up, take-off, lampoon, play on something, caricature, or joke) is a work created to imitate, make fun of, or comment on an original work—its subject, author, style, or some other target—by means of satiric or ironic imitation.

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A pastiche is a work of visual art, literature, theatre, or music that imitates the style or character of the work of one or more other artists.

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Patriotism or national pride is the ideology of love and devotion to a homeland, and a sense of alliance with other citizens who share the same values.

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Persian Letters

Persian Letters (Lettres persanes) is a literary work, written in 1721, by Charles de Secondat, baron de Montesquieu, recounting the experiences of two Persian noblemen, Usbek and Rica, who are traveling through France.

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Petre P. Carp

Petre P. Carp (also Petrache Carp, Francized Pierre Carp, Ioana Pârvulescu,, in România Literară, Nr. 25/2010 occasionally Comte Carpe; 28 Mircea Dumitriu,, in România Liberă, 22 September, 2007 or 29Călinescu, p.440 June 1837 – 19 June 1919) was a Moldavian, later Romanian statesman, political scientist and culture critic, one of the major representatives of Romanian liberal conservatism, and twice the country's Prime Minister (1900–1901, 1910–1912).

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Plagiarism is the "wrongful appropriation" and "stealing and publication" of another author's "language, thoughts, ideas, or expressions" and the representation of them as one's own original work.

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Positivism is a philosophical theory stating that certain ("positive") knowledge is based on natural phenomena and their properties and relations.

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Prefect (Romania)

A prefect (prefect) in Romania represents the Government in each of the country's 41 counties, as well as the Municipality of Bucharest.

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Prime Minister of Romania

The Prime Minister of the Government of Romania (Prim-ministrul Guvernului României) is the head of the Government of Romania.

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Progressivism is the support for or advocacy of improvement of society by reform.

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Protectionism is the economic policy of restricting imports from other countries through methods such as tariffs on imported goods, import quotas, and a variety of other government regulations.

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Protestantism in Greece

Protestants in Greece, including Greek Evangelical Church and Free Evangelical Churches, stand at about 30,000.

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Romania during World War I

The Kingdom of Romania was neutral for the first two years of World War I, entering on the side of the Allied powers from 27 August 1916 until Central Power occupation led to the Treaty of Bucharest in May 1918, before reentering the war on 10 November 1918. It had the only oil fields in Europe, and Germany eagerly bought its petroleum, as well as food exports. King Carol favored Germany but after his death in 1914, King Ferdinand and the nation's political elite favored the Entente. For Romania, the highest priority was taking Transylvania from Hungary, with its 3,000,000 Romanians. The Allies wanted Romania to join its side in order to cut the rail communications between Germany and Turkey, and to cut off Germany's oil supplies. Britain made loans, France sent a military training mission, and Russia promised modern munitions. The Allies promised at least 200,000 soldiers to defend Romania against Bulgaria to the south, and help it invade Austria. The Romanian campaign was part of the Balkan theatre of World War I, with Romania and Russia allied with Britain and France against the Central Powers of Germany, Austria, and Turkey. Fighting took place from August 1916 to December 1917 across most of present-day Romania, including Transylvania, which was part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire at the time, as well as in southern Dobruja, which is currently part of Bulgaria. Despite initial successes, the Romanian forces (aided by Russia) suffered massive setbacks, and by the end of 1916 only Moldavia remained. After several defensive victories in 1917, with Russia's withdrawal from the war following the October Revolution, Romania, almost completely surrounded by the Central Powers, was also forced to drop out of the war; it signed the Treaty of Bucharest with the Central Powers in May 1918. On 10 November 1918, just one day before the German armistice and after all the other Central Powers had already capitulated, Romania re-entered the war after the successful Allied advances on the Macedonian Front.

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Romanian Athenaeum

The Romanian Athenaeum (Ateneul Român) is a concert hall in the center of Bucharest, Romania and a landmark of the Romanian capital city.

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Romanian Land Forces

The Romanian Land Forces (Forțele Terestre Române) is the army of Romania, and the main component of the Romanian Armed Forces.

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Romanian language

Romanian (obsolete spellings Rumanian, Roumanian; autonym: limba română, "the Romanian language", or românește, lit. "in Romanian") is an East Romance language spoken by approximately 24–26 million people as a native language, primarily in Romania and Moldova, and by another 4 million people as a second language.

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Romanian Orthodox Church

The Romanian Orthodox Church (Biserica Ortodoxă Română) is an autocephalous Orthodox Church in full communion with other Eastern Orthodox Christian Churches and ranked seventh in order of precedence.

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The Romanians (români or—historically, but now a seldom-used regionalism—rumâni; dated exonym: Vlachs) are a Latin European ethnic group and nation native to Romania, that share a common Romanian culture, ancestry, and speak the Romanian language, the most widespread spoken Eastern Romance language which is descended from the Latin language. According to the 2011 Romanian census, just under 89% of Romania's citizens identified themselves as ethnic Romanians. In one interpretation of the census results in Moldova, the Moldovans are counted as Romanians, which would mean that the latter form part of the majority in that country as well.Ethnic Groups Worldwide: A Ready Reference Handbook By David Levinson, Published 1998 – Greenwood Publishing Group.At the time of the 1989 census, Moldova's total population was 4,335,400. The largest nationality in the republic, ethnic Romanians, numbered 2,795,000 persons, accounting for 64.5 percent of the population. Source:: "however it is one interpretation of census data results. The subject of Moldovan vs Romanian ethnicity touches upon the sensitive topic of", page 108 sqq. Romanians are also an ethnic minority in several nearby countries situated in Central, respectively Eastern Europe, particularly in Hungary, Czech Republic, Ukraine (including Moldovans), Serbia, and Bulgaria. Today, estimates of the number of Romanian people worldwide vary from 26 to 30 million according to various sources, evidently depending on the definition of the term 'Romanian', Romanians native to Romania and Republic of Moldova and their afferent diasporas, native speakers of Romanian, as well as other Eastern Romance-speaking groups considered by most scholars as a constituent part of the broader Romanian people, specifically Aromanians, Megleno-Romanians, Istro-Romanians, and Vlachs in Serbia (including medieval Vlachs), in Croatia, in Bulgaria, or in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

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Romanticism (also known as the Romantic era) was an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century, and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850.

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Românul (meaning "The Romanian"; originally spelled Romanulu or Românulŭ, also known as Romînul, Concordia, Libertatea and Consciinti'a Nationala), was a political and literary newspaper published in Bucharest, Romania, from 1857 to 1905.

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Rosetti family

The Rosetti family (also spelled Ruset, Rosset, Rossetti), was a Moldavian boyar princely family of Byzantine and Italian (from Genoa) origins.

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Russian Empire

The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.

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Satire is a genre of literature, and sometimes graphic and performing arts, in which vices, follies, abuses, and shortcomings are held up to ridicule, ideally with the intent of shaming individuals, corporations, government, or society itself into improvement.

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Senate of Romania

The Senate (Senat) is the upper house in the bicameral Parliament of Romania.

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Slavic name suffixes

A Slavic name suffix is a common way of forming patronymics, family names, and pet names in the Slavic languages (also called the Slavonic languages).

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Socialist Republic of Romania

The Socialist Republic of Romania (Republica Socialistă România, RSR) refers to Romania under Marxist-Leninist one-party Communist rule that existed officially from 1947 to 1989.

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Société d'économie politique

The Société d’Economie Politique (Political Economy Society) is a French learned society concerned with political economy.

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Street organ

A street organ played by an organ grinder is an automatic mechanical pneumatic organ designed to be mobile enough to play its music in the street.

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Sud-Est (magazine)

Sud-Est (Romanian for "South-East") is a magazine from Chișinău, Moldova.

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Take Ionescu

Take or Tache Ionescu (born Dumitru Ghiță Ioan and also known as Demetriu G. Ionnescu; – June 21, 1922) was a Romanian centrist politician, journalist, lawyer and diplomat, who also enjoyed reputation as a short story author.

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Timpul (Romanian for "The Time") is a literary magazine published in Romania.

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Titu Maiorescu

Titu Liviu Maiorescu (15 February 1840 – 18 June 1917) was a Romanian literary critic and politician, founder of the Junimea Society.

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, officially, is one of the 47 prefectures of Japan and has been the capital since 1869.

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Trade union

A trade union or trades union, also called a labour union (Canada) or labor union (US), is an organization of workers who have come together to achieve many common goals; such as protecting the integrity of its trade, improving safety standards, and attaining better wages, benefits (such as vacation, health care, and retirement), and working conditions through the increased bargaining power wielded by the creation of a monopoly of the workers.

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Transylvania is a historical region in today's central Romania.

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Travel literature

The genre of travel literature encompasses outdoor literature, guide books, nature writing, and travel memoirs.

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Treaty of Bucharest (1916)

The Treaty of Bucharest of 1916 was signed between Romania and the Entente Powers on 4 (Old Style)/17 (New Style) August 1916 in Bucharest.

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Tudor Vianu

Tudor Vianu (January 8, 1898 – May 21, 1964) was a Romanian literary critic, art critic, poet, philosopher, academic, and translator.

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United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was established by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland.

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University of Bucharest

The University of Bucharest (Universitatea din București), commonly known after its abbreviation UB in Romania, is a public university founded in 1864 by decree of Prince Alexandru Ioan Cuza to convert the former Saint Sava Academy into the current University of Bucharest, making it the second oldest modern university in Romania.

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University of Galați

"Dunarea de Jos" University of Galati (Romanian Universitatea „Dunărea de Jos” din Galați) is a public university located in Galați, Romania.

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University of Liège

The University of Liège (ULiège), in Liège, Wallonia, Belgium, is a major public university in the French Community of Belgium.

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University of Michigan Library

The University of Michigan Library is the university library system of the University of Michigan, based in Ann Arbor, Michigan, in the United States.

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University of Paris

The University of Paris (Université de Paris), metonymically known as the Sorbonne (one of its buildings), was a university in Paris, France, from around 1150 to 1793, and from 1806 to 1970.

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Universul was a mass-circulation newspaper in Romania.

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Valahia University of Târgoviște

The Valahia University of Târgovişte is a university in Targoviste, Dambovita, Romania.

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Victor Eftimiu

Victor Eftimiu (24 January 1889 – 27 November 1972) was a Romanian poet and playwright.

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West Coast of the United States

The West Coast or Pacific Coast is the coastline along which the contiguous Western United States meets the North Pacific Ocean.

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Workers' compensation

Workers' compensation is a form of insurance providing wage replacement and medical benefits to employees injured in the course of employment in exchange for mandatory relinquishment of the employee's right to sue their employer for the tort of negligence.

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World War I

World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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The term "Yankee" and its contracted form "Yank" have several interrelated meanings, all referring to people from the United States; its various senses depend on the context.

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Ziarul Financiar

Ziarul Financiar is a daily financial newspaper published in Bucharest, Romania.

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Zigu Ornea

Zigu Ornea (born Zigu Orenstein Andrei Vasilescu,, in, Vol. II, Nr. 1, January–June 2008, p.85 or OrnsteinGeorge Ardeleanu,, in Observator Cultural, Nr. 363, March 2007 and commonly known as Z. Ornea; August 28, 1930 – November 14, 2001) was a Romanian cultural historian, literary critic, biographer and book publisher.

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The Zollverein or German Customs Union was a coalition of German states formed to manage tariffs and economic policies within their territories.

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1 Decembrie 1918 University, Alba Iulia

"1 Decembrie 1918" University, Alba Iulia is a public higher education and research institution founded in 1991 in Alba Iulia, Romania.

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19th-century French literature

19th-century French literature concerns the developments in French literature during a dynamic period in French history that saw the rise of Democracy and the fitful end of Monarchy and Empire.

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N D Xenopol, N. D. Xenopol, N. Xenopol, N. Xenopoulos, Nicolae D. Xenopol, Nicolae Dimitrie Xenopol, Nicolas Xenopol, Nicu Xenopol.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nicolae_Xenopol

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