386 relations: -nik, Abū Ishāq Ibrāhīm al-Zarqālī, Academy, Achilles Gasser, Agent noun, Al-Battani, Al-Biruni, Al-Sijzi, Albert Brudzewski, Albert, Duke of Prussia, Aldebaran, Alessandro Achillini, Alexander Jagiellon, Alexandre Koyré, Alfonsine tables, Alma mater, Almagest, Almanac, Ancient Greek, Andreas Osiander, Anthropology, Antonio Urceo, Apoplexy, Apsis, Archaeology, Archcathedral Basilica of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary and St. Andrew, Frombork, Archimedes, Aristarchus of Samos, Aristotelianism, Aristotle, Armillary sphere, Arthur Koestler, Astrolabe, Astrology, Astronomy, Astronomy in the medieval Islamic world, Augustinians, Autonomy, Averroes, Łasin, Świdnica, Baltic Sea, Barbara Zápolya, Bartolommeo Spina, Basilios Bessarion, Basra, Benefice, Bernard Wapowski, Bishop, Bohemia, ..., Bologna, Byzantine Empire, Calendar, Calendar of saints, Calendar of saints (Episcopal Church), Cambridge University Press, Canada, Canon (priest), Canon law, Cardinal (Catholic Church), Casimir IV Jagiellon, Catholic Church, Catholic Encyclopedia, Chełmno, Chemical element, Christoph Rothmann, Cicero, Classics, Cleomedes, Coadjutor bishop, Coin, Collegiate Church of the Holy Cross and St. Bartholomew, Wrocław, Cologne, Commentariolus, Concertgebouw, Confectionery, Convent, Copernican principle, Copernican Revolution, Copernicium, Copernicus Airport Wrocław, Copernicus Science Centre, Copper, Cosmology, Council of Trent, Courtier, Crown of the Kingdom of Poland, Czapski, Czesław Miłosz, Darmstadt, Dava Sobel, De revolutionibus orbium coelestium, Debasement, Deferent and epicycle, Deluge (history), Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems, Dictionary of Scientific Biography, Diego de Zúñiga, Diet (assembly), Dill, Diplomat, Doctor Copernicus, Domenico Maria Novara da Ferrara, Duchy of Nysa, Duchy of Prussia, Działyński, Earth, Eclipse, Economist, Ecphantus the Pythagorean, Edward Rosen, Elbląg, Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopedia Americana, Epigram, 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The English suffix -nik is of Slavic origin.
, also known as Al-Zarkali or Ibn Zarqala (1029–1087), was an Arab Muslim instrument maker, astrologer, and one of the leading astronomers of his time.
An academy (Attic Greek: Ἀκαδήμεια; Koine Greek Ἀκαδημία) is an institution of secondary education, higher learning, research, or honorary membership.
Achilles Pirmin Gasser (3 November 1505 – 4 December 1577) was a German physician and astrologer.
In linguistics, an agent noun (in Latin, nomen agentis) is a word that is derived from another word denoting an action, and that identifies an entity that does that action.
Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad ibn Jābir ibn Sinān al-Raqqī al-Ḥarrānī aṣ-Ṣābiʾ al-Battānī (Arabic: محمد بن جابر بن سنان البتاني) (Latinized as Albategnius, Albategni or Albatenius) (c. 858 – 929) was an Arab astronomer, astrologer, and mathematician.
Abū Rayḥān Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad Al-Bīrūnī (Chorasmian/ابوریحان بیرونی Abū Rayḥān Bērōnī; New Persian: Abū Rayḥān Bīrūnī) (973–1050), known as Al-Biruni (البيروني) in English, was an IranianD.J. Boilot, "Al-Biruni (Beruni), Abu'l Rayhan Muhammad b. Ahmad", in Encyclopaedia of Islam (Leiden), New Ed., vol.1:1236–1238.
Abu Sa'id Ahmed ibn Mohammed ibn Abd al-Jalil al-Sijzi (c. 945 - c. 1020, also known as al-Sinjari and al-Sijazi; ابوسعید سجزی; Al-Sijzi is short for "Al-Sijistani") was an Iranian Muslim astronomer, mathematician, and astrologer.
Albert Brudzewski, also Albert Blar (of Brudzewo), Albert of Brudzewo or Wojciech Brudzewski (in Latin, Albertus de Brudzewo; c.1445–c.1497) was a Polish astronomer, mathematician, philosopher and diplomat.
Albert of Prussia (Albrecht von Preussen, 17 May 149020 March 1568) was the 37th Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights, who after converting to Lutheranism, became the first ruler of the Duchy of Prussia, the secularized state that emerged from the former Monastic State of the Teutonic Knights.
Aldebaran, designated Alpha Tauri (α Tauri, abbreviated Alpha Tau, α Tau), is an orange giant star located about 65 light-years from the Sun in the zodiac constellation of Taurus.
Alessandro Achillini (Latin Alexander Achillinus; 20 or 29 October 1463 (or possibly 1461)2 August 1512) was an Italian philosopher and physician.
Alexander I Jagiellon (Aleksander Jagiellończyk; Aleksandras Jogailaitis) (5 August 1461 – 19 August 1506) of the House of Jagiellon was the Grand Duke of Lithuania and later also King of Poland.
Alexandre Koyré (29 August 1892 – 28 April 1964), also anglicized as Alexandre or Alexander Koyre, was a French philosopher of Russian origin who wrote on the history and philosophy of science.
The Alfonsine tables (Tablas alfonsíes, tabulae alphonsinae), sometimes spelled Alphonsine tables, provided data for computing the position of the Sun, Moon and planets relative to the fixed stars.
Alma mater (Latin: "nourishing/kind", "mother"; pl.) is an allegorical Latin phrase for a university or college.
The Almagest is a 2nd-century Greek-language mathematical and astronomical treatise on the apparent motions of the stars and planetary paths, written by Claudius Ptolemy. One of the most influential scientific texts of all time, its geocentric model was accepted for more than 1200 years from its origin in Hellenistic Alexandria, in the medieval Byzantine and Islamic worlds, and in Western Europe through the Middle Ages and early Renaissance until Copernicus.
An almanac (also spelled almanack and almanach) is an annual publication listing a set of events forthcoming in the next year.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Andreas Osiander (19 December 1498 – 17 October 1552) was a German Lutheran theologian and Protestant reformer.
Anthropology is the study of humans and human behaviour and societies in the past and present.
Antonio Urceo, called Codro (Antonius Urceus Codrus, 1446, Rubiera–1500, Bologna) was an Italian humanist who taught grammar and eloquence in Bologna (where Nicolaus Copernicus was among his students).
Apoplexy is bleeding within internal organs and the accompanying symptoms.
An apsis (ἁψίς; plural apsides, Greek: ἁψῖδες) is an extreme point in the orbit of an object.
Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of humanactivity through the recovery and analysis of material culture.
The Archcathedral Basilica of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary and Saint Andrew (Bazylika archikatedralna Wniebowzięcia Najświętszej Maryi Panny i św.) in Frombork, Poland, is a Roman Catholic church located at the Cathedral Hill, by the Cathedral St.
Archimedes of Syracuse (Ἀρχιμήδης) was a Greek mathematician, physicist, engineer, inventor, and astronomer.
Aristarchus of Samos (Ἀρίσταρχος ὁ Σάμιος, Aristarkhos ho Samios; c. 310 – c. 230 BC) was an ancient Greek astronomer and mathematician who presented the first known model that placed the Sun at the center of the known universe with the Earth revolving around it (see Solar system).
Aristotelianism is a tradition of philosophy that takes its defining inspiration from the work of Aristotle.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
An armillary sphere (variations are known as spherical astrolabe, armilla, or armil) is a model of objects in the sky (on the celestial sphere), consisting of a spherical framework of rings, centred on Earth or the Sun, that represent lines of celestial longitude and latitude and other astronomically important features, such as the ecliptic.
Arthur Koestler, (Kösztler Artúr; 5 September 1905 – 1 March 1983) was a Hungarian-British author and journalist.
An astrolabe (ἀστρολάβος astrolabos; ٱلأَسْطُرلاب al-Asturlāb; اَختِرِیاب Akhteriab) is an elaborate inclinometer, historically used by astronomers and navigators to measure the inclined position in the sky of a celestial body, day or night.
Astrology is the study of the movements and relative positions of celestial objects as a means for divining information about human affairs and terrestrial events.
Astronomy (from ἀστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena.
Islamic astronomy comprises the astronomical developments made in the Islamic world, particularly during the Islamic Golden Age (9th–13th centuries), and mostly written in the Arabic language.
The term Augustinians, named after Augustine of Hippo (354–430), applies to two distinct types of Catholic religious orders, dating back to the first millennium but formally created in the 13th century, and some Anglican religious orders, created in the 19th century, though technically there is no "Order of St.
In development or moral, political, and bioethical philosophy, autonomy is the capacity to make an informed, un-coerced decision.
Ibn Rushd (ابن رشد; full name; 1126 – 11 December 1198), often Latinized as Averroes, was an Andalusian philosopher and thinker who wrote about many subjects, including philosophy, theology, medicine, astronomy, physics, Islamic jurisprudence and law, and linguistics.
Łasin (Lessen) is a town in Grudziądz County, Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship, Poland, with 3,271 inhabitants (2004).
Świdnica (Schweidnitz; Svídnice) is a city in southwestern Poland in the region of Silesia.
The Baltic Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Scandinavia, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Russia, Poland, Germany and the North and Central European Plain.
Barbara Zápolya (1495–1515) was Queen of Poland and Grand Duchess of Lithuania as the first wife of King Sigismund I the Old.
Bartolomeo Spina (born at Pisa about 1475; died at Rome, 1546) was an Italian Dominican theologian and scholastic philosopher.
Basilios (or Basilius) Bessarion (Greek: Βασίλειος Βησσαρίων; 2 January 1403 – 18 November 1472), a Roman Catholic Cardinal Bishop and the titular Latin Patriarch of Constantinople, was one of the illustrious Greek scholars who contributed to the great revival of letters in the 15th century.
Basra (البصرة al-Baṣrah), is an Iraqi city located on the Shatt al-Arab between Kuwait and Iran.
A benefice or living is a reward received in exchange for services rendered and as a retainer for future services.
Bernard Wapowski (1450 – 25 November 1535) was a historian and the leading Polish cartographer of the 16th century, known as "the father of Polish cartography.".
A bishop (English derivation from the New Testament of the Christian Bible Greek επίσκοπος, epískopos, "overseer", "guardian") is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight.
Bohemia (Čechy;; Czechy; Bohême; Bohemia; Boemia) is the westernmost and largest historical region of the Czech lands in the present-day Czech Republic.
Bologna (Bulåggna; Bononia) is the capital and largest city of the Emilia-Romagna Region in Northern Italy.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
A calendar is a system of organizing days for social, religious, commercial or administrative purposes.
The calendar of saints is a traditional Christian method of organizing a liturgical year by associating each day with one or more saints and referring to the day as the feast day or feast of said saint.
The veneration of saints in the Episcopal Church is a continuation of an ancient tradition from the early Church which honors important and influential people of the Christian faith.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
A canon (from the Latin canonicus, itself derived from the Greek κανονικός, kanonikós, "relating to a rule", "regular") is a member of certain bodies subject to an ecclesiastical rule.
Canon law (from Greek kanon, a 'straight measuring rod, ruler') is a set of ordinances and regulations made by ecclesiastical authority (Church leadership), for the government of a Christian organization or church and its members.
A cardinal (Sanctae Romanae Ecclesiae cardinalis, literally Cardinal of the Holy Roman Church) is a senior ecclesiastical leader, considered a Prince of the Church, and usually an ordained bishop of the Roman Catholic Church.
Casimir IV KG (Kazimierz IV Andrzej Jagiellończyk; Kazimieras Jogailaitis; 30 November 1427 – 7 June 1492) of the Jagiellonian dynasty was Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1440 and King of Poland from 1447, until his death.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The Catholic Encyclopedia: An International Work of Reference on the Constitution, Doctrine, Discipline, and History of the Catholic Church, also referred to as the Old Catholic Encyclopedia and the Original Catholic Encyclopedia, is an English-language encyclopedia published in the United States and designed to serve the Roman Catholic Church.
Chełmno (older Culm) is a town in northern Poland near the Vistula river with 20,000 inhabitants and the historical capital of Chełmno Land.
A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).
Christoph Rothmann (born between 1550 and 1560 in Bernburg, Saxony-Anhalt; died probably after 1600 in Bernburg) was a German mathematician and one of the few well-known astronomers of his time.
Marcus Tullius Cicero (3 January 106 BC – 7 December 43 BC) was a Roman statesman, orator, lawyer and philosopher, who served as consul in the year 63 BC.
Classics or classical studies is the study of classical antiquity.
Cleomedes (Κλεομήδης) was a Greek astronomer who is known chiefly for his book On the Circular Motions of the Celestial Bodies (Κυκλικὴ θεωρία μετεώρων).
A coadjutor bishop (or bishop coadjutor) is a bishop in the Catholic, Anglican, and (historically) Eastern Orthodox churches whose main role is to assist the diocesan bishop in the administration of the diocese.
A coin is a small, flat, (usually) round piece of metal or plastic used primarily as a medium of exchange or legal tender.
Collegiate Church of the Holy Cross and St.
Cologne (Köln,, Kölle) is the largest city in the German federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia and the fourth most populated city in Germany (after Berlin, Hamburg, and Munich).
The Commentariolus (Little Commentary) is Nicolaus Copernicus's brief outline of an early version of his revolutionary heliocentric theory of the universe.
The Royal Concertgebouw (Koninklijk Concertgebouw) is a concert hall in Amsterdam, Netherlands.
Confectionery is the art of making confections, which are food items that are rich in sugar and carbohydrates.
A convent is either a community of priests, religious brothers, religious sisters, or nuns; or the building used by the community, particularly in the Catholic Church and the Anglican Communion.
In physical cosmology, the Copernican principle, is an alternative name of the mediocrity principle, or the principle of relativity, stating that humans (the Earth, or the Solar system) are not privileged observers of the universe.
The Copernican Revolution was the paradigm shift from the Ptolemaic model of the heavens, which described the cosmos as having Earth stationary at the center of the universe, to the heliocentric model with the Sun at the center of the Solar System.
Copernicium is a synthetic chemical element with symbol Cn and atomic number 112.
Copernicus Airport Wrocław (Port Lotniczy Wrocław im. is an international commercial airport in Wrocław in southwestern Poland. The airport is located southwest of the city centre. It has one runway, two passenger terminals and one cargo terminal.
Copernicus Science Centre (Centrum Nauki Kopernik) is a science museum standing on the bank of the Vistula River in Warsaw, Poland.
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
Cosmology (from the Greek κόσμος, kosmos "world" and -λογία, -logia "study of") is the study of the origin, evolution, and eventual fate of the universe.
The Council of Trent (Concilium Tridentinum), held between 1545 and 1563 in Trent (or Trento, in northern Italy), was an ecumenical council of the Catholic Church.
A courtier is a person who is often in attendance at the court of a monarch or other royal personage.
The Crown of the Kingdom of Poland (Korona Królestwa Polskiego, Latin: Corona Regni Poloniae), commonly known as the Polish Crown or simply the Crown, is the common name for the historic (but unconsolidated) Late Middle Ages territorial possessions of the King of Poland, including Poland proper.
Czapski (feminine: Czapska) is a Polish surname.
Czesław Miłosz (30 June 1911 – 14 August 2004) was a Polish poet, prose writer, translator and diplomat.
Darmstadt is a city in the state of Hesse in Germany, located in the southern part of the Rhine-Main-Area (Frankfurt Metropolitan Region).
Dava Sobel (born June 15, 1947) is an American writer of popular expositions of scientific topics.
De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres) is the seminal work on the heliocentric theory of the Renaissance astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus (1473–1543).
Debasement is the practice of lowering the value of currency.
In the Hipparchian and Ptolemaic systems of astronomy, the epicycle (from ἐπίκυκλος, literally upon the circle, meaning circle moving on another circle) was a geometric model used to explain the variations in speed and direction of the apparent motion of the Moon, Sun, and planets.
The term Deluge (pоtор szwedzki, švedų tvanas) denotes a series of mid-17th-century campaigns in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
The Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems (Dialogo sopra i due massimi sistemi del mondo) is a 1632 Italian-language book by Galileo Galilei comparing the Copernican system with the traditional Ptolemaic system.
The Dictionary of Scientific Biography is a scholarly reference work that was published from 1970 through 1980.
Diego de Zúñiga of Salamanca (sometimes Latinized as Didacus a Stunica) (1536–1597) was an Augustinian Hermit and academic.
In politics, a diet is a formal deliberative assembly.
Dill (Anethum graveolens) is an annual herb in the celery family Apiaceae.
A diplomat is a person appointed by a state to conduct diplomacy with one or more other states or international organizations.
Doctor Copernicus is a novel by John Banville, first published in 1976.
Domenico Maria Novara (1454–1504) was an Italian scientist.
The Duchy of Nysa (Księstwo Nyskie, Niské knížectví) or Duchy of Neisse (Herzogtum Neisse) was one of the duchies of Silesia with its capital at Nysa in Lower Silesia.
The Duchy of Prussia (Herzogtum Preußen, Księstwo Pruskie) or Ducal Prussia (Herzogliches Preußen, Prusy Książęce) was a duchy in the region of Prussia established as a result of secularization of the State of the Teutonic Order during the Protestant Reformation in 1525.
Działyński (Dzialin) was a Polish noble family whose name comes from their original place of settlement, Działyń in Dobrzyń Land.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
An eclipse is an astronomical event that occurs when an astronomical object is temporarily obscured, either by passing into the shadow of another body or by having another body pass between it and the viewer.
An economist is a practitioner in the social science discipline of economics.
Ecphantus or Ecphantos (Ἔκφαντος) is a shadowy Greek pre-Socratic philosopher.
Edward Rosen (12 December 1906 — 28 March 1985) was an American historian, whose main field of study was early modern science and, in particular, the work of Copernicus, Galileo and Kepler.
Elbląg (Elbing; Old Prussian: Elbings) is a city in northern Poland on the eastern edge of the Żuławy region with 124,257 inhabitants (December 31, 2011).
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
Encyclopedia Americana is one of the largest general encyclopedias in the English language.
An epigram is a brief, interesting, memorable, and sometimes surprising or satirical statement.
An epithalamium (Latin form of Greek ἐπιθαλάμιον epithalamion from ἐπί epi "upon," and θάλαμος thalamos nuptial chamber) is a poem written specifically for the bride on the way to her marital chamber.
Equant (or punctum aequans) is a mathematical concept developed by Claudius Ptolemy in the 2nd century AD to account for the observed motion of the planets.
Erasmus Reinhold (October 22, 1511 – February 19, 1553) was a German astronomer and mathematician, considered to be the most influential astronomical pedagogue of his generation.
Euclid (Εὐκλείδης Eukleidēs; fl. 300 BC), sometimes given the name Euclid of Alexandria to distinguish him from Euclides of Megara, was a Greek mathematician, often referred to as the "founder of geometry" or the "father of geometry".
Ferrara (Ferrarese: Fràra) is a town and comune in Emilia-Romagna, northern Italy, capital of the Province of Ferrara.
The Fifth Council of the Lateran (1512–1517) is the Eighteenth Ecumenical Council to be recognized by the Roman Catholic Church and the last one before the Protestant Reformation.
Filippo Beroaldo, sometimes called "the Elder" to distinguish him from his cousin Filippo Beroaldo the Younger, and also known as Philip or Philippus Beroaldus (7 November 1453 - 17 July 1505) was an Italian humanist active as a professor at the University of Bologna.
Filippo Buonaccorsi, called "Callimachus" (Latin: Philippus Callimachus Experiens, Bonacursius;; 2 May 1437 – 1 November 1496) was an Italian humanist and writer.
In Biblical cosmology, the firmament is the structure above the atmosphere of Earth, conceived as a vast solid dome.
The fixed stars (stellae fixae) comprise the background of astronomical objects that appear to not move relative to each other in the night sky compared to the foreground of Solar System objects that do.
Forensic science is the application of science to criminal and civil laws, mainly—on the criminal side—during criminal investigation, as governed by the legal standards of admissible evidence and criminal procedure.
Francesco Ingoli (1578 – 1649) was an Italian priest, lawyer and professor of civil and canon law.
Frombork is a town in northern Poland, on the Vistula Lagoon, in Braniewo County, Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship.
The Galileo affair (il processo a Galileo Galilei) was a sequence of events, beginning around 1610, culminating with the trial and condemnation of Galileo Galilei by the Roman Catholic Inquisition in 1633 for his support of heliocentrism.
Galileo Galilei (15 February 1564Drake (1978, p. 1). The date of Galileo's birth is given according to the Julian calendar, which was then in force throughout Christendom. In 1582 it was replaced in Italy and several other Catholic countries with the Gregorian calendar. Unless otherwise indicated, dates in this article are given according to the Gregorian calendar. – 8 January 1642) was an Italian polymath.
Gdańsk (Danzig) is a Polish city on the Baltic coast.
In grammar, the genitive (abbreviated); also called the second case, is the grammatical case that marks a word, usually a noun, as modifying another word, also usually a noun.
Georg Joachim de Porris, also known as Rheticus (16 February 1514 – 4 December 1574), was a mathematician, astronomer, cartographer, navigational-instrument maker, medical practitioner, and teacher.
Georg von Peuerbach (also Purbach, Peurbach, Purbachius; born May 30, 1423 – April 8, 1461) was an Austrian astronomer, mathematician and instrument maker, best known for his streamlined presentation of Ptolemaic astronomy in the Theoricae Novae Planetarum.
George von Kunheim (July 1523 – 18 October 1611), born in the Prussian city of Wehlau (modern Znamensk) and died in Mühlhausen (modern Gvardeyskoye), married Margaretha Luther, daughter and child of Paul Luther and grandchild of Martin Luther on August 5, 1555.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Gibeon (גבעון, Standard Hebrew Giv‘ōn, Tiberian Hebrew Giḇʻôn) was a Canaanite city north of Jerusalem.
Giordano Bruno (Iordanus Brunus Nolanus; 1548 – 17 February 1600), born Filippo Bruno, was an Italian Dominican friar, philosopher, mathematician, poet, and cosmological theorist.
Giovanni Garzoni (1419–1506) was an Italian humanist and physician from Bologna, where he was professor of medicine and teacher of rhetoric.
Girolamo Fracastoro (Hieronymus Fracastorius; c. 1476/86 August 1553) was an Italian physician, poet, and scholar in mathematics, geography and astronomy.
God's Playground: A History of Poland is a history book in two volumes written by Norman Davies, covering a thousand-year history of Poland.
A governor is, in most cases, a public official with the power to govern the executive branch of a non-sovereign or sub-national level of government, ranking under the head of state.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
In economics, Gresham's law is a monetary principle stating that "bad money drives out good".
Groschen (from grossus "thick", via Old Czech groš) was the (sometimes colloquial) name for a silver coin used in various states of the Holy Roman Empire.
Grudziądz (Graudenz, Graudentum or Graudentium or Grudentia); the form Grudentia is used by, e.g., A. Lentz, Philologus 23 (1866), p. 175.
The GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research (GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung) is a federally and state co-funded heavy ion research center in the Wixhausen suburb of Darmstadt, Germany.
Abū l-Ḥasan 'Alī ibn Abī l-Rijāl al-Shaybani (أبو الحسن علي ابن أبي الرجال) (commonly known as Haly, Hali, Albohazen Haly filii Abenragel or Haly Abenragel, from ibn Rijal) was an Arab astrologer of the late 10th and early 11th century, best known for his Kitāb al-bāri' fī aḥkām an-nujūm.
The Hanseatic League (Middle Low German: Hanse, Düdesche Hanse, Hansa; Standard German: Deutsche Hanse; Latin: Hansa Teutonica) was a commercial and defensive confederation of merchant guilds and market towns in Northwestern and Central Europe.
A haplotype is a group of genes in an organism that are inherited together from a single parent, and a haplogroup (haploid from the ἁπλούς, haploûs, "onefold, simple" and group) is a group of similar haplotypes that share a common ancestor with a single-nucleotide polymorphism mutation.
Heliocentrism is the astronomical model in which the Earth and planets revolve around the Sun at the center of the Solar System.
The Hellenistic period covers the period of Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the subsequent conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt the following year.
Heraclides Ponticus (Ἡρακλείδης ὁ Ποντικός Herakleides; c. 390 BC – c. 310 BC) was a Greek philosopher and astronomer who was born in Heraclea Pontica, now Karadeniz Ereğli, Turkey, and migrated to Athens.
Heresy is any belief or theory that is strongly at variance with established beliefs or customs, in particular the accepted beliefs of a church or religious organization.
The history of science is the study of the development of science and scientific knowledge, including both the natural and social sciences.
In justice and law, house arrest (also called home confinement, home detention, or, in modern times, electronic monitoring) is a measure by which a person is confined by the authorities to a residence.
Humanism is a philosophical and ethical stance that emphasizes the value and agency of human beings, individually and collectively, and generally prefers critical thinking and evidence (rationalism and empiricism) over acceptance of dogma or superstition.
Humanities are academic disciplines that study aspects of human society and culture.
Hasan Ibn al-Haytham (Latinized Alhazen; full name أبو علي، الحسن بن الحسن بن الهيثم) was an Arab mathematician, astronomer, and physicist of the Islamic Golden Age.
ʿAlāʾ al‐Dīn ʿAlī ibn Ibrāhīm known as Ibn al-Shatir or Ibn ash-Shatir (ابن الشاطر; 1304–1375) was an Arab astronomer, mathematician and engineer.
An imprimatur (from Latin, "let it be printed") is, in the proper sense, a declaration authorizing publication of a book.
The Index Librorum Prohibitorum (List of Prohibited Books) was a list of publications deemed heretical, or contrary to morality by the Sacred Congregation of the Index (a former Dicastery of the Roman Curia) and thus Catholics were forbidden to read them.
An indult in Catholic canon law is a permission, or privilege, granted by the competent church authority – the Holy See or the diocesan bishop, as the case may be – for an exception from a particular norm of church law in an individual case, for example, members of the consecrated life seeking to be dispensed from their religious vows, or of priests and deacons who voluntarily seek to return to the lay state (usually to marry).
The Inquisition was a group of institutions within the government system of the Catholic Church whose aim was to combat public heresy committed by baptized Christians.
The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) is an international federation of National Adhering Organizations that represents chemists in individual countries.
In the context of the history of the 20th century, the interwar period was the period between the end of the First World War in November 1918 and the beginning of the Second World War in September 1939.
Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician, astronomer, theologian, author and physicist (described in his own day as a "natural philosopher") who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time, and a key figure in the scientific revolution.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
The Jagiellonian University (Polish: Uniwersytet Jagielloński; Latin: Universitas Iagellonica Cracoviensis, also known as the University of Kraków) is a research university in Kraków, Poland.
Jan Brożek (Ioannes Broscius, Joannes Broscius or Johannes Broscius; 1 November 1585 – 21 November 1652) was a Polish polymath: a mathematician, astronomer, physician, poet, writer, musician and rector of the Kraków Academy.
Jan Kochanowski (1530 – 22 August 1584) was a Polish Renaissance poet who established poetic patterns that would become integral to the Polish literary language.
Józef Kowalczyk (born 28 August 1938) is a Polish Roman Catholic clergyman, canon lawyer and diplomat who, from 1989 to 2010, served as the first apostolic nuncio to Poland since World War II.
Jeffrey Burton Russell (born 1934) is an American historian and religious studies scholar.
Joannes Aurifaber (1519 – November 18, 1575), born Johann Goldschmidt in Weimar, Germany, was a Lutheran churchman, theologian, and a Protestant reformer.
Johann Albrecht Widmannstetter, also called Widmannstadt, Johannes Albertus or Widmestadius, (1506 in Nellingen/Blaubeuren near Ulm – March 28, 1557 in Regensburg), was a German humanist, orientalist, philologist, and theologian.
Johann Gottfried Schadow (20 May 1764 – 27 January 1850) was a German Prussian sculptor.
Johann Haller or Jan HallerNorman Davies, (1463–1525) is considered one of the first commercial printers in Poland.
Johannes Dantiscus, (Johann(es) von Höfen-Flachsbinder, Jan Dantyszek; 1 October 1485 – 27 October 1548) was prince-bishop of Warmia and Bishop of Chełmno (Culm).
Johannes Kepler (December 27, 1571 – November 15, 1630) was a German mathematician, astronomer, and astrologer.
Johann(es) Petreius (Hans Peterlein, Petrejus, Petri) (c. 1497 in Langendorf near Bad Kissingen – March 18, 1550, Nuremberg) was a German printer in Nuremberg.
Johann(es) Werner (Ioannis Vernerus; February 14, 1468 – May 1522) was a German mathematician.
William John Banville (born 8 December 1945), who sometimes writes as Benjamin Black, is an Irish novelist, adapter of dramas, and screenwriter.
John Calvin (Jean Calvin; born Jehan Cauvin; 10 July 150927 May 1564) was a French theologian, pastor and reformer in Geneva during the Protestant Reformation.
John I Albert (Jan I Olbracht) (27 December 1459 – 17 June 1501) was King of Poland (1492–1501) and Duke of Głogów (1491–1498).
John of Głogów (Jan z Głogowa, Jan Głogowczyk; Johann von Schelling von Glogau) (c. 1445 – 11 February 1507) was a notable polyhistor at the turn of the Middle Ages and Renaissance—a philosopher, geographer and astronomer at the University of Krakow.
John Owen (161624 August 1683) was an English Nonconformist church leader, theologian, and academic administrator at the University of Oxford.
Journal for the History of Astronomy (JHA) is a peer-reviewed academic journal that publishes papers in the History of Astronomy from earliest times to the present, and in history in the service of astronomy.
In Judaism and Christianity, the concept of the Jubilee is a special year of remission of sins and universal pardon.
The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar in 46 BC (708 AUC), was a reform of the Roman calendar.
Königsberg is the name for a former German city that is now Kaliningrad, Russia.
The Kingdom of Bohemia, sometimes in English literature referred to as the Czech Kingdom (České království; Königreich Böhmen; Regnum Bohemiae, sometimes Regnum Czechorum), was a medieval and early modern monarchy in Central Europe, the predecessor of the modern Czech Republic.
The Kingdom of Poland (Polish: Królestwo Polskie; Latin: Regnum Poloniae) and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania joined in a personal union established by the Union of Krewo (1385).
The Kościelecki (or, plural, Kościeleccy) - were a noble family which was part of the political and economic elite in Kujawy and Royal Prussia in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries.
The Konopacki Family was a prominent historical family of Prussian nobility whose members served as senators in the Prussian provincial diet, as advisers to the King of Poland, and as Bishops of Chełm.
Konrad Rudnicki (born 2 July 1926 in Warsaw, Poland, died 12 November 2013 in Kraków, Poland) was a Polish astronomer, professor at the Jagiellonian University in Kraków, and a priest of the Old Catholic Mariavite Church.
Koperniki (formerly German Köppernig, Köppernick, Koppirnik (obsolete - used 1845), Latin Copirnik, Copernik is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Nysa, within Nysa County, Opole Voivodeship, in southwestern Poland. It lies approximately southwest of Nysa and southwest of the regional capital Opole. It was the ancestral village of Nicolaus Copernicus (born Niclas Koppernigk), whose great-grandfather had moved to then Polish capital Cracow (Polish Kraków, German Krakau) in c. 1380. The etymology of the name has been debated especially in the context of the biography of Copernicus, since at least the 1870s, surrounding two competing proposals, one suggesting the name root origin from the German word for copper (Kupfer), the other from the Polish word for dill (koper). The suffix -nik (or plural -niki) denotes a Slavic and Polish agent noun. The settlement was established in the mid-13th century as part of the German Ostsiedlung. It is first mentioned in 1272, as Coprnih. and in 1284 was listed as one of 65 major German settlements in the Duchy of Nysa. As part of the Duchy of Nysa, it passed from the rule of Silesian branch of the Polish Piast dynasty to the Crown of Bohemia in 1342, and with Bohemia to the House of Habsburg in 1542. In 1742, it fell to Prussia as part of the settlement following the First Silesian War. In 1945, it became part of Poland, as Koperniki. The German population was displaced, and the village was re-populated with Polish settlers from Wiktorówka (Tarnopol Voivodeship) and Jeleśnia.
Kraków, also spelled Cracow or Krakow, is the second largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland.
The Kraków School of Mathematics and Astrology (krakowska szkoła matematyczna i astrologiczna) was an influential mid-to-late-15th-century group of mathematicians and astrologers at the University of Kraków (later Jagiellonian University).
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Leopold Friedrich Prowe (14 October 1821 – 26 September 1887) was a German historian and gymnasium instructor, born as the son of a town councillor of Thorn in West Prussia (now in Poland), the town where in 1473 the astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus was born.
Leprosy, also known as Hansen's disease (HD), is a long-term infection by the bacterium Mycobacterium leprae or Mycobacterium lepromatosis.
Lidzbark Warmiński (Heilsberg) is a town in the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship in Poland.
This is a list of Archbishops of the Archdiocese of Gniezno, who are simultaneously Primates of Poland since 1418.
This is a list of Bishops and Prince-Bishops of the Diocese of Warmia (Diecezja warmińska, Dioecesis Varmiensis, Bistum Ermland), which was elevated to the Archdiocese of Warmia in 1992.
This is a list of Catholic churchmen throughout history who have made contributions to science.
Poland was ruled at various times either by dukes (the 10th–14th century) or by kings (the 11th-18th century).
Locationes mansorum desertorum is a manuscript of Nicolaus Copernicus, written between 1516–1521.
Lorenzo (or Laurentius) Valla (14071 August 1457) was an Italian humanist, rhetorician, educator and Catholic priest.
Lucas Watzenrode the Younger (sometimes Watzelrode and Waisselrod; Lucas Watzenrode der Jüngere; Łukasz Watzenrode; 30 October 1447 – 29 March 1512) was Prince-Bishop of Warmia (Ermeland) and patron to his nephew, astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus.
Lucas Watzenrode the Elder (also Lukas in German; Polish Łukasz) (1400–1462) was a merchant in the Hanseatic Prussian city of Thorn (Toruń), father of Bishop Lucas Watzenrode the Younger, and grandfather of astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus.
A lunar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes directly behind Earth and into its shadow.
Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther (1483–1546), a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer and theologian.
Malbork (Marienburg; Civitas Beatae Virginis) is a town in northern Poland in the Żuławy region (Vistula delta), with 38,478 inhabitants (2006).
A manuscript (abbreviated MS for singular and MSS for plural) was, traditionally, any document written by hand -- or, once practical typewriters became available, typewritten -- as opposed to being mechanically printed or reproduced in some indirect or automated way.
Marcin Bylica (c.1433 in Olkusz – 1493 in Buda), also known as Martin Bylica and Marcin z Olkusza, was a Polish astrologer, astronomer, and physician at the court of Matthias Corvinus, King of Hungary.
Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System after Mercury.
Martianus Minneus Felix Capella was a Latin prose writer of Late Antiquity (fl. c. 410–420), one of the earliest developers of the system of the seven liberal arts that structured early medieval education.
Martin Luther, (10 November 1483 – 18 February 1546) was a German professor of theology, composer, priest, monk, and a seminal figure in the Protestant Reformation.
Mass is a term used to describe the main eucharistic liturgical service in many forms of Western Christianity.
A mathematical model is a description of a system using mathematical concepts and language.
Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.
Mauritius Ferber (Maurycy Ferber) (1471 – 1 July 1537) in Lidzbark (Heilsberg), in Poland was a member of the patrician Ferber family of Danzig (Gdańsk) in Poland.
Metaphysics (Greek: τὰ μετὰ τὰ φυσικά; Latin: Metaphysica) is one of the principal works of Aristotle and the first major work of the branch of philosophy with the same name.
Michael Burleigh (born 3 April 1955) is an English author and historian whose primary focus is on Nazi Germany and related subjects.
Michael Maestlin (also Mästlin, Möstlin, or Moestlin) (30 September 1550, Göppingen – 20 October 1631, Tübingen) was a German astronomer and mathematician, known for being the mentor of Johannes Kepler.
Miechów is a town in Poland, in Lesser Poland Voivodeship, about north of Kraków.
Mikołaj Rej or Mikołaj Rey of Nagłowice (4 February 1505 – between 8 September/5 October 1569) was a Polish poet and prose writer of the emerging Renaissance in Poland as it succeeded the Middle Ages, as well as a politician and musician.
A miner is a person who extracts ore, coal, or other mineral from the earth through mining.
Minor orders are ranks of church ministry lower than major orders.
Monetae cudendae ratio (also spelled Monetæ cudendæ ratio; English: On the Minting of Coin or On the Striking of Coin; sometimes, Treatise on Money) is a paper on coinage by Nicolaus Copernicus (Polish: Mikołaj Kopernik).
Monetary reform is any movement or theory that proposes a system of supplying money and financing the economy that is different from the current system.
Money is any item or verifiable record that is generally accepted as payment for goods and services and repayment of debts in a particular country or socio-economic context.
Montreal (officially Montréal) is the most populous municipality in the Canadian province of Quebec and the second-most populous municipality in Canada.
Al-Urdi (full name: Muʾayyad (al‐Milla wa‐) al‐Dīn (Muʾayyad ibn Barīk) al‐ʿUrḍī (al‐ʿĀmirī al‐Dimašqī) (مؤيد (الملة و) الدين (مؤيد ابن بريك) ألعرضي (العامري الدمشقي d. 1266) was a medieval Syrian-Arab astronomer.
De libris revolutionum Copernici narratio prima, usually referred to as Narratio Prima (First Account), is an abstract of Nicolaus Copernicus' heliocentric theory, written by Georg Joachim Rheticus in 1540.
Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn al-Hasan al-Tūsī (محمد بن محمد بن حسن طوسی‎ 18 February 1201 – 26 June 1274), better known as Nasir al-Din Tusi (نصیر الدین طوسی; or simply Tusi in the West), was a Persian polymath, architect, philosopher, physician, scientist, and theologian.
Student nations or simply nations (natio meaning "being born") are regional corporations of students at a university.
New Advent is a website that provides online versions of various works connected with the Catholic Church.
The Nicolaus Copernicus Monument in Warsaw is one of the Polish capital's notable landmarks.
Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń (Uniwersytet Mikołaja Kopernika w Toruniu, UMK) is located in Toruń, Poland.
Nikolaus von Schönberg (11 August 1472 – 7 September 1537) was a German Archbishop of Capua.
Ivor Norman Richard Davies (born 8 June 1939) is a British-Polish historian noted for his publications on the history of Europe, Poland and the United Kingdom.
A nun is a member of a religious community of women, typically living under vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience in the enclosure of a monastery.
Nur ad-Din al-Bitruji (also spelled Nur al-Din Ibn Ishaq Al-Betrugi and Abu Ishâk ibn al-Bitrogi; another spelling is al Bidrudschi) (known in the West by the Latinized name of Alpetragius) (died c. 1204) was a Spanish-Arab astronomer and a Qadi in al-Andalus.
Nuremberg (Nürnberg) is a city on the river Pegnitz and on the Rhine–Main–Danube Canal in the German state of Bavaria, in the administrative region of Middle Franconia, about north of Munich.
The Nuremberg Chronicle is an illustrated biblical paraphrase and world history that follows the story of human history related in the Bible; it includes the histories of a number of important Western cities.
Nysa (Neisse or Neiße) is a town in southwestern Poland on the Nysa Kłodzka river, situated in the Opole Voivodeship.
An occultation is an event that occurs when one object is hidden by another object that passes between it and the observer.
Olkusz (עלקיש Elkish, 1941-45 Ilkenau) is a town in south Poland with 36,607 inhabitants (2014).
Olsztyn (Allenstein; Old Polish: Holstin; Old Prussian: Alnāsteini or Alnestabs; Alnaštynas, Alnštynas, Alštynas (historical) and Olštynas (modern)) is a city on the Łyna River in northeastern Poland.
On the Heavens (Greek: Περὶ οὐρανοῦ, Latin: De Caelo or De Caelo et Mundo) is Aristotle's chief cosmological treatise: written in 350 BC it contains his astronomical theory and his ideas on the concrete workings of the terrestrial world.
The orbital eccentricity of an astronomical object is a parameter that determines the amount by which its orbit around another body deviates from a perfect circle.
The Orchestre national d'Île de France is a French symphony orchestra with its administrative base in Alfortville.
The Order of Saint Benedict (OSB; Latin: Ordo Sancti Benedicti), also known as the Black Monksin reference to the colour of its members' habitsis a Catholic religious order of independent monastic communities that observe the Rule of Saint Benedict.
An orthography is a set of conventions for writing a language.
Owen Jay Gingerich (born 1930) is professor emeritus of astronomy and of the history of science at Harvard University and a senior astronomer emeritus at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory.
Padua (Padova; Pàdova) is a city and comune in Veneto, northern Italy.
Paolo Antonio Foscarini (c. 1565 – 10 June 1616) was a Carmelite father and scientist, whose book on the mobility of the earth was condemned by the Roman Inquisition in 1616 along with the writings of Copernicus.
Nuncio (officially known as an Apostolic nuncio and also known as a papal nuncio) is the title for an ecclesiastical diplomat, being an envoy or permanent diplomatic representative of the Holy See to a state or international organization.
The Partitions of Poland were three partitions of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth that took place toward the end of the 18th century and ended the existence of the state, resulting in the elimination of sovereign Poland and Lithuania for 123 years.
Patricianship, the quality of belonging to a patriciate, began in the ancient world, where cities such as Ancient Rome had a class of patrician families whose members were the only people allowed to exercise many political functions.
Paul of Middelburg (1446 – 13 December 1534) was a Flemish scientist and bishop of Fossombrone.
Philip Melanchthon (born Philipp Schwartzerdt; 16 February 1497 – 19 April 1560) was a German Lutheran reformer, collaborator with Martin Luther, the first systematic theologian of the Protestant Reformation, intellectual leader of the Lutheran Reformation, and an influential designer of educational systems.
Philolaus (Φιλόλαος, Philólaos) was a Greek Pythagorean and pre-Socratic philosopher.
Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica (Latin for Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy), often referred to as simply the Principia, is a work in three books by Isaac Newton, in Latin, first published 5 July 1687.
A physician, medical practitioner, medical doctor, or simply doctor is a professional who practises medicine, which is concerned with promoting, maintaining, or restoring health through the study, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, injury, and other physical and mental impairments.
Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.
Pieniężno is a town on the Wałsza River in the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship in Poland.
Plato (Πλάτων Plátōn, in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.
Pliny the Elder (born Gaius Plinius Secundus, AD 23–79) was a Roman author, naturalist and natural philosopher, a naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and friend of emperor Vespasian.
The plural (sometimes abbreviated), in many languages, is one of the values of the grammatical category of number.
Plutarch (Πλούταρχος, Ploútarkhos,; c. CE 46 – CE 120), later named, upon becoming a Roman citizen, Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus, (Λούκιος Μέστριος Πλούταρχος) was a Greek biographer and essayist, known primarily for his Parallel Lives and Moralia.
The Polish Academy of Sciences (Polska Akademia Nauk, PAN) is a Polish state-sponsored institution of higher learning.
Polski Słownik Biograficzny (PSB; Polish Biographical Dictionary) is a Polish-language biographical dictionary, comprising an alphabetically arranged compilation of authoritative biographies of some 25,000 notable Poles and of foreigners who have been active in Poland – famous as well as less well known persons, from Popiel, Piast Kołodziej and Mieszko I, at the dawn of Polish history, to persons who died in the year 2000.
Polish (język polski or simply polski) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and is the native language of the Poles.
The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, formally the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, after 1791 the Commonwealth of Poland, was a dualistic state, a bi-confederation of Poland and Lithuania ruled by a common monarch, who was both the King of Poland and the Grand Duke of Lithuania.
The Polish–Teutonic War of 1519–1521 (Reiterkrieg, horsemen's war, Wojna pruska, Prussian War) was fought between the Kingdom of Poland and the Teutonic Knights, ending with an armistice in April 1521.
Polyglotism or polyglottism is the ability to master, or the state of having mastered, multiple languages.
A polymath (πολυμαθής,, "having learned much,"The term was first recorded in written English in the early seventeenth century Latin: uomo universalis, "universal man") is a person whose expertise spans a significant number of different subject areas—such a person is known to draw on complex bodies of knowledge to solve specific problems.
Pomerania (Pomorze; German, Low German and North Germanic languages: Pommern; Kashubian: Pòmòrskô) is a historical region on the southern shore of the Baltic Sea in Central Europe, split between Germany and Poland.
Pope Clement VII (26 May 1478 – 25 September 1534), born Giulio di Giuliano de' Medici, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 19 November 1523 to his death on 25 September 1534.
Pope Paul III (Paulus III; 29 February 1468 – 10 November 1549), born Alessandro Farnese, was Pope from 13 October 1534 to his death in 1549.
Pope Paul V (Paulus V; Paolo V) (17 September 1550 – 28 January 1621), born Camillo Borghese, was Pope from 16 May 1605 to his death in 1621.
A possessive form (abbreviated) is a word or grammatical construction used to indicate a relationship of possession in a broad sense.
Poznań (Posen; known also by other historical names) is a city on the Warta River in west-central Poland, in the Greater Poland region.
Prague (Praha, Prag) is the capital and largest city in the Czech Republic, the 14th largest city in the European Union and also the historical capital of Bohemia.
tags--> A prebendary is a senior member of clergy, normally supported by the revenues from an estate or parish.
A prelate is a high-ranking member of the clergy who is an ordinary or who ranks in precedence with ordinaries.
The Prince-Bishopric of Warmia (Biskupie Księstwo Warmińskie, Fürstbistum Ermland) was a semi-independent ecclesiastical state, ruled by the incumbent ordinary of the Ermland/Warmia see and comprising one third of the then diocesan area.
Prior, derived from the Latin for "earlier, first", (or prioress for nuns) is an ecclesiastical title for a superior, usually lower in rank than an abbot or abbess.
The term pro forma (Latin for "as a matter of form" or "for the sake of form") is most often used to describe a practice or document that is provided as a courtesy or satisfies minimum requirements, conforms to a norm or doctrine, tends to be performed perfunctorily or is considered a formality.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) is the official scientific journal of the National Academy of Sciences, published since 1915.
Prussia (Preußen) was a historically prominent German state that originated in 1525 with a duchy centred on the region of Prussia.
Prussia (Old Prussian: Prūsa, Preußen, Prūsija, Prusy, tr) is a historical region in Europe, stretching from Gdańsk Bay to the end of Curonian Spit on the southeastern coast of the Baltic Sea, and extending inland as far as Masuria.
The Prussian Confederation (Preußischer Bund, Związek Pruski) was an organization formed on 21 February 1440 at Marienwerder by a group of 53 nobles and clergy and 19 cities in Prussia, to oppose the arbitrariness of the Teutonic Knights.
The Prutenic Tables (Tabulae prutenicae from Prutenia meaning "Prussia", Prutenische oder Preußische Tafeln), were an ephemeris (astronomical tables) by the astronomer Erasmus Reinhold published in 1551.
Claudius Ptolemy (Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος, Klaúdios Ptolemaîos; Claudius Ptolemaeus) was a Greco-Roman mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer, and poet of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology.
Pułtusk (Ostenburg) is a town in Poland by the river Narew, north of Warsaw.
Pythagoras of Samos was an Ionian Greek philosopher and the eponymous founder of the Pythagoreanism movement.
An astronomical system positing that the Earth, Moon, Sun and planets revolve around an unseen "Central Fire" was developed in the 5th century BC and has been attributed to the Pythagorean philosopher Philolaus, a version based on Stobaeus account, who betrays a tendency to confound the dogmas of the early Ionian philosophers, and he occasionally mixes up Platonism with Pythagoreanism.
Pythagoreanism originated in the 6th century BC, based on the teachings and beliefs held by Pythagoras and his followers, the Pythagoreans, who were considerably influenced by mathematics and mysticism.
A quadrant is an instrument that is used to measure angles up to 90°.
In monetary economics, the quantity theory of money (QTM) states that the general price level of goods and services is directly proportional to the amount of money in circulation, or money supply.
Johannes Müller von Königsberg (6 June 1436 – 6 July 1476), better known as Regiomontanus, was a mathematician and astronomer of the German Renaissance, active in Vienna, Buda and Nuremberg.
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.
Renaissance humanism is the study of classical antiquity, at first in Italy and then spreading across Western Europe in the 14th, 15th, and 16th centuries.
The Renaissance in Poland (Renesans, Odrodzenie; literally: the Rebirth) lasted from the late 15th to the late 16th century and is widely considered to have been the Golden Age of Polish culture.
Saint Robert Bellarmine, S.J. (Roberto Francesco Romolo Bellarmino; 4 October 1542 – 17 September 1621) was an Italian Jesuit and a Cardinal of the Catholic Church.
Roger Joseph Boscovich (Ruđer Josip Bošković,, Ruggiero Giuseppe Boscovich, Rodericus Iosephus Boscovicus; 18 May 1711 – 13 February 1787) was a Ragusan physicist, astronomer, mathematician, philosopher, diplomat, poet, theologian, Jesuit priest, and a polymath, Fairchild University website.
The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Capua (Archidioecesis Capuana) is an archdiocese (originally a suffragan bishopric) of the Roman Catholic Church in Italy, but its archbishop no longer holds metropolitan rank and has no ecclesiastical province.
The Italian Catholic diocese of Fossombrone existed in the province of Pesaro and Urbino until 1986, when it was united into the diocese of Fano-Fossombrone-Cagli-Pergola.
The Roman Curia is the administrative apparatus of the Holy See and the central body through which the Roman Pontiff conducts the affairs of the universal Catholic Church.
Royal Prussia (Prusy Królewskie; Königlich-Preußen or Preußen Königlichen Anteils, Królewsczé Prësë) or Polish PrussiaAnton Friedrich Büsching, Patrick Murdoch.
The Sapienza University of Rome (Italian: Sapienza – Università di Roma), also called simply Sapienza or the University of Rome, is a collegiate research university located in Rome, Italy.
Sarmatism (or Sarmatianism) is an ethno-cultural concept with a shade of politics designating the formation of an idea of Poland's origin from Sarmatians within the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun and the second-largest in the Solar System, after Jupiter.
The Scientific Revolution was a series of events that marked the emergence of modern science during the early modern period, when developments in mathematics, physics, astronomy, biology (including human anatomy) and chemistry transformed the views of society about nature.
The Peace of Thorn of 1466 (Zweiter Friede von Thorn; drugi pokój toruński) was a peace treaty signed in the Hanseatic city of Thorn (Toruń) on 19 October 1466 between the Polish king Casimir IV Jagiellon on one side, and the Teutonic Knights on the other.
The Sejm of the Republic of Poland (Sejm Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej) is the lower house of the Polish parliament.
A sejmik (diminutive of sejm, occasionally translated as a dietine; seimelis) was one of various local parliaments in the history of Poland.
Seleucus of Seleucia (Σέλευκος Seleukos; born c. 190 BC; fl. c. 150 BC) was a Hellenistic astronomer and philosopher.
The Siege of Allenstein or the Siege of Olsztyn took place from January 1521 to February 1521, during the Polish–Teutonic War (1519–21).
Sigismund I of Poland (Zygmunt I Stary, Žygimantas I Senasis; 1 January 1467 – 1 April 1548), of the Jagiellon dynasty, reigned as King of Poland and also as the Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1506 until 1548.
Silesia (Śląsk; Slezsko;; Silesian German: Schläsing; Silesian: Ślůnsk; Šlazyńska; Šleska; Silesia) is a region of Central Europe located mostly in Poland, with small parts in the Czech Republic and Germany.
Simon Stevin (1548–1620), sometimes called Stevinus, was a Flemish mathematician, physicist and military engineer.
A sinecure (from Latin sine.
The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages) are the Indo-European languages spoken by the Slavic peoples.
The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (SEP) combines an online encyclopedia of philosophy with peer-reviewed publication of original papers in philosophy, freely accessible to Internet users.
Stanisław Rospond (1906–1982) was a Polish linguist, and professor at the University of Wroclaw.
The State of the Teutonic Order (Staat des Deutschen Ordens; Civitas Ordinis Theutonici), also called Deutschordensstaat or Ordensstaat in German, was a crusader state formed by the Teutonic Knights or Teutonic Order during the 13th century Northern Crusades along the Baltic Sea.
Stephen Paul Mizwa, Stefan Piotr Mierzwa (November 12, 1892, Rakszawa – January, 1971, Houston) was the founder and long-time president of the Kosciuszko Foundation, a Polish-American scholarly and cultural institution headquartered in New York City.
Strachowice, Wrocław - originally a village, since 1973 within the boundaries of Wrocław.
The Strasbourg astronomical clock is located in the Cathédrale Notre-Dame of Strasbourg, Alsace, France.
In linguistics, a suffix (sometimes termed postfix) is an affix which is placed after the stem of a word.
The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System.
A surname, family name, or last name is the portion of a personal name that indicates a person's family (or tribe or community, depending on the culture).
Svitlana Azarova (Світлана Азарова) is a Ukrainian/Dutch composer of contemporary classical music born January 9, 1976 in the Ukrainian SSR of the Soviet Union.
Szamotuły (Samter) is a town in Poland, in Greater Poland Voivodeship, about northwest of the centre of Poznań.
Sztum (Stuhm) is a town in northern Poland in the Powiśle region, located in the Pomeranian Voivodeship.
Tadeáš Hájek z Hájku (1 December 1525 in Prague – 1 September 1600 in Prague), also known as Tadeáš Hájek of Hájek, Thaddaeus Hagecius ab Hayek or Thaddeus Nemicus, was a Czech naturalist, personal physician of the Holy Roman Emperor Rudolph II and an astronomer in the Kingdom of Bohemia.
Taurus (Latin for "the Bull") is one of the constellations of the zodiac, which means it is crossed by the plane of the ecliptic.
Tetrabiblos (Τετράβιβλος) 'four books', also known in Greek as Apotelesmatiká (Ἀποτελεσματικά) "Effects", and in Latin as Quadripartitum "Four Parts", is a text on the philosophy and practice of astrology, written in the 2nd century AD by the Alexandrian scholar Claudius Ptolemy (AD 90– AD 168).
The Order of Brothers of the German House of Saint Mary in Jerusalem (official names: Ordo domus Sanctæ Mariæ Theutonicorum Hierosolymitanorum, Orden der Brüder vom Deutschen Haus der Heiligen Maria in Jerusalem), commonly the Teutonic Order (Deutscher Orden, Deutschherrenorden or Deutschritterorden), is a Catholic religious order founded as a military order c. 1190 in Acre, Kingdom of Jerusalem.
(ثابت بن قره, Thebit/Thebith/Tebit; 826 – February 18, 901) was a Syrian Arab Sabian mathematician, physician, astronomer, and translator who lived in Baghdad in the second half of the ninth century during the time of Abbasid Caliphate.
The Copernican Revolution is a 1957 book by the philosopher Thomas Kuhn, in which the author provides an analysis of the Copernican Revolution, documenting the pre-Ptolemaic understanding through the Ptolemaic system and its variants until the eventual acceptance of the Keplerian system.
The Nicolaus Copernicus University Press is a book publisher founded in 1967.
The Sand Reckoner (Ψαμμίτης, Psammites) is a work by Archimedes in which he set out to determine an upper bound for the number of grains of sand that fit into the universe.
The Sleepwalkers: A History of Man's Changing Vision of the Universe is a 1959 book by Arthur Koestler.
Theodorus Gaza or Theodore Gazis (Θεόδωρος Γαζῆς, Theodoros Gazis; Teodoro Gaza; Theodorus Gazes), also called by the epithet Thessalonicensis (in Latin) and Thessalonikeus (in Greek) (c. 1398 – c. 1475), was a Greek humanist and translator of Aristotle, one of the Greek scholars who were the leaders of the revival of learning in the 15th century (the Palaeologan Renaissance).
Theophylact Simocatta (Byzantine Greek: Θεοφύλακτος Σιμοκάτ(τ)ης Theophylaktos Simokat(t)es; Theophylactus Simocattus) was an early seventh-century Byzantine historiographer, arguably ranking as the last historian of Late Antiquity, writing in the time of Heraclius (c. 630) about the late Emperor Maurice (582–602).
The Thirteen Years' War (Dreizehnjähriger Krieg; wojna trzynastoletnia), also called the War of the Cities, was a conflict fought in 1454–66 between the Prussian Confederation, allied with the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland, and the State of the Teutonic Order.
Saint Thomas Aquinas (1225 – 7 March 1274) was an Italian Dominican friar, Catholic priest, and Doctor of the Church.
Thomas Digges (c. 1546 – 24 August 1595) was an English mathematician and astronomer.
Sir Thomas Gresham the Elder (c. 1519 – 21 November 1579), was an English merchant and financier who acted on behalf of King Edward VI (1547–1553) and Edward's half-sisters, queens Mary I (1553–1558) and Elizabeth I (1558–1603).
Thomas Harriot (Oxford, c. 1560 – London, 2 July 1621), also spelled Harriott, Hariot or Heriot, was an English astronomer, mathematician, ethnographer and translator who made advances within the scientific field.
Sir Thomas Little Heath (5 October 1861 – 16 March 1940) was a British civil servant, mathematician, classical scholar, historian of ancient Greek mathematics, translator, and mountaineer.
Tiedemann Giese (1 June 1480 – 23 October 1550), was Bishop of Kulm (Chełmno) first canon, later Prince-Bishop of Warmia (Ermland).
Tobias Stimmer (7 April 1539 – 4 January 1584) was a Swiss painter and illustrator.
Tommaso Caccini (1574–1648) was an Italian Dominican friar and preacher.
Toponymy is the study of place names (toponyms), their origins, meanings, use, and typology.
Toruń (Thorn) is a city in northern Poland, on the Vistula River.
Translation is the communication of the meaning of a source-language text by means of an equivalent target-language text.
Trigonometry (from Greek trigōnon, "triangle" and metron, "measure") is a branch of mathematics that studies relationships involving lengths and angles of triangles.
The triquetrum (derived from the Latin tri- and quetrum) was the medieval name for an ancient astronomical instrument first described by Ptolemy (c. 90–c. 168) in the Almagest (V. 12).
The Tusi couple is a mathematical device in which a small circle rotates inside a larger circle twice the diameter of the smaller circle.
Tycho Brahe (born Tyge Ottesen Brahe;. He adopted the Latinized form "Tycho Brahe" (sometimes written Tÿcho) at around age fifteen. The name Tycho comes from Tyche (Τύχη, meaning "luck" in Greek, Roman equivalent: Fortuna), a tutelary deity of fortune and prosperity of ancient Greek city cults. He is now generally referred to as "Tycho," as was common in Scandinavia in his time, rather than by his surname "Brahe" (a spurious appellative form of his name, Tycho de Brahe, only appears much later). 14 December 154624 October 1601) was a Danish nobleman, astronomer, and writer known for his accurate and comprehensive astronomical and planetary observations.
The University of Bologna (Università di Bologna, UNIBO), founded in 1088, is the oldest university in continuous operation, as well as one of the leading academic institutions in Italy and Europe.
The University of Ferrara (Università degli Studi di Ferrara) is the main university of the city of Ferrara in the Emilia-Romagna region of northern Italy.
The University of Padua (Università degli Studi di Padova, UNIPD) is a premier Italian university located in the city of Padua, Italy.
Uppsala University (Uppsala universitet) is a research university in Uppsala, Sweden, and is the oldest university in Sweden and all of the Nordic countries still in operation, founded in 1477.
Uppsala University Library (Uppsala universitetsbibliotek) at Uppsala University in Uppsala, Sweden, consists of 11 subject libraries, one of which is housed in the old main library building, Carolina Rediviva.
Valentin Otto (1529 – April 1594) was a Thomaskantor.
Vienna (Wien) is the federal capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria.
The Vistula (Wisła, Weichsel,, ווייסל), Висла) is the longest and largest river in Poland, at in length. The drainage basin area of the Vistula is, of which lies within Poland (54% of its land area). The remainder is in Belarus, Ukraine and Slovakia. The Vistula rises at Barania Góra in the south of Poland, above sea level in the Silesian Beskids (western part of Carpathian Mountains), where it begins with the White Little Vistula (Biała Wisełka) and the Black Little Vistula (Czarna Wisełka). It then continues to flow over the vast Polish plains, passing several large Polish cities along its way, including Kraków, Sandomierz, Warsaw, Płock, Włocławek, Toruń, Bydgoszcz, Świecie, Grudziądz, Tczew and Gdańsk. It empties into the Vistula Lagoon (Zalew Wiślany) or directly into the Gdańsk Bay of the Baltic Sea with a delta and several branches (Leniwka, Przekop, Śmiała Wisła, Martwa Wisła, Nogat and Szkarpawa).
The Vistula Lagoon (Zalew Wiślany; Калининградский залив or Kaliningradskiy Zaliv; Frisches Haff; Aistmarės) is a brackish water lagoon on the Baltic Sea roughly 56 miles (90 km) long, 6 to 15 miles (10 to 19 km) wide, and up to 17 feet (5 m) deep, separated from Gdańsk Bay by the Vistula Spit.
The Walhalla is a hall of fame that honors laudable and distinguished people in German history – "politicians, sovereigns, scientists and artists of the German tongue";Official Guide booklet, 2002, p. 3 thus the celebrities honored are drawn from Greater Germany, a wider area than today's Germany, and even as far away as Britain in the case of several Anglo-Saxons who are honored.
Warmia (Warmia, Latin: Varmia,, Old Prussian: Wārmi, Varmė) is a historical region in northern Poland.
Włocławek (Leslau) is a city located in central Poland along the Vistula (Wisła) River and is bordered by the Gostynińsko-Włocławski Park Krajobrazowy.
Wilhelm (sometimes William, Willem, Guilielmus) Gnapheus (de Volder, van de Voldesgraft, Fulonius; 1493 in The Hague – 29 September 1568 in Norden, Lower Saxony) was a Dutch-born Protestant religious figure and writer.
William Gilbert (24 May 1544 – 30 November 1603), also known as Gilberd, was an English physician, physicist and natural philosopher.
Wittenberg, officially Lutherstadt Wittenberg, is a town in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany.
The World Book Encyclopedia is an encyclopedia published in the United States.
Wrocław (Breslau; Vratislav; Vratislavia) is the largest city in western Poland.
Zbigniew Oleśnicki (5 December 1389 in Sienno, Masovian Voivodeship – 1 April 1455), known in Latin as Sbigneus, was a high-ranking Roman Catholic clergyman and an influential Polish statesman and diplomat.
55 Cancri (abbreviated 55 Cnc) is a binary star approximately 41 light-years away from the Sun in the constellation of Cancer.
Capurnicas, Copernic us' nationality, Copernicus, Copernicus, Nicolaus, Coprenician system, Kopernicus, Kopernik, Kopernikus, Mikolaj Kopernik, Mikołaj Kopernik, N. Copernicus, Niccolo Copernicus, Nicholas Copernicus, Nicholaus Copernicus, Nick Copper, Niclas Koppernigk, Nicolai Copernicus, Nicolas Copernicus, Nicolaus Copernicus/Archive 1, Nicolaus Copernicus/Archive 2, Nicolaus Copernicus/Archive 3, Nicolaus Copernicus/Nationality, Nicolaus Coppernicus, Nicolus copernicus, Nicolò Copernico, Nikolas Copernicus, Nikolas Kopernik, Nikolaus Copernicus, Nikolaus Kopernikus.