141 relations: Alasdair MacIntyre, Albertus Magnus, Anaxagoras, Ancient Greek, Ancient Olympic Games, Aphrodite, Arete, Aristocracy, Aristotelian ethics, Aristotle, Art, Athens, Averroism, Avital Ronell, Beauty, Bekker numbering, Bible, Categories (Aristotle), Celts, Charmides, Christian theology, Corpus Aristotelicum, Democracy, Economics (Aristotle), Episteme, Ethics, Ethnic group, Ethos, Eudaimonia, Eudemian Ethics, Eudoxus of Cnidus, Europe, Eye for an eye, Feeling, Francis Bacon, Genitive case, Golden mean (philosophy), Gorgias, Gorgias (dialogue), Gym, Habit, Hans-Georg Gadamer, Happiness, Hector, Hexis, Hoi polloi, Homer, Honour, Hubris, Human nature, ..., Icarus, Iliad, Intellect, Intellectual virtue, Irony, Justice, Kalos inscription, Kalos kagathos, Knowledge, Laches (dialogue), Latin, Law, Legislation, Leo Strauss, Logos, Lyceum (Classical), Magna Moralia, Magnanimity, Magnificence (history of ideas), Marsilius of Padua, Martha Nussbaum, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Medieval philosophy, Meno, Metaphysics, Metaphysics (Aristotle), Middle Ages, Modern philosophy, Modernity, Monarchy, Moral character, Nature (philosophy), Nature versus nurture, Neoptolemus, Nicomachus (son of Aristotle), Nous, Novum Organum, Olfaction, Oligarchy, On the Soul, On Virtues and Vices, Pain, Perseus Project, Philebus, Philia, Philoctetes, Phronesis, Physics (Aristotle), Plato, Pleasure, Pleonexia, Polis, Politics, Politics (Aristotle), Potentiality and actuality, Pre-Socratic philosophy, Priam, Protrepticus (Aristotle), Pythagoreanism, Reason, Reciprocity (social and political philosophy), Republic (Plato), Self-sustainability, Socrates, Somatosensory system, Sophist, Sophocles, Soul, Sound, Sparta, Speusippus, Summum bonum, Taste, Techne, Thales of Miletus, Theology, Theory, Theory of forms, Thomas Aquinas, Thomas Cromwell, Thomas Hobbes, Timocracy, Tyrant, University of Adelaide, Vice, Virtue, Virtue ethics, Visual perception, W. D. Ross, Western Europe, Wisdom. Expand index (91 more) » « Shrink index
Alasdair Chalmers MacIntyre (born 12 January 1929) is a Scottish philosopher, primarily known for his contribution to moral and political philosophy, but also known for his work in history of philosophy and theology.
Albertus Magnus, O.P. (c. 1200 – November 15, 1280), also known as Saint Albert the Great and Albert of Cologne, was a German Catholic Dominican friar and bishop.
Anaxagoras (Ἀναξαγόρας, Anaxagoras, "lord of the assembly"; BC) was a Pre-Socratic Greek philosopher.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
The ancient Olympic Games were originally a festival, or celebration of and for Zeus; later, events such as a footrace, a javelin contest, and wrestling matches were added.
Aphrodite is the ancient Greek goddess of love, beauty, pleasure, and procreation.
Arete (Greek: ἀρετή), in its basic sense, means "excellence of any kind".
Aristocracy (Greek ἀριστοκρατία aristokratía, from ἄριστος aristos "excellent", and κράτος kratos "power") is a form of government that places strength in the hands of a small, privileged ruling class.
Aristotle first used the term ethics to name a field of study developed by his predecessors Socrates and Plato.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
Art is a diverse range of human activities in creating visual, auditory or performing artifacts (artworks), expressing the author's imaginative, conceptual idea, or technical skill, intended to be appreciated for their beauty or emotional power.
Athens (Αθήνα, Athína; Ἀθῆναι, Athênai) is the capital and largest city of Greece.
Averroism refers to a school of medieval philosophy based on the application of the works of 12th-century Andalusian Islamic philosopher Averroes, a Muslim commentator on Aristotle, in 13th-century Latin Christian scholasticism.
Avital Ronell (born 15 April 1952) is an American philosopher who contributes to the fields of continental philosophy, literary studies, psychoanalysis, feminist philosophy, political philosophy, and ethics.
Beauty is a characteristic of an animal, idea, object, person or place that provides a perceptual experience of pleasure or satisfaction.
Bekker numbering or Bekker pagination is the standard form of citation to the works of Aristotle.
The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans.
The Categories (Greek Κατηγορίαι Katēgoriai; Latin Categoriae) is a text from Aristotle's Organon that enumerates all the possible kinds of things that can be the subject or the predicate of a proposition.
The Celts (see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) were an Indo-European people in Iron Age and Medieval Europe who spoke Celtic languages and had cultural similarities, although the relationship between ethnic, linguistic and cultural factors in the Celtic world remains uncertain and controversial.
Charmides (Χαρμίδης), son of Glaucon, was an Athenian statesman who flourished during the 5th century BC.
Christian theology is the theology of Christian belief and practice.
The Corpus Aristotelicum is the collection of Aristotle's works that have survived from antiquity through medieval manuscript transmission.
Democracy (δημοκρατία dēmokraa thetía, literally "rule by people"), in modern usage, has three senses all for a system of government where the citizens exercise power by voting.
The Economics (Οἰκονομικά; Oeconomica) is a work ascribed to Aristotle.
"Episteme" is a philosophical term derived from the Ancient Greek word ἐπιστήμη epistēmē, which can refer to knowledge, science or understanding, and which comes from the verb ἐπίστασθαι, meaning "to know, to understand, or to be acquainted with".
Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct.
An ethnic group, or an ethnicity, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry, language, history, society, culture or nation.
Ethos is a Greek word meaning "character" that is used to describe the guiding beliefs or ideals that characterize a community, nation, or ideology.
Eudaimonia (Greek: εὐδαιμονία), sometimes anglicized as eudaemonia or eudemonia, is a Greek word commonly translated as happiness or welfare; however, "human flourishing or prosperity" has been proposed as a more accurate translation.
The Eudemian Ethics (Ἠθικὰ Εὐδήμεια; Ethica Eudemia), sometimes abbreviated EE in scholarly works, is a work of philosophy by Aristotle.
Eudoxus of Cnidus (Εὔδοξος ὁ Κνίδιος, Eúdoxos ho Knídios) was an ancient Greek astronomer, mathematician, scholar, and student of Archytas and Plato.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
"Only one eye for one eye", also known as "An eye for an eye" or "A tooth for a tooth"), or the law of retaliation, is the principle that a person who has injured another person is to be penalized to a similar degree, and the person inflicting such punishment should be the injured party. In softer interpretations, it means the victim receives the value of the injury in compensation. The intent behind the principle was to restrict compensation to the value of the loss. The principle is sometimes referred using the Latin term lex talionis or the law of talion. The English word talion (from the Latin talio) means a retaliation authorized by law, in which the punishment corresponds in kind and degree to the injury.
Feeling is the nominalization of the verb to feel.
Francis Bacon, 1st Viscount St Alban, (22 January 15619 April 1626) was an English philosopher, statesman, scientist, jurist, orator, and author.
In grammar, the genitive (abbreviated); also called the second case, is the grammatical case that marks a word, usually a noun, as modifying another word, also usually a noun.
In ancient Greek philosophy, especially that of Aristotle, the golden mean or golden middle way is the desirable middle between two extremes, one of excess and the other of deficiency.
Gorgias (Γοργίας; c. 485 – c. 380 BC) was a Greek sophist, Siceliote, pre-Socratic philosopher and rhetorician who was a native of Leontini in Sicily.
Gorgias (Γοργίας) is a Socratic dialogue written by Plato around 380 BC.
A gymnasium, also known as a gym, is a covered location for gymnastics, athletics, and gymnastic services.
A habit (or wont) is a routine of behavior that is repeated regularly and tends to occur subconsciously.
Hans-Georg Gadamer (February 11, 1900 – March 13, 2002) was a German philosopher of the continental tradition, best known for his 1960 magnum opus Truth and Method (Wahrheit und Methode) on hermeneutics.
In psychology, happiness is a mental or emotional state of well-being which can be defined by positive or pleasant emotions ranging from contentment to intense joy.
In Greek mythology and Roman mythology, Hector (Ἕκτωρ Hektōr) was a Trojan prince and the greatest fighter for Troy in the Trojan War.
Hexis (ἕξις) is a relatively stable arrangement or disposition, for example a person's health or knowledge or character.
Hoi polloi (πολλοί, hoi polloi, "the many") is an expression from Greek that means the many or, in the strictest sense, the people.
Homer (Ὅμηρος, Hómēros) is the name ascribed by the ancient Greeks to the legendary author of the Iliad and the Odyssey, two epic poems that are the central works of ancient Greek literature.
Honour (or honor in American English, note) is the idea of a bond between an individual and a society, as a quality of a person that is both of social teaching and of personal ethos, that manifests itself as a code of conduct, and has various elements such as valor, chivalry, honesty, and compassion.
Hubris (from ancient Greek ὕβρις) describes a personality quality of extreme or foolish pride or dangerous overconfidence, often in combination with (or synonymous with) arrogance.
Human nature is a bundle of fundamental characteristics—including ways of thinking, feeling, and acting—which humans tend to have naturally.
In Greek mythology, Icarus (the Latin spelling, conventionally adopted in English; Ἴκαρος, Íkaros, Etruscan: Vikare) is the son of the master craftsman Daedalus, the creator of the Labyrinth.
The Iliad (Ἰλιάς, in Classical Attic; sometimes referred to as the Song of Ilion or Song of Ilium) is an ancient Greek epic poem in dactylic hexameter, traditionally attributed to Homer.
Intellect is a term used in studies of the human mind, and refers to the ability of the mind to come to correct conclusions about what is true or real, and about how to solve problems.
Intellectual virtues are qualities of mind and character that promote intellectual flourishing, critical thinking, and the pursuit of truth.
Irony, in its broadest sense, is a rhetorical device, literary technique, or event in which what appears, on the surface, to be the case, differs radically from what is actually the case.
Justice is the legal or philosophical theory by which fairness is administered.
A kalos inscription is a form of epigraph found on Attic vases and graffiti in antiquity, mainly during the Classical period from 550 to 450 BC.
Kalos kagathos (καλὸς κἀγαθός), of which kalokagathia (καλοκαγαθία) is the derived noun, is a phrase used by classical Greek writers to describe an ideal of gentlemanly personal conduct, especially in a military context.
Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someone or something, such as facts, information, descriptions, or skills, which is acquired through experience or education by perceiving, discovering, or learning.
The Laches (Greek: Λάχης) is a Socratic dialogue written by Plato.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Law is a system of rules that are created and enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior.
Legislation (or "statutory law") is law which has been promulgated (or "enacted") by a legislature or other governing body or the process of making it.
Leo Strauss (September 20, 1899 – October 18, 1973) was a German-American political philosopher and classicist who specialized in classical political philosophy.
Logos (lógos; from λέγω) is a term in Western philosophy, psychology, rhetoric, and religion derived from a Greek word variously meaning "ground", "plea", "opinion", "expectation", "word", "speech", "account", "reason", "proportion", and "discourse",Henry George Liddell and Robert Scott,: logos, 1889.
The Lyceum (Ancient Greek: Λύκειον, Lykeion) or Lycaeum was a temple dedicated to Apollo Lyceus ("Apollo the wolf-god").
The Magna Moralia (Latin for "Great Ethics") is a treatise on ethics traditionally attributed to Aristotle, though the consensus now is that it represents an epitome of his ethical thought by a later, if sympathetic, writer.
Magnanimity (derived from the Latin roots magna, great, and animus, mind) is the virtue of being great of mind and heart.
The word magnificence comes from the Latin “magnum facere”, which means to do something great.
Marsilius of Padua (Italian: Marsilio or Marsiglio da Padova; born Marsilio dei Mainardini or Marsilio Mainardini; c. 1275 – c. 1342) was an Italian scholar, trained in medicine, who practiced a variety of professions.
Martha Craven Nussbaum (born May 6, 1947) is an American philosopher and the current Ernst Freund Distinguished Service Professor of Law and Ethics at the University of Chicago, where she is jointly appointed in the Law School and the Philosophy department.
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States.
Medieval philosophy is the philosophy in the era now known as medieval or the Middle Ages, the period roughly extending from the fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century A.D. to the Renaissance in the 16th century.
Meno (Μένων) is a Socratic dialogue written by Plato.
Metaphysics is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of being, existence, and reality.
Metaphysics (Greek: τὰ μετὰ τὰ φυσικά; Latin: Metaphysica) is one of the principal works of Aristotle and the first major work of the branch of philosophy with the same name.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
Modern philosophy is philosophy developed in the modern era and associated with modernity.
Modernity, a topic in the humanities and social sciences, is both a historical period (the modern era), as well as the ensemble of particular socio-cultural norms, attitudes and practices that arose in the wake of Renaissance, in the "Age of Reason" of 17th-century thought and the 18th-century "Enlightenment".
A monarchy is a form of government in which a group, generally a family representing a dynasty (aristocracy), embodies the country's national identity and its head, the monarch, exercises the role of sovereignty.
Moral character or character is an evaluation of an individual's stable moral qualities.
Nature has two inter-related meanings in philosophy.
The nature versus nurture debate involves whether human behaviour is determined by the environment, either prenatal or during a person's life, or by a person's genes.
Neoptolemus (Greek: Νεοπτόλεμος, Neoptolemos, "new warrior"), also called Pyrrhus (Πύρρος, Pyrrhos, "red", for his red hair), was the son of the warrior Achilles and the princess Deidamia in Greek mythology, and also the mythical progenitor of the ruling dynasty of the Molossians of ancient Epirus.
Nicomachus (Νικόμαχος; fl. c. 325 BC) was the son of Aristotle.
Nous, sometimes equated to intellect or intelligence, is a philosophical term for the faculty of the human mind which is described in classical philosophy as necessary for understanding what is true or real.
The Novum Organum, fully Novum Organum Scientiarum ('new instrument of science'), is a philosophical work by Francis Bacon, written in Latin and published in 1620.
Olfaction is a chemoreception that forms the sense of smell.
Oligarchy is a form of power structure in which power rests with a small number of people.
On the Soul (Greek Περὶ Ψυχῆς, Peri Psychēs; Latin De Anima) is a major treatise written by Aristotle c.350 B.C..
On Virtues and Vices (Περὶ Ἀρετῶν καὶ Κακιῶν; De Virtutibus et Vitiis Libellus) is the shortest of the four ethical treatises attributed to Aristotle.
Pain is a distressing feeling often caused by intense or damaging stimuli.
The Perseus Project (version 4 also known as "Perseus Hopper") is a digital library project of Tufts University, which is located in Medford and Somerville, near Boston, in the U.S. state of Massachusetts.
The Philebus (occasionally given as Philebos; Greek: Φίληβος), is one of the surviving Socratic dialogues written in the 4th century BC by the ancient Greek philosopher Plato.
Philia (φιλία), often translated "brotherly love", is one of the four ancient Greek words for love: philia, storge, agape and eros.
Philoctetes (Φιλοκτήτης, Philoktētēs; English pronunciation:, stressed on the third syllable, -tet-), or Philocthetes, according to Greek mythology, was the son of King Poeas of Meliboea in Thessaly.
Phronesis (phrónēsis) is an Ancient Greek word for a type of wisdom or intelligence.
The Physics (Greek: Φυσικὴ ἀκρόασις Phusike akroasis; Latin: Physica, or Naturalis Auscultationes, possibly meaning "lectures on nature") is a named text, written in ancient Greek, collated from a collection of surviving manuscripts known as the Corpus Aristotelicum because attributed to the 4th-century BC philosopher, teacher, and mentor of Macedonian rulers, Aristotle.
Plato (Πλάτων Plátōn, in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.
Pleasure is a broad class of mental states that humans and other animals experience as positive, enjoyable, or worth seeking.
Pleonexia, sometimes called pleonexy, originating from the Greek πλεονεξία, is a philosophical concept which roughly corresponds to greed, covetousness, or avarice, and is strictly defined as "the insatiable desire to have what rightfully belongs to others", suggesting what Ritenbaugh describes as "ruthless self-seeking and an arrogant assumption that others and things exist for one's own benefit".
Polis (πόλις), plural poleis (πόλεις), literally means city in Greek.
Politics (from Politiká, meaning "affairs of the cities") is the process of making decisions that apply to members of a group.
Politics (Πολιτικά, Politiká) is a work of political philosophy by Aristotle, a 4th-century BC Greek philosopher.
In philosophy, potentiality and actuality are principles of a dichotomy which Aristotle used to analyze motion, causality, ethics, and physiology in his Physics, Metaphysics, Nicomachean Ethics and De Anima, which is about the human psyche.
A number of early Greek philosophers active before and during the time of Socrates are collectively known as the Pre-Socratics.
In Greek mythology, Priam (Πρίαμος, Príamos) was the king of Troy during the Trojan War and youngest son of Laomedon.
Protrepticus (Προτρεπτικός) is a philosophical work by Aristotle that encouraged the young to study philosophy.
Pythagoreanism originated in the 6th century BC, based on the teachings and beliefs held by Pythagoras and his followers, the Pythagoreans, who were considerably influenced by mathematics and mysticism.
Reason is the capacity for consciously making sense of things, establishing and verifying facts, applying logic, and changing or justifying practices, institutions, and beliefs based on new or existing information.
The social norm of reciprocity is the expectation that people will respond to each other in similar ways—responding to gifts and kindnesses from others with similar benevolence of their own, and responding to harmful, hurtful acts from others with either indifference or some form of retaliation.
The Republic (Πολιτεία, Politeia; Latin: Res Publica) is a Socratic dialogue, written by Plato around 380 BC, concerning justice (δικαιοσύνη), the order and character of the just, city-state, and the just man.
Self-sustainability (also called self-sufficiency) is the state of not requiring any aid, support, or interaction for survival; it is a type of personal or collective autonomy.
Socrates (Sōkrátēs,; – 399 BC) was a classical Greek (Athenian) philosopher credited as one of the founders of Western philosophy, and as being the first moral philosopher, of the Western ethical tradition of thought.
The somatosensory system is a part of the sensory nervous system.
A sophist (σοφιστής, sophistes) was a specific kind of teacher in ancient Greece, in the fifth and fourth centuries BC.
Sophocles (Σοφοκλῆς, Sophoklēs,; 497/6 – winter 406/5 BC)Sommerstein (2002), p. 41.
In many religious, philosophical, and mythological traditions, there is a belief in the incorporeal essence of a living being called the soul. Soul or psyche (Greek: "psychē", of "psychein", "to breathe") are the mental abilities of a living being: reason, character, feeling, consciousness, memory, perception, thinking, etc.
In physics, sound is a vibration that typically propagates as an audible wave of pressure, through a transmission medium such as a gas, liquid or solid.
Sparta (Doric Greek: Σπάρτα, Spártā; Attic Greek: Σπάρτη, Spártē) was a prominent city-state in ancient Greece.
Speusippus (Σπεύσιππος; c. 408 – 339/8 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher.
Summum bonum is a Latin expression meaning "the highest good", which was introduced by the Roman philosopher Cicero, to correspond to the Idea of the Good in ancient Greek philosophy.
Taste, gustatory perception, or gustation is one of the five traditional senses that belongs to the gustatory system.
"Techne" is a term, etymologically derived from the Greek word τέχνη, that is often translated as "craftsmanship", "craft", or "art".
Thales of Miletus (Θαλῆς (ὁ Μιλήσιος), Thalēs; 624 – c. 546 BC) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher, mathematician, and astronomer from Miletus in Asia Minor (present-day Milet in Turkey).
Theology is the critical study of the nature of the divine.
A theory is a contemplative and rational type of abstract or generalizing thinking, or the results of such thinking.
The theory of Forms or theory of Ideas is Plato's argument that non-physical (but substantial) forms (or ideas) represent the most accurate reality.
Saint Thomas Aquinas (1225 – 7 March 1274) was an Italian Dominican friar, Catholic priest, and Doctor of the Church.
Thomas Cromwell, 1st Earl of Essex (1485 – 28 July 1540) was an English lawyer and statesman who served as chief minister to King Henry VIII of England from 1532 to 1540.
Thomas Hobbes (5 April 1588 – 4 December 1679), in some older texts Thomas Hobbes of Malmesbury, was an English philosopher who is considered one of the founders of modern political philosophy.
A timocracy (from Greek τιμή timē, "price, worth" and -κρατία -kratia, "rule")in Aristotle's Politics is a state where only property owners may participate in government.
A tyrant (Greek τύραννος, tyrannos), in the modern English usage of the word, is an absolute ruler unrestrained by law or person, or one who has usurped legitimate sovereignty.
The University of Adelaide (informally Adelaide University) is a public university located in Adelaide, South Australia.
Vice is a practice, behaviour, or habit generally considered immoral, sinful, criminal, rude, taboo, depraved, or degrading in the associated society.
Virtue (virtus, ἀρετή "arete") is moral excellence.
Virtue ethics (or aretaic ethics, from Greek ἀρετή (arete)) are normative ethical theories which emphasize virtues of mind and character.
Visual perception is the ability to interpret the surrounding environment using light in the visible spectrum reflected by the objects in the environment.
Sir William David Ross KBE FBA (15 April 1877 – 5 May 1971), known as David Ross but usually cited as W. D. Ross, was a Scottish philosopher who is known for his work in ethics.
Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe.
Wisdom or sapience is the ability to think and act using knowledge, experience, understanding, common sense, and insight, especially in a mature or utilitarian manner.