241 relations: ABT-418, Acetylcholine, Acid, Addiction, Adolf Pinner, Adrenal medulla, Adrenaline, Adrenergic receptor, Adverse effect, Agonist, Alertness, Alkaloid, Alpha-3 beta-4 nicotinic receptor, Alzheimer's disease, American Heart Association, Anabasine, Angewandte Chemie, Angiogenesis, Anhedonia, Apoptosis, Appetite, Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase, Asclepias syriaca, Atherosclerosis, Autopsy, Base (chemistry), Beta-Endorphin, Biological half-life, Blinded experiment, Blood, Blood pressure, Blood sugar level, Blood–brain barrier, Breathing, British Airways Flight 5390, Caffeine, Calcium, California Environmental Protection Agency, Calmness, Cannabis (drug), Capsicum, Carcinogen, Cardiovascular disease, Cell culture, Chewing tobacco, Chirality, Chris Bullen, CHRNA10, CHRNA9, Chromaffin cell, ..., Cigar, Cigarette, Circulatory system, Clinical significance, Cocaine, Cochrane (organisation), Cochrane Library, Coronary artery disease, Cotinine, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, Cytisine, Cytochrome P450, Deamination, Decarboxylation, Denise Kandel, Development of the nervous system, Dextrorotation and levorotation, Dopamine, Dose (biochemistry), Duboisia hopwoodii, Dyslipidemia, Eggplant, Electronic cigarette, Electronic cigarette aerosol and liquid, Empirical formula, Enantiomer, Epidemiology, Epidermal growth factor, Epithelial–mesenchymal transition, Eric Kandel, Euphoria, Europe, Exocytosis, Facial cleft, Flash point, Flavin-containing monooxygenase 3, Food and Drug Administration, FOSB, France, Germany, Ghrelin, Glucose, Glucuronidation, Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, Green Tobacco Sickness, Growth factor, Heart rate, Histone deacetylase, Hormone, Human brain, Hygroscopy, Imidacloprid, Immediately dangerous to life or health, In vitro, In vivo, Inhalation, Insecticide, Insufflation (medicine), International Agency for Research on Cancer, James H. Fallon, Jean Nicot, Ligand (biochemistry), List of IARC Group 1 carcinogens, Liver, Lobelia inflata, Longitudinal study, Louis Melsens, Lung, Major depressive disorder, Mammal, Menthol, Menthol cigarette, Mesolimbic pathway, Meta-analysis, Metabolism, Metastasis, Methylation, Miscibility, Mitogen, Model organism, Molecular biology, Mood (psychology), Mouse, Myocardial infarction, Myosmine, N-Nitrosonornicotine, Naltrexone, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Neonicotinoid, Neovascularization, Neurotransmission, Neurotransmitter, Niacin, Nicotiana, Nicotiana rustica, Nicotiana tabacum, Nicotinamidase, Nicotinamide, Nicotine dependence, Nicotine gum, Nicotine patch, Nicotine poisoning, Nicotine replacement therapy, Nicotine withdrawal, Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, Nitrogenous base, Norepinephrine, Nornicotine, Nucleus accumbens, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Opioid antagonist, Opioid peptide, Optical rotation, Oral administration, Orders of magnitude (mass), Organic farming, Ornithine, Over-the-counter drug, Paradoxical reaction, Parasympathomimetic drug, Paris, Parkinson's disease, Passive smoking, Paul Nesbitt, Percentage, Permissible exposure limit, Pesticide, Pharmacodynamics, Pharmacokinetics, Physical dependence, Pipe smoking, Placebo, Placenta, Plant defense against herbivory, Portugal, Potato, Potency (pharmacology), Programmed cell death, Properties of water, Psychological dependence, Psychopharmacology (journal), Public Health England, Putrescine, Pyridine, Quinolinic acid, Randomized controlled trial, Rat, Receptor antagonist, Recommended exposure limit, Relaxation (psychology), Reward system, Richard Wolffenstein (chemist), Royal College of Physicians, Salt, Sedative, Self-administration, Serious adverse event, Serotonin, Skeletal muscle, Smoking, Smoking cessation, Snuff (tobacco), Snus, Solanaceae, Specific rotation, Splanchnic nerves, Stimulant, Stimulation, Striatum, Substance dependence, Suppository, Surgeon General of the United States, Sympathetic nervous system, Tobacco, Tobacco products, Tobacco smoking, Tomato, Toxicity, Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, Transdermal, Tremor, Tumor promotion, Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Vapor pressure, Vascular smooth muscle, Vasopressin, Ventral tegmental area, Weight loss, World War II. Expand index (191 more) » « Shrink index
ABT-418 is a drug developed by Abbott, that has nootropic, neuroprotective and anxiolytic effects, and has been researched for treatment of both Alzheimer's disease and ADHD.
Acetylcholine (ACh) is an organic chemical that functions in the brain and body of many types of animals, including humans, as a neurotransmitter—a chemical message released by nerve cells to send signals to other cells.
An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron (proton or hydrogen ion H+), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid).
Addiction is a brain disorder characterized by compulsive engagement in rewarding stimuli despite adverse consequences.
Adolf Pinner (August 31, 1842 – May 21, 1909) was a German chemist.
The adrenal medulla (medulla glandulae suprarenalis) is part of the adrenal gland.
Adrenaline, also known as adrenalin or epinephrine, is a hormone, neurotransmitter, and medication.
The adrenergic receptors (or adrenoceptors) are a class of G protein-coupled receptors that are targets of the catecholamines, especially norepinephrine (noradrenaline) and epinephrine (adrenaline).
In medicine, an adverse effect is an undesired harmful effect resulting from a medication or other intervention such as surgery.
An agonist is a chemical that binds to a receptor and activates the receptor to produce a biological response.
Alertness is the state of active attention by high sensory awareness such as being watchful and prompt to meet danger or emergency, or being quick to perceive and act.
Alkaloids are a class of naturally occurring chemical compounds that mostly contain basic nitrogen atoms.
The alpha-3 beta-4 nicotinic receptor, also known as the α3β4 receptor and the ganglion-type nicotinic receptor,Pharmacology, (Rang, Dale, Ritter & Moore,, 5th ed., Churchill Livingstone 2003) p. 138.
Alzheimer's disease (AD), also referred to simply as Alzheimer's, is a chronic neurodegenerative disease that usually starts slowly and worsens over time.
The American Heart Association (AHA) is a non-profit organization in the United States that fosters appropriate cardiac care in an effort to reduce disability and deaths caused by cardiovascular disease and stroke.
Anabasine is a pyridine and piperidine alkaloid found in the Tree Tobacco (Nicotiana glauca) plant, a close relative of the common tobacco plant (Nicotiana tabacum).
Angewandte Chemie (meaning "Applied Chemistry") is a weekly peer-reviewed scientific journal that is published by Wiley-VCH on behalf of the German Chemical Society (Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker).
Angiogenesis is the physiological process through which new blood vessels form from pre-existing vessels.
Anhedonia refers to a diverse array of deficits in hedonic function, including reduced motivation or ability to experience pleasure.
Apoptosis (from Ancient Greek ἀπόπτωσις "falling off") is a process of programmed cell death that occurs in multicellular organisms.
Appetite is the desire to eat food, sometimes due to hunger.
Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase, also known as ALOX5, 5-lipoxygenase, 5-LOX, or 5-LO, is a non-heme iron-containing enzyme (EC 22.214.171.124) that in humans is encoded by the ALOX5 gene.
Asclepias syriaca, commonly called common milkweed, butterfly flower, silkweed, silky swallow-wort, and Virginia silkweed, is a species of flowering plant.
Atherosclerosis is a disease in which the inside of an artery narrows due to the build up of plaque.
An autopsy (post-mortem examination, obduction, necropsy, or autopsia cadaverum) is a highly specialized surgical procedure that consists of a thorough examination of a corpse by dissection to determine the cause and manner of death or to evaluate any disease or injury that may be present for research or educational purposes.
In chemistry, bases are substances that, in aqueous solution, release hydroxide (OH−) ions, are slippery to the touch, can taste bitter if an alkali, change the color of indicators (e.g., turn red litmus paper blue), react with acids to form salts, promote certain chemical reactions (base catalysis), accept protons from any proton donor, and/or contain completely or partially displaceable OH− ions.
β-Endorphin is an endogenous opioid neuropeptide and peptide hormone that is produced in certain neurons within the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system.
The biological half-life of a biological substance is the time it takes for half to be removed by biological processes when the rate of removal is roughly exponential.
A blind or blinded-experiment is an experiment in which information about the test is masked (kept) from the participant, to reduce or eliminate bias, until after a trial outcome is known.
Blood is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.
Blood pressure (BP) is the pressure of circulating blood on the walls of blood vessels.
The blood sugar level, blood sugar concentration, or blood glucose level is the amount of glucose present in the blood of humans and other animals.
The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a highly selective semipermeable membrane barrier that separates the circulating blood from the brain and extracellular fluid in the central nervous system (CNS).
Breathing (or respiration, or ventilation) is the process of moving air into and out of the lungs to facilitate gas exchange with the internal environment, mostly by bringing in oxygen and flushing out carbon dioxide.
Shortly after British Airways Flight 5390 left Birmingham Airport in England for Málaga Airport in Spain on 10 June 1990, an improperly installed windscreen panel separated from its frame, causing the plane's captain to be blown partially out of the aircraft.
Caffeine is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the methylxanthine class.
Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.
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Calmness is the mental state of peace of mind being free from agitation, excitement, or disturbance.
Cannabis, also known as marijuana among other names, is a psychoactive drug from the ''Cannabis'' plant intended for medical or recreational use.
Capsicum (also known as peppers) is a genus of flowering plants in the nightshade family Solanaceae.
A carcinogen is any substance, radionuclide, or radiation that promotes carcinogenesis, the formation of cancer.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels.
Cell culture is the process by which cells are grown under controlled conditions, generally outside their natural environment.
Chewing tobacco is a type of smokeless tobacco product consumed by placing a portion of the tobacco between the cheek and gum or upper lip teeth and chewing.
Chirality is a property of asymmetry important in several branches of science.
Christopher Keith Bullen (born 5 November 1962) is a former English cricketer.
Neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-10, also known as nAChRα10 and cholinergic receptor nicotinic alpha 10, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CHRNA10 gene.
Neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-9, also known as nAChRα9, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CHRNA9 gene.
Chromaffin cells, also pheochromocytes, are neuroendocrine cells found mostly in the medulla of the adrenal glands in mammals.
A cigar is a rolled bundle of dried and fermented tobacco leaves made to be smoked.
A cigarette is a narrow cylinder containing tobacco that is rolled into thin paper for smoking.
The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.
In medicine and psychology, clinical significance is the practical importance of a treatment effect—whether it has a real genuine, palpable, noticeable effect on daily life.
Cocaine, also known as coke, is a strong stimulant mostly used as a recreational drug.
Cochrane is a non-profit, non-governmental organization formed to organize medical research findings so as to facilitate evidence-based choices about health interventions faced by health professionals, patients, and policy makers.
The Cochrane Library (named after Archie Cochrane) is a collection of databases in medicine and other healthcare specialties provided by Cochrane and other organizations.
Coronary artery disease (CAD), also known as ischemic heart disease (IHD), refers to a group of diseases which includes stable angina, unstable angina, myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac death.
Cotinine is an alkaloid found in tobacco and is also the predominant metabolite of nicotine.
Cytochrome P450 2A6 (abbreviated CYP2A6) is a member of the cytochrome P450 mixed-function oxidase system, which is involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics in the body.
Cytochrome P450 2B6 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CYP2B6 gene.
Cytisine, also known as baptitoxine and sophorine, is an alkaloid that occurs naturally in several plant genera, such as Laburnum and Cytisus of the family Fabaceae.
Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) are proteins of the superfamily containing heme as a cofactor and, therefore, are hemoproteins.
Deamination is the removal of an amine group from a protein molecule.
Decarboxylation is a chemical reaction that removes a carboxyl group and releases carbon dioxide (CO2).
Denise Kandel (née Bystryn; born February 27, 1933) is an American medical sociologist and epidemiologist.
Development of the nervous system refers to the processes that generate, shape, and reshape the nervous system of animals, from the earliest stages of embryogenesis to adulthood.
Dextrorotation and levorotation (also spelled as laevorotation)The first word component dextro- comes from Latin word for dexter "right (as opposed to left)".
Dopamine (DA, a contraction of 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays several important roles in the brain and body.
A dose is a measured quantity of a medicine, nutrient, or pathogen which is delivered as a unit.
Duboisia hopwoodii is a shrub native to the arid interior region of Australia.
Dyslipidemia is an abnormal amount of lipids (e.g. triglycerides, cholesterol and/or fat phospholipids) in the blood.
Eggplant (Solanum melongena) or aubergine is a species of nightshade grown for its edible fruit.
An electronic cigarette or e-cigarette is a handheld electronic device that simulates the feeling of tobacco smoking.
Electronic cigarette aerosol and liquid (sometimes referred to as E-liquid) is the mixture used in vapor products such as electronic cigarettes.
In chemistry, the empirical formula of a chemical compound is the simplest positive integer ratio of atoms present in a compound.
In chemistry, an enantiomer, also known as an optical isomer (and archaically termed antipode or optical antipode), is one of two stereoisomers that are mirror images of each other that are non-superposable (not identical), much as one's left and right hands are the same except for being reversed along one axis (the hands cannot be made to appear identical simply by reorientation).
Epidemiology is the study and analysis of the distribution (who, when, and where) and determinants of health and disease conditions in defined populations.
Epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulates cell growth and differentiation by binding to its receptor, EGFR.
The epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process by which epithelial cells lose their cell polarity and cell-cell adhesion, and gain migratory and invasive properties to become mesenchymal stem cells; these are multipotent stromal cells that can differentiate into a variety of cell types.
Eric Richard Kandel (born November 7, 1929) is an Austrian-American neuroscientist and a University Professor of biochemistry and biophysics at the College of Physicians and Surgeons at Columbia University.
Euphoria is an affective state in which a person experiences pleasure or excitement and intense feelings of well-being and happiness.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
Exocytosis is a form of active transport in which a cell transports molecules (e.g., neurotransmitters and proteins) out of the cell (exo- + cytosis) by expelling them through an energy-dependent process.
A facial cleft is an opening or gap in the face, or a malformation of a part of the face.
The flash point of a volatile material is the lowest temperature at which vapours of the material will ignite, when given an ignition source.
Flavin-containing monooxygenase 3 (FMO3), also known as dimethylaniline monooxygenase 3 and trimethylamine monooxygenase, is a flavoprotein enzyme that in humans is encoded by the FMO3 gene.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.
FBJ murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homolog B, also known as Finkel-Biskis-Jinkins murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homolog B, FOSB or FosB, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the FOSB gene.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Ghrelin (pronounced), the "hunger hormone", also known as lenomorelin (INN), is a peptide hormone produced by ghrelinergic cells in the gastrointestinal tract which functions as a neuropeptide in the central nervous system.
Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6.
Glucuronidation is often involved in drug metabolism of substances such as drugs, pollutants, bilirubin, androgens, estrogens, mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, fatty acid derivatives, retinoids, and bile acids.
Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, also known as triose phosphate or 3-phosphoglyceraldehyde and abbreviated as G3P, GA3P, GADP, GAP, TP, GALP or PGAL, is the metabolite that occurs as an intermediate in several central pathways of all organisms.
Green Tobacco Sickness (GTS) is a type of nicotine poisoning caused by the transdermal absorption of nicotine from the surface of wet tobacco plants.
A growth factor is a naturally occurring substance capable of stimulating cellular growth, proliferation, healing, and cellular differentiation.
Heart rate is the speed of the heartbeat measured by the number of contractions of the heart per minute (bpm).
Histone deacetylases (HDAC) are a class of enzymes that remove acetyl groups (O.
A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.
The human brain is the central organ of the human nervous system, and with the spinal cord makes up the central nervous system.
Hygroscopy is the phenomenon of attracting and holding water molecules from the surrounding environment, which is usually at normal or room temperature.
Imidacloprid is a systemic insecticide that acts as an insect neurotoxin and belongs to a class of chemicals called the neonicotinoids which act on the central nervous system of insects.
The term immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH) is defined by the US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) as exposure to airborne contaminants that is "likely to cause death or immediate or delayed permanent adverse health effects or prevent escape from such an environment." Examples include smoke or other poisonous gases at sufficiently high concentrations.
In vitro (meaning: in the glass) studies are performed with microorganisms, cells, or biological molecules outside their normal biological context.
Studies that are in vivo (Latin for "within the living"; often not italicized in English) are those in which the effects of various biological entities are tested on whole, living organisms or cells, usually animals, including humans, and plants, as opposed to a tissue extract or dead organism.
Inhalation (also known as inspiration) happens when oxygen from the air enters the lungs.
Insecticides are substances used to kill insects.
Insufflation (lit) is the act of blowing something (such as a gas, powder, or vapor) into a body cavity.
The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC; Centre International de Recherche sur le Cancer, CIRC) is an intergovernmental agency forming part of the World Health Organization of the United Nations.
James H. "Jim" Fallon (born October 18, 1947) is an American neuroscientist.
Jean Nicot (1530–1600) was a French diplomat and scholar.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a ligand is a substance that forms a complex with a biomolecule to serve a biological purpose.
Substances, mixtures and exposure circumstances in this list have been classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as Group 1: The agent (mixture) is carcinogenic to humans.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
Lobelia inflata (Indian tobacco, puke weed) is a species of Lobelia native to eastern North America, from southeastern Canada (Nova Scotia to southeast Ontario) south through the eastern United States to Alabama and west to Kansas.
A longitudinal study (or longitudinal survey, or panel study) is a research design that involves repeated observations of the same variables (e.g., people) over short or long periods of time (i.e., uses longitudinal data).
Louis-Henri-Frédéric Melsens (1814 in Leuven – 1886 in Brussels) was a Belgian physicist and chemist.
The lungs are the primary organs of the respiratory system in humans and many other animals including a few fish and some snails.
Major depressive disorder (MDD), also known simply as depression, is a mental disorder characterized by at least two weeks of low mood that is present across most situations.
Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.
Menthol is an organic compound made synthetically or obtained from corn mint, peppermint, or other mint oils.
A menthol cigarette is a cigarette flavored with the compound menthol.
The mesolimbic pathway, sometimes referred to as the reward pathway, is a dopaminergic pathway in the brain.
A meta-analysis is a statistical analysis that combines the results of multiple scientific studies.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
Metastasis is a pathogenic agent's spread from an initial or primary site to a different or secondary site within the host's body; it is typically spoken of as such spread by a cancerous tumor.
In the chemical sciences, methylation denotes the addition of a methyl group on a substrate, or the substitution of an atom (or group) by a methyl group.
Miscibility is the property of substances to mix in all proportions (that is, to fully dissolve in each other at any concentration), forming a homogeneous solution.
A mitogen is a chemical substance that encourages a cell to commence cell division, triggering mitosis.
A model organism is a non-human species that is extensively studied to understand particular biological phenomena, with the expectation that discoveries made in the organism model will provide insight into the workings of other organisms.
Molecular biology is a branch of biology which concerns the molecular basis of biological activity between biomolecules in the various systems of a cell, including the interactions between DNA, RNA, proteins and their biosynthesis, as well as the regulation of these interactions.
In psychology, a mood is an emotional state.
A mouse (Mus), plural mice, is a small rodent characteristically having a pointed snout, small rounded ears, a body-length scaly tail and a high breeding rate.
Myocardial infarction (MI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow decreases or stops to a part of the heart, causing damage to the heart muscle.
Myosmine is an alkaloid found in tobacco and other plants.
N-Nitrosonornicotine (NNN) is a tobacco-specific nitrosamine produced during the curing and processing of tobacco.
Naltrexone, sold under the brand names ReVia and Vivitrol among others, is a medication primarily used to manage alcohol or opioid dependence.
The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is the United States federal agency responsible for conducting research and making recommendations for the prevention of work-related injury and illness.
Neonicotinoids (sometimes shortened to neonics) are a class of neuro-active insecticides chemically similar to nicotine.
Neovascularization is the natural formation of new blood vessels (neo- + vascular + -ization), usually in the form of functional microvascular networks, capable of perfusion by red blood cells, that form to serve as collateral circulation in response to local poor perfusion or ischemia.
Neurotransmission (Latin: transmissio "passage, crossing" from transmittere "send, let through"), also called synaptic transmission, is the process by which signaling molecules called neurotransmitters are released by the axon terminal of a neuron (the presynaptic neuron), and bind to and activate the receptors on the dendrites of another neuron (the postsynaptic neuron).
Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.
Niacin, also known as nicotinic acid, is an organic compound and a form of vitamin B3, an essential human nutrient.
Nicotiana is a genus of herbaceous plants and shrubs of the family Solanaceae, that is indigenous to the Americas, Australia, south west Africa and the South Pacific.
Nicotiana rustica, Aztec tobacco or wild tobacco, called ucuch in southern Mexico (specifically Campeche and Yucatán) due to its Mayan roots, mapacho in South America, and thuoc lao (thuốc lào) in Vietnam, is a rainforest plant in the Solanaceae family.
Nicotiana tabacum, or cultivated tobacco, is an annually-grown herbaceous plant.
In enzymology, a nicotinamidase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are nicotinamide and H2O, whereas its two products are nicotinate and NH3.
Nicotinamide (NAA), also known as niacinamide, is a form of vitamin B3 found in food and used as a dietary supplement and medication.
Nicotine dependence, or tobacco use disorder, is a state of dependence upon nicotine.
Nicotine gum is a type of chewing gum that delivers nicotine to the body.
A nicotine patch is a transdermal patch that releases nicotine into the body through the skin.
Nicotine poisoning describes the symptoms of the toxic effects of nicotine following ingestion, inhalation, or skin contact.
Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) is a medically-approved way to take nicotine by means other than tobacco.
Nicotine withdrawal is a group of symptoms that occur in the first few weeks upon the abrupt discontinuation or decrease in intake of nicotine.
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, or nAChRs, are receptor proteins that respond to the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.
A nitrogenous base, or nitrogen-containing base, is an organic molecule with a nitrogen atom that has the chemical properties of a base.
Norepinephrine (NE), also called noradrenaline (NA) or noradrenalin, is an organic chemical in the catecholamine family that functions in the brain and body as a hormone and neurotransmitter.
Nornicotine is an alkaloid found in various plants including Nicotiana, the tobacco plant.
The nucleus accumbens (NAc or NAcc), also known as the accumbens nucleus, or formerly as the nucleus accumbens septi (Latin for nucleus adjacent to the septum) is a region in the basal forebrain rostral to the preoptic area of the hypothalamus.
The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is an agency of the United States Department of Labor.
An opioid antagonist, or opioid receptor antagonist, is a receptor antagonist that acts on one or more of the opioid receptors.
Opioid peptides are peptides that bind to opioid receptors in the brain; opiates and opioids mimic the effect of these peptides.
Optical rotation or optical activity (sometimes referred to as rotary polarization) is the rotation of the plane of polarization of linearly polarized light as it travels through certain materials.
To help compare different orders of magnitude, the following lists describe various mass levels between 10−40 kg and 1053 kg.
Organic farming is an alternative agricultural system which originated early in the 20th century in reaction to rapidly changing farming practices.
Ornithine is a non-proteinogenic amino acid that plays a role in the urea cycle.
Over-the-counter (OTC) drugs are medicines sold directly to a consumer without a prescription from a healthcare professional, as opposed to prescription drugs, which may be sold only to consumers possessing a valid prescription.
A paradoxical reaction or paradoxical effect is an effect of medical treatment, usually a drug, opposite to the effect which would normally be expected.
A parasympathomimetic drug, sometimes called a cholinomimetic drug, is a substance that stimulates the parasympathetic nervous system (PSNS).
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a long-term degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects the motor system.
Passive smoking is the inhalation of smoke, called second-hand smoke (SHS), or environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), by persons other than the intended "active" smoker.
Paul Nesbitt (1872-1950) was an American politician, who served as Speaker of the Oklahoma House of Representatives.
In mathematics, a percentage is a number or ratio expressed as a fraction of 100.
The permissible exposure limit (PEL or OSHA PEL) is a legal limit in the United States for exposure of an employee to a chemical substance or physical agent such as loud noise.
Pesticides are substances that are meant to control pests, including weeds.
Pharmacodynamics is the study of the biochemical and physiologic effects of drugs (especially pharmaceutical drugs).
Pharmacokinetics (from Ancient Greek pharmakon "drug" and kinetikos "moving, putting in motion"; see chemical kinetics), sometimes abbreviated as PK, is a branch of pharmacology dedicated to determining the fate of substances administered to a living organism.
Physical dependence is a physical condition caused by chronic use of a tolerance forming drug, in which abrupt or gradual drug withdrawal causes unpleasant physical symptoms.
Pipe smoking is the practice of tasting (or, less commonly, inhaling) the smoke produced by burning a substance, most commonly tobacco, in a pipe.
A placebo is a substance or treatment of no intended therapeutic value.
The placenta is an organ that connects the developing fetus to the uterine wall to allow nutrient uptake, thermo-regulation, waste elimination, and gas exchange via the mother's blood supply; to fight against internal infection; and to produce hormones which support pregnancy.
Plant defense against herbivory or host-plant resistance (HPR) describes a range of adaptations evolved by plants which improve their survival and reproduction by reducing the impact of herbivores.
Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.
The potato is a starchy, tuberous crop from the perennial nightshade Solanum tuberosum.
In the field of pharmacology, potency is a measure of drug activity expressed in terms of the amount required to produce an effect of given intensity.
Programmed cell death (or PCD) is the death of a cell in any form, mediated by an intracellular program.
Water is a polar inorganic compound that is at room temperature a tasteless and odorless liquid, which is nearly colorless apart from an inherent hint of blue. It is by far the most studied chemical compound and is described as the "universal solvent" and the "solvent of life". It is the most abundant substance on Earth and the only common substance to exist as a solid, liquid, and gas on Earth's surface. It is also the third most abundant molecule in the universe. Water molecules form hydrogen bonds with each other and are strongly polar. This polarity allows it to separate ions in salts and strongly bond to other polar substances such as alcohols and acids, thus dissolving them. Its hydrogen bonding causes its many unique properties, such as having a solid form less dense than its liquid form, a relatively high boiling point of 100 °C for its molar mass, and a high heat capacity. Water is amphoteric, meaning that it is both an acid and a base—it produces + and - ions by self-ionization.
Psychological dependence is a form of dependence that involves emotional–motivational withdrawal symptoms (e.g., a state of unease or dissatisfaction, a reduced capacity to experience pleasure, or anxiety) upon cessation of drug use or exposure to a stimulus.
Psychopharmacology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering psychopharmacology that is published by Springer Science+Business Media.
Public Health England (PHE) is an executive agency of the Department of Health and Social Care in the United Kingdom that began operating on 1 April 2013.
Putrescine, or tetramethylenediamine, is a foul-smelling organic chemical compound NH2(CH2)4NH2 (1,4-diaminobutane or butanediamine) that is related to cadaverine; both are produced by the breakdown of amino acids in living and dead organisms and both are toxic in large doses.
Pyridine is a basic heterocyclic organic compound with the chemical formula C5H5N.
Quinolinic acid (abbreviated QUIN or QA), also known as pyridine-2,3-dicarboxylic acid, is a dicarboxylic acid with a pyridine backbone.
A randomized controlled trial (or randomized control trial; RCT) is a type of scientific (often medical) experiment which aims to reduce bias when testing a new treatment.
Rats are various medium-sized, long-tailed rodents in the superfamily Muroidea.
A receptor antagonist is a type of receptor ligand or drug that blocks or dampens a biological response by binding to and blocking a receptor rather than activating it like an agonist.
A recommended exposure limit (REL) is an occupational exposure limit that has been recommended by the United States National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) for adoption as a permissible exposure limit.
Relaxation in psychology, is the emotional state of a living being, of low tension, in which there is an absence of arousal that could come from sources such as anger, anxiety, or fear.
The reward system is a group of neural structures responsible for incentive salience (i.e., motivation and "wanting", desire, or craving for a reward), associative learning (primarily positive reinforcement and classical conditioning), and positive emotions, particularly ones which involve pleasure as a core component (e.g., joy, euphoria and ecstasy).
Richard Wolffenstein (21 August 1864 – 5 June 1926) was a German chemist.
The Royal College of Physicians is a British professional body dedicated to improving the practice of medicine, chiefly through the accreditation of physicians by examination.
Salt, table salt or common salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of salts; salt in its natural form as a crystalline mineral is known as rock salt or halite.
A sedative or tranquilliser is a substance that induces sedation by reducing irritability or excitement.
Self-administration is, in its medical sense, the process of a subject administering a pharmacological substance to him-, her-, or itself.
A serious adverse event (SAE) in human drug trials is defined as any untoward medical occurrence that at any dose.
Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter.
Skeletal muscle is one of three major muscle types, the others being cardiac muscle and smooth muscle.
Smoking is a practice in which a substance is burned and the resulting smoke breathed in to be tasted and absorbed into the bloodstream.
Smoking cessation (also known as quitting smoking or simply quitting) is the process of discontinuing tobacco smoking.
Snuff is a smokeless tobacco made from ground or pulverised tobacco leaves.
Snus is a moist powder tobacco product originating from a variant of dry snuff in early 18th-century Sweden.
The Solanaceae, or nightshades, are an economically important family of flowering plants.
In chemistry, specific rotation is a property of a chiral chemical compound.
The splanchnic nerves are paired visceral nerves (nerves that contribute to the innervation of the internal organs), carrying fibers of the autonomic nervous system (visceral efferent fibers) as well as sensory fibers from the organs (visceral afferent fibers).
Stimulants (also often referred to as psychostimulants or colloquially as uppers) is an overarching term that covers many drugs including those that increase activity of the central nervous system and the body, drugs that are pleasurable and invigorating, or drugs that have sympathomimetic effects.
Stimulation is the encouragement of development or the cause of activity generally.
The striatum, or corpus striatum (also called the neostriatum and the striate nucleus) is a nucleus (a cluster of neurons) in the subcortical basal ganglia of the forebrain.
Substance dependence also known as drug dependence is an adaptive state that develops from repeated drug administration, and which results in withdrawal upon cessation of drug use.
A suppository is a solid dosage form that is inserted into the rectum (rectal suppository), vagina (vaginal suppository), or urethra (urethral suppository), where it dissolves or melts and exerts local or systemic effects.
The Surgeon General of the United States is the operational head of the U.S. Public Health Service Commissioned Corps (PHSCC) and thus the leading spokesperson on matters of public health in the federal government of the United States.
The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is one of the two main divisions of the autonomic nervous system, the other being the parasympathetic nervous system.
Tobacco is a product prepared from the leaves of the tobacco plant by curing them.
Tobacco is the agricultural product of the leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana.
Tobacco smoking is the practice of smoking tobacco and inhaling tobacco smoke (consisting of particle and gaseous phases).
The tomato (see pronunciation) is the edible, often red, fruit/berry of the plant Solanum lycopersicum, commonly known as a tomato plant.
Toxicity is the degree to which a chemical substance or a particular mixture of substances can damage an organism.
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology is a scientific journal for original research pertaining to action of chemicals, drugs, or natural products to animals or humans.
Transdermal is a route of administration wherein active ingredients are delivered across the skin for systemic distribution.
A tremor is an involuntary, somewhat rhythmic, muscle contraction and relaxation involving oscillations or twitching movements of one or more body parts.
Tumor promotion is a process in carcinogenesis by which various factors permit the descendants of a single initiated cell to survive and expand in number, i.e. to resist apoptosis and to undergo clonal growth.
Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry is a reference work related to industrial chemistry published in English and German.
The Environmental Protection Agency is an independent agency of the United States federal government for environmental protection.
Vapor pressure or equilibrium vapor pressure is defined as the pressure exerted by a vapor in thermodynamic equilibrium with its condensed phases (solid or liquid) at a given temperature in a closed system.
Vascular smooth muscle refers to the particular type of smooth muscle found within, and composing the majority of the wall of blood vessels.
Vasopressin, also named antidiuretic hormone (ADH), arginine vasopressin (AVP) or argipressin, is a hormone synthesized as a peptide prohormone in neurons in the hypothalamus, and is converted to AVP.
The ventral tegmental area (VTA) (tegmentum is Latin for covering), also known as the ventral tegmental area of Tsai, or simply ventral tegmentum, is a group of neurons located close to the midline on the floor of the midbrain.
Weight loss, in the context of medicine, health, or physical fitness, refers to a reduction of the total body mass, due to a mean loss of fluid, body fat or adipose tissue or lean mass, namely bone mineral deposits, muscle, tendon, and other connective tissue.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
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