101 relations: Acetylcholine, Acetylcholine receptor, Agonist, Alpha-3 beta-4 nicotinic receptor, Alpha-4 beta-2 nicotinic receptor, Alpha-7 nicotinic receptor, Alpha-Bungarotoxin, Alpha-neurotoxin, Amantadine, Atracurium besilate, Autonomic ganglion, Baroreflex, Biochemical cascade, Brain, Bupropion, Calcium, Carbachol, Central nervous system, Chemical synapse, Choline, Cholinergic, CHRNA1, CHRNA10, CHRNA2, CHRNA3, CHRNA4, CHRNA5, CHRNA6, CHRNA7, CHRNA9, CHRNB1, CHRNB2, CHRNB3, CHRNB4, CHRND, CHRNE, CHRNG, Cys-loop receptor, Cytisine, Depolarization, Desensitization (medicine), Dextromethorphan, Diffusion, Dimethylphenylpiperazinium, Electrical resistance and conductance, Electrophysiology, Epibatidine, Excitatory postsynaptic potential, GABAA receptor, Gene, ..., Glycine receptor, Hexamethonium, Hydrophobe, Ibogaine, Insect, Ion, Ion channel, Kinetic energy, Ligand (biochemistry), Ligand-gated ion channel, Mecamylamine, Memantine, Metabotropic receptor, Methyllycaconitine, Millisecond, Muscarine, Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor, Muscarinic agonist, Muscarinic antagonist, Muscle-type nicotinic receptor, N-terminus, Neuromuscular junction, Neuron, Neurotransmission, Neurotransmitter, Nicotine, Nicotinic agonist, Nicotinic antagonist, Nifene, Normal mode, Pancuronium bromide, Paracrine signalling, Pathophysiology, Pharmacology, Potassium, Protein kinase A, Protein kinase C, Reward system, Second messenger system, Siemens (unit), Snake venom, Sodium, Suxamethonium chloride, Synaptic potential, Trimetaphan camsilate, Tubocurarine chloride, Unified atomic mass unit, Varenicline, Voltage-gated ion channel, 18-Methoxycoronaridine, 5-HT receptor. Expand index (51 more) » « Shrink index
Acetylcholine (ACh) is an organic chemical that functions in the brain and body of many types of animals, including humans, as a neurotransmitter—a chemical message released by nerve cells to send signals to other cells.
An acetylcholine receptor (abbreviated AChR) is an integral membrane protein that responds to the binding of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter.
An agonist is a chemical that binds to a receptor and activates the receptor to produce a biological response.
The alpha-3 beta-4 nicotinic receptor, also known as the α3β4 receptor and the ganglion-type nicotinic receptor,Pharmacology, (Rang, Dale, Ritter & Moore,, 5th ed., Churchill Livingstone 2003) p. 138.
The alpha-4 beta-2 nicotinic receptor, also known as the α4β2 receptor, is a type of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor implicated in learning, consisting of α4 and β2 subunits.
The alpha-7 nicotinic receptor, also known as the α7 receptor, is a type of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor implicated in long term memory, consisting entirely of α7 subunits.
α-Bungarotoxin (α-BTX) is one of the bungarotoxins, components of the venom of the elapid Taiwanese banded krait snake (Bungarus multicinctus).
α-Neurotoxins are a group of neurotoxic snake peptides that come from the venom of snakes in the families Elapidae and Hydrophidae that cause paralysis, respiratory failure, and death.
Amantadine (trade name Symmetrel, by Endo Pharmaceuticals) is a medication that has U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval for use both as an antiviral and an antiparkinsonian medication.
Atracurium besilate, also known as atracurium besylate, is a medication used in addition to other medications to provide skeletal muscle relaxation during surgery or mechanical ventilation.
An autonomic ganglion is a cluster of nerve cell bodies (a ganglion) in the autonomic nervous system.
The baroreflex or baroreceptor reflex is one of the body's homeostatic mechanisms that helps to maintain blood pressure at nearly constant levels.
A biochemical cascade, also known as a signaling cascade or signaling pathway, is a series of chemical reactions which are initiated by a stimulus (first messenger) acting on a receptor that is transduced to the cell interior through second messengers (which amplify the initial signal) and ultimately to effector molecules, resulting in a cell response to the initial stimulus.
The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.
Bupropion, sold under the brand names Wellbutrin and Zyban among others, is a medication primarily used as an antidepressant and smoking cessation aid.
Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.
Carbachol (Carbastat, Carboptic, Isopto Carbachol, Miostat), also known as carbamylcholine, is a cholinomimetic drug that binds and activates acetylcholine receptors.
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
Chemical synapses are biological junctions through which neurons' signals can be exchanged to each other and to non-neuronal cells such as those in muscles or glands.
Choline is a water-soluble vitamin-like essential nutrient.
In general, the word choline refers to the various quaternary ammonium salts containing the ''N'',''N'',''N''-trimethylethanolammonium cation.
Neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-1, also known as nAChRα1, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CHRNA1 gene.
Neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-10, also known as nAChRα10 and cholinergic receptor nicotinic alpha 10, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CHRNA10 gene.
Neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-2, also known as nAChRα2, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CHRNA2 gene.
Neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-3, also known as nAChRα3, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CHRNA3 gene.
Neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-4, also known as nAChRα4, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CHRNA4 gene.
Neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-5, also known as nAChRα5, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CHRNA5 gene.
Cholinergic receptor, nicotinic, alpha 6, also known as nAChRα6, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CHRNA6 gene.
Neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-7, also known as nAChRα7, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CHRNA7 gene.
Neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-9, also known as nAChRα9, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CHRNA9 gene.
Acetylcholine receptor subunit beta is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CHRNB1 gene.
Neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit beta-2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CHRNB2 gene.
Neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit beta-3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CHRNB3 gene.
Neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit beta-4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CHRNB4 gene.
Acetylcholine receptor subunit delta is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CHRND gene.
Acetylcholine receptor subunit epsilon is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CHRNE gene.
Acetylcholine receptor subunit gamma is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CHRNG gene.
The Cys-loop ligand-gated ion channel superfamily is composed of nicotinic acetylcholine, GABAA, GABAA-ρ, glycine, 5-HT3 receptors, and zinc-activated ion channel that are composed of five protein subunits that form a pentameric arrangement around a central pore.
Cytisine, also known as baptitoxine and sophorine, is an alkaloid that occurs naturally in several plant genera, such as Laburnum and Cytisus of the family Fabaceae.
In biology, depolarization is a change within a cell, during which the cell undergoes a shift in electric charge distribution, resulting in less negative charge inside the cell.
In medicine, desensitization is a method to reduce or eliminate an organism's negative reaction to a substance or stimulus.
Dextromethorphan (DXM or DM) is a drug of the morphinan class with sedative, dissociative, and stimulant properties (at higher doses).
Diffusion is the net movement of molecules or atoms from a region of high concentration (or high chemical potential) to a region of low concentration (or low chemical potential) as a result of random motion of the molecules or atoms.
Dimethylphenylpiperazinium (DMPP) is a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist which is selective for the ganglionic subtype.
The electrical resistance of an electrical conductor is a measure of the difficulty to pass an electric current through that conductor.
Electrophysiology (from Greek ἥλεκτρον, ēlektron, "amber"; φύσις, physis, "nature, origin"; and -λογία, -logia) is the study of the electrical properties of biological cells and tissues.
Epibatidine is a putative alkaloid that is secreted by the Ecuadoran frog Epipedobates anthonyi.
In neuroscience, an excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) is a postsynaptic potential that makes the postsynaptic neuron more likely to fire an action potential.
The GABAA receptor (GABAAR) is an ionotropic receptor and ligand-gated ion channel.
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
The glycine receptor (abbreviated as GlyR or GLR) is the receptor of the amino acid neurotransmitter glycine.
Hexamethonium is a non-depolarising ganglionic blocker, a nicotinic nACh (NN) receptor antagonist that acts in autonomic ganglia by binding mostly in or on the NN receptor, and not the acetylcholine binding site itself.
In chemistry, hydrophobicity is the physical property of a molecule (known as a hydrophobe) that is seemingly repelled from a mass of water.
Ibogaine is a naturally occurring psychoactive substance found in plants in the Apocynaceae family such as Tabernanthe iboga, Voacanga africana and Tabernaemontana undulata.
Insects or Insecta (from Latin insectum) are hexapod invertebrates and the largest group within the arthropod phylum.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
Ion channels are pore-forming membrane proteins that allow ions to pass through the channel pore.
In physics, the kinetic energy of an object is the energy that it possesses due to its motion.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a ligand is a substance that forms a complex with a biomolecule to serve a biological purpose.
Ligand-gated ion channels (LICs, LGIC), also commonly referred as ionotropic receptors, are a group of transmembrane ion-channel proteins which open to allow ions such as Na+, K+, Ca2+, and/or Cl− to pass through the membrane in response to the binding of a chemical messenger (i.e. a ligand), such as a neurotransmitter.
Mecamylamine (INN, BAN; or mecamylamine hydrochloride (USAN); brand names Inversine, Vecamyl) is a non-selective, non-competitive antagonist of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) that was introduced in the 1950s as an antihypertensive drug.
Memantine is used to treat moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease. It acts on the glutamatergic system by blocking NMDA receptors. It was first synthesized by Eli Lilly and Company in 1968 as a potential agent to treat diabetes; the NMDA activity was discovered in the 1980s.
A metabotropic receptor is a type of membrane receptor of eukaryotic cells that acts through a second messenger.
Methyllycaconitine (MLA) is a diterpenoid alkaloid found in many species of Delphinium (larkspurs).
A millisecond (from milli- and second; symbol: ms) is a thousandth (0.001 or 10−3 or 1/1000) of a second.
Muscarine, L-(+)-muscarine, or muscarin is a natural product found in certain mushrooms, particularly in Inocybe and Clitocybe species, such as the deadly C. dealbata.
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, or mAChRs, are acetylcholine receptors that form G protein-coupled receptor complexes in the cell membranes of certain neurons and other cells.
A muscarinic agonist is an agent that activates the activity of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor.
A muscarinic receptor antagonist (MRA) is a type of anticholinergic agent that blocks the activity of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor.
The muscle-type nicotinic receptor is a type of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, consisting of the subunit combination (α1)2β1δε or (α1)2β1δγ.
The N-terminus (also known as the amino-terminus, NH2-terminus, N-terminal end or amine-terminus) is the start of a protein or polypeptide referring to the free amine group (-NH2) located at the end of a polypeptide.
A neuromuscular junction (or myoneural junction) is a chemical synapse formed by the contact between a motor neuron and a muscle fiber.
A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.
Neurotransmission (Latin: transmissio "passage, crossing" from transmittere "send, let through"), also called synaptic transmission, is the process by which signaling molecules called neurotransmitters are released by the axon terminal of a neuron (the presynaptic neuron), and bind to and activate the receptors on the dendrites of another neuron (the postsynaptic neuron).
Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.
Nicotine is a potent parasympathomimetic stimulant and an alkaloid found in the nightshade family of plants.
A nicotinic agonist is a drug that mimics the action of acetylcholine (ACh) at nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs).
A nicotinic antagonist is a type of anticholinergic drug that inhibits the action of acetylcholine (ACh) at nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.
Nifene is a high affinity, selective nicotinic α4β2* receptor partial agonist used in medical research for nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, usually in the form of nifene (18F) as a positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracer.
A normal mode of an oscillating system is a pattern of motion in which all parts of the system move sinusoidally with the same frequency and with a fixed phase relation.
Pancuronium (trademarked as Pavulon) is an aminosteroid muscle relaxant with various medical uses.
Paracrine signaling is a form of cell-to-cell communication in which a cell produces a signal to induce changes in nearby cells, altering the behavior of those cells.
Pathophysiology or physiopathology is a convergence of pathology with physiology.
Pharmacology is the branch of biology concerned with the study of drug action, where a drug can be broadly defined as any man-made, natural, or endogenous (from within body) molecule which exerts a biochemical or physiological effect on the cell, tissue, organ, or organism (sometimes the word pharmacon is used as a term to encompass these endogenous and exogenous bioactive species).
Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.
In cell biology, protein kinase A (PKANot to be confused with pKa, the symbol for the acid dissociation constant.) is a family of enzymes whose activity is dependent on cellular levels of cyclic AMP (cAMP).
Protein kinase C, commonly abbreviated to PKC (EC 22.214.171.124), is a family of protein kinase enzymes that are involved in controlling the function of other proteins through the phosphorylation of hydroxyl groups of serine and threonine amino acid residues on these proteins, or a member of this family.
The reward system is a group of neural structures responsible for incentive salience (i.e., motivation and "wanting", desire, or craving for a reward), associative learning (primarily positive reinforcement and classical conditioning), and positive emotions, particularly ones which involve pleasure as a core component (e.g., joy, euphoria and ecstasy).
Second messengers are intracellular signaling molecules released by the cell in response to exposure to extracellular signaling molecules—the first messengers.
The siemens (symbol: S) is the derived unit of electric conductance, electric susceptance and electric admittance in the International System of Units (SI).
Snake venom is highly modified saliva containing zootoxins which facilitates the immobilization and digestion of prey, and defense against threats.
Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.
Suxamethonium chloride, also known as suxamethonium or succinylcholine, is a medication used to cause short-term paralysis as part of general anesthesia.
Synaptic potential refers to the difference in voltage between the inside and outside of a postsynaptic neuron.
Trimetaphan camsilate (INN) or trimethaphan camsylate (USAN), trade name Arfonad, is a drug that counteracts cholinergic transmission at the ganglion type of nicotinic receptors of the autonomic ganglia and therefore blocks both the sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic nervous system.
Tubocurarine (also known as d-tubocurarine or DTC) is a toxic alkaloid historically known for its use as an arrow poison.
The unified atomic mass unit or dalton (symbol: u, or Da) is a standard unit of mass that quantifies mass on an atomic or molecular scale (atomic mass).
Varenicline (trade name Chantix and Champix), is a prescription medication used to treat nicotine addiction.
Voltage-gated ion channels are a class of transmembrane proteins that form ion channels that are activated by changes in the electrical membrane potential near the channel.
(–)-18-Methoxycoronaridine (18-MC) is a derivative of ibogaine invented in 1996 by the research team around the pharmacologist Stanley D. Glick from the Albany Medical College and the chemist Martin E. Kuehne from the University of Vermont.
5-hydroxytryptamine receptors or 5-HT receptors, or serotonin receptors, are a group of G protein-coupled receptor and ligand-gated ion channels found in the central and peripheral nervous systems.
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