88 relations: Abbott Laboratories, ABT-418, Acetylcholine, Acetylcholinesterase, Agonist, Alkaloid, Alpha-3 beta-4 nicotinic receptor, Alpha-7 nicotinic receptor, Alpha-Bungarotoxin, Alzheimer's disease, Amine, Aryl, AstraZeneca, Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Bethanechol, Binding site, Biochemical Pharmacology (journal), Biomolecular structure, Blood–brain barrier, Bradanicline, Carbachol, Central nervous system, Choline, Cholinergic, Cholinesterase, Citalopram, Clinical trial, Cognitive disorder, Coniine, Cytisine, Decamethonium, Depolarization, Dopamine, Electric ray, Electronic density, Enantiomer, Endogeny (biology), Epibatidine, Galantamine, Glaucoma, Heteromer, Hoffmann-La Roche, Homomeric, Hydrogen bond, In vivo, Ion, Ligand, Ligand-gated ion channel, Lobeline, Macaque, ..., Major depressive disorder, Mecamylamine, Medicine, Methacholine, Methylene bridge, Morpholine, Muscarine, Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor, Muscarinic agonist, Muscarinic antagonist, Muscle-type nicotinic receptor, Nervous system, Neuromuscular junction, Nicorette, Nicotiana, Nicotine, Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, Nicotinic antagonist, Oxotremorine, Parasympathomimetic drug, Peripheral nervous system, Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacophore, Pilocarpine, Piperazine, Piperidine, Pre-clinical development, Pyrantel, Quinuclidine, Receptor (biochemistry), Receptor antagonist, Schizophrenia, Stereochemistry, Suxamethonium chloride, Tobacco, Tubocurarine chloride, Varenicline, WAY-317538. Expand index (38 more) » « Shrink index
Abbott Laboratories is an American health care company with headquarters in Lake Bluff, Illinois, United States.
ABT-418 is a drug developed by Abbott, that has nootropic, neuroprotective and anxiolytic effects, and has been researched for treatment of both Alzheimer's disease and ADHD.
Acetylcholine (ACh) is an organic chemical that functions in the brain and body of many types of animals, including humans, as a neurotransmitter—a chemical message released by nerve cells to send signals to other cells.
Acetylcholinesterase, encoded by HGNC gene ACHE; EC 188.8.131.52) is the primary cholinesterase in the body. It is an enzyme that catalyzes the breakdown of acetylcholine and of some other choline esters that function as neurotransmitters. AChE is found at mainly neuromuscular junctions and in chemical synapses of the cholinergic type, where its activity serves to terminate synaptic transmission. It belongs to carboxylesterase family of enzymes. It is the primary target of inhibition by organophosphorus compounds such as nerve agents and pesticides.
An agonist is a chemical that binds to a receptor and activates the receptor to produce a biological response.
Alkaloids are a class of naturally occurring chemical compounds that mostly contain basic nitrogen atoms.
The alpha-3 beta-4 nicotinic receptor, also known as the α3β4 receptor and the ganglion-type nicotinic receptor,Pharmacology, (Rang, Dale, Ritter & Moore,, 5th ed., Churchill Livingstone 2003) p. 138.
The alpha-7 nicotinic receptor, also known as the α7 receptor, is a type of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor implicated in long term memory, consisting entirely of α7 subunits.
α-Bungarotoxin (α-BTX) is one of the bungarotoxins, components of the venom of the elapid Taiwanese banded krait snake (Bungarus multicinctus).
Alzheimer's disease (AD), also referred to simply as Alzheimer's, is a chronic neurodegenerative disease that usually starts slowly and worsens over time.
In organic chemistry, amines are compounds and functional groups that contain a basic nitrogen atom with a lone pair.
In the context of organic molecules, aryl is any functional group or substituent derived from an aromatic ring, usually an aromatic hydrocarbon, such as phenyl and naphthyl.
AstraZeneca plc is an Anglo–Swedish multinational pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical company.
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a mental disorder of the neurodevelopmental type.
Bethanechol is a parasympathomimetic choline carbamate that selectively stimulates muscarinic receptors without any effect on nicotinic receptors.
In biochemistry, a binding site is a region on a protein or piece of DNA or RNA to which ligands (specific molecules and/or ions) may form a chemical bond.
Biochemical Pharmacology is a peer-reviewed medical journal published by Elsevier.
Biomolecular structure is the intricate folded, three-dimensional shape that is formed by a molecule of protein, DNA, or RNA, and that is important to its function.
The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a highly selective semipermeable membrane barrier that separates the circulating blood from the brain and extracellular fluid in the central nervous system (CNS).
Bradanicline (INN, code name TC-5619) is a drug which was being developed by Targacept that acts as a partial agonist at the α7 subtype of the neural nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.
Carbachol (Carbastat, Carboptic, Isopto Carbachol, Miostat), also known as carbamylcholine, is a cholinomimetic drug that binds and activates acetylcholine receptors.
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
Choline is a water-soluble vitamin-like essential nutrient.
In general, the word choline refers to the various quaternary ammonium salts containing the ''N'',''N'',''N''-trimethylethanolammonium cation.
In biochemistry, a cholinesterase or choline esterase is an esterase that lyses choline-based esters, several of which serve as neurotransmitters.
Citalopram (brand names: Celexa, Cipramil and others) is an antidepressant drug of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class.
Clinical trials are experiments or observations done in clinical research.
Cognitive disorders (CDs), also known as neurocognitive disorders (NCDs), are a category of mental health disorders that primarily affect cognitive abilities including learning, memory, perception, and problem solving.
Coniine refers to a poisonous chemical compound, an alkaloid present in and isolable from poison hemlock (Conium maculatum), where its presence has been a source of significant economic, medical, and historico-cultural interest; coniine is also produced by the yellow pitcher plant (Sarracenia flava), and fool's parsley (Aethusa cynapium).
Cytisine, also known as baptitoxine and sophorine, is an alkaloid that occurs naturally in several plant genera, such as Laburnum and Cytisus of the family Fabaceae.
Decamethonium (Syncurine) is a depolarizing muscle relaxant or neuromuscular blocking agent, and is used in anesthesia to induce paralysis.
In biology, depolarization is a change within a cell, during which the cell undergoes a shift in electric charge distribution, resulting in less negative charge inside the cell.
Dopamine (DA, a contraction of 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays several important roles in the brain and body.
The electric rays are a group of rays, flattened cartilaginous fish with enlarged pectoral fins, composing the order Torpediniformes.
In quantum mechanics, and in particular quantum chemistry, the electronic density is a measure of the probability of an electron occupying an infinitesimal element of space surrounding any given point.
In chemistry, an enantiomer, also known as an optical isomer (and archaically termed antipode or optical antipode), is one of two stereoisomers that are mirror images of each other that are non-superposable (not identical), much as one's left and right hands are the same except for being reversed along one axis (the hands cannot be made to appear identical simply by reorientation).
Endogenous substances and processes are those that originate from within an organism, tissue, or cell.
Epibatidine is a putative alkaloid that is secreted by the Ecuadoran frog Epipedobates anthonyi.
Galantamine (Nivalin, Razadyne, Razadyne ER, Reminyl, Lycoremine) is used for the treatment of cognitive decline in mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease and various other memory impairments.
Glaucoma is a group of eye diseases which result in damage to the optic nerve and vision loss.
A heteromer is something that consists of different parts.
A hydrogen bond is a partially electrostatic attraction between a hydrogen (H) which is bound to a more electronegative atom such as nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), or fluorine (F), and another adjacent atom bearing a lone pair of electrons.
Studies that are in vivo (Latin for "within the living"; often not italicized in English) are those in which the effects of various biological entities are tested on whole, living organisms or cells, usually animals, including humans, and plants, as opposed to a tissue extract or dead organism.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
In coordination chemistry, a ligand is an ion or molecule (functional group) that binds to a central metal atom to form a coordination complex.
Ligand-gated ion channels (LICs, LGIC), also commonly referred as ionotropic receptors, are a group of transmembrane ion-channel proteins which open to allow ions such as Na+, K+, Ca2+, and/or Cl− to pass through the membrane in response to the binding of a chemical messenger (i.e. a ligand), such as a neurotransmitter.
Lobeline is an alkaloid found in a variety of plants, particularly those in the genus Lobelia, including Indian tobacco (Lobelia inflata), Devil's tobacco (Lobelia tupa), cardinal flower (Lobelia cardinalis), great lobelia (Lobelia siphilitica), Lobelia chinensis, and Hippobroma longiflora.
The macaques (or pronunciation by Oxford Dictionaries) constitute a genus (Macaca) of Old World monkeys of the subfamily Cercopithecinae.
Major depressive disorder (MDD), also known simply as depression, is a mental disorder characterized by at least two weeks of low mood that is present across most situations.
Mecamylamine (INN, BAN; or mecamylamine hydrochloride (USAN); brand names Inversine, Vecamyl) is a non-selective, non-competitive antagonist of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) that was introduced in the 1950s as an antihypertensive drug.
Medicine is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.
Methacholine (INN, USAN) (trade name Provocholine) is a synthetic choline ester that acts as a non-selective muscarinic receptor agonist in the parasympathetic nervous system.
In organic chemistry, a methylene bridge, methylene spacer, or methanediyl group is any part of a molecule with formula --; namely, a carbon atom bound to two hydrogen atoms and connected by single bonds to two other distinct atoms in the rest of the molecule.
Morpholine is an organic chemical compound having the chemical formula O(CH2CH2)2NH.
Muscarine, L-(+)-muscarine, or muscarin is a natural product found in certain mushrooms, particularly in Inocybe and Clitocybe species, such as the deadly C. dealbata.
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, or mAChRs, are acetylcholine receptors that form G protein-coupled receptor complexes in the cell membranes of certain neurons and other cells.
A muscarinic agonist is an agent that activates the activity of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor.
A muscarinic receptor antagonist (MRA) is a type of anticholinergic agent that blocks the activity of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor.
The muscle-type nicotinic receptor is a type of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, consisting of the subunit combination (α1)2β1δε or (α1)2β1δγ.
The nervous system is the part of an animal that coordinates its actions by transmitting signals to and from different parts of its body.
A neuromuscular junction (or myoneural junction) is a chemical synapse formed by the contact between a motor neuron and a muscle fiber.
Nicorette is the brand name of a number of products for nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) that contain nicotine.
Nicotiana is a genus of herbaceous plants and shrubs of the family Solanaceae, that is indigenous to the Americas, Australia, south west Africa and the South Pacific.
Nicotine is a potent parasympathomimetic stimulant and an alkaloid found in the nightshade family of plants.
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, or nAChRs, are receptor proteins that respond to the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.
A nicotinic antagonist is a type of anticholinergic drug that inhibits the action of acetylcholine (ACh) at nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.
Oxotremorine (i.e. oxo M) is a parasympathomimetic drug that acts as a selective muscarinic acetylcholine receptor agonist.
A parasympathomimetic drug, sometimes called a cholinomimetic drug, is a substance that stimulates the parasympathetic nervous system (PSNS).
The peripheral nervous system (PNS) is one of the two components of the nervous system, the other part is the central nervous system (CNS).
Pharmacokinetics (from Ancient Greek pharmakon "drug" and kinetikos "moving, putting in motion"; see chemical kinetics), sometimes abbreviated as PK, is a branch of pharmacology dedicated to determining the fate of substances administered to a living organism.
An example of a pharmacophore model. A pharmacophore is an abstract description of molecular features that are necessary for molecular recognition of a ligand by a biological macromolecule.
Pilocarpine is a medication used to treat increased pressure inside the eye and dry mouth.
Piperazine is an organic compound that consists of a six-membered ring containing two nitrogen atoms at opposite positions in the ring.
Piperidine is an organic compound with the molecular formula (CH2)5NH.
In drug development, preclinical development, also named preclinical studies and nonclinical studies, is a stage of research that begins before clinical trials (testing in humans) can begin, and during which important feasibility, iterative testing and drug safety data are collected.
Pyrantel is a medication used to treat a number of parasitic worm infections.
Quinuclidine is an organic compound and a bicyclic amine and used as a catalyst and a chemical building block.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a receptor is a protein molecule that receives chemical signals from outside a cell.
A receptor antagonist is a type of receptor ligand or drug that blocks or dampens a biological response by binding to and blocking a receptor rather than activating it like an agonist.
Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by abnormal social behavior and failure to understand reality.
Stereochemistry, a subdiscipline of chemistry, involves the study of the relative spatial arrangement of atoms that form the structure of molecules and their manipulation.
Suxamethonium chloride, also known as suxamethonium or succinylcholine, is a medication used to cause short-term paralysis as part of general anesthesia.
Tobacco is a product prepared from the leaves of the tobacco plant by curing them.
Tubocurarine (also known as d-tubocurarine or DTC) is a toxic alkaloid historically known for its use as an arrow poison.
Varenicline (trade name Chantix and Champix), is a prescription medication used to treat nicotine addiction.
WAY-317538 (SEN-12333) is a drug that acts as a potent and selective full agonist for the α7 subtype of neural nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.